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					                                        Narrative Evaluation Tool

 Year Level                           Important Structural and Language Indicators
(ESL Scale)
 Reception       ‘writes’ basic examples of narratives by copying mostly left to right, top to bottom or jointly
  (Scale 2)       constructing labels, phrases and sentences
                 uses 1 or 2 pronoun reference items eg I, my
                 uses repetitive or modelled patterns eg He,
 Reception       ‘writes’ or has scribed by a teacher a simple orientation of narrative
 (Scale 3)       begins to use conjunction ‘and’
                 uses limited range of reference items, such as pronouns eg she, my, we
                 begins to use adjectives in noun groups eg big, small, good
                 begins to use circumstances of time eg on the weekend, last night, and place eg at the shop
                 uses common action verbs eg went, played, got
                 uses everyday vocabulary plus isolated technical vocabulary eg playground, soccer, supermarket
                 copies/jointly constructs simple sentences with limited control of primary tense
                 attempts to write basic sight words
 Reception       writes short narrative (with scaffolding), on a proforma containing title, orientation, simple
 (Scale 4)        complication, and short resolution
                 uses some reference items eg he, it, her,
                 explores using a small range of describers in noun groups (size, colour, shape)
                 uses wider range of action verbs eg bought, gave, saw
                 begins to use complete simple sentences
                 may include adverbs eg very, really
                 writes independently simple sentences with some control of past tense eg went, played, saw
                 spells with some accuracy many common monosyllabic words
  Year 1         writes a narrative including an orientation, complication and resolution (using a proforma for
 (Scale 5)        support)
                 uses linking conjunctions eg and, then, but, - and binding conjunction eg because
                 uses with some confidence a limited range of technical vocabulary eg teams, team captains
                 regularly uses circumstances of time and place eg by the door
                 may use a small range of comparatives eg bigger
                 begins to foreground basic phrases of time and place eg Last Friday …., At the shopping centre…
                 uses primary tense - present, past, future for most common regular verbs
                 begins to use basic punctuation eg full stop, capital letters
                 spells common words accurately
  Year 2         confidently writes a longer narrative with some teacher support
 (Scale 6)       uses a range of linking conjunctions eg and, then, but, or
                 uses binding conjunctions to form compound sentences eg because, when, after
                 accurately uses reference items
                 uses everyday and a range of technical vocabulary confidently eg Assembly, journey
                 uses a narrow range of describers to expand noun groups eg numbers (two, many), describers
                  (blue, huge), & classifiers (wooden, Australian)
                 occasionally uses qualifiers eg the man in the shop …
                 may begin to use simple direct speech
                 chooses vocabulary that is appropriate for the situation and audience eg footy instead of football,
                  or football instead of footy
                 foregrounds phrases of time and place eg Later that night .., In Port Pirie….
                 uses primary tense - present, past, future for common regular verbs (jumped )and most common
                  irregular verbs (saw, ran)
                 begins to gain control of other tenses eg I was sleeping ..
                 uses simple punctuation regularly eg capital letters for characters names, full stops
 Year 3         with some confidence, writes a logically organised narrative in short, simple paragraphs with less
(Scale 7)        teacher support
                uses wider range of connectives eg Next, Later
                uses linking conjunctions eg and, then, but, or, so
                uses binding conjunctions eg if, when, before
                uses longer noun groups eg the new security man in the shop
                uses a small range of technical vocabulary in familiar educational fields eg crime scene
                uses simple direct speech
                uses qualifiers regularly eg The dog in the park…
                begins to use some nominalisation eg My dog’s happiness is important.
                may begin to use common colloquialisms or idioms
                uses elementary expressions of modality eg could, perhaps, luckily
                spells accurately most words learnt in class and can use dictionary etc
                uses consistently capital letters and full stops
 Year 4         with greater confidence constructs narratives in cohesive paragraphs
(Scale 8)       writes a brief plan showing setting, characters, problem and resolution
                begins to use common binding conjunctions appropriately eg if, since, when
                begins to use relative pronouns eg which, that, who
                uses reference items accurately in shorter texts eg Her pony got a new saddle. She likes it so
                begins to make more delicate choices of meanings eg slippery and smooth
                uses mental verbs regularly eg thought, know, believe
                uses more expressive noun groups, eg my beautiful birthday present.
                uses circumstances of manner eg carefully, with a bang
                uses common nominalisations eg She gave me permission
                uses simple forms of language expressing modality eg should, could; just, only
                foregrounds a variety of time and place phrases
                uses correct tenses
 Year 5         independently constructs narratives in paragraphs
(Scale 9)       forms complex sentences using a range of binding conjunctions, eg because, if, since
                uses reference items appropriately in increasingly complex sentences eg, the colourful birthday
                 presents were placed in a pile on the floor. This pile …
                uses more varied vocabulary eg mental processes (considered, reckoned) noun groups (the
                 children in the water) and circumstance of means (with a big hammer)
                expands noun groups by using more delicate language choices eg The nice, comfortable flat
                uses longer qualifiers eg The nice comfortable flat near the park in Salisbury
                uses direct and reported speech with a high degree of accuracy.
                chooses confidently from a range of vocabulary appropriate to maintain tenor in a text eg: rear,
                 rump, bottom, backside, bum
                chooses a narrow range of colloquialisms and idioms eg It was stinking hot.
                foregrounds information other than the character name, time or place phrase eg The house of the
                 giant stood...
