Research Thesis on Insurance Advertisement

					        Driving by Distraction: Effects of Roadside
            Advertising on Young Male Drivers


                   Aisling Ann O’Kane




A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the
                             degree of

                   Bachelor of Applied Science




                Supervisor: Professor M. Chignell


   The Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering
Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering, University of Toronto




                        March 22nd, 2007
                                          - ii -


Abstract

       Although there has been some interest in the news and within politics,

sensational advertising and its effects on driver distraction has received relatively

little research attention. In particular, little is known about the extent to which

sensational advertisements may be particularly distracting (and thus, possibly

hazardous) for sensation-seeking drivers. The purpose of this thesis is to design

an experiment to test this relationship and to collect some initial data that may

then be used to generate hypotheses for future research in this area. This report

outlines the methodology used to complete the design of the experiment,

including a multifaceted literature review, collecting billboard advertisements,

equipment procurement, drafting an Ethics Approval Protocol, and recruitment of

participants.

       The experimental design was completed and tested using both pilot and

regular participants to collect some data on the experiment. This data was used

to do a high level analysis and show some preliminary results. The results will be

discussed in terms of both similar studies carried out in the past, and in terms of

possibility relationships between sensation seeking, driver behaviour, and

sensational advertising. The suitability of the video game environment as a

research tool for studying issues related to driving behaviour will also be

discussed and based on this and other issues further research is suggested

using the experimental design and possible future research using a more realistic

simulator.
                                       - iii -


Acknowledgements



First and foremost, I would like to thank Professor Mark Chignell for his support

and guidance while working with me on this thesis. Anna Malandrino also

deserves thanks for both the help with equipment and room for the experiment,

as well as the guidance on experimental design. I would also like to thank Dara

O’Kane and Richard Hanna for lending experimental equipment for this study.
                                                                - iv -


Table of Contents


1. Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 1
2. Literature Review............................................................................................................ 4
   2.1 Sensation Seeking and Risky Driving....................................................................... 4
   2.2 Advertising and Sensation Seeking .......................................................................... 5
   2.3 Advertising and Driving ........................................................................................... 7
3. Methodology ................................................................................................................... 9
   3.1 Driving Simulators .................................................................................................... 9
   3.2 Tests and Surveys ................................................................................................... 10
      3.2.1 Driver Behaviour and Self Reported Driving History Test ............................. 10
      3.2.2 Sensation-Seeking Survey ............................................................................... 11
      3.2.3 Demographics and Technology Awareness Test ............................................. 12
      3.2.4 Sensational Advertisement Survey .................................................................. 13
   3.3 Billboard Advertisements ....................................................................................... 13
   3.4 Equipment Procurement.......................................................................................... 14
   3.5 Ethics Approval ...................................................................................................... 15
   3.6 Recruitment of Participants..................................................................................... 15
4. Experimental Design ..................................................................................................... 17
   4.1 Experiment Breakdown .......................................................................................... 17
   4.2 Sequential Activities ............................................................................................... 18
   4.2 Pilot Testing ............................................................................................................ 19
   4.3 Experimental Testing .............................................................................................. 19
   4.4 Measures ................................................................................................................. 20
5. Data Analysis and Results ............................................................................................ 21
   5.1 Data Analysis and Results ...................................................................................... 21
      5.1.1 Comparison of the Simulator Results versus Driving Survey ......................... 21
      5.1.2 Sensation-Seeking and Driver Behaviour ........................................................ 21
      5.1.3 Sensation-Seeking and the Simulator Results.................................................. 22
      5.1.4 Advertisement Scores, Sensation Seeking, and Simulator Results.................. 23
      5.1.5 Demographics Data .......................................................................................... 23
      5.1.6 Gaming Data .................................................................................................... 24
6. Issues and Further Research.......................................................................................... 26
   6.1 Possible Issues with Experimental Design ............................................................. 26
      6.1.1 Participant Recruitment ................................................................................... 26
      6.1.2 Equipment Setup and Simulator ...................................................................... 27
      6.1.3 Data Analysis ................................................................................................... 28
   6.2 Further Research ..................................................................................................... 28
      6.2.1 Further Testing ................................................................................................. 28
      6.2.2 Possible Future Testing .................................................................................... 29
7. Conclusions ................................................................................................................... 30
8. References ..................................................................................................................... 31
9. Figures and Tables ........................................................................................................ 33
Appendix A: Gran Turismo 4 Screen Shots ..................................................................... 37
Appendix B: Manchester Driving Behaviour Questionnaire ............................................ 38
                                                               -v-


Appendix C: Revised Manchester Driver Behaviour Questionnaire ................................ 39
Appendix D: Zuckerman’s Sensation Seeking Scales ...................................................... 40
Appendix E: Demographics Survey................................................................................. 44
Appendix F: Group A Advertisements ............................................................................. 46
Appendix G: Group B Advertisements ............................................................................ 48
Appendix H: Toronto Billboard Examples ....................................................................... 50
Appendix I: Participant Instructions ................................................................................. 51
Appendix J: Consent Form ............................................................................................... 52
Appendix K: Recruitment Poster ...................................................................................... 54
Appendix L: Ethics Review Protocol Form…………………………………………….. 55
Appendix M: Demographics Figures 8 to Figure 12 ........................................................ 73
Bibliography ..................................................................................................................... 79
                                                                  - vi -


List of Figures

Figure 1- Main Effects Plot for Driver Behaviour vs Simulator Results .......................... 33
Figure 2- Main Effects Plot for Sensation Seeking and Driver Behaviour....................... 34
Figure 3- Main Effects Plot for Advertisements’ Sensation Scores and Simulator Results
     ................................................................................................................................... 34
Figure 4- Interaction Plot for Speed Deviation, Advertisement Score, and Sensation-
     Seeking Personality................................................................................................... 35
Figure 5- Interaction Plot for Lane Deviations, Advertisement Score, and Sensation-
     Seeking Personality................................................................................................... 35
Figure 6- Interaction Plot for Skidding, Advertisement Score, and Sensation-Seeking
     Personality................................................................................................................. 36
Figure 7- Interaction Plot for Glancing, Advertisement Scores, and Sensation-Seeking
     Personality................................................................................................................. 36
Figure 8- Main Effects Plot for Driver Beahiour Test and age, Driving years, and
     Driving hours per day ............................................................................................... 73
Figure 9- Main Effects Plot for Speed Deviations and Age, Driving Years, and Driving
     hours per day ............................................................................................................. 74
Figure 10- Main Effects Plot for Lane Deviations and Age, Driving years, and Driving
     hours per day ............................................................................................................. 74
Figure 11-Main Effects Plot for Skidding and Age, Driving years, and Driving hours per
     day ............................................................................................................................. 75
Figure 12-Main Effects Plot for Glancing and Age, Driving years, and Driving hours per
     day ............................................................................................................................. 75
Figure 13- Main Effects Plot for Driver Behaviour Test and Gaming minutes per day,
     Driving Gaming minutes per day, Gran Turismo per Day, and Perceived Skill Level
     ................................................................................................................................... 76
Figure 14- Main Effects Plot for Speed Deviations and Gaming minutes per day, Driving
     Gaming minutes per day, Gran Turismo per Day, and Perceived Skill Level.......... 77
Figure 15-Main Effects Plot for Lane Deviations and Gaming minutes per day, Driving
     Gaming minutes per day, Gran Turismo per Day, and Perceived Skill Level.......... 77
Figure 16- Main Effects Plot for Skidding and Gaming minutes per day, Driving Gaming
     minutes per day, Gran Turismo per Day, and Perceived Skill Level ....................... 78
Figure 17-Main Effects Plot for Glancing and Gaming minutes per day, Driving Gaming
     minutes per day, Gran Turismo per Day, and Perceived Skill Level ....................... 78
                                             - vii -


List of Tables

Table 1: Experimental Measures and Respective sources of Information ........................ 33
                                          1


1. Introduction

       The purpose of this project is to research and analyze the distracting

effect that roadside advertising can have on young males, and the extent to

which that effect is mediated by how sensation seeking they are. The intention is

to develop an experiment where simulated driving performance of young males

while being shown typical billboard advertisements can be correlated with their

sensation-seeking personality traits.

       There has been considerable prior research on the relationship between

driving performance, and self-reported driving histories, and personality. In

contrast, the effect of sensation-seeking on driving performance has received

little attention. Sensation seeking may interact with the driving task in a number

of ways. For instance, some drivers enjoy the sensation of driving at high speed.

As a second example, and one of interest to this thesis, sensation-seeking

drivers may be more distracted while driving past sensational displays such as

certain kinds of billboards. In a bid to attract attention, advertisements are often

quite sensational and roadside advertisements tend to be no exception to this

rule. Due to the time constraints inherent in performing an undergraduate

research thesis, a full experimental study was not run. Instead, an experiment

was designed and then its validity was tested its validity using five subjects to

pilot the design.

       This topic is of importance due to the changing characteristics of the

driving task. As the amount of information technology inside and outside the car

increases, more and more things are competing for the driver’s limited attention.
                                           2


For instance, cell phones and navigation systems inside cars can draw attention

away from the road, while various electronic displays (e.g., billboards, and

changeable message displays on highways) and road signs outside the car

provide further distraction.

         Many new safety technologies are being produced by the automotive

industry, such as adaptive collision mitigation and warning, lane deviation

warnings, and adaptive headlights (Tellem, 2007). There also has been much

advancement of advertising and marketing in the past few years with innovations

in video advertising and in unique billboard advertisements (Beijer et al, 2004).

In fact, spending on outdoor advertising in the United States increased 8.2% to

reach 1.7 billion dollars in the first six months of 2006 (TNS Media Intelligence,

2006).

         The bottleneck in implementing roadside advertising is the human user.

Safety engineers and advertisers are competing for the limited attentional

resources of the driver, since advertising success is dependent on the attention

paid to advertisements by the customer. Both of these industries look at

psychology and human factors principles for design. Marketing groups try to

attract sensation-seeking consumers with advertisements that would catch their

attention while car manufacturers use human factors principles for their car

interfaces. It is of value to see how these two technologies interact with regards

to the driver and to see if there are safety issues that arise.

          The motivation of this project came from academic experience with

advertising and driving, as well as external interest in the subject. This topic may
                                           3


not be extensively researched, but it does have public interest. A recent article

discusses a new law that Governor Bob Holden of Missouri has implemented

banning sexually suggestive billboards advertising adult businesses (Associated

Press, 2004). The main purpose of the law is to eliminate sexual images that are

visible to children, but the Governor also added that the law would make the

roads safer by removing distractions for drivers. In addition, it was reported that

a recent study in the U.K. by an insurance company found that 25% of males and

10% of females had been so distracted by an almost nude billboard

advertisement that they had unintentionally crossed the line out of their lane

(Reuters, 2005). Such public interest acted as motivation to show there could be

a need for this type of research.

       The purpose of this report is to outline methodology used to research the

correlations between risky driving, personality, and advertising and to

demonstrate the use of this methodology in a pilot study. The remainder of this

thesis report will begin with a literature review, the methodology followed in the

research with then be described, along with a pilot experiment that was carried

out. The results of this pilot experiment will then be interpreted in terms of their

implications for future research.
                                           4


2. Literature Review

       The literature review that follows examines the topics of advertising and

driving, as well as the relationship between advertising and sensation-seeking

personalities. The literature review will also cover preliminary research on

sensation-seeking and risky driving. .



2.1 Sensation Seeking and Risky Driving
       Arthur and Doverspike (2001) compared driving behaviour and

personality, using the Big-Five personality traits. Forty-eight participants filled in a

self-report questionnaire on their driving histories. Arthur and Doverspike

compared these results to the personality results, finding that conscientiousness

had the strongest correlation with the self-report of driving behaviour, but also

finding that risk-taking behaviour and sensation-seeking had a correlation.

       The same results were found in a study completed by Schwebel et al

(2006) that compared personality and driving using self-report methods and

virtual environment simulation of a driving task. The driving task’s addition to the

experiment was intended to eliminate some of the flaws in the self-report

methods. Seventy-three college students were subjects in this study, which

included a simulated driving task of going through and avoiding gates, with the

addition of some on-screen distractions. The results showed that gender and

experience affected performance in the simulated environment, which the

authors noted should be controlled for further research. However, personality

traits such as anger/hostility, conscientiousness, and sensation-seeking, were
                                          5


not found to be predictors of behaviour in the virtual environment. However,

sensation seeking did turn out to be a significant predictor of self-reported

violations.

       One of the largest studies of its kind regarding personality and driving was

carried out by Iverson and Rundmo (2002), who sent out a survey to a randomly

sampled group of Norwegians with driving licenses and received two thousand

and five surveys back. Personality questions focused on normlessness, locus of

control, driver anger, as well as sensation-seeking traits. These results were

compared to data obtained about risky driving and accident involvement through

driver behaviour and self-reported history questions. When risky driving and

accident involvement were examined, it was shown that risky driving behaviour

showed a significant effect on accident involvement. High levels of sensation-

seeking, out of all the personality traits examined, were found to be the strongest

predictor for risky driving.



2.2 Advertising and Sensation Seeking
       Marketing and advertising firms try to exploit human psychology in a

number of ways, including targeting sensation-seeking personalities. Anti-drug

campaigns invest money into testing methods to attract sensation-seeking

adolescents, a high-risk group for drug use and other at risk behaviours (Morgan

et al, 2003). This study shows that advertising firms know whom their target

audience is and will try to cater to them. It has been found in another study that

novelty-seeking adolescents are more receptive to tobacco advertisements, and
                                        6


the study also suggests these results could be used for counter-advertising

techniques (Audrain-McGovern et al, 2003).

       A review of existing research in adolescent information processing in

relation to how risk is perceived was conducted to see if advertisements

designed for sensation-seeking personalities could be used for health

communication (Greene et al, 2002). Higher sensation seekers require stronger

and more exciting messages; therefore messages with high sensation value are

more effective at attracting and holding the attention of these people. High

sensation-seekers also prefer mysterious messages, where they are able to

come to their own conclusions. This can be directly applied to advertising, as

marketing can target high sensation-seeking personalities by using these

principles.

