Review: American fundamentalism Christian fundamentalism emerged in response to: industrialisation and the Social Gospel movement. It aimed to preserve 19th century American ideas about family and culture. It was marginalised in 1925, but re-asserted itself in the 1970s as the New Christian Right. Religion and Politics in Contemporary Societies Liberation Theology: Christianity and Radical Transformation in Latin America Liberation theology Emphasis on social justice, particularly with regard to class structure, through a radical transformation of society Aims to correct the social order through political means Oppositional culture Historical Development of Liberation Theology Changing orientation of the Church hierarchy in Rome results in Papal encyclicals emphasising the social teachings Vatican II (1962-5) Poverty caused by development Rise of military regimes Urbanisation, middle class moving away from Catholic education Medellin meeting between the bishops Liberation Theology in Brazil 1964 – military coup – repressed opposition and focused on development; Poor experienced deteriorating conditions; Church less repressed than other opposition because of military’s concern with Communism; After 1974, the military began liberalising its policies. Liberation theology flowered. In the early 1980s, liberation theology began to decline in popularity. References Angrosino, Michael V. 1994 “The Culture Concept and the Mission of the Roman Catholic Church” in American Anthropologist, Vol.96, No.4: 824-832. Barr, Kevin 1994 Let’s Change the World: Catholic Social Teaching Today Fiji: Chevalier Publications. Beyer, Peter 2000 Religion and Globalisation London, Thousand Oaks, New Delhi: Sage. Boff, Leonardo and Clodovis nd “A Concise History of Liberation Theology” at http://www.landreform.org/boff2.htm, accessed 17/03/04. References Dorr, Donal 1991 The Social Justice Agenda: Justice, Ecology, Power and the Church Melbourne: Collin Doves. Flannery, Austin (ed) 1992 Vatican Council II: The Conciliar and Post Conciliar Documents Dublin: Dominican Publications & E J Dwyer Ltd. Gutierrez, Gustavo 1984 “The Poor and the Church in Latin America” Kater, John L. Jr 2001 “Whatever Happened to Liberation Theology? New Directions for Theological Reflection in Latin America” in Anglican Theological Review: 735 – 773. References Levine, Daniel H. 1979 “Religion and Politics, Politics and Religion: An Introduction” in Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs, (Special Issue: The Church and Politics in Latin America), Vol.21, No.1: 5-29. Newland, Lynda 2006 “Social Justice in Fiji: Christian Perspectives” Suva: ECREA. Neuhouser, Kevin 1989 “The Radicalisation of the Brazilian Catholic Church in Comparative Perspective” in American Sociological Review, Vol. 54, No.2:233-244. Williams, Edward J. 1973 “The Emergence of the Secular Nation-Sate and Latin American Catholicism” in Comparative Politics, Vol.5, No.2: 261-277.