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					                                                                     List the phases in the system development cycle
                                                                      List the phases in the system development cycle

                                                                                                                               Describe the various tools used in object modeling
                                                                                                                                Describe the various tools used in object modeling
                                                                     Identify the guidelines for system development
                                                                      Identify the guidelines for system development

                                                                                                                              Explain the activities performed in the design phase
                                                                                                                               Explain the activities performed in the design phase
                                                                      Discuss the importance of project management,
                                                                      Discuss the importance of project management,
                                                                   feasibility assessment, documentation, and data and
                                                                    feasibility assessment, documentation, and data and
                                                                              information gathering techniques
                                                                               information gathering techniques                Recognize the develop programs activity is part of
                                                                                                                                Recognize the develop programs activity is part of
                                                                                                                                        the system development cycle
                                                                                                                                          the system development cycle
                                                                            Explain the activities performed
                                                                             Explain the activities performed
                                                                                 in the planning phase
                                                                                  in the planning phase
                                                                                                                                      Discuss the activities performed in the
                                                                                                                                      Discuss the activities performed in the
                                                                                                                                              implementation phase
                                                                                                                                               implementation phase
                                                                           Discuss the purpose of the activities
                                                                           Discuss the purpose of the activities
                                                                            performed in the analysis phase
                                                                             performed in the analysis phase
                                                                                                                                 Discuss the purpose of the activities performed
                                                                                                                                 Discuss the purpose of the activities performed
                                                                                                                                  in the operation, support, and security phase
                                                                                                                                   in the operation, support, and security phase
                                                                   Describe the various tools used in process modeling
                                                                    Describe the various tools used in process modeling



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What is an information system (IS)?                                What are the phases of the system development cycle?
                                                                                                          Phase 2. Analysis
                                                                                                            Conduct preliminary investigation
                                                                   Phase 1. Planning                        Perform detailed analysis activities:
   Hardware, software, data,
    Hardware, software, data,    System—Set of components             Review project requests
                                                                                                                                                               Phase 3. Design
                                  System—Set of components                                                      Study current system                                Acquire hardware
  people, and procedures that
   people, and procedures that     that interact to achieve           Prioritize project                        Determine user requirements
                                    that interact to achieve          requests
                                                                                                                                                                    and software, if
   work together to produce
    work together to produce            common goal                                                             Recommend solution                                  necessary
                                         common goal                  Allocate resources
      quality information
       quality information                                            Form project
                                                                                                                                                                    Develop details of
                                                                                                                                                                    system
                                                                      development team
                                  Businesses use many types of
                                  Businesses use many types of
                                            systems
                                             systems
                                                                               Phase 5. Operating, Support,                     Phase 4. Implementation
                                                                                and Security                                       Develop programs, if necessary
                                                                                  Perform maintenance activities                   Install and test new system
                                                                                  Monitor system performance                       Train users
                                                                                  Assess system security                           Convert to new system


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                                                                                                                                                                                         1
What are guidelines for system development?                   Who participates
                                                              in the system
                  Arrange tasks into phases                   development life
                    (groups of activities)
                                                              cycle?
              Involve users (anyone for whom
                   system is being built)


       Develop clearly defined standards (procedures
          company expects employees to follow)



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What is a systems analyst?                                    What is the project team?


      Responsible for designing
                                                                     Formed to work on project from beginning to end
          and developing
        information system

                                                                Consists of users, systems analyst, and other IT professionals
                              Liaison between users
                              and IT professionals                                      Project leader—one member of the team who
                                                                                       manages and controls project budget and schedule




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                                                                                                                                           2
What is project management?                                                        What is a Gantt chart?
      Process of planning, scheduling, and controlling                                  Popular tool used to plan and schedule time
      activities during system development cycle                                        relationships among project activities
      Project leader identifies elements for project
       Goal, objectives, and
       Goal, objectives, and
                                                        Time estimates for each
                                                        Time estimates for each
     expectations, collectively
     expectations, collectively   Required activities
                                  Required activities
                                                                activity
                                                                activity
           called scope
           called scope