       Although the research discussed so far has to do with awareness

campaigns for adolescents, research has been carried out concerning sensation

seeking in the general public as well. Leone and D’Arienzo (2000) looked at

sensation seeking and beer advertising in a sample of seventy-two

undergraduate students who were surveyed using Zuckerman’s Sensation

Seeking Scales (discussed later in Section 3.2.2). Their participants were asked

which commercial they preferred out of two beer advertisements. One

commercial depicted a party scene while the other discussed the quality of

Coor’s. In this study, the results were inconclusive, but the hypothesis was

based on previous research in this area. It was estimated that those high in

sensation-seeking would prefer strong stimuli such as the party scene and those
                                         7


low in sensation-seeking would prefer the less exciting advertisement about the

quality of the beer.



2.3 Advertising and Driving
       The purpose of outdoor public advertising is to be looked at and attended

to for enough time for the message of the advertisement to be conveyed. This is

the purpose of advertisements intended for pedestrians, and also the purpose of

those intended to attract the attention of drivers. While some studies have

examined the issue of drivers being so attracted to advertising that they are

distracted from the primary task of driving, research into this topic has been

limited. However the need for this type of research is increasing as roads have

become more clogged with traffic, and with more stimuli vying for visual attention,

including advertising (Beijer, 2004).

       Crundall et al conducted a study in 2006 looking into effects of outdoor

media on driver attention. Thirty-two subjects watched driving clips filmed

around areas in the United Kingdom, with visible movie advertisements at

roadside level (such as bus stops) and raised advertisements (similar to

billboards) while their eye movements were tracked. They found that the lower

advertisements were looked at more, probably because the initial attention was

paid to them in case they were a hazard to the driving situation, and the

advertisement subsequently caused distraction by holding their attention. Drivers

tended to look at the raised advertisements for less time; this maybe caused by

the further distance away the advertisement was away from their optimal line of
                                          8


view to concentrate on the driving task. This study shows that advertisements do

attract attention and the two different types of advertising can cause different

types of distraction that may be hazardous to driving: long eye glances and

glances far away from the view of traffic.

       Beijer et al (2004) investigated safety impacts caused by video advertising

signs. Sixteen subjects were tested driving in Toronto, and an eye tracker device

monitored eye glances at different objects in their visual field, including video

advertising. It was found that drivers looked at video advertising signs 45% of

the time they were present, but billboards were more likely to be looked at when

video was also present. Glances were being made in unsafe driving

circumstances, such as short headways and driving through intersections. It

should be noted that for the experimenter’s safety, these tests were not done

during worst-case scenario (for example, at night, during rush hour, with an

inexperienced driver, etc.), so these concerns could possibly be amplified in

realistic conditions.
                                         9


3. Methodology

       The experimental design of this thesis is based on the findings of the

preliminary research done. This section will outline the methodology followed to

research the different aspects of the experimental design including researching

driving simulators and surveys to administer, acquiring advertisement examples,

procuring the equipment needed, and creating an Ethics Approval document.



3.1 Driving Simulators

       A driving simulator was not available for this research, so different

alternatives were examined and compared. Driving games, both online and

using a console, were being looked at as possible alternatives. Gaming

technology has steadily advanced, allowing the use of certain games to simulate

a driving experience, as the graphics and the physics of the cars and

environment are becoming more and more realistic. Online games and Sony

Playstation 2 games were reviewed and tested by a young male with a great deal

of gaming experience. A comparison of the games reviewed can be found in

Appendix C. Sony Playstation’s Gran Turismo 4 was chosen as the driving

simulator, and two screen shots of this game can be found in Appendix A. Gran

Turismo 4 came out in 2005, and calls itself a “true driving simulator,” with

superior graphics and physics engine for each of the cars. Within the game,

there are about 100 racetracks and many different types of cars that could be

used. A Honda Fit car was used as it was a normal smaller car without a racing

engine and it came in automatic. The track used was a practice track that was
                                          10


oval in shape with few visual distractions. This uneventful track was chosen to

reduce the amount of interference from other variables, as well as it provided a

lane for the participants to try and keep the car in while driving. Originally, a

steering wheel and a set of pedals were to be used, but this equipment was

unable to be procured, so the normal controller for the Playstation 2 was used,

with two joysticks acting as steering and acceleration respectively.



3.2 Tests and Surveys

       This section outlines the tests and surveys that the participants were

asked to fill out. Each of these was filled out online in an Excel worksheet and all

the tests and surveys can be found in Appendices B through E.



3.2.1 Driver Behaviour and Self Reported Driving History Test

       There are many issues with behavioural tests and self reported driving

history tests. Tests that ask questions that may have answers that could

perceived as negative, as they are not socially acceptable, could be answered

falsely (Begg et al, 2003). Also, there is a chance that subjects may forget some

incidents in their driving history, as near accidents are easily forgotten. Even

with injury inducing accidents, 14% of people do not remember them one year

later (Iversen and Rundmo, 2002). In the study involving a driving simulator

described in the literature review (Schwebel et al, 2006), issues with self-reported

measures of risky driving were discussed, such as shared method variance with

other self reports and recall bias. The Manchester Driver Behaviour
                                          11


Questionnaire was chosen as the preferred test (Owsley et al, 2003) for self

reporting risky behaviour while driving. It indicates the level of risk that driver’s

would actively drive with. The test had to be revised slightly, as some of the

terms and phrases were not commonly used in Canada, but rather in the United

Kingdom. This test can be found in Appendix B and the revised version as used

in the research for this thesis can be found in Appendix C.



3.2.2 Sensation-Seeking Survey

        Zuckerman (1966), created a measure to evaluate levels of optimal

stimulation and arousal in people. The resulting Sensation Seeking Scale that

has been frequently cited (Zuckerman, 1981) has been updated two times since

its introduction, the last being in 1994 with Form V (Stephenson, 2003). Because

this scale has been validated and purports to measure the construct of interest in

this research, it will be the sole driver trait (personality variable) measured in this

project. Zuckerman’s sensation-seeking scales are divided into four parts: thrill

seeking, experience seeking, disinhibition levels, and boredom susceptibility.

Thrill seeking can be described as the desire to participate in physically

dangerous or risky sports and activities. Experience seeking can be described

as seeking untraditional experiences such as travelling or being friends with

eccentric people. Disinhibition can be described as socially being open to

“partying,” such as drinking or drugs. Lastly, Boredom susceptibility can be

described as the desire to avoid repetitive tasks or boring people with

restlessness when things are static (BBC, 2006). These scales can be looked at
                                          12


separately or combined to give an overall sensation seeking score. Please refer

to Appendix D where the Sensation Seeking Scale questions can be seen.



3.2.3 Demographics and Technology Awareness Test

       The questions in the demographics survey will be based on ones that

have been used in previous studies addressing driving and using driving

simulators. There were modifications to the tests to specifically account for some

variations in testing procedure, such as accounting for the differences in the

simulator being used. An important aspect of this experiment is that a game is

being used that has been on the market for a year and is very popular, so it is

quite likely that some subjects might have played the game before, and might

even own it and have acquired expertise in it. This variable is controlled through

this survey, as will other factors that may influence the results, like gender being

controlled through the recruitment of males. The survey will act to control other

demographics that need to be controlled or accounted for. In addition to age,

“number of years driving” is collected from participants, as even in a relatively

young sample this may vary depending when they went through the graduated

licensing tests. The amount of driving that participants did over the course of a

day was another factor of importance, as the study is being completed in

downtown Toronto at the University of Toronto, which is readily accessible by

public transport and there is a possibility that the participants do not own a car

and commute by TTC (Toronto city transit). The amount of gaming experience

could also play a major role in influencing the results of the simulator testing.
                                         13


The amount of time participants play video games, driving games, Gran Turismo

4, and their perceived skill level were all recorded so that they could be

compared with the results of the simulator test. Please see Appendix E for the

Demographics Survey Questions.



3.2.4 Sensational Advertisement Survey

       The last survey to be given to the subjects was used to rate

advertisements shown to other participants. The subjects were split into two

groups, A and B. Each group was shown a different set of advertisements with

the same theme. The advertisements used can be found in Appendix F and G.

Participants were asked to rate the set of advertisements (different from the ones

they saw during the driving task) by how sensational or arousing they were.

These advertisement sensation scores were averaged and used to evaluate how

sensational each of the advertisements was. The advertisements were rated

after the simulator study and participants were not asked to rate any of the

advertisements they had seen earlier during the simulated driving task they had

carried out.



3.3 Billboard Advertisements
       Advertisements were collected to compare current variations on the

market and to decide which would be used in the experimental procedure.

Advertisements were found randomly on the Internet, and usually found in pairs

with the same type of subject in them. The forty advertisements that were used
                                          14


in the research can be seen in Appendix F and G, split into either Set A for Group

A or Set B for Group B. The advertisements could have come from print or they

could have been found on billboards, but it was not always possible to find the

original sources of the advertisements.

      In order to show that these advertisements could be considered typical

and may have been used in outdoor billboard advertising, examples from around

Toronto, Ontario are shown to compare. These advertisement examples were

collected by taking photos of current billboard advertisements at various areas in

the city. The search for examples was concentrated on finding billboard

advertisements with sexual content, to show that the most sexually suggestive

advertisements used in the study could be considered typical of ones that would

be shown outside on billboards. Please see Appendix H for the Toronto billboard

examples.



3.4 Equipment Procurement

      Originally, I intended to use a driving simulator with a steering wheel and

gas pedals, and displaying a simple track. The targeted simulator had been on

loan and was returned to its owners prior to the start of my study, and thus

became unavailable for this research. The subsequent decision to use a

Playstation 2 as the console and Gran Turismo 2 as the simulated driving game

came from both its suitability and its availability. The console and game were

borrowed for the duration of the experiment. Originally, a steering wheel and

accelerator and braking pedals were to be used with the console to create a
                                        15


more realistic driving experience, but these were unable to be procured for the

testing. Other equipment used included two webcams, one focused on the

participants face to watch their eye movement, or glances, to the advertisement

screen, and the other on the playing screen and the advertisement screen. Also,

two laptops to record webcam video capture, record the survey and testing

results, and to observe the testing in real time away from the participants were

used in the experiment. Using this real time observation, the advertisements

were changed using a remote control attached to the viewing laptop.



3.5 Ethics Approval

      Subjects were being tested on simulated driving while being shown

advertisements, including some with sensational content (although content of a

sort that is typically encountered when driving around cities such as Toronto). An

ethics approval was formulated and presented to three people with experience in

experimental design and participant testing who acted as an ad hoc ethics review

committee for this research. The human subjects protocol that was written as

part of this process can be found in Appendix L.



3.6 Recruitment of Participants
      The participants needed for this study were chosen to reduce the amount

of variables affecting the driving performance on the simulator task. Participants

were male and in their early twenties (20 to 25 years old). This was planned to

get participants with the highest probability of high sensation-seeking
                                        16


personalities (BBC, 2006) and also ones that were likely risky drivers (Bashline,

2005). Recruitment was done around the University of Toronto Engineering

buildings. The poster required the potential participant to email the researcher

for more information or to schedule a time to participate. The recruitment poster

that was used is shown in Appendix K.
                                        17


4. Experimental Design

      Based on the findings from the methodology described above, the

experimental design was created and tested. In this section, the experimental

design is described with its sequential breakdown. The testing that occurred,

both pilot and preliminary experimental testing, are then described.



4.1 Experiment Breakdown

      There were two sets of participants, Group A and Group B. Group A

participants were shown advertisements from set A (see Appendix F) during the

driving task and given surveys and tests, including rating Group B’s

advertisements (see Appendix G). Group B participants were shown

advertisement from set B (see Appendix G) and rated Group A’s advertisements

(see Appendix F). Each group completed the set of tests and surveys, as

discussed above to give measures of personality, demographics, driver

behaviour, and separately, advertisement sensation rating. These advertisement

ratings from each set of participants were then averaged to come up with a rating

on how sensational each advertisement is.

      Both sets of participants were asked to complete a thirty-minute simulator

run (ten minutes for practice and twenty minutes of driving) while being shown

advertisements. During this time, when advertisements were shown, the number

of speed deviations, lane deviations, skids, and glances at the advertisements

were recorded using video-capture. The measures and how they were collected

are discussed in Section 4.3 below. The measures were then compared to see if
                                         18


there are correlations between the factors collected and ultimately, if high

sensation-seeking personalities are effected more by sensational advertisements

when driving (see Section 5 Data Analysis and Results).

       Participant instructions for this experiment can be seen in Appendix I.



4.2 Sequential Activities
   The following list shows the sequential activities performed during the

experiment.

   1. Subject to sign a consent-form to agree to be tested (see Appendix J).

   2. Subject to complete a demographics and technology survey (see

       Appendix E).

   3. Subject to complete the revised Manchester Driver Behaviour Survey (see

       Appendix B).

   4. Subject to complete Zuckerman’s Sensation Seeking Scales (see

       Appendix D).

   5. Subject to drive on Gran Turismo 4 track for 10 minutes to become

       familiar with it.

   6. Subject to be shown advertisements that they did not categorize from one

       laptop while driving on track in Gran Turismo 4 for 20 minutes.

   7. Subjects eye movements to the laptops and the advertisements being

       shown at the time will be recorded using video cameras.
                                           19


   8. After the task, subjects will be asked to look at the other Group’s

       advertisements to classify how sensational the advertisements are on a

       scale of 1 to 5.

   9. Subjects will be debriefed on the nature of the experiment and paid $10

       for their participation in the study.



4.2 Pilot Testing

       Pilot testing occurred in two separate stages. The first stage, a volunteer

participant was asked to test the overall design of the experiment. This included

testing different tracks on Gran Turismo 4 and testing the webcam equipment for

data recording purposes such as number of glances with the camera on the

participants face and testing the camera for picking up details such as lane and

speed deviations.

       The second participant used for pilot testing was paid and recruited

anonymously. This participant was asked to go through all the surveys and

forms and asked their opinions on the questions. This participant did not test the

driving game or camera setup, as there were technical difficulties with the

Playstation 2 console on the day of testing.



4.3 Experimental Testing

       After the pilot testing had slightly altered the experimental design, four

participants were recruited to complete testing to obtain preliminary results.

These participants were split into two groups, two in Group A and two in Group B
                                         20


and given the surveys and tests accordingly. The difference between

advertisements shown can be seen in Appendix F and Appendix G respectively.

The subjects followed the participant instructions, found in Appendix I. It is

recommended for the future to test ten more participants to get better results and

the data analysis of the four participants is assumed to give preliminary results.


