Owl Pellet Lab Bone Chart

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					Owl Pellet Lab                                     Name_______________________

Problem: Can you identify what an owl ate from the contents of an owl pellet?

Research :

Like other birds, Owls cannot chew their food - small prey items are swallowed whole, while larger prey are torn into
smaller pieces before being swallowed. Some Owl species will partially pluck bird and larger mammal prey.

Unlike other birds, Owls have no Crop. A crop is a loose sac in the throat that serves as storage for food for later
consumption. Since an Owl lacks this, food is passed directly into their digestive system.

Now, a bird's stomach has two parts:

The first part is the glandular stomach or proventriculus, which produces enzymes, acids, and mucus that begin the
process of digestion.

The second part is the muscular stomach, or gizzard. There are no digestive glands in the gizzard, and in birds of prey,
it serves as a filter, holding back insoluble items such as bones, fur, teeth and feathers (more about this below).
The soluble, or soft parts of the food are ground by muscular contractions, and allowed to pass through to the rest of
the digestive system, which includes the small and large intestine. The liver and pancreas secrete digestive enzymes
into the small intestine where the food is absorbed into body. At the end of the digestive tract (after the large
intestine) is the cloaca, a holding area for wastes and products from the digestive and urinary systems. The cloaca
opens to the outside by means of the vent. It is interesting to note that birds (apart from the Ostrich) do not have a
bladder. The excretion from the vent is largely made up of an acid which is the white part of a healthy dropping.

Several hours after eating, the indigestible parts (fur, bones, teeth & feathers that are still in the gizzard) are
compressed into a pellet the same shape as the gizzard. This pellet travels up from the gizzard back to the
proventriculus. It will remain there for up to 10 hours before being regurgitated. Because the stored pellet partially
blocks the Owl's digestive system, new prey cannot be swallowed until the pellet is ejected. Regurgitation often
signifies that an Owl is ready to eat again. When the Owl eats more than one prey item within several hours, the
various remains are consolidated into one pellet.

Owl pellets differ from other birds of prey in that they contain a greater proportion of food residue. This is because an
Owl's digestive juices are less acidic than in other birds of prey. Also, other raptors tend to pluck their prey to a much
larger extent than Owls.

Hypothesis: 10points


Experiment: 50 points

   1. Carefully inspect the outside of the pellet and note its size, whether there are any feathers observable, and
      whether there are any clues to where the pellet was found.
   Size ___________ Mass ___________ Length _________cm Width _________cm
   Shape ________________ Feathers? _________ Fur?___________ # of Visible Bones________
   Other observations___________________________________________________________________________
    2. Your first goal is to get all of the bones separated from the fir.

            1.   Gently pull apart the pellet, being careful not to break any of the bones inside it. Use toothpicks
                 or a teasing needle to separate the bones from the fur or feathers. Take special care when
                 removing the skulls and jawbones, since they are the best way to identify the animals that the
                 owl has eaten
            2. When you think you have all the bones out, rub the fir between your fingers. If you feel anything
               hard, it's a bone. You need them all!
            3. Discard the fir and place the bones on a clean sheet of paper.

    Arrange the bones in the following groups:

        skulls and jaws
        vertebrae
        ribs
        hips and shoulders
        legs
        feet and toes

    Use the attached bone chart to help
    you sort the bones.

    3. Fill out the attached data sheet.
    4. How many skulls do you have?
       __________ Use the bone
       chart to determine what type of
       animal they are from.

         What did you use to identify
         the animal type?

    5.  Mount your skeleton(s) on a sheet of stiff paper. Provide the type of animal and give him/her a name. Also put
       your name and block on your skeletons.
    6. Go to the web site and submit your data to the Carolina Biological
       interactive study. Check out the data that they have compiled so far.


1.Could you identify what type of animal was eaten by the owl? __________

2. Assuming you collect all the owl pellets dropped from an owl for a year, what information could be
obtained from the owl pellets? Be complete. _________________________________________________
3. On your own paper write a paragraph that describes how the animal was captured. Your paragraph can
be from the perspective of the owl or its prey.
If you have time you can try out some of the owl links.
                        Simple Key to Mammal Skulls Found in Owl Pellets

1. a) 3 or fewer teeth on each side of upper jaw              go to 2.
   b) 9 or more teeth on each side of upper jaw               go to 3.

2. a) 2 biting teeth on upper jaw                             go to 4.
   b) 4 biting teeth on upper jaw                             the skull is from a rabbit.

3. a) Skull length of 23 mm or less and brown teeth           the skull is from a shrew.
   b) Skull length of more than 23 mm and 44 teeth            the skull is from a mole.

4. a) Roof of mouth extending past the last molar             go to 5.
   b) Roof of mouth not extending past the last molar         go to 6.

5. a) Skull length of 22 mm or less?                          the skull is from a mouse.
   b) Skull length of more than 22 mm?                        the skull is from a rat.

6. a) Molars flat (back teeth)                                the skull is from a meadow vole.
  b)   Molars roundeed (back teeth)                           the skull is from a deer mouse.

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