     Cost estimates for each
     Cost estimates for each                            Activities that can take
                                                        Activities that can take
             activity             Order of activities
                                  Order of activities
             activity                                     place at same time
                                                          place at same time




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What is project management software?                                               What is feasibility?
      Program (such as Microsoft Office Project 2003) used                                                                               Operational
                                                                                                                                          feasibility
      by project leaders to plan, schedule, and control                                       Measure of
      projects                                                                               how suitable
                                                                                                system               Four feasibility
                                                                                             development                 tests:
                                                                                             will be to the                                    Schedule
                                                                                              company                                         feasibility

                                                                                                               Economic
                                                                                                               feasibility
                                                                                                              (also called      Technical
                                                                                                              cost/benefit      feasibility
                                                                                                              feasibility)




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                                                                                                                                                               3
What is documentation?                                                What are six data and information gathering techniques?
                                                                         Review documentation
                Collection and summarization                             Observe
                   of data and information                               Questionnaire
                                                                         Interview
                Includes reports, diagrams,
                                                                         Joint-application
              programs, and other deliverables                           design (JAD) session
                                                                         Research
                   Project notebook contains all
                  documentation for single project




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What are some reasons to create or modify an                          What is a request for system services?
information system?                                                        Formal request for
                                                                           new or modified
                                                                           information system
         To correct problem                    To improve                    Also called
          in existing system                 existing system                 project request



         Outside group may                  Competition can
          mandate change                     lead to change




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                                                                                                                                4
                                                                                              !
What is the planning phase?                                                                   What is the analysis phase?
           Begins when steering committee receives project request
                                                                                                        Conduct preliminary           Perform detailed
                                         Steering
                                       committee—
                                      committee—                                                          investigation, also         analysis
                                     decision-making
                                     decision-                                                              called feasibility
                                       body for the                                                                     study
                                         company


                                Function of committee:

                                                                       Form project
           Review and                                                   development
                                Prioritize           Allocate
         approve project                                               team for each
                             project requests       resources
            requests                                                     approved
                                                                          project


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!                                                                                             !
What is the preliminary investigation?                                                        What is detailed analysis?
     Determine exact nature of problem or improvement
     and whether it is worth pursuing                                                                           1. Study how current system works
          Findings are presented in feasibility report, also known as a feasibility study


                                                                                                                 2. Determine user’s wants, needs,
                                                                                                                         and requirements


                                                                                                                      3. Recommend solution



                                                                                                                    Sometimes called logical design



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                                                                                                                                                                5
    !                                                                                       !
    What is process modeling?                                                               What is an entity-relationship diagram (ERD)?
                                                                                                Tool that graphically shows connections between
             Technique that describes processes that                                            entities in system
                 transform inputs into outputs
                Also called structured analysis and design
                Also called structured analysis and design


                                                             Entity-
                                                             Entity-relationship diagrams
                                                             Entity-relationship diagrams

              Three tools used for process modeling              Data flow diagrams
                                                                 Data flow diagrams

                                                                  Project dictionary
                                                                  Project dictionary




&   ''   (

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    !                                                                                       !
    What is a data flow diagram (DFD)?                                                      What is a project dictionary?
             Tool that graphically shows flow of data in system

                                                                                                 Contains all     Helps keep track       Variety of
                                                                                              the documentation   of huge amount       techniques to
                                                                                               and deliverables     of details in      enter items in
                                                                                                   of project          system        project dictionary

                                                                                                                                      Structured English

                                                                                                                                       Decision tables

                                                                                                                                        Decision trees

                                                                                                                                       Data dictionary



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                                                                                                                                                                6
!                                                               !
What is Structured English?                                     What is a decision table?
     Used to explain details of process in project dictionary            Lists variety of conditions and actions that correspond
                                                                         to each condition




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!                                                               !
What is a decision tree?                                        What is a data dictionary?
     Shows conditions and actions graphically                            Stores name,
                                                                         description, and
                                                                         other details
                                                                         about each data
                                                                         item




