Research Theoretical Framework by sej19662

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       Patricia Benner has provided essential understanding of how knowledge

and skills are acquired and directly applied to nursing practice, education,

research and administration. Specifically, her work indicates a growing concern

with the development of explanatory frameworks for understanding the nature of

nursing practice and the development of nursing expertise. Her research, unlike

that of many of her contemporaries, progressed from practice to a useful model.

It can be argued that this model is more practical when used as a philosophy. A

nursing philosophy can be defined as the study of the principles underlying

conduct, thought and the nature of the nursing practice. Philosophy begins when

someone contemplates, or wonders, about something. Key to the discussion of

whether Benner's model is a philosophy understands the basis of her work and

her premises.

       It led to the publication of Benners' first book in 1984, From Novice to

Expert and numerous articles. The AMICAE Project was 'an interpretive,

descriptive study that led to the use of Dreyfus' five levels of competency to

describe skill acquisition in clinical nursing practice' (Brykczynski 2002: 169).

       The Dreyfus Model of Skill Acquisition (originally developed with pilots)

considers 'advancement in skilled performance, based upon experience as well

as education, clinical knowledge development and career progression in clinical

nursing' (Myrick & Barrett 1992: 55). The model posits that individuals, while

acquiring and developing skills, pass through five levels of proficiency:
novice/beginner, advanced beginner, competent, proficient and expert. The five

different levels reflect changes in three general aspects of skilled performance:

1. A move from a reliance on abstract principles to the use of past concrete


2. A change from viewing a situation as multiple fragments, to seeing a more

holistic picture with a few relevant factors; and

3. A movement from detached observer to active performer.

A move from novice to expert is characterized by the transition from explicit rule-

governed behavior to intuitive, contextually determinate behavior. Progression

from novice to expert is not guaranteed; not every nurse becomes an expert.

       'The Dreyfus model provides the concepts needed to differentiate between

what can be taught by precept and what must be learned experientially from

comparison of similar and dissimilar cases' (Benner 1984: 186). It is important to

understand that Benner's and Dreyfus's work was specifically directed at

proposing a viable alternative to traditional ways of understanding practice,

theory and knowledge; not to devalue science.
                  Figure 1. Benner’s Novice to Expert concept


      The paradigm below gives the over all view of the research under taken by

the proponents. This study aims to know what are the factors affecting the

performance of selected student nurses in their Related Learning Experience.
A            Socio-                  Factors that affect the         E
           Demographic                 RLE performance
S                                                                    N
                                        a. Personal Attitude
            a.    Age                   b. Study Habits              H
E           b.    Gender                c. Family
            c.    Civil Status             Relationship              A
S           d.    Monthly               d. Social Influence
                  Family                e. Clinical Instructors’     N
S                 Income                   Teaching
                                           Strategies                C


N                                                                    D
                 Result of the information gathered

O                                                                  PERFOR
F          Student Nurses                                          MANCE
T                                                                    OF
             2nd year                                              THE
E            3rd year
             4th year




    FIGURE 2. Schematic Diagram of the Conceptual Framework
       First is the assessment of the data, by assessing the data we used socio-

demographic profile of the respondents, which are their age, sex, civil status and

monthly family income together with the factors that affect the RLE performance

then correlate with each other to know the relationship that exists between the

profile variables and factors that affect the performance of student nurses in their

Related Learning Experience.

       Also using the assessment of the data we used as respondents the

student nurses, which is the second year, third year and fourth year and their

corresponding clinical instructors then correlate with each other to know the

significant difference of the perceptions of the student nurses and clinical

instructors in the factors that affect the performance in RLE.

       After gathering all information’s needed we get the results and come up

enhancing the performance of the selected student nurses.

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