Religion and politics in Russia

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					Religion and politics in Russia

IAPC-Barcelona, 39th World Conference “A Struggle for identity”

CONTENTS

Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………….3
METHODOLOGY …………………………………………………………………...………… 4 How religious are contemporary Russian citizens?.................................…………....5 Religious values in the Russian mass consciousness ……………………………….10

Religious organizations and their participation in the political process …………..14
Moral aspects of politics ……………………………………………………………...…….19 Religion as the way of promoting politics………………………………………………..22 Conclusions……………………………………………………………………………………24

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Introduction

In the core of political behavior, as well as of any other public activity, lay the basic society values. These values are formed by the world outlook of the citizens and such is based either on religious or philosophical postulates. Thus, we can define two aspects in which religion affects political sphere of society life:

1. Direct – by influencing political processes of religious organizations (Church) and religion-based communities. 2. Indirect – through attitudes which form the system of values.

The goal of our research is to analyze religious influence on the political sphere of contemporary Russian society, as well as to evaluate further development of this aspect.

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METHODOLOGY The outlines given in the presentation were gathered as a result of All-Russia representative surveys by «Bashkirova and partners» in 2004 – 2006.

TARGETED GROUP : Russian citizens METHOD: face-to-face interviews by random route

SAMPLE: N=1500
REGIONS: 7 federal districts

International projects «World Values Survey» and «European Values Survey» were used as a reference.

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How religious are contemporary Russian citizens?

How religious are contemporary Russian citizens?

Do you belong to a religious confession?

Orhtodox

80,1

Muslim

3,7

Other

1,5

Do not belong to any

10,7

Don't know

4,0

n=1500
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How religious are contemporary Russian citizens?

Apart from weddings, funerals and christenings, how often do you attend religious services these days?

More than once a week

1,1 1,3 3,7 1,9 8,3 5,9 12,7 15,2 14,3 7,2 12,8 9,7 16,5 8,2 26,8 49,7 2 0,9

Once a week

Once a month

Decreased by 2 times
the past 6 years

for

Only on special holidays

Other specific holidays

Once a year

Not less than once a year

Never

Don't know

2006

1999

n=1500

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How religious are the modern Russian citizens?

Apart from weddings, funerals and christenings, about how often do you attend religious services these days?(Among the respondents who consider themselves to be Orthodox)
More than once a week

0,9

14,7% Orthodox routinely
Once a week
4,2

attend religious services

Once a month

9,6

Only on special holidays

14,5

Other specific holidays

18,2

Once a year

14,7

Not less than once a year

16,6

Never

19,4

Don't know

1,9

n=1500
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Attitude of Russians towards religion
To which statement on the role of religion in your life will you agree? To You the religion means: (Because respondents could give several answers the sum of meanings is mot equal to 100%).
33,2

Spiritual support

Tribute to traditions

26,0

Part of upbringing

23,9

A way of socializing with God

21,0

A way to understand own self

19,1

Other

1,8

There is no religion in my life

7,5

Don't know

5,7

n=1500
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Religion values in Russian mass consciousness

Values of Russians

The results of the World Values Survey conducted in 1999 allowed to build the following hierarchy of values for Russians:

Family

23,3

Work

20,3

Friends

19,9

Leisure time

16,6

Religion

10,5

Politics

9,4

n=1500
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Christian values

To what extent do you agree or disagree with the following statement: Christian values are at the heart of modern Russian values?

Agree strongly

17,2

44%
Agree
26,8

Disagree

26,6

44%
Strongly disagree
17,4

Don't know

12

n=1500
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Christian values
Which values in your opinion are Christian and which aren’t?