4.4 Measures

       The measures collected from the testing included seventeen variables

collected through five different sources. These measures and their respective

sources are summarized in Table 1, found in Section 9 Figures and Tables.
                                          21


5. Data Analysis and Results

         The data and results presented below are only preliminary and are shown

to demonstrate the application of the methodology and also as a means of

generating hypotheses that may be tested in a more extensive version of this

study.


5.1 Data Analysis and Results

         Because only two participants were run from each group, the results are

analysed in a high level fashion. The data analysis can be found below and the

supporting figures can be found in Section 9 Figures and Tables.



5.1.1 Comparison of the Simulator Results versus Driving Survey

         The simulated driving results for each participant were compared with the

results from the driver behaviour test. The following figures highlight patterns

visible in the pilot data that now need to be tested as hypotheses in a larger

study. Figure 1 shows the relationship between speed violations and Manchester

Driver Behaviour Test scores that were found in this pilot study. It is

hypothesized that driver who are more prone to risky behaviour will also be more

likely to violate speed restrictions in the simulated driving task.



5.1.2 Sensation-Seeking and Driver Behaviour

The data collected in this experiment was tested to see if it agreed with findings

from earlier research that sensation seeking is correlated with risky driving. This

was done by comparing the sensation-seeking scores from Zuckerman’s
                                         22


Sensation-Seeking Scales to the Manchester Driver Behaviour Questionnaire

scores. As expected, even with the limited data available from this pilot study,

there appeared to be a positive relationship between sensation seekings scores

and the Manchester DBS scores (Figure 2). The results for the boredom

subscale of sensation seeking suggest that moderate levels of boredom-

proneness do not lead to risky driving behaviour, whereas high levels do, as

shown in the lower right panel of Figure 2.



5.1.3 Sensation-Seeking and the Simulator Results

       The advertisements shown were rated by a different set of participants on

how sensational they were. The sensation scores were rated from 1 (Very

Unsensational) to 5 (Very Sensational). These scores were compared to the

results on the simulator when each these advertisements were shown. Figure 3

shows the sensation scores compared to simulator results.

       These graphs do not appear to produce any visible trends between

sensation-seeking personalities and the simulator results. This may be because

the small data set can be greatly affected by outlier points. More data is needed

to make any conclusions with this graph. However, these initial results raise the

possibility that the effect of sensational advertising on driving performance may

not be as great as expected. This possibility will need to be tested in a larger

experiment.
                                          23


5.1.4 Advertisement Scores, Sensation Seeking, and Simulator Results

       Figures 4 through 7 show the interaction between the advertisement’s

sensational scores, the participants’ sensation seeking personality scores, and

the participants’ results when they were shown the advertisements. Figure 4

shows the speed deviation results, Figure 5 shows the lane deviation results,

Figure 6 show the skidding results, and Figure 7 shows the glancing results.

       Since these figures involve relatively little data, no attempt will be made

here to use them as evidence of effects of sensational advertising. If anything,

the lack of any linear relationship between sensation scores and the driving

variables in these figures suggests that it may be difficult to establish a

relationship between sensation seeking and driving performance in a larger

study, or that even if such a relationship exists, the effect size may be relatively

small. Another feature of this study is that particular advertisements seem to

have a strong effect on driving performance and glancing (shown by the peaks in

the plot) independent perhaps of how sensational they are. Thus one issue to

address in future research may be what aspects of an advertisement (other than

sensationalism) make it distracting to drivers.



5.1.5 Demographics Data

       The demographics survey collected information, including variables that

could skew the results, as they could be correlated with the simulator results.

These demographics questions asked for the age of the participant, the number

of years driving and the how much they drive each day. This data compared to
                                        24


both the Driver Behaviour Questionnaire and the simulator results can be seen in

Appendix M.



5.1.6 Gaming Data

      The demographics survey also collected information on the amount of

video games the participants play and their experience with the type of game

used as the simulator (Gran Turismo 4). The survey questions asked for amount

of games played per day, the amount of driving games played per day, the

amount of Gran Turismo played per day, and their perceived skill level for playing

Gran Turismo 4. Figures 13 through 17 show both the Manchester Driver

Behaviour Questionnaire and simulator results. This data compared to both the

Driver Behaviour Questionnaire and the simulator results can be seen in

Appendix M.



5.2 Discussion

      The results regarding risky driving and sensation seeking from the

simulator study and the surveys tended to be correlated (based on a preliminary

comparison of a small amount of data) thereby agreeing with past results in the

research literature. The demographics regarding the amount of driving the

participants do and the simulator results also show what was expected to a

certain degree, with more risky driving occurring the more a person drives and

the older they get. The gaming demographics did not seem to have a major
                                         25


effect on the results in one way or the other, with only slight improvements for

those who had experience with Gran Turismo 4.

       The interaction graphs were intended to show the results of this research,

the purpose of which was to see how the three factors correlated: sensation-

seeking personality, sensational advertising, and risky driving. There did not

seem to be a result that was clear with this data set, except for possibly the

skidding and glancing information. These tend to show that drivers that are more

sensation-seeking tend to be more distracted by sensational advertising. This

data set is not large enough to come up with clear conclusions. Building on the

data and testing more participants might make the results clearer as they would

not be as affected by outlier points and it might show a clearer trend.
                                         26


6. Issues and Further Research

This section outlines some of the issues with the experimental design and goes

on to suggest topics of interest for further research.



6.1 Possible Issues with Experimental Design

       Problems that occurred with experimental design have come from three

sources: participant recruitment, equipment setup and simulator, and data

analysis.



6.1.1 Participant Recruitment

       Participants were recruited using the recruitment poster seen in Appendix

K. These recruitment posters were mainly posted in engineering building at the

University of Toronto. This would mainly attract students of engineering, which

may be a factor influencing the personality test given, Zuckerman’s Sensation

Seeking-Scales. Also, it required the potential participant to take the email

address and reply to the advertisement, which might be a product of their

personality, also affecting their scores on the Sensation-Seeking scales.

Because of the sensitive nature of some of the questions asked on the survey,

the type of participant may have influenced how truthful those question were

answered (please see Appendix D for the list of questions).
                                        27


6.1.2 Equipment Setup and Simulator

      The equipment setup was in a cubicle in a fairly busy lab. Although most

other visual distractions were removed from the experimental area, there were a

few items that remained, such as a blinking phone and a printer that may have

caused distraction to the driving task. The game-playing task involved using a

controller instead of a steering wheel and pedals, which took away from the

realism of the test as a driving task. The same issue arises when looking at the

television screen used to show the game, which was quite small and did not

encompass the user, therefore not providing a very realistic driving environment.

        The simulator itself was obviously a game, and it may not have been

perceived as a driving task to the participants and they may have treated the task

as playing a video game. Within the game itself, there were possible visual

distractions around the course, such as environmental distractions such as going

under a bridge or passing the pit stop area. Also, within the game, a “Ghost Car”

would appear at random intervals, showing the participants best lap around the

track; this provided both a visual distracter and a competitive environment that

could have influenced the driver’s actions. The interface for the control panel of

the car may have also caused a distraction, as it did not match exactly a car’s

interface. For example, it had both an analog and digital reading of speed and it

also had a G-force graph that would not be found in a normal Honda Fit.
                                         28


6.1.3 Data Analysis

       The data analysis has only occurred at a high level. This does not show

the details of the experimental results and no conclusions can be accurately

drawn from it. Also, there are only four participants, which will allow outlier data

points to effect the data more then they should. The data for the sensation-

seeking personality scores may have also biased the results, as the participants

were categorized by “high” and “low” sensation seekers, only allowing two sets of

data for each group. This is not a large enough sample to come to any

conclusions, and the separation of the two groups was based on the data

collected, not a large enough sample set to make that conclusion with full

confidence.



6.2 Further Research

       This research is the only one of its kind looking at sensation seeking

personalities, sensational advertisements and driving. Further research for this

study and possible future research is proposed below.



6.2.1 Further Testing

       Four participants have been tested on the apparatus and their results are

summarized in Section 5 Data Analysis and Results. This is not a large enough

sample size to draw conclusions from the results. It is proposed that further

study be conducted using this methodology and experimental design to be able

to analyze the results further. Approximately seven participants from each group
                                        29


should be tested, but this number will vary based on preliminary results. These

extended results may lead to even more research on the topic in the future.



6.2.2 Possible Future Testing

       Future testing on this subject would be dependent on any interesting

results found. There are definite areas of improvement with regards to the

experimental design, most importantly, the use of a simulator. A proper driving

simulator in a better environment would yield more realistic results from the real

world. Since studies, such a testing video advertising, have been completed

using on-road testing (Beijer et al, 2004), this study could also be done using a

car on-road, and perhaps eye tracking equipment.

       Further testing should be done on the nature of advertisements outside

and how sensational they are as perceived by unbiased third parties. This will

help in the research and possibly could be used for regulations that may be

passed.
                                         30


7. Conclusions

       This report outlined the steps taken to create an experimental design to

test the correlations between sensation-seeking personality, sensational

advertising, and driver distraction. The experimental design included giving

surveys and self-reports on driver behaviour, demographics, and personality as

well as a simulator study using Gran Turismo 4 on Playstation 2. A literature

review focused the scope as well as providing the tests and surveys to be given

to the participants that were already validated. An Ethics approval was drafted to

approve the use of the advertisements and recruitment of young male drivers.

The experimental testing allowed some data analysis to be completed and some

preliminary results were found.

       Further research should be completed using the experimental design

created to produce results of this experiment. Based on these results, decisions

to go on with testing should be made, possibly with a more realistic simulator or

an on-road test. This research is novel, but there appears to be interest in it for

possible safety and regulatory reasons. The hope is this experimental design

and preliminary results will shed some light onto the correlations of sensation-

seeking, driver behaviour, and sensational advertising and will act as a basis for

further future research.
                                         31


8. References

Arthur, W., Doverspike, D., 2001. Predicting Motor Vehicle Crash Involvement
     from a Personality Measure and a Driving Knowledge Test. Journal of
     Prevention & Intervention in the Community. 22(1), 35-42.

Associated Press, 2004. Missouri bans sexy billboards along sate highways.
    USA Today. 6/17.

Audrain-McGovern, J., Tercyak, K. P., Shields, A. E., Bush, A., Espinel, C. F.,
    Lerman, C., 2003. Which Adolescents are Most Receptive to Tobacco
    Industry Marketing? Implications for Counter-Advertising Campaigns. Health
    Communication. 15(4), 499-513.

Bashline, D., Hiam, P., Robertson, P., 2006. Bad Behavior: Personality tests can
    help underwriters identify high-risk drivers. Best’s Review. 4, 63-64.

Begg, D. J., Langley, J. D., Stephenson, S., 2003. Identifying factors that predict
    persistent driving after drinking, unsafe driving after drinking, and driving
    after using cannabis among young adults. Accident Analysis and
    Prevention. 35, 669-675.

BBC, 2006. Psychology tests: Sensation Seeking Scale. Science & Nature:
    Human Body & Mind.
    http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/mind/surveys/sensation/index.sht
    ml. Viewed 11/06.

Beijer, D., Smiley, A., Eizenman, M., 2004. Observed driver glance behavior at
     roadside advertising signs. Transportation. 96-103.

Crundall, D., Van Loon, E., Underwood, G., 2006. Attraction and distraction of
    attention with roadside advertisements. Accident Analysis and Prevention.
    38, 671-677.

Greene, K., Krcmar, M., Rubin, D., Walters, L. H., Hale, J. L., 2002. Elaboration
    in Processing Adolescent Health Messages: The Impact of Egocentrism and
    Sensation Seeking on Message Processing. Journal of Communication. 52(4).

Leone, C., D’Arienzo, J., 2000. Sensation-seeking and differentially arousing
    television commercials. Journal of Social Psychology. 140(6), 710.

Iverson H., Rundmo, T., 2002. Personality, risky driving, and accident
     involvement among Norwegian drivers. Personalities and Individual
     Differences. 33, 1251-1263.
                                        32


Morgan, S. E., Palmgreen, P., Stephenson, M. T., Hoyle, R. H., Lorch, E. P.,
    2003. Associations Between Message Features and Subjective Evaluations
    of the Sensation Value of Antidrug Public Service Announcements. Journal
     of Communication. 53(3).

Owsley, C., McGwin Jr., G., McNeal, S. F., 2003, Impact of impulsiveness,
    venturesomeness, and empathy on driving by older adults. Journal of Safety
    Research. 34, 353-359.

Reuters, 2005. Semi-naked models drive guys to distraction. MSNBC. 11/22.

Schwebel, D. C., Severson, J., Ball, K. K., Rizzo, M., 2006. Individual difference
    factors in risky driving: The roles of anger/hostility, conscientiousness, and
    sensation-seeking. Accident Analysis and Prevention. 38, 801-810.

Stephenson, M. T., Hoyle, R. H., Palmgreen, P., Slater, M. D., 2003. Brief
    measures of sensation seeking for screening and large-scale surveys. Drug
    and Alcohol Dependence. 72, 279–286.

Tellem, Tori, 2007. Top 10 High-Tech Car Safety Technologies. Edmunds.com.
     http: http://www.edmunds.com/reviews/list/top10/114984/article.html.
     Viewed 03/03.

TNS Media Intelliegence, 2006. TNS Media Intelligence Reports U.S. Advertising
    Market Grew 4.1 percent in First Half of 2006. MSN Advertising. 09/06.