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                                                                                                                                   7
    !                                                                      !
    What is object modeling?                                               What is a use case diagram?
                  Combines data with
                                                                               Graphically shows how actors
                                          Object—an item that can
                 the processes that act    contain both data and               interact with information system
                   on data into single    procedures that read or
                                                                                    Actor—user or
                  unit called an object     manipulate the data
                                                                                    other entity
                    Sometimes called                                                Use case—
                  object-oriented (OO)                                              function that
                   analysis and design                                              actor can
                                                                                    perform
                       Uses Unified
                   Modeling Language
                 (UML)—graphical tool
                  (UML)
                 for documenting system
)

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    !                                                                      !
    What is a class diagram?                                               What is the
         Graphically shows classes and subclasses in system                system proposal?                 Assesses
            Class is group of objects—                                                                     feasibility
                                                                                                             of each
            Can have lower levels                                                                          alternative
            called subclasses                                                                               solution

                                                                                                                      Presented to
                                                                                               Recommends
                                                                                                                        steering
                                                                                                 the most
                                                                                                                      committee,
                                                                                                  feasible
                                                                                                                     which decides
                                                                                                solution for
                                                                                                                    how system will
                                                                                                the project
                                                                                                                     be developed



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                                                                                                                                             8
    !                                                                                     !
    What are possible solutions?                           Horizontal market
                                                           Horizontal market              What is an example of outsourcing?
                                                            software—meets
                                                            software
                                                             software—meets
                                                              needs of many
                                                               needs of many                       Using Internet solutions provider
                                                                companies
               Buy packaged software—prewritten
               Buy packaged software—prewritten                  companies                              Internet solutions provider provides Web hosting services
                 software available for purchase
                  software available for purchase
                                                             Vertical market
                                                              Vertical market
                                                           software—designed
                                                           software
                                                            software—designed
                                                          for particular industry
                                                           for particular industry
              Write own custom software—software
              Write own custom software—software
                   developed at user’s request
                    developed at user’s request


                 Outsource—have outside source
                 Outsource—have outside source
                       develop software
                        develop software


*        +                                                                           , - ' -

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    What is the design phase?                                                             What is needed to acquire new hardware and software?
                                                                                                   Identify all hardware and software requirements of new or
                                                                                                   modified system

             Acquire hardware and software
             Acquire hardware and software
                                                                                                          Identify technical
                                                                                                          Identify technical            Solicit vendor
                                                                                                                                        Solicit vendor
                                                                                                            specifications
                                                                                                            specifications                proposals
                                                                                                                                          proposals



                                         Develop all details of new or
                                         Develop all details of new or
                                                                                                          Test and evaluate
                                                                                                          Test and evaluate
                                         modified information system
                                         modified information system                                                                   Make a decision
                                                                                                                                       Make a decision
                                                                                                          vendor proposals
                                                                                                          vendor proposals




     $                                                                     Next                $                                                            Next




                                                                                                                                                                    9
    What are three basic documents used to summarize                                                    What is a turnkey solution?
    technical specifications?                                                                                       Complete system provided by value-added reseller
                                                                                                                        Value-added reseller
                     Identifies                                                     Vendor quotes                       (VAR) purchases products
                                              Request for quotation (RFQ)              price(s) for                     from manufacturer and
                     product(s)
                     you want                                                      listed product(s)                    then resells them, offering
                                                                                                                        additional services with
                                                                                                                        product
                              Vendor selects
                                                     Request for proposal (RFP)                                         Authorized VARs must
                             product(s) that                                                                            meet certain manufacturer-
                               meet(s) your                                                                             specified requirements
                            requirements and                                      Less formal method
                           then quotes price(s)                                    that uses standard
                                                                                     form to request
                                                                                   information about
                                             Request for information (RFI)         product or service
. /- '       &       ' '

         $                                                                                    Next          $   !       %                                                                Next




    How do systems analysts test software products?                                                     What is a detailed design?
                 References from vendor
                 Talk to current users of product                                                                   Detailed design specifications for components in proposed solution
                 Product demonstrations
                                                                                                                                             Sometimes called
                                                                                                                                              Sometimes called
                 Trial version of software                                                                                                    physical design
                                                                                                                                               physical design
                 Benchmark test
                 measures performance                                                                                                   Includes several activities