Faith in God

93 90,4 84,9 57,8 55 54,3 51,6 22,3 16,9 62,6 74,2 31,6 34,3 30,5 35,2 9,2

3,1 3,9 4,8 4,8 4,8
10,6

Love for one's neighbour

Family

Work

Patriotism

10,7

Belief in life after death

15,2

Liberty

13,2

Democracy

15,1

Money

8,9

It is

It isn't

Don’t know

n=1500
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Religious organizations and their participation in the political process

Trust to public institutions
To what extent do you trust state and public institutions?
45 10,4 6 1,7

President of RF

36,9

Russian Orthodox Church

33,3

37

11,5

9,1

9

Armed forces

25,4

36,9

19,4

13,4

4,8

Government of Russia

15,2

35

29,4

17,1

3,3

Mass media

9,4

34,6

30,5

21,2

4,3

State Duma

9

26,2

•

Federal Counsil

8,3

29

Можно 34,2 констатировать 25,9слабое знакомство значительной части респондентов с национальными 28,7 20,1 13,9 традициями быта.
Not trust at all Don't know

4,6

Trust completely

Trust a little

Not trust very much

n=1500
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Influence of religious leaders on politics

How much do you agree or disagree with the following statement: Religious leaders should not influence government?

Agree strongly

44,5 16,7 19,6 44,2 14,6 15,6 9,4 12,4 4,8 0,8 1999 7,1 10,3 2005

Agree

Neither agree or disagree

Disagree

Strongly disagree

Don't know

n=1500

Presently the respondents tend to give univocal answers more frequently
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Influence of religious leaders on politics

How much do you agree or disagree with the following statement: Religious leaders should not influence how people vote in elections

Agree strongly

53,2 22,2 20,1 52,5 12,1 8,8 6,2 6,9 3,4 0,6 5 9 2005 1999

Agree

Neither agree or disagree

Disagree

Strongly disagree

Don't know

n=1500

Presently the respondents tend to give univocal answers more frequently
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The role of church in society

To your opinion, which important issues of society life can be discussed and solved with participation of religious organizations (Church)? (Because respondents could give several answers the sum of meanings is not equal to 100%).
Culture development of society Parenting of children Struggle against delinquency Problems health protection Problems of security and defence Economic questions 1,6 6,5 9,2 7,6 7,8 7,7 15,5 27,8 48,2 47,3

Other

All listed

Almost none

Don't know

n=1500
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Moral aspects of politics

Moral aspects of politics
How much do you agree or disagree to the following statement: Politicians disbelieving in God are misfit for public office

Agree strongly

21,4 6,4 13,5 13 18,2 19 23,6 43,7 16,5 9 6,8 8,9 2005 1999

Agree

Neither agree or disagree

Disagree

Strongly disagree

Don't know

Presently the respondents tend to give univocal answers more frequently
20

n=1500

Moral aspects of politics

To what extent do you agree or disagree to the statement: It would be better for Russia to have more truly religious people in power.

Agree strongly

32,1 11,7 22,2 30 18,6 25,1 12 19,3 5,2 3,4 9,9 10,5 2005 1999

Agree

Neither agree or disagree

Disagree

Strongly disagree

Don't know

n=1500

Presently the respondents tend to give univocal answers more frequently
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Religion as the way of promoting politics

Religion as the way of promoting politics

Religion as the way of promoting politics

The use of religious factor for increasing the support level of state power

Islamic factor

The use of religious factors for influencing the electoral behavior of pollers

Conclusions

• The majority of Russians consider themselves to be religious. The most widespread confession of Russia is the Orthodox Christianity. The number of church members (those regularly attending services, fasting, etc.) totals 15%.
• The rating of trust of the Russian Orthodox Church is one of the highest among major state and public institutions - 70,3%. • The most significant traditional values in the Russian society are family and work in the minds of people they are true values of Christian character. • Russian citizens oppose the direct interference of religious organizations with the politics. Democracy along with other elements of the state structure is perceived as clearly secular sphere of social life. • The Russians see the main public mission of Church as cultural development of society and education of the younger generation. • Russian citizens would like to see religiously convinced politicians in goverment for they perceive it as a guarantee of their honesty and morality. • Thus, the religion is perceived as an intimate aspect of Russian life; however its basic role in the political life of Russia is to strengthen the morals, honesty and decency.

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