Zuckerman, M., 1981. Citation Classic Commentaries. Current Contents. 45.
                                                                                  33


9. Figures and Tables

                                                        Measure                                       Source
 1                                Age                                                  Demographics Survey
 2                                Years Driving                                        Demographics Survey
 3                                Driving Hours per Day                                Demographics Survey
 4                                Gaming Minutes per day                               Demographics Survey
 5                                Driving Gaming Minutes per Day                       Demographics Survey
 6                                Gran Turismo Gaming Minutes per Day                  Demographics Survey
 7                                Perceived Gran Turismo Skill Level                   Demographics Survey
 8                                Thrill Seeking Level                                 Zuckerman’s Sensation Seeking Scales
 9                                Experience Seeking Level                             Zuckerman’s Sensation Seeking Scales
10                                Disinhibition Level                                  Zuckerman’s Sensation Seeking Scales
11                                Boredom Susceptibility Level                         Zuckerman’s Sensation Seeking
                                                                                       Scales
12                                Risky Driving Level                                  Revised Manchester Driver
                                                                                       Behaviour Questionnaire
13                                Sensational Level of Advertisements                  Other Group’s Advertisement Survey
14                                Number of Speed Deviations                           Webcam Capture and Review
15                                Number of Lane Deviations                            Webcam Capture and Review
16                                Number of Skids                                      Webcam Capture and Review
17                                Number of Glance                                     Webcam Capture and Review
                                           Table 1: Experimental Measures and Respective sources of Information



                                         Main Effects Plot (data means) for Driver Behaviour (135)
                                                             Glance                                         Skid
                                  30.0

                                  27.5
 Mean of Driver Behaviour (135)




                                  25.0

                                  22.5

                                  20.0

                                          1     2   3   4    5  6     7   8   9   10   0       1   2       3   4       5   6       10
                                                             Lane                                          Speed
                                  30.0

                                  27.5

                                  25.0

                                  22.5

                                  20.0

                                               0         1            2       3            0           1           2           3


                                              Figure 1- Main Effects Plot for Driver Behaviour vs Simulator Results
                                                                                    34




                                       Main Effects Plot (data means) for Driver Behaviour (135)
                                                          Thrill (10)                                        Experience (10)
                                 28

                                 26
Mean of Driver Behaviour (135)



                                 24

                                 22

                                 20

                                                 5                          8                            4                                  9
                                                     Disinhibition (10)                                          Boredom (10)
                                 28

                                 26

                                 24

                                 22

                                 20

                                                 4                          7                    1                        2                     4


                                           Figure 2- Main Effects Plot for Sensation Seeking and Driver Behaviour



                                             Main Effects Plot (data means) for Sensation Score
                                                            Glance                                                       Skid
                                 4.0

                                 3.5

                                 3.0
Mean of Sensation Score




                                 2.5

                                 2.0

                                       1     2   3    4     5    6      7   8   9   10   0           1       2       3          4       5       6       10
                                                             Lane                                                    Speed
                                 4.0

                                 3.5

                                 3.0

                                 2.5

                                 2.0

                                            0          1                2       3            0                   1                  2               3


                                 Figure 3- Main Effects Plot for Advertisements’ Sensation Scores and Simulator Results
                                             35



                     Interaction Plot (data means) for Speed
       1.6                                                                           Sensation
                                                                                         Lev el
       1.4                                                                                   1
                                                                                             2
       1.2

       1.0
Mean




       0.8

       0.6

       0.4

       0.2

       0.0

             1.0     2.0       2.5     3.0     3.5         4.0       4.5
                                 Sensation Score


  Figure 4- Interaction Plot for Speed Deviation, Advertisement Score, and Sensation-Seeking
                                          Personality



                      Interaction Plot (data means) for Lane
                                                                                     Sensation
       1.2
                                                                                         Lev el
                                                                                             1
                                                                                             2
       1.0


       0.8
Mean




       0.6


       0.4


       0.2


       0.0

             1.0     2.0       2.5     3.0     3.5         4.0       4.5
                                 Sensation Score


  Figure 5- Interaction Plot for Lane Deviations, Advertisement Score, and Sensation-Seeking
                                          Personality
                                                36



                         Interaction Plot (data means) for Skid
         5                                                                              Sensation
                                                                                            Lev el
                                                                                                1
                                                                                                2
         4



         3
  Mean




         2



         1



         0

             1.0      2.0       2.5     3.0     3.5           4.0       4.5
                                  Sensation Score


Figure 6- Interaction Plot for Skidding, Advertisement Score, and Sensation-Seeking Personality




                       Interaction Plot (data means) for Glance

         7                                                                              Sensation
                                                                                            Lev el
                                                                                                1
                                                                                                2
         6


         5
  Mean




         4


         3


         2


         1
             1.0      2.0       2.5     3.0     3.5           4.0       4.5
                                  Sensation Score


 Figure 7- Interaction Plot for Glancing, Advertisement Scores, and Sensation-Seeking Personality
                               37


Appendix A: Gran Turismo 4 Screen Shots
                                           38


Appendix B: Manchester Driving Behaviour Questionnaire

  1. Hit something when reversing that you had not previously seen
  2. Intending to drive to destination A, you “wake up” to find yourself on the road to
      destination B
  3. Get into the wrong lane approaching a round-about or a junction
  4. Queuing to turn left onto a main road, you pay such close attention to the main
      stream of traffic that you nearly hit the car in front
  5. Fail to notice that pedestrians are crossing when turning into a side street from a
      main road
  6. Sound your horn to indicate your annoyance to another road user
  7. Fail to check you mirror before pulling out, changing lanes, etc.
  8. Brake too quickly on slippery road or steer the wrong way in a skid
  9. Pull out of a junction so far that the driver with right of way has to stop and let
      you out
  10. Disregard the speed limit on a residential road
  11. Switch on one thing, such as the headlights, when you meant to switch on
      something else, such as the wipers
  12. On turning left nearly hit a cyclist who has come up on your side
  13. Miss “Give Way” signs a narrowly avoid colliding with traffic having right of
      way
  14. Attempt to drive away from the traffic lights in third gear
  15. Attempt to overtake someone that you had not noticed to be signaling a right turn
  16. Become angered by another driver and give chase with the intention of giving
      him/her a piece of your mind
  17. Stay in a motorway lane that you know will be closed ahead until the last minute
      before forcing your way into the other lane
  18. Forget where you left your car in a car park
  19. Overtake a slow driver on the inside
  20. Race away from traffic lights with the intention of beating the driver next to you
  21. Misread the signs and exit from a roundabout on the wrong road
  22. Drive so close to the car in front that it would be difficult to stop in an emergency
  23. Cross a junction knowing that the traffic lights have already turned against you
  24. Become angered by a certain type of driver and indicate your hostility by
      whatever means you can
  25. Realize that you have no clear recollection of the road along which you have just
      been traveling
  26. Underestimate the speed of an oncoming vehicle when overtaking
  27. Disregard the speed limit on a motorway
                                           39


Appendix C: Revised Manchester Driver Behaviour Questionnaire

  1. Hit something when reversing that you had not previously seen
  2. Intending to drive to destination A, you “wake up” to find yourself on the road to
      destination B
  3. Get into the wrong lane approaching an intersection
  4. Queuing to turn right onto a main road, you pay such close attention to the main
      stream of traffic that you nearly hit the car in front
  5. Fail to notice that pedestrians are crossing when turning into a side street from a
      main road
  6. Sound your horn to indicate your annoyance to another road user
  7. Fail to check you mirror before pulling out, changing lanes, etc.
  8. Brake too quickly on slippery road or steer the wrong way in a skid
  9. Pull out of an intersection so far that the driver with right of way has to stop and
      let you out
  10. Disregard the speed limit on a residential road
  11. Switch on one thing, such as the headlights, when you meant to switch on
      something else, such as the windshield wipers
  12. On turning right nearly hit a cyclist who has come up on your side
  13. Miss “Yield” signs and narrowly avoid colliding with traffic having right of way
  14. Attempt to drive away from the traffic lights in wrong gear
  15. Attempt to overtake someone that you had not noticed to be signaling a left turn
  16. Become angered by another driver and give chase with the intention of giving
      him/her a piece of your mind
  17. Stay in a motorway lane that you know will be closed ahead until the last minute
      before forcing your way into the other lane
  18. Forget where you left your car in a car park
  19. Overtake a slow driver on the inside
  20. Race away from traffic lights with the intention of beating the driver next to you
  21. Misread the signs and exit from an intersection on the wrong road
  22. Drive so close to the car in front that it would be difficult to stop in an emergency
  23. Cross an intersection knowing that the traffic lights have already turned against
      you
  24. Become angered by a certain type of driver and indicate your hostility by
      whatever means you can
  25. Realize that you have no clear recollection of the road along which you have just
      been traveling
  26. Underestimate the speed of an oncoming vehicle when overtaking
  27. Disregard the speed limit on a motorway
                                             40


Appendix D: Zuckerman’s Sensation Seeking Scales

1.
A. I like “wild” uninhibited parties
B. I prefer quiet parties with good conversation

2.
A. There are some movies I enjoy seeing a second or even third time
B. I can’t stand watching a movie that I’ve seen before

3.
A. I often wish I could be a mountain climber
B. I can’t understand people who risk their necks climbing mountains

4.
A. I dislike all body odours
B. I like some of the earthy body smells

5.
A. I get bored seeing the same old faces
B. I like the comfortable familiarity of everyday friends

6.
A. I like to explore a strange city or section of town by myself, even if it means getting
lost
B. I prefer a guide when I am in a place I don’t know well

7.
A. I dislike people who do or say things just to shock or upset others
B. When you can predict almost everything a person will do and say he or she must be a
bore

8.
A. I usually don’t enjoy a movie or play where I can predict what will happen in advance
B. I don’t mind watching a movie or play where I can predict what will happen in
advance

9.
A. I have tried cannabis or would like to
B. I would never smoke cannabis

10.
A. I would not like to try any drug which might produce strange and dangerous effects on
me
B. I would like to try some of the drugs that produce hallucinations
                                              41


11.
A. A sensible person avoids activities that are dangerous
B. I sometimes like to do things that are a little frightening

12.
A. I dislike “swingers” (people who are uninhibited and free about sex)
B. I enjoy the company of real "swingers"

13.
A. I find that stimulants make me uncomfortable
B. I often like to get high (drinking alcohol or smoking marijuana)

14.
A. I like to try new foods that I have never tasted before
B. I order the dishes with which I am familiar so as to avoid disappointment and
unpleasantness

15.
A. I enjoy looking at home movies, videos or travel slides
B. Looking at someone’s home movies, videos, or travel slides bores me tremendously

16.
A. I would like to take up the sport of water skiing
B. I would not like to take up water skiing

17.
A. I would like to try surfboard riding
B. I would not like to try surfboard riding

18.
A. I would like to take off on a trip with no preplanned or definite routes or timetable
B. When I go on a trip I like to plan my route and timetable fairly carefully

19.
A. I prefer the “down to earth” kinds of people as friends
B. I would like to make friends in some of the “far-out” groups like artists or anarchists

20.
A. I would not like to learn to fly an airplane
B. I would like to learn to fly an airplane

21.
A. I prefer the surface of the water to the depths
B. I would like to go scuba diving

22.
                                              42


A. I would like to meet some people who are homosexual (men or women)
B. I stay away from anyone I suspect of being gay or lesbian

23.
A. I would like to try parachute jumping
B. I would never want to try jumping out of a plane, with or without a parachute

24.
A. I prefer friends who are excitingly unpredictable
B. I prefer friends who are reliable and predictable

25.
A. I am not interested in experience for its own sake
B. I like to have new and exciting experiences and sensations even if they are a little
frightening, unconventional, or illegal

26.
A. The essence of good art is in its clarity, symmetry of form, and harmony of colours
B. I often find the beauty in the clashing colours and irregular forms of modern paintings

27.
A. I enjoy spending time in the familiar surroundings of home
B. I get very restless if I have to stay around home for any length of time

28.
A. I like to dive off the high board
B. I don’t like the feeling I get standing on the high board (or I don’t go near it at all)

29.
A. I like to date people who are physically exciting
B. I like to date people who share my values

30.
A. Heavy drinking usually ruins a party because some people get loud and boisterous
B. Keeping the drinks full is the key to a good party
31.
A. The worst social sin is to be rude
B. The worst social sin is to be a bore

32.
A. A person should have considerable sexual experience before marriage
B. It’s better if two married people begin their sexual experience with each other

33.
A. Even if I had the money, I would not care to associate with flighty rich people in the
jet set
                                             43


B. I could conceive of myself seeking pleasures around the world with the jet set

34.
A. I like people who are sharp and witty even if they do sometimes insult others
B. I dislike people who have their fun at the expense of hurting the feelings of others

35.
A. There is altogether too much portrayal of sex in the movies
B. I enjoy watching many of the sexy scenes in movies

36.
A. I feel best after taking a couple of drinks
B. Something is wrong with people who need alcohol to feel good

37.
A. People should dress according to some standard of taste, neatness and style
B. People should dress in individual ways even if the effects are sometimes strange

38.
A. Sailing long distances in small sailing crafts is foolhardy
B. I would like to sail a long distance in a small but seaworthy sailing craft

39.
A. I have no patience with dull or boring people
B. I find something interesting in almost every person I talk to

40.
A. Skiing down a high mountain slope is a good way to end up on crutches
B. I think I would enjoy the sensations of skiing very fast down a high mountain slope
                                           44


Appendix E: Demographics Survey


Please select your age:
     20
     21
     22
     23
     24
     25


How long have you been driving
   1-3 years
   4-6 years
   7-10 years
   11 years or more


On average, how many hours do you drive per day?
    None
    Less than 1 hour
    1-2 hours
    2-3 hours
    3 hours or more


Do you play video games?
    Yes – Please on average, how often you play :______________minutes per day
    No


Do you play driving video games?
    Yes – Please on average, how often you play :______________minutes per day
    No


Have you played Gran Turismo before?
    Often – Please on average, how often you play :______________minutes per day
    Yes, I have tried the game before
    No


If you have played Gran Turismo, how would you describe your skill level?
     Very Inexperienced
     Inexperienced
     Neither Inexperienced or Experienced
     Experienced
     Very Experienced


Are you currently taking any medication or substances that may affect your ability to
drive?
                                            45


(e.g., sedatives, alcohol, etc.)
     Yes
     No


How many hours of sleep did you get last night?
______________ hours

Do you have normal or corrected-to-normal vision (i.e., 20/40 or better, with glasses or
contact lenses)?
    Yes
    No
                              46


Appendix F: Group A Advertisements

 #            Advertisment            #    Advertisment




 A1                                  A6




 A2                                  A7




 A3                                  A8




 A4                                  A9




 A5                                  A10
                     47


 #    Advertisment         #    Advertisment




A11                       A16




A12                       A17




A13                       A18




A14                       A19




A15                       A20
                              48


Appendix G: Group B Advertisements

 #           Advertisment            #   Advertisment




 B1                                B6




 B2                                B7




 B3                                B8




 B4                                B9




 B5                                B10
                     49


 #    Advertisment         #    Advertisment




B11                       B16




B12                       B17




B13                       B18




B14                       B19




B15                       B20
                               50


Appendix H: Toronto Billboard Examples
                                             51


Appendix I: Participant Instructions

For your time in the experiment, $10.00 will be paid. This will include playing Gran
Turismo for 30 minutes and looking at advertisements for 10 minutes.