  Year 6        independently constructs narratives in paragraphs using a plan
(Scale 10)      forms complex sentences using a wider range of conjunctions to join sentences or paragraphs, eg
                 whenever, therefore, however, as a result
                uses text reference items that can refer to large segments of a text eg This chain of events made
                 the dog go crazy.
                expands noun groups by using more precise adjectives eg the tiniest, most colourful birthday
                 present sitting in the pile
                begins to make more delicate choices of vocabulary ie verbs expressing action eg strolled, strode,
                 limped; noun groups eg magician, conjurer; expressing the circumstance manner eg carefully, fell
                 like a rag doll: expressing the circumstance of means eg with a fine-toothed comb
                chooses more delicately from a range of vocabulary appropriate for the situation, eg male,
                 gentlemen, man, guy, bloke
                chooses a small range of colloquialisms and idioms, eg give me a hand
                uses commas appropriately after foregrounding phrases of time and place, eg After the party, …
  Year 7        writes well-structured, longer and complex examples of narratives, with multiple complications and
(Scale 11)       temporary resolutions using planning notes.
                foregrounds dependent phrases and clauses eg While waiting for the train,…
                forms complex sentences using binding conjunctions and relative pronouns with some accuracy.
                 eg because, since, after, that, which, who
                continues to make more precise vocabulary choices eg He peered disapprovingly through his
                uses a range of common technical verbs, nouns and phrases eg celebrated, celebration, because
                   of the rain
                  uses a small range of nominalisations eg Their generosity amazed us.
                  includes words that make interpersonal comment eg unfortunately, seldom
                  uses a wider range of colloquialisms and idioms appropriately eg I was on cloud nine.
                  foregrounds phrases of time and place, dependent clauses of cause eg Because we were running
  Year 8          Begins to use the optional stages of evaluation and flashback with some confidence
(Scale 12)        Constructs well-formed complex sentences using a range of binding conjunctions (e.g. whenever,
                   if, though) and relative clauses: Without warning, her brother can disappear for long periods, which
                   always worries his mother.
                  Makes more delicate choices from range of verbs, nouns and circumstances: scanned, thick-
                   rimmed glasses, carefully
                  Expands noun groups by accurately using a wide range of describers, classifiers and qualifiers
                   often in combination: the most important and exciting overseas adventure in recent memory
                  Begins to explore possible variation in the order of noun groups: His face, handsome and athletic,
                  Uses a small range of complex forms of language expressing modality (ie degrees of certainty or
                   obligation) accurately and appropriately in most contexts: Perhaps we might be able to reach it by
                  Uses isolated examples of euphemisms: She passed away last week
                  Chooses a range of idioms: He went for a leak.
                  Constructs longer narratives using variations with some confidence
                  Foregrounds a wider range of phrases and dependent clauses including consecutive phrases of
                   place, time or effect: One cold winter’s day, in 1975…
                  Makes appropriate choices consistently and independently to punctuate direct speech
  Year 9        Constructs longer narratives using variations with greater confidence: begins with resolution and
(Scale 13)       then continues story as a flashback
                Uses complex relative clauses with some confidence
                Uses with some confidence less common conjunctions: Moreover
                Chooses from a wide range of verbs, nouns and circumstances: peered, specs, cautiously
                Uses confidently a range of nominalisations: opportunity, fascination
                Uses a narrow range of common metaphors: I don’t want to catch a cold
                Uses a wide range of colloquialisms and idioms and a limited range of euphemisms
                Combines language elements that express modality: Unfortunately, we will never get to see the
                Manipulates what to foreground appropriately: Thuy, on the other hand, remained a threat.
                Chooses to foreground delicate phrases and dependent clauses of time, place and manner:
                 Throughout the long hot day, …
                Chooses correct grammar if what is foregrounded changes from active to passive voice
                  Uses commas appropriately between describers: the long, windy path
 Year 10          Incorporates appropriate examples of humour and satire
(Scale 14)        Uses confidently a range of specific vocabulary of topics featured in the narrative (e.g. surfing,
                   computer games)
                  Uses confidently a wide range of nominalisations: wilfulness, anxiety, compassion
                  Confidently uses a wide range of verbs, nouns and circumstances: peeked, bifocals, tentatively
                  Confidently uses a wider range of colloquialisms and idioms: pull yourself together
                  Combines language elements that express modality: The most likely outcome of this was that…
                  Manipulates what to foreground appropriately and strategically: The girl, in particular, was…
                  Nominalisations are foregrounded: The mysteries remain unsolved
                  Chooses detailed, well-organised topic sentences that capture the attention of the audience
                  Chooses a range of elements for effect including circumstance with abstract concepts: Because of
                   the distressing circumstances, I sought help from…,

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