Honors Chemistry by ashrafp


									      Honors Chemistry
        Grade 11-12

Lancaster City Schools   Science Course of Study   Grade 11-12   1/11/05

Lancaster City Schools                 Science Course of Study
                   Honors Chemistry, Grade 11-12
I. General Information
       A. Course Description – Honors chemistry is a weighted one-credit laboratory
       science course. Honors chemistry is designed to offer advanced high school
       students, who have taken or concurrently are taking algebra II (with a “B” or
       better), a more thorough and comprehensive survey of chemistry than chemistry
       (course number 440). Concepts emphasize the study of matter and energy and
       require the student to have strong problem-solving skills and the aptitude for
       abstract reasoning. Laboratory investigations are mostly quantitative in nature and
       involve detailed measurements, observations, and the ability to draw sound
       conclusions. The course sequence is similar to chemistry 440, with the addition of
       electrochemistry, nuclear chemistry, and organic chemistry. The level of inquiry
       is broader and more in-depth. For students interested in majoring in science and
       engineering, it is important to recognize that this is not a substitute for Advanced
       Placement Chemistry (course number 497).
       B. Grade Level – Grade 11-12 (selected)
       C. Length of Course – one year

II. Subject Objectives:
        Introduction to Matter and Change:
        The student will:
            1. define chemistry.
            2. define matter and contrast physical and chemical changes.
            3. explain the gas, liquid and solid states of matter in terms of particles.
            4. distinguish between a mixture and a pure substance.
            5. use a periodic table to name elements, given their symbols.
            6. describe the arrangement of the periodic table.
            7. list the characteristics of metal, non-metals, and metalloids.
            8. describe the difference between hypothesis, theories, and models.
            9. distinguish between a quantity, a unit, and a measurement standard.
            10. name SI units for a given measurement.
            11. distinguish between mass and weight.
            12. perform density calculations and dimensional analysis problems.
            13. distinguish between accuracy and precision.
            14. determine the number of significant figured in measurements.
            15. perform mathematical operations and conversions using significant figures
                and scientific notation.
            16. calculate percent error.
            17. distinguish between inversely and proportional relationships.
        Organization of Matter:
        The student will:
            1. explain the Law of Conservation of Mass.
            2. summarize Dalton’s atomic theory.

Lancaster City Schools        Science Course of Study        Grade 11-12           1/11/05

          3. summarize experiments that led to the discovery of the subatomic
          4. list properties of protons, neutrons, and electrons.
          5. define atom.
          6. explain isotopes.
          7. define atomic number and mass number.
          8. oidentify number of protons, neutrons, and electrons of a nuclide.
          9. define mole, Avogadro’s number, and molar mass.
          10. convert among mole, NA, and molar mass.
          11. explain the mathematical relationship among velocity, speed and
              wavelength of EM radiation.
          12. describe the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom.
          13. explain how the Heisenberg uncertainty principle and Schrodinger wave
              equation led to atomic orbitals.
          14. list four quantum numbers and their significance.
          15. relate quantum numbers to energy levels and orbitals.
          16. state the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle, and Hund’s Rule.
          17. write electron configurations using orbital notation, electron configuration,
              and noble-gas notation.
          18. describe the modern periodic table.
          19. explain how periodic law can help predict physical and chemical
              properties of elements.
          20. describe the relationship between sublevels and length of periods.
          21. locate and name the four blocks of the periodic table.
          22. discuss relationships between group configurations and the general
              properties of elements.
          23. define and compare trends of atomic and ionic radii, ionization energy,
              electron affinity, and electronegativity.
          24. define valence electrons and number of each main group element.
          25. define chemical bond.
          26. explain why most atoms form chemical bonds.
          27. describe ionic and covalent bonding and the percentage of each.
          28. classify bond type according to the