Part 1: Gran Turismo

You will be driving a Honda Fit around a practice course in Gran Turismo 4. Please try
to keep between 95km/hour and 105km/hour. Also, please stay in the lane you start off
in and try not to cross the yellow lines on either side of you.

Practice Stage Instructions
You will be given 10 minutes to practice on the track. During this time, you are to
become familiar with the car and the track. The investigator will be in the room at this
time to answer any questions or clarify the task.

Track Stage Instructions
After this practice stage, the investigator will leave the room and you will continue on the
track for 20 minutes. During this time on the track, you will be shown advertisements
intermittently.


Part 2: Advertisements

You will be shown a number of advertisements that have been shown in print
(magazines, newspaper, etc) or on billboards. Please rate them on how arousing or
sensation seeking you believe they are.

The BBC describes Sensation Seeking:
      Sensation seeking is a personality trait expressed in behaviour as a tendency to
      seek varied, novel, complex and intense sensations and experiences and to take
      physical risks for the sake of having such experiences.

       These experiences could take the form of extreme adventure activities such as
       skydiving, snowboarding and mountain climbing. But the trait can also express
       itself in high drug, alcohol or tobacco use.

Please rate the following advertisements on how arousing they are, based on this 5 point
scale.


     1                   2                   3                   4                  5
    Very            Unsensational          Neither           Sensational           Very
Unsensational                            Sensational                            Sensational
                                            nor
                                        Unsensational
                                             52


Appendix J: Consent Form

TITLE:         Effect of Distracting Billboard advertisements during simulated driving

INVESTIGATOR:          Aisling O’Kane, Undergraduate Student
                       Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto

You are being asked to take part in a research study. In order to take part in this study,
you must be: 1) male, 2) have a G class driver’s license, 3) have corrected-to-normal
vision, and 4) be 20-25 years old.

Before agreeing to participate in this study, it is important that you read and understand
the following explanation of the proposed study. The following information describes
procedures, benefits, discomforts, risks and precautions associated with this study. It also
describes your right to refuse to participate or withdraw from the study at any time. In
order to decide whether you wish to participate in this research study, you should
understand enough about its risks and benefits to be able to make an informed decision.
This is known as the informed consent process. Please ask the study assistant to explain
any words you do not understand before signing this consent form. Make sure all your
questions have been answered to your satisfaction before signing this document.

Procedures
Part 1: Gran Turismo
You will be driving a Honda Fit around a practice course in Gran Turismo 4. Please try
to keep between 95km/hour and 105km/hour. Also, please stay in the lane you start off
in and try not to cross the yellow lines on either side of you.

Practice Stage Instructions:
You will be given 10 minutes to practice on the track. During this time, you are to
become familiar with the car and the track. The investigator will be in the room at this
time to answer any questions or clarify the task.

Track Stage Instructions:
After this practice stage, the investigator will leave the room and you will continue on the
track for 20 minutes. During this time on the track, you will be shown advertisements
intermittently.

Part 2: Review of Advertisements
You will be shown a number of advertisements that have been shown in print
(magazines, newspaper, etc) or on billboards. You will be asked to rate the
advertisements in terms of their features.

Risks
There is minimal risk involved in this study. The situations presented in the driving
simulator will be similar to situations that you experience in playing video games, or your
daily driving.
                                            53



Benefits
You may or may not receive any benefit from your participation in this study.
Information learned from this study may benefit road safety in the future. You will be
paid $10 for your participation in this study.

Confidentiality
All information obtained during the study will be held in strict confidence. You will be
identified with a study number only. No names or identifying information will be used in
any publication or presentations. No information identifying you will be transferred
outside the investigators in this study. Statistical summaries of the results may be
published.

Video Footage
Video footage will be taken of your face and of the racing environment during your time
playing Gran Turismo 4. This footage will be used to see your eye movements during the
game. This video footage will be only viewed by the experimenter and supervisor, and
will be deleted after the study is complete.

Participation
Your participation in this study is voluntary. Your can choose not to participate or you
may withdraw at any time.

Questions
If you have any questions about the study, please email the investigator in charge of this
study, Aisling O’Kane at aisling.okane@utoronto.ca, or her supervisor, Professor Mark
Chignell at chignell@mie.utoronto.ca

Consent
I have had the opportunity to discuss this study and my questions have been answered to
my satisfaction. I consent to take part in the study with the understanding I may
withdraw at any time. I have received a signed copy of this consent form. I voluntarily
consent to participate in this study.


_________________________             ______________________          ____________
Participant’s Name (Please Print)       Participant’s Signature        Date


I confirm that I have explained the nature and purpose of the study to the subject named
above. I have answered all questions.

_________________________            ______________________             _____________
Name of Person                       Signature                           Date
Obtaining Consent
                                 54


Appendix K: Recruitment Poster
                                                                                  73


Appendix M: Demographics Figures 8 to Figure 17

                                    Figure 8 shows the demographics information compared to the driver

behaviour test, and generally the more driving a person does, the more years

driving, and the older they are, the more risks they take when driving. This same

results is seen in Figure 9, with more Speed Deviations. Figure 10 shows lane

deviations, and these tend to decrease with years driving and more driving per

day, but increase with age. Skidding followed the same pattern in Figure 11 with

a decrease with more driving years and driving per day, but no difference with

age increase. Glances decreased with amount of driving done per day and more

years driving, but increased with age in Figure 12.


                                          Main Effects Plot (data means) for Driver Behaviour (135)
                                                            Age                            Drive Years
                                   30.0

                                   27.5
  Mean of Driver Behaviour (135)




                                   25.0

                                   22.5

                                   20.0

                                              22              23             24        5                 7
                                                       Drive Hours/Day
                                   30.0

                                   27.5

                                   25.0

                                   22.5

                                   20.0

                                                   1                     2


Figure 8- Main Effects Plot for Driver Behaviour Test and age, Driving years, and Driving hours per
                                               day
                                                                  74



                                      Main Effects Plot (data means) for Speed
                                           Age                             Drive Years
                  1.2

                  0.9

                  0.6
  Mean of Speed




                  0.3

                         22                 23               24        5                 7
                                      Drive Hours/Day
                  1.2

                  0.9

                  0.6

                  0.3

                              1                          2


Figure 9- Main Effects Plot for Speed Deviations and Age, Driving Years, and Driving hours per day



                                      Main Effects Plot (data means) for Lane
                                            Age                            Drive Years
                  0.60

                  0.45

                  0.30

                  0.15
  Mean of Lane




                  0.00
                         22                  23              24        5                 7
                                       Drive Hours/Day
                  0.60

                  0.45

                  0.30

                  0.15

                  0.00
                                  1                      2


Figure 10- Main Effects Plot for Lane Deviations and Age, Driving years, and Driving hours per day
                                                                      75




                                      Main Effects Plot (data means) for Skid
                                           Age                                 Drive Years
                 1.8

                 1.6

                 1.4

                 1.2
Mean of Skid




                 1.0
                        22                  23                   24        5                 7
                                      Drive Hours/Day
                 1.8

                 1.6

                 1.4

                 1.2

                 1.0
                                 1                          2


        Figure 11-Main Effects Plot for Skidding and Age, Driving years, and Driving hours per day


                                     Main Effects Plot (data means) for Glance
                                          Age                                  Drive Years
                 6


                 5


                 4
Mean of Glance




                 3
                       22                   23                  24         5                 7
                                     Drive Hours/Day
                 6


                 5


                 4


                 3
                             1                          2


       Figure 12-Main Effects Plot for Glancing and Age, Driving years, and Driving hours per day
                                                                                76


                                    More experienced gamers did not take more risks when driving, according

the Manchester Driver Behaviour Questionnaire, as seen in Figure 13. The

same results occur for Speed deviations on the simulator as seen in Figure 14.

The number of lane deviations seemed to decrease for Gran Turismo 4 players

but increase for regular gamers as seen in Figure 15. Figure 16 shows skidding

increase for gamers and those with a highly perceived skill level with Gran

Turismo 4, but decrease for those who played Gran Turismo 4 the most.

Glances did not seem to be correlated with gaming history or skill as seen in

Figure17.


                                          Main Effects Plot (data means) for Driver Behaviour (135)
                                                       Games:Min per Day                 Drive Games:Min per Day
                                   30.0

                                   27.5
  Mean of Driver Behaviour (135)




                                   25.0

                                   22.5

                                   20.0

                                              0              20            30        0             10              40
                                                  Gran Turismo:Min per Day                       Skill (5)
                                   30.0

                                   27.5

                                   25.0

                                   22.5

                                   20.0

                                                   0                       5             0                   3


          Figure 13- Main Effects Plot for Driver Behaviour Test and Gaming minutes per day, Driving
                   Gaming minutes per day, Gran Turismo per Day, and Perceived Skill Level
                                                                     77



                                        Main Effects Plot (data means) for Speed
                                    Games:Min per Day                         Drive Games:Min per Day
                1.2

                0.9

                0.6
Mean of Speed




                0.3

                       0                      20                30        0             10              40
                               Gran Turismo:Min per Day                               Skill (5)
                1.2

                0.9

                0.6

                0.3

                                0                       5                     0                    3


Figure 14- Main Effects Plot for Speed Deviations and Gaming minutes per day, Driving Gaming
              minutes per day, Gran Turismo per Day, and Perceived Skill Level



                                        Main Effects Plot (data means) for Lane
                                        Games:Min per Day                     Drive Games:Min per Day
                0.60

                0.45

                0.30

                0.15
Mean of Lane




                0.00
                           0                   20               30        0              10             40
                                Gran Turismo:Min per Day                              Skill (5)
                0.60

                0.45

                0.30

                0.15

                0.00
                                    0                       5                  0                   3


Figure 15-Main Effects Plot for Lane Deviations and Gaming minutes per day, Driving Gaming
             minutes per day, Gran Turismo per Day, and Perceived Skill Level
                                                                 78



                                          Main Effects Plot (data means) for Skid
                                         Games:Min per Day                Drive Games:Min per Day

                   1.8

                   1.6

                   1.4

                   1.2
  Mean of Skid




                   1.0
                             0              20            30          0             10              40
                                 Gran Turismo:Min per Day                         Skill (5)

                   1.8

                   1.6

                   1.4

                   1.2

                   1.0
                                     0                       5             0                   3


 Figure 16- Main Effects Plot for Skidding and Gaming minutes per day, Driving Gaming minutes
                   per day, Gran Turismo per Day, and Perceived Skill Level



                                         Main Effects Plot (data means) for Glance
                                     Games:Min per Day                    Drive Games:Min per Day
                   6


                   5


                   4
  Mean of Glance




                   3
                         0              20            30              0             10              40
                             Gran Turismo:Min per Day                             Skill (5)
                   6


                   5


                   4


                   3
                                 0                       5                0                    3


Figure 17-Main Effects Plot for Glancing and Gaming minutes per day, Driving Gaming minutes per
                      day, Gran Turismo per Day, and Perceived Skill Level
                                         79


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                                        80


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                                               55

Appendix L: Ethics Review Protocol Form
    UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO
    Office of the Vice-President, Research and Associate Provost
    Ethics Review Office


                              ETHICS REVIEW PROTOCOL FORM

    Study Title: Effect of Distracting Billboard advertisements during simulated driving



                         Justification For an Expedited Review

The proposed research meets the three key requirements for an expedited review:

Minimal Risk

               Definition: "Minimal risk means that the probability and magnitude of possible
               harms implied by participation in the research can reasonably be expected by
               participants to be no greater than those encountered by the subject in those
               aspects of his or her everyday life that relate to the research, or during the
               performance of routine physical or psychological examinations or tests

       Participants will be involved in a laboratory study where a car racing video game will
       be used while participants are shown advertisements on simulated roadside billboards
       on an adjacent monitor to the game monitor. The study will last about one hour.
       Participants will use a video game console, which does not pose any safety risks. The
       risk level is equivalent to general computer use and/or video game use, and is
       considered no greater than those encountered by the participant in those aspects of
       his or her everyday life and is at a level normal to the specific population from which
       the participants are drawn. As indicated in the attached study protocol, subjects are
       free to leave the study at any time.


Protection of Privacy and Confidentiality
  Steps are being taken to appropriately protect participant privacy/confidentiality:
      Each participant's name will be encoded to insure the subject’s identity cannot be
      identified in the record. The name to code record will be kept in a locked file cabinet.

Research Category

  The research falls into two of the specified categories for an expedited review:

  1. “Research employing survey, interview, oral history, focus group, or human factors
      evaluation”

  2. “Research on individual or group characteristics or behavior (including, but not limited
      to, research on perception, cognition, motivation, identity, language, communication,
      cultural beliefs or practices, and social behavior). “
                                                                       56
Research Project Management

     The following specific steps are being taken to ensure compliance with the requirements
     for an expedited review:

            Written consent is being obtained for each participant,

            Studies will not put participants at political or economic risk,
            Studies do not involve deception (e.g., no covert recording of individuals with the
            intent of obtaining consent after the fact),

            Studies do not involve vulnerable populations (e.g., physically, cognitively, or mentally
            challenged individuals; economically marginalized individuals),

            Studies do not involve participants who are students currently in classes taught by the
            researcher,

            There is no existing relationship between the investigator and participants (e.g.,
            manager-employee, therapist-client),

            Studies do not acquire sensitive or identifying personal information,

            Studies involve minimal stress or anxiety.

1. Background, Purpose, Objectives

      Marketing groups try to attract sensation-seeking consumers with advertisements that
      would catch their attention1 while car manufacturers use human factors principles for
      their car interfaces2. It is of value to see how these two technologies interact with
      regards to the driver and to see if there are safety issues that arise. It is anticipated that
      this research may find relationships between sensation seeking, risky driving and
      advertising distraction.

      Sensation-seeking personalities and associated increased prevalence of risky driving
      have been studied quite extensively, with results showing that there is a positive
      relationship between the two variables3. Advertising as a distraction to drivers has not
      been looked at as extensively, but there is public interest4 and some studies and surveys
      have been completed. Personality and advertising has been researched as a means of
      improving marketing strategies, even with specific personality traits such as sensation-
      seeking5.

      Purpose


1 Audrain-McGovern, J., Tercyak, K. P., Shields, A. E., Bush, A., Espinel, C. F., Lerman, C., 2003. Which Adolescents are Most Receptive
     to Tobacco Industry Marketing? Implications for Counter-Advertising Campaigns. Health Communication. 15(4), 499-513.
2 Mizutani, K., Omori, T., 2005. A feasibility study of driver’s cognitive process estimation from driving behavior. Transaction of the
Institute of Electrical Engieers of Japan, 125-C, 967-975.
3 Schwebel, D. C., Severson, J., Ball, K. K., Rizzo, M., 2006. Individual difference factors in risky driving: The roles of anger/hostility,
     conscientiousness, and sensation-seeking. Accident Analysis and Prevention. 38, 801-810.
4 Reuters, 2005. Semi-naked models drive guys to distraction. MSNBC. 11/22.
5 Leone, C., D’Arienzo, J., 2000. Sensation-seeking and differentially arousing television commercials. Journal of Social Psychology. 140(6),
     710.
                                              57
   The purpose of this project is to research and analyze the effect that sensation-seeking
   personality has on distraction due to roadside advertising, and see the extent to which it
   reduces simulated driving performance. In this study commercial video game software
   will be used to provide the simulated driving environment with simulated advertisements
   on roadside billboards being shown by a separate application on nearby computer
   screens to the left and right of the monitor where the video game visual interface will be
   displayed.


2. Research Methodology


   At the study session (Guidelines in Appendix G):

  1. Subject to sign a consent form to be tested (see Appendix A)

  2. Subject to complete a demographics and technology survey (see Appendix B)

  3. Subject to complete a driver behaviour questionnaire (see Appendix C)

  4. Subject to complete Zuckerman’s Sensation Seeking Scales (see Appendix D)

  5. Subject to play Gran Turismo 4 for 10 minutes to become familiar with it.

  6. Subjects to be shown advertisements that they did not categorize from two laptops

      while completing licensing tests in Gran Turismo 4 (apparatus setup can be seen in

      Appendix E)

  7. Subjects eye movements to the laptops and the advertisements being shown at the

      time will be recorded using video cameras

  8. After the task, subjects will be asked to look at the advertisements to classify how

      sensational the advertisements are on a scale of 1 to 5

  9. Subjects will be debriefed on the nature of the experiment and paid $10 for their

      participation in the study.


   Total time: 45 minutes


  Analysis of the Results
  The following measures will be collected:
      1. Video Recording

      2. Gran Turismo Licensing Speed and Lane Deviation Results
                                              58
      3. Revised Manchester Driver Behaviour Questionnaire

      4. Zuckerman’s Sensation Seeking Scales

      5. Demographic and Technology Survey

      6. Classification of advertisements

      7. Additional observations from the video recording

   ANOVAs will be conducted between the independent and dependent measures to see
   any relationships between variables. The self-reported strategies will also be qualitatively
   analyzed for trends.

3. Participants

   The participants are males who have driving experience and are within the target age
   range of 20-25 years. Driving experience is necessary to ensure that the study participant
   has knowledge of general vehicle operation and rules of the road. The strict age and
   gender conditions are to decrease driving experience and gender affects on the
   experimental results.

   The proposed sample size for this study is 15 participants.

   Inclusion criteria are as follows:
       o Identifies himself as “male”
       o Currently hold a valid driver’s license (may be G2 or G or equivalent)
       o Between 20-25 years of age, in order to ameliorate age-related differences in
           driving performance
       o Normal or corrected-to-normal vision (i.e., 20/30 visual acuity)
   Exclusion criteria:
       o Currently taking medication(s) or substance(s) which may affect one’s ability to
           Safely operate a vehicle (e.g., sedatives, alcohol).
       o Does not currently hold a valid driver’s license, or is a G1 learner’s permit holder
       o Females


4. Recruitment

   An advertisement will be posted around the campus of the University of Toronto (see
   Appendix F).

   Participants who email their interest in the study will receive a detailed description of the
   study, and be asked to request a time and date.

   The investigators have no formal relationship with the participants to be recruited.


5. Risks and benefits
   Participants may experience some degree of eye-strain since they will watch a driving
   scene on a computer monitor. The risk level is equivalent to general computer use and/or
   video game use, and is considered no greater than those encountered by the participant
                                                59
    in those aspects of his or her everyday life and is at a level normal to the specific
    population from which the participants are drawn.
    As noted in the study protocol, participants are free to leave the study at any time if they
    wish.

    Participants will receive no direct benefit from the study, other than the monetary
    remuneration.


6. Privacy and confidentiality

   Provide a description of how privacy and confidentiality will be protected. Include a
   description of data maintenance, storage, release of information, access to information,
   use of names or codes, destruction of data at the conclusion of the research; include
   information on the use of audio- or videotapes.

   Data Maintenance
   Each participants name will be encoded to insure the participant’s identity cannot be
   identified in the record. The name-to-code record will be kept in a locked file cabinet.

   Storage
   The recorded responses of the study participants will be assembled in a file by the
   investigator and stored in a computer accessible by the investigator alone.

   Driving performance data will be recorded by reviewing video footage. This information
   will be assembled and stored in the secured file.

   Backup copies on a CD-R will be prepared and stored in a locked cabinet.

   Both written records and CD-R of results will be held in a locked drawer.

   Release of Information
   The performance of individuals will not be released. Statistical summaries of the data may
   be published., but not in such a form that the data of individuals can be identified.

   Access to Information
   The researchers will control access to information on the results of the study.

   Data Holding
   The coded data will be held by the researcher for a period of one year.

   Videotape Use
   Video recording will be used, so long as each participant consents to videotaping of their
   performance. Participants will be videotaped while using the driving simulator in order to
   evaluate the effect of the advertising on driving performance, while also serving as a
   record of the eye glances to the displayed advertising.

7. Compensation

   Participants will be paid $10 for their participation in the study.

   If a participant withdraws from the study prior to completion, he will receive a partial
   payment according to time invested.
                                              60


   Participants will be required to sign a receipt to confirm their study payment

8. Conflicts of interest

   There are no perceived conflicts of interest.

9. Informed Consent Process

   Both written and oral informed consent procedures will be utilized.

10. Scholarly review

   An expedited review is requested as this study poses minimal risk.

11. Additional ethics reviews

   None.

12. Contracts

   N/A.

13. Clinical Trials

   N/A.
                                                    61

Appendix A - Consent Form


TITLE:                   Effect of Distracting Billboard advertisements during simulated driving

INVESTIGATOR:            Aisling O’Kane, Undergraduate Student
                         Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto


You are being asked to take part in a research study. In order to take part in this study, you must be: 1)
male, 2) have a G class driver’s license, 3) have corrected-to-normal vision, and 4) be 20-25 years old.

Before agreeing to participate in this study, it is important that you read and understand the following
explanation of the proposed study. The following information describes procedures, benefits,
discomforts, risks and precautions associated with this study. It also describes your right to refuse to
participate or withdraw from the study at any time. In order to decide whether you wish to participate
in this research study, you should understand enough about its risks and benefits to be able to make an
informed decision. This is known as the informed consent process. Please ask the study assistant to
explain any words you do not understand before signing this consent form. Make sure all your
questions have been answered to your satisfaction before signing this document.

                                             Procedures
Part 1: Gran Turismo
You will be driving a Honda Fit around a practice course in Gran Turismo 4. Please try to keep
between 95km/hour and 105km/hour. Also, please stay in the lane you start off in and try not to cross
the yellow lines on either side of you.

Practice Stage Instructions
You will be given 10 minutes to practice on the track. During this time, you are to become familiar
with the car and the track. The investigator will be in the room at this time to answer any questions or
clarify the task.

Track Stage Instructions
After this practice stage, the investigator will leave the room and you will continue on the track for 20
minutes. During this time on the track, you will be shown advertisements intermittently.

Part 2: Review of Advertisements
You will be shown a number of advertisements that have been shown in print (magazines, newspaper,
etc) or on billboards. You will be asked to rate the advertisements in terms of their features.

                                                   Risks
There is minimal risk involved in this study. The situations presented in the driving simulator will be
similar to situations that you experience in playing video games, or your daily driving.

                                                 Benefits
You may or may not receive any benefit from your participation in this study. Information learned
from this study may benefit road safety in the future. You will be paid $10 for your participation in
this study.

                                            Confidentiality
All information obtained during the study will be held in strict confidence. You will be identified with
a study number only. No names or identifying information will be used in any publication or
presentations. No information identifying you will be transferred outside the investigators in this study.
Statistical summaries of the results may be published.
                                                   62


                                            Video Footage
Video footage will be taken of your face and of the racing environment during your time playing Gran
Turismo 4. This footage will be used to see your eye movements during the game. This video footage
will be only viewed by the experimenter and supervisor, and will be deleted after the study is complete.

                                              Participation
Your participation in this study is voluntary. Your can choose not to participate or you may withdraw
at any time.

                                               Questions
If you have any questions about the study, please email the investigator in charge of this study, Aisling
O’Kane at aisling.okane@utoronto.ca, or her supervisor, Professor Mark Chignell at
chignell@mie.utoronto.ca

                                                  Consent
I have had the opportunity to discuss this study and my questions have been answered to my
satisfaction. I consent to take part in the study with the understanding I may withdraw at any time. I
have received a signed copy of this consent form. I voluntarily consent to participate in this study.


_________________________               ______________________                ____________
Participant’s Name (Please Print)        Participant’s Signature               Date

I confirm that I have explained the nature and purpose of the study to the subject named above. I have
answered all questions.


_________________________                ______________________               _____________
Name of Person                          Signature                              Date
Obtaining Consent
                                                   63
Appendix B- Demographics and Technology Survey

Please select your age:
     20
     21
     22
     23
     24
     25


How long have you been driving
    1-3 years
    4-6 years
    7-10 years
    11 years or more


On average, how many hours do you drive per day?
    None
    Less than 1 hour
    1-2 hours
    2-3 hours
    3 hours or more


Do you play video games?
    Yes – Please on average, how often you play :______________minutes per day
    No


Do you play driving video games?
    Yes – Please on average, how often you play :______________minutes per day
    No


Have you played Gran Turismo before?
    Often – Please on average, how often you play :______________minutes per day
    Yes, I have tried the game before
    No


If you have played Gran Turismo, how would you describe your skill level?
     Very Inexperienced
     Inexperienced
     Neither Inexperienced or Experienced
     Experienced
     Very Experienced


Are you currently taking any medication or substances that may affect your ability to drive?
(e.g., sedatives, alcohol, etc.)
     Yes
     No


How many hours of sleep did you get last night?
______________ hours

Do you have normal or corrected-to-normal vision (i.e., 20/40 or better, with glasses or contact lenses)?
    Yes
    No
                                                 64
Appendix C- Driver Behaviour Survey

Please check a number indicating how often these incidences occur while driving. The numbers range
from 0-Never to 5-Nearly all the time.

                          Question                     0      1      2       3       4       5
                                                      Never                               Nearly
                                                                                          All the
                                                                                          Time
   1.       Hit something when reversing that
            you had not previously seen
   2.       Intending to drive to destination A,
            you “wake up” to find yourself on the
            road to destination B
   3.       Get into the wrong lane approaching
            an intersection
   4.       Queuing to turn right onto a main
            road, you pay such close attention to
            the main stream of traffic that you
            nearly hit the car in front
   5.       Fail to notice that pedestrians are
            crossing when turning into a side
            street from a main road
   6.       Sound your horn to indicate your
            annoyance to another road user
   7.       Fail to check you mirror before
            pulling out, changing lanes, etc.
   8.       Brake too quickly on slippery road or
            steer the wrong way in a skid
   9.       Pull out of an intersection so far that
            the driver with right of way has to
            stop and let you out
   10.      Disregard the speed limit on a
            residential road
   11.      Switch on one thing, such as the
            headlights, when you meant to switch
            on something else, such as the
            windshield wipers
   12.      On turning right nearly hit a cyclist
            who has come up on your side
   13.      Miss “Yield” signs and narrowly
            avoid colliding with traffic having
            right of way
   14.      Attempt to drive away from the traffic
            lights in wrong gear
   15.      Attempt to overtake someone that you
            had not noticed to be signaling a left
            turn
   16.      Become angered by another driver
            and give chase with the intention of
            giving him/her a piece of your mind
   17.      Stay in a motorway lane that you
            know will be closed ahead until the
            last minute before forcing your way
                                           65

      into the other lane
18.   Forget where you left your car in a
      car park
19.   Overtake a slow driver on the inside
20.   Race away from traffic lights with the
      intention of beating the driver next to
      you
21.   Misread the signs and exit from an
      intersection on the wrong road
22.   Drive so close to the car in front that
      it would be difficult to stop in an
      emergency
23.   Cross an intersection knowing that the
      traffic lights have already turned
      against you
24.   Become angered by a certain type of
      driver and indicate your hostility by
      whatever means you can
25.   Realize that you have no clear
      recollection of the road along which
      you have just been traveling
26.   Underestimate the speed of an
      oncoming vehicle when overtaking
27.   Disregard the speed limit on a
      motorway
                                                            66
Appendix D- Zuckerman’s Sensation Seeking Scales

For each question, please indicate which of the choices most describes your likes or the way you feel.
When it is hard to choose, select the option that describes you best or that you dislike the least.