                                                                                                                        Database
                                                                                                                        Database               Input and
                                                                                                                                                Input and               Program
                                                                                                                                                                         Program
                                                                                                                         design
                                                                                                                          design             output design
                                                                                                                                              output design              design
                                                                                                                                                                          design




0            1 ' '

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                                                                                                                                                                                                10
What is a mockup?                                            What is a layout chart?
    Sample of input or output that contains actual data                       Input or output that contains programming-like
                                                                              notations for data items




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What is a prototype?                                         What is computer-aided software engineering (CASE)?
                                                                              Software tools designed to support activities of system
                                                                              development cycle
         Working model of                                             Project repository—Stores
                                                                       diagrams, specifications,    Graphics—Enables drawing        Prototyping—Creates
         proposed system                                              descriptions, programs, and          of diagrams             models of proposed system
                                                                           other deliverables

                             Beginning a prototype                                                                  Code generators—Create
                                                                                    Quality assurance—Analyzes
                             too early may lead to                                   deliverables for accuracy
                                                                                                                    actual computer programs
                                                                                                                    from design specifications
                                   problems
                                                                                                    Housekeeping—Establishes
                                                                                                    user accounts and provides
                                                                                                       backup and recovery
                                                            ' 1       '
                                                                                                             functions

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                                                                                                                                                               11
What is integrated computer-aided software                       What is an inspection?
engineering (I-CASE)?
    Integrated case products
                                                                           Step-by-step review by       Used to review detailed
                                                                           project team and users        design specifications
                                                                         of any system development       before they are given
                                                                              cycle deliverable         to programming team


                                                                                                       Used throughout entire
                                                                           Identifies any errors
                                                                                                         system development
                                                                          and allows IT personnel
                                                                                                       cycle to review a variety
                                                                              to correct them
                                                                                                            of deliverables




!   !                                                     Next   !                                                                    Next




What is the implementation phase?                                What is the program development cycle?
         Purpose is to construct, or build, new or modified          Programmers write
         system and then deliver it to users                         programs from                               Analyze
                                                                                                                 requirements
                                                                     specifications
                          Convert to new system
                                                                     Follows six steps               Document                      Design
                                                                                                     solution                      solution
                               Train users


                                                                                                      Test                      Validate
                        Install and test new system
                                                                                                      solution                  design

                                                                                                                 Implement
                                                                                                                 design
                            Develop programs


!   !"                                                    Next   !                                                                    Next




                                                                                                                                              12
What are the four types of tests performed by system                 What is training?
developers?                                                               Showing users exactly
                                                                          how they will use new
              Unit Test                Systems test                       hardware and software
                                                                          in system
              Verifies each           Verifies all programs
           individual program         in application work
             works by itself                 together



          Integration Test          Acceptance Test

           Verifies application        Verifies the new
            works with other          system works with
              applications                actual data


!!                                                            Next   !!                                                                          Next




                                                                                     "#                 " $                    #
What are conversion strategies?                                      What is the operation, support, and security phase phase?
     Used to change from old system to new system                         Provides ongoing assistance after system is implemented
                                                                                      post-
                                                                              Conduct post-implementation system review—meeting to find out if
                                                                                                                 review
                                                                                 information system is performing according to expectations



                                                                                              Perform Maintenance Activities




                                                                                               Monitor System Performance




                                                                                                  Assess System Security



!"    !                                                       Next   !                                                                           Next




                                                                                                                                                        13
                                                     #                                 #

What is a computer security plan?
                Summarizes in writing all of the safeguards that are in
                place to protect a company’s information assets
                                                                                       Phases in the system development
                                                                                       Phases in the system development
                                                                                                      cycle
                                                                                                       cycle
                                                             For each risk,                                                Activities that occur during the
                                          Identify all                                                                      Activities that occur during the
                                                              identify the                                                 entire system development cycle
                                                                                                                            entire system development cycle
                          Identify all   security risks
                                                              safeguards               Guidelines for system development
                         information       that may                                    Guidelines for system development
                                                                that exist
+       - 4 ,            assets of an      cause an
                                                               to detect,
                         organization     information
                                                             prevent, and
                                              loss
                                                          recover from a loss


                  2 +3


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