1.
         I like “wild” uninhibited parties
         I prefer quiet parties with good conversation

2.
         There are some movies I enjoy seeing a second or even third time
         I can’t stand watching a movie that I’ve seen before

3.
         I often wish I could be a mountain climber
         I can’t understand people who risk their necks climbing mountains

4.
         I dislike all body odours
         I like some of the earthy body smells

5.
         I get bored seeing the same old faces
         I like the comfortable familiarity of everyday friends

6.
         I like to explore a strange city or section of town by myself, even if it means getting lost
         I prefer a guide when I am in a place I don’t know well

7.
         I dislike people who do or say things just to shock or upset others
         When you can predict almost everything a person will do and say he or she must be a bore

8.
         I usually don’t enjoy a movie or play where I can predict what will happen in advance
         I don’t mind watching a movie or play where I can predict what will happen in advance

9.
         I have tried cannabis or would like to
         I would never smoke cannabis

10.
         I would not like to try any drug which might produce strange and dangerous effects on me
         I would like to try some of the drugs that produce hallucinations

11.
         A sensible person avoids activities that are dangerous
         I sometimes like to do things that are a little frightening

12.
         I dislike “swingers” (people who are uninhibited and free about sex)
         I enjoy the company of real "swingers"

13.
         I find that stimulants make me uncomfortable
         I often like to get high (drinking alcohol or smoking marijuana)

14.
         I like to try new foods that I have never tasted before
         I order the dishes with which I am familiar so as to avoid disappointment and unpleasantness

15.
         I enjoy looking at home movies, videos or travel slides
         Looking at someone’s home movies, videos, or travel slides bores me tremendously
                                                              67

16.
         I would like to take up the sport of water skiing
         I would not like to take up water skiing

17.
         I would like to try surfboard riding
         I would not like to try surfboard riding

18.
         I would like to take off on a trip with no preplanned or definite routes or timetable
         When I go on a trip I like to plan my route and timetable fairly carefully

19.
         I prefer the “down to earth” kinds of people as friends
         I would like to make friends in some of the “far-out” groups like artists or anarchists

20.
         I would not like to learn to fly an airplane
         I would like to learn to fly an airplane

21.
         I prefer the surface of the water to the depths
         I would like to go scuba diving

22.
         I would like to meet some people who are homosexual (men or women)
         I stay away from anyone I suspect of being gay or lesbian

23.
         I would like to try parachute jumping
         I would never want to try jumping out of a plane, with or without a parachute

24.
         I prefer friends who are excitingly unpredictable
         I prefer friends who are reliable and predictable

25.
         I am not interested in experience for its own sake
         I like to have new and exciting experiences and sensations even if they are a little frightening,
          unconventional, or illegal

26.
         The essence of good art is in its clarity, symmetry of form, and harmony of colours
         I often find the beauty in the clashing colours and irregular forms of modern paintings

27.
         I enjoy spending time in the familiar surroundings of home
         I get very restless if I have to stay around home for any length of time

28.
         I like to dive off the high board
         I don’t like the feeling I get standing on the high board (or I don’t go near it at all)

29.
         I like to date people who are physically exciting
         I like to date people who share my values

30.
         Heavy drinking usually ruins a party because some people get loud and boisterous
         Keeping the drinks full is the key to a good party

31.
         The worst social sin is to be rude
         The worst social sin is to be a bore
                                                            68

32.
         A person should have considerable sexual experience before marriage
         It’s better if two married people begin their sexual experience with each other

33.
         Even if I had the money, I would not care to associate with flighty rich people in the jet set
         I could conceive of myself seeking pleasures around the world with the jet set

34.
         I like people who are sharp and witty even if they do sometimes insult others
         I dislike people who have their fun at the expense of hurting the feelings of others

35.
         There is altogether too much portrayal of sex in the movies
         I enjoy watching many of the sexy scenes in movies

36.
         I feel best after taking a couple of drinks
         Something is wrong with people who need alcohol to feel good

37.
         People should dress according to some standard of taste, neatness and style
         People should dress in individual ways even if the effects are sometimes strange

38.
         Sailing long distances in small sailing crafts is foolhardy
         I would like to sail a long distance in a small but seaworthy sailing craft

39.
         I have no patience with dull or boring people
         I find something interesting in almost every person I talk to

40.
         Skiing down a high mountain slope is a good way to end up on crutches
         I think I would enjoy the sensations of skiing very fast down a high mountain slope
                                        69
Appendix E- Apparatus Setup




                              Video Camera on
                                Subject’s face


Laptop with
Advertisements




                                                           Driving Screen




                                                 Steering Wheel
                                 70

Appendix F- Recruitment Poster
                                                    71

Appendix G: Participant Instructions

For your time in the experiment, $10.00 will be paid. This will include playing Gran Turismo for 30
minutes and looking at advertisements for 10 minutes.

Part 1: Gran Turismo

You will be driving a Honda Fit around a practice course in Gran Turismo 4. Please try to keep
between 95km/hour and 105km/hour. Also, please stay in the lane you start off in and try not to cross
the yellow lines on either side of you.

Practice Stage Instructions
You will be given 10 minutes to practice on the track. During this time, you are to become familiar
with the car and the track. The investigator will be in the room at this time to answer any questions or
clarify the task.

Track Stage Instructions
After this practice stage, the investigator will leave the room and you will continue on the track for 20
minutes. During this time on the track, you will be shown advertisements intermittently.

Part 2: Advertisements

You will be shown a number of advertisements that have been shown in print (magazines, newspaper,
etc) or on billboards. Please rate them on how arousing or sensation seeking you believe they are.

The BBC describes Sensation Seeking:
      Sensation seeking is a personality trait expressed in behaviour as a tendency to seek varied,
      novel, complex and intense sensations and experiences and to take physical risks for the sake
      of having such experiences.

        These experiences could take the form of extreme adventure activities such as skydiving,
        snowboarding and mountain climbing. But the trait can also express itself in high drug, alcohol
        or tobacco use.

Please rate the following advertisements on how arousing they are, based on this 5 point scale.


     1                   2                    3                    4                    5
   Very              Unarousing            Neither              Arousing              Very
 Unarousing                              Arousing nor                                Arousing
                                         Unarousing
                                               72

Appendix H: Detailed Email Instructions

Hello Blank,

Thank you for replying to the poster!

You are being asked to take part in a research study. In order to take part in this study, you
must be:
1) male,
2) have a G class driver’s license,
3) have corrected-to-normal vision, and
4) be 20-25 years old.

You will be playing Gran Turismo 4 on Playstation 2 for 30 minutes while being shown
advertisements. Afterwards, you will be asked to rate more advertisements based on their
features.

You will be paid $10 for your participation in this study.

All information and video footage obtained during the study will be held in strict confidence.
You will be identified with a study number only. No names or identifying information will be
used in any publication or presentations. No information identifying you will be transferred
outside the investigators in this study.

Please call me to arrange a time to participate next week at 416-823-6314. Thank you for your
time!


Sincerely,

Aisling O'Kane
(416) 823-6314
Interactive Media Lab
Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering
                                               55

Appendix L: Ethics Review Protocol Form
    UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO
    Office of the Vice-President, Research and Associate Provost
    Ethics Review Office


                              ETHICS REVIEW PROTOCOL FORM

    Study Title: Effect of Distracting Billboard advertisements during simulated driving



                         Justification For an Expedited Review

The proposed research meets the three key requirements for an expedited review:

Minimal Risk

               Definition: "Minimal risk means that the probability and magnitude of possible
               harms implied by participation in the research can reasonably be expected by
               participants to be no greater than those encountered by the subject in those
               aspects of his or her everyday life that relate to the research, or during the
               performance of routine physical or psychological examinations or tests

       Participants will be involved in a laboratory study where a car racing video game will
       be used while participants are shown advertisements on simulated roadside billboards
       on an adjacent monitor to the game monitor. The study will last about one hour.
       Participants will use a video game console, which does not pose any safety risks. The
       risk level is equivalent to general computer use and/or video game use, and is
       considered no greater than those encountered by the participant in those aspects of
       his or her everyday life and is at a level normal to the specific population from which
       the participants are drawn. As indicated in the attached study protocol, subjects are
       free to leave the study at any time.


Protection of Privacy and Confidentiality
  Steps are being taken to appropriately protect participant privacy/confidentiality:
      Each participant's name will be encoded to insure the subject’s identity cannot be
      identified in the record. The name to code record will be kept in a locked file cabinet.

Research Category

  The research falls into two of the specified categories for an expedited review:

  1. “Research employing survey, interview, oral history, focus group, or human factors
      evaluation”

  2. “Research on individual or group characteristics or behavior (including, but not limited
      to, research on perception, cognition, motivation, identity, language, communication,
      cultural beliefs or practices, and social behavior). “
                                                                       56
Research Project Management

     The following specific steps are being taken to ensure compliance with the requirements
     for an expedited review:

            Written consent is being obtained for each participant,

            Studies will not put participants at political or economic risk,
            Studies do not involve deception (e.g., no covert recording of individuals with the
            intent of obtaining consent after the fact),

            Studies do not involve vulnerable populations (e.g., physically, cognitively, or mentally
            challenged individuals; economically marginalized individuals),

            Studies do not involve participants who are students currently in classes taught by the
            researcher,

            There is no existing relationship between the investigator and participants (e.g.,
            manager-employee, therapist-client),

            Studies do not acquire sensitive or identifying personal information,

            Studies involve minimal stress or anxiety.

1. Background, Purpose, Objectives

      Marketing groups try to attract sensation-seeking consumers with advertisements that
      would catch their attention1 while car manufacturers use human factors principles for
      their car interfaces2. It is of value to see how these two technologies interact with
      regards to the driver and to see if there are safety issues that arise. It is anticipated that
      this research may find relationships between sensation seeking, risky driving and
      advertising distraction.

      Sensation-seeking personalities and associated increased prevalence of risky driving
      have been studied quite extensively, with results showing that there is a positive
      relationship between the two variables3. Advertising as a distraction to drivers has not
      been looked at as extensively, but there is public interest4 and some studies and surveys
      have been completed. Personality and advertising has been researched as a means of
      improving marketing strategies, even with specific personality traits such as sensation-
      seeking5.

      Purpose


1 Audrain-McGovern, J., Tercyak, K. P., Shields, A. E., Bush, A., Espinel, C. F., Lerman, C., 2003. Which Adolescents are Most Receptive
     to Tobacco Industry Marketing? Implications for Counter-Advertising Campaigns. Health Communication. 15(4), 499-513.
2 Mizutani, K., Omori, T., 2005. A feasibility study of driver’s cognitive process estimation from driving behavior. Transaction of the
Institute of Electrical Engieers of Japan, 125-C, 967-975.
3 Schwebel, D. C., Severson, J., Ball, K. K., Rizzo, M., 2006. Individual difference factors in risky driving: The roles of anger/hostility,
     conscientiousness, and sensation-seeking. Accident Analysis and Prevention. 38, 801-810.
4 Reuters, 2005. Semi-naked models drive guys to distraction. MSNBC. 11/22.
5 Leone, C., D’Arienzo, J., 2000. Sensation-seeking and differentially arousing television commercials. Journal of Social Psychology. 140(6),
     710.
                                              57
   The purpose of this project is to research and analyze the effect that sensation-seeking
   personality has on distraction due to roadside advertising, and see the extent to which it
   reduces simulated driving performance. In this study commercial video game software
   will be used to provide the simulated driving environment with simulated advertisements
   on roadside billboards being shown by a separate application on nearby computer
   screens to the left and right of the monitor where the video game visual interface will be
   displayed.


2. Research Methodology


   At the study session (Guidelines in Appendix G):

  1. Subject to sign a consent form to be tested (see Appendix A)

  2. Subject to complete a demographics and technology survey (see Appendix B)

  3. Subject to complete a driver behaviour questionnaire (see Appendix C)

  4. Subject to complete Zuckerman’s Sensation Seeking Scales (see Appendix D)

  5. Subject to play Gran Turismo 4 for 10 minutes to become familiar with it.

  6. Subjects to be shown advertisements that they did not categorize from two laptops

      while completing licensing tests in Gran Turismo 4 (apparatus setup can be seen in

      Appendix E)

  7. Subjects eye movements to the laptops and the advertisements being shown at the

      time will be recorded using video cameras

  8. After the task, subjects will be asked to look at the advertisements to classify how

      sensational the advertisements are on a scale of 1 to 5

  9. Subjects will be debriefed on the nature of the experiment and paid $10 for their

      participation in the study.


   Total time: 45 minutes


  Analysis of the Results
  The following measures will be collected:
      1. Video Recording

      2. Gran Turismo Licensing Speed and Lane Deviation Results
                                              58
      3. Revised Manchester Driver Behaviour Questionnaire

      4. Zuckerman’s Sensation Seeking Scales

      5. Demographic and Technology Survey

      6. Classification of advertisements

      7. Additional observations from the video recording

   ANOVAs will be conducted between the independent and dependent measures to see
   any relationships between variables. The self-reported strategies will also be qualitatively
   analyzed for trends.

3. Participants

   The participants are males who have driving experience and are within the target age
   range of 20-25 years. Driving experience is necessary to ensure that the study participant
   has knowledge of general vehicle operation and rules of the road. The strict age and
   gender conditions are to decrease driving experience and gender affects on the
   experimental results.

   The proposed sample size for this study is 15 participants.

   Inclusion criteria are as follows:
       o Identifies himself as “male”
       o Currently hold a valid driver’s license (may be G2 or G or equivalent)
       o Between 20-25 years of age, in order to ameliorate age-related differences in
           driving performance
       o Normal or corrected-to-normal vision (i.e., 20/30 visual acuity)
   Exclusion criteria:
       o Currently taking medication(s) or substance(s) which may affect one’s ability to
           Safely operate a vehicle (e.g., sedatives, alcohol).
       o Does not currently hold a valid driver’s license, or is a G1 learner’s permit holder
       o Females


4. Recruitment

   An advertisement will be posted around the campus of the University of Toronto (see
   Appendix F).

   Participants who email their interest in the study will receive a detailed description of the
   study, and be asked to request a time and date.

   The investigators have no formal relationship with the participants to be recruited.


5. Risks and benefits
   Participants may experience some degree of eye-strain since they will watch a driving
   scene on a computer monitor. The risk level is equivalent to general computer use and/or
   video game use, and is considered no greater than those encountered by the participant
                                                59
    in those aspects of his or her everyday life and is at a level normal to the specific
    population from which the participants are drawn.
    As noted in the study protocol, participants are free to leave the study at any time if they
    wish.

    Participants will receive no direct benefit from the study, other than the monetary
    remuneration.


6. Privacy and confidentiality

   Provide a description of how privacy and confidentiality will be protected. Include a
   description of data maintenance, storage, release of information, access to information,
   use of names or codes, destruction of data at the conclusion of the research; include
   information on the use of audio- or videotapes.

   Data Maintenance
   Each participants name will be encoded to insure the participant’s identity cannot be
   identified in the record. The name-to-code record will be kept in a locked file cabinet.

   Storage
   The recorded responses of the study participants will be assembled in a file by the
   investigator and stored in a computer accessible by the investigator alone.

   Driving performance data will be recorded by reviewing video footage. This information
   will be assembled and stored in the secured file.

   Backup copies on a CD-R will be prepared and stored in a locked cabinet.

   Both written records and CD-R of results will be held in a locked drawer.

   Release of Information
   The performance of individuals will not be released. Statistical summaries of the data may
   be published., but not in such a form that the data of individuals can be identified.

   Access to Information
   The researchers will control access to information on the results of the study.

   Data Holding
   The coded data will be held by the researcher for a period of one year.

   Videotape Use
   Video recording will be used, so long as each participant consents to videotaping of their
   performance. Participants will be videotaped while using the driving simulator in order to
   evaluate the effect of the advertising on driving performance, while also serving as a
   record of the eye glances to the displayed advertising.

7. Compensation

   Participants will be paid $10 for their participation in the study.

   If a participant withdraws from the study prior to completion, he will receive a partial
   payment according to time invested.
                                              60


   Participants will be required to sign a receipt to confirm their study payment

8. Conflicts of interest

   There are no perceived conflicts of interest.

9. Informed Consent Process

   Both written and oral informed consent procedures will be utilized.

10. Scholarly review

   An expedited review is requested as this study poses minimal risk.

11. Additional ethics reviews

   None.

12. Contracts

   N/A.

13. Clinical Trials

   N/A.
                                                    61

Appendix A - Consent Form


TITLE:                   Effect of Distracting Billboard advertisements during simulated driving

INVESTIGATOR:            Aisling O’Kane, Undergraduate Student
                         Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto


You are being asked to take part in a research study. In order to take part in this study, you must be: 1)
male, 2) have a G class driver’s license, 3) have corrected-to-normal vision, and 4) be 20-25 years old.

Before agreeing to participate in this study, it is important that you read and understand the following
explanation of the proposed study. The following information describes procedures, benefits,
discomforts, risks and precautions associated with this study. It also describes your right to refuse to
participate or withdraw from the study at any time. In order to decide whether you wish to participate
in this research study, you should understand enough about its risks and benefits to be able to make an
informed decision. This is known as the informed consent process. Please ask the study assistant to
explain any words you do not understand before signing this consent form. Make sure all your
questions have been answered to your satisfaction before signing this document.

                                             Procedures
Part 1: Gran Turismo
You will be driving a Honda Fit around a practice course in Gran Turismo 4. Please try to keep
between 95km/hour and 105km/hour. Also, please stay in the lane you start off in and try not to cross
the yellow lines on either side of you.

Practice Stage Instructions
You will be given 10 minutes to practice on the track. During this time, you are to become familiar
with the car and the track. The investigator will be in the room at this time to answer any questions or
clarify the task.

Track Stage Instructions
After this practice stage, the investigator will leave the room and you will continue on the track for 20
minutes. During this time on the track, you will be shown advertisements intermittently.

Part 2: Review of Advertisements
You will be shown a number of advertisements that have been shown in print (magazines, newspaper,
etc) or on billboards. You will be asked to rate the advertisements in terms of their features.

                                                   Risks
There is minimal risk involved in this study. The situations presented in the driving simulator will be
similar to situations that you experience in playing video games, or your daily driving.

                                                 Benefits
You may or may not receive any benefit from your participation in this study. Information learned
from this study may benefit road safety in the future. You will be paid $10 for your participation in
this study.

                                            Confidentiality
All information obtained during the study will be held in strict confidence. You will be identified with
a study number only. No names or identifying information will be used in any publication or
presentations. No information identifying you will be transferred outside the investigators in this study.
Statistical summaries of the results may be published.
                                                   62


                                            Video Footage
Video footage will be taken of your face and of the racing environment during your time playing Gran
Turismo 4. This footage will be used to see your eye movements during the game. This video footage
will be only viewed by the experimenter and supervisor, and will be deleted after the study is complete.

                                              Participation
Your participation in this study is voluntary. Your can choose not to participate or you may withdraw
at any time.

                                               Questions
If you have any questions about the study, please email the investigator in charge of this study, Aisling
O’Kane at aisling.okane@utoronto.ca, or her supervisor, Professor Mark Chignell at
chignell@mie.utoronto.ca

                                                  Consent
I have had the opportunity to discuss this study and my questions have been answered to my
satisfaction. I consent to take part in the study with the understanding I may withdraw at any time. I
have received a signed copy of this consent form. I voluntarily consent to participate in this study.


_________________________               ______________________                ____________
Participant’s Name (Please Print)        Participant’s Signature               Date

I confirm that I have explained the nature and purpose of the study to the subject named above. I have
answered all questions.


_________________________                ______________________               _____________
Name of Person                          Signature                              Date
Obtaining Consent
                                                   63
Appendix B- Demographics and Technology Survey

Please select your age:
     20
     21
     22
     23
     24
     25


How long have you been driving
    1-3 years
    4-6 years
    7-10 years
    11 years or more


On average, how many hours do you drive per day?
    None
    Less than 1 hour
    1-2 hours
    2-3 hours
    3 hours or more


Do you play video games?
    Yes – Please on average, how often you play :______________minutes per day
    No


Do you play driving video games?
    Yes – Please on average, how often you play :______________minutes per day
    No


Have you played Gran Turismo before?
    Often – Please on average, how often you play :______________minutes per day
    Yes, I have tried the game before
    No


If you have played Gran Turismo, how would you describe your skill level?
     Very Inexperienced
     Inexperienced
     Neither Inexperienced or Experienced
     Experienced
     Very Experienced


Are you currently taking any medication or substances that may affect your ability to drive?
(e.g., sedatives, alcohol, etc.)
     Yes
     No


How many hours of sleep did you get last night?
______________ hours

Do you have normal or corrected-to-normal vision (i.e., 20/40 or better, with glasses or contact lenses)?
    Yes
    No
                                                 64
Appendix C- Driver Behaviour Survey

Please check a number indicating how often these incidences occur while driving. The numbers range
from 0-Never to 5-Nearly all the time.

                          Question                     0      1      2       3       4       5
                                                      Never                               Nearly
                                                                                          All the
                                                                                          Time
   1.       Hit something when reversing that
            you had not previously seen
   2.       Intending to drive to destination A,
            you “wake up” to find yourself on the
            road to destination B
   3.       Get into the wrong lane approaching
            an intersection
   4.       Queuing to turn right onto a main
            road, you pay such close attention to
            the main stream of traffic that you
            nearly hit the car in front
   5.       Fail to notice that pedestrians are
            crossing when turning into a side
            street from a main road
   6.       Sound your horn to indicate your
            annoyance to another road user
   7.       Fail to check you mirror before
            pulling out, changing lanes, etc.
   8.       Brake too quickly on slippery road or
            steer the wrong way in a skid
   9.       Pull out of an intersection so far that
            the driver with right of way has to
            stop and let you out
   10.      Disregard the speed limit on a
            residential road
   11.      Switch on one thing, such as the
            headlights, when you meant to switch
            on something else, such as the
            windshield wipers
   12.      On turning right nearly hit a cyclist
            who has come up on your side
   13.      Miss “Yield” signs and narrowly
            avoid colliding with traffic having
            right of way
   14.      Attempt to drive away from the traffic
            lights in wrong gear
   15.      Attempt to overtake someone that you
            had not noticed to be signaling a left
            turn
   16.      Become angered by another driver
            and give chase with the intention of
            giving him/her a piece of your mind
   17.      Stay in a motorway lane that you
            know will be closed ahead until the
            last minute before forcing your way
                                           65

      into the other lane
18.   Forget where you left your car in a
      car park
19.   Overtake a slow driver on the inside
20.   Race away from traffic lights with the
      intention of beating the driver next to
      you
21.   Misread the signs and exit from an
      intersection on the wrong road
22.   Drive so close to the car in front that
      it would be difficult to stop in an
      emergency
23.   Cross an intersection knowing that the
      traffic lights have already turned
      against you
24.   Become angered by a certain type of
      driver and indicate your hostility by
      whatever means you can
25.   Realize that you have no clear
      recollection of the road along which
      you have just been traveling
26.   Underestimate the speed of an
      oncoming vehicle when overtaking
27.   Disregard the speed limit on a
      motorway
                                                            66
Appendix D- Zuckerman’s Sensation Seeking Scales

For each question, please indicate which of the choices most describes your likes or the way you feel.
When it is hard to choose, select the option that describes you best or that you dislike the least.

1.
         I like “wild” uninhibited parties
         I prefer quiet parties with good conversation

2.
         There are some movies I enjoy seeing a second or even third time
         I can’t stand watching a movie that I’ve seen before

3.
         I often wish I could be a mountain climber
         I can’t understand people who risk their necks climbing mountains

4.
         I dislike all body odours
         I like some of the earthy body smells

5.
         I get bored seeing the same old faces
         I like the comfortable familiarity of everyday friends

6.
         I like to explore a strange city or section of town by myself, even if it means getting lost
         I prefer a guide when I am in a place I don’t know well

7.
         I dislike people who do or say things just to shock or upset others
         When you can predict almost everything a person will do and say he or she must be a bore

8.
         I usually don’t enjoy a movie or play where I can predict what will happen in advance
         I don’t mind watching a movie or play where I can predict what will happen in advance

9.
         I have tried cannabis or would like to
         I would never smoke cannabis

10.
         I would not like to try any drug which might produce strange and dangerous effects on me
         I would like to try some of the drugs that produce hallucinations

11.
         A sensible person avoids activities that are dangerous
         I sometimes like to do things that are a little frightening

12.
         I dislike “swingers” (people who are uninhibited and free about sex)
         I enjoy the company of real "swingers"

13.
         I find that stimulants make me uncomfortable
         I often like to get high (drinking alcohol or smoking marijuana)

14.
         I like to try new foods that I have never tasted before
         I order the dishes with which I am familiar so as to avoid disappointment and unpleasantness

15.
         I enjoy looking at home movies, videos or travel slides
         Looking at someone’s home movies, videos, or travel slides bores me tremendously
                                                              67

16.
         I would like to take up the sport of water skiing
         I would not like to take up water skiing

17.
         I would like to try surfboard riding
         I would not like to try surfboard riding

18.
         I would like to take off on a trip with no preplanned or definite routes or timetable
         When I go on a trip I like to plan my route and timetable fairly carefully

19.
         I prefer the “down to earth” kinds of people as friends
         I would like to make friends in some of the “far-out” groups like artists or anarchists

20.
         I would not like to learn to fly an airplane
         I would like to learn to fly an airplane

21.
         I prefer the surface of the water to the depths
         I would like to go scuba diving

22.
         I would like to meet some people who are homosexual (men or women)
         I stay away from anyone I suspect of being gay or lesbian

23.
         I would like to try parachute jumping
         I would never want to try jumping out of a plane, with or without a parachute

24.
         I prefer friends who are excitingly unpredictable
         I prefer friends who are reliable and predictable

25.
         I am not interested in experience for its own sake
         I like to have new and exciting experiences and sensations even if they are a little frightening,
          unconventional, or illegal

26.
         The essence of good art is in its clarity, symmetry of form, and harmony of colours
         I often find the beauty in the clashing colours and irregular forms of modern paintings

27.
         I enjoy spending time in the familiar surroundings of home
         I get very restless if I have to stay around home for any length of time

28.
         I like to dive off the high board
         I don’t like the feeling I get standing on the high board (or I don’t go near it at all)

29.
         I like to date people who are physically exciting
         I like to date people who share my values

30.
         Heavy drinking usually ruins a party because some people get loud and boisterous
         Keeping the drinks full is the key to a good party

31.
         The worst social sin is to be rude
         The worst social sin is to be a bore
                                                            68

32.
         A person should have considerable sexual experience before marriage
         It’s better if two married people begin their sexual experience with each other

33.
         Even if I had the money, I would not care to associate with flighty rich people in the jet set
         I could conceive of myself seeking pleasures around the world with the jet set

34.
         I like people who are sharp and witty even if they do sometimes insult others
         I dislike people who have their fun at the expense of hurting the feelings of others

35.
         There is altogether too much portrayal of sex in the movies
         I enjoy watching many of the sexy scenes in movies

36.
         I feel best after taking a couple of drinks
         Something is wrong with people who need alcohol to feel good

37.
         People should dress according to some standard of taste, neatness and style
         People should dress in individual ways even if the effects are sometimes strange

38.
         Sailing long distances in small sailing crafts is foolhardy
         I would like to sail a long distance in a small but seaworthy sailing craft

39.
         I have no patience with dull or boring people
         I find something interesting in almost every person I talk to

40.
         Skiing down a high mountain slope is a good way to end up on crutches
         I think I would enjoy the sensations of skiing very fast down a high mountain slope
                                        69
Appendix E- Apparatus Setup




                              Video Camera on
                                Subject’s face


Laptop with
Advertisements




                                                           Driving Screen




                                                 Steering Wheel
                                 70

Appendix F- Recruitment Poster
                                                    71

Appendix G: Participant Instructions

For your time in the experiment, $10.00 will be paid. This will include playing Gran Turismo for 30
minutes and looking at advertisements for 10 minutes.

Part 1: Gran Turismo

You will be driving a Honda Fit around a practice course in Gran Turismo 4. Please try to keep
between 95km/hour and 105km/hour. Also, please stay in the lane you start off in and try not to cross
the yellow lines on either side of you.

Practice Stage Instructions
You will be given 10 minutes to practice on the track. During this time, you are to become familiar
with the car and the track. The investigator will be in the room at this time to answer any questions or
clarify the task.

Track Stage Instructions
After this practice stage, the investigator will leave the room and you will continue on the track for 20
minutes. During this time on the track, you will be shown advertisements intermittently.

Part 2: Advertisements

You will be shown a number of advertisements that have been shown in print (magazines, newspaper,
etc) or on billboards. Please rate them on how arousing or sensation seeking you believe they are.

The BBC describes Sensation Seeking:
      Sensation seeking is a personality trait expressed in behaviour as a tendency to seek varied,
      novel, complex and intense sensations and experiences and to take physical risks for the sake
      of having such experiences.

        These experiences could take the form of extreme adventure activities such as skydiving,
        snowboarding and mountain climbing. But the trait can also express itself in high drug, alcohol
        or tobacco use.

Please rate the following advertisements on how arousing they are, based on this 5 point scale.


     1                   2                    3                    4                    5
   Very              Unarousing            Neither              Arousing              Very
 Unarousing                              Arousing nor                                Arousing
                                         Unarousing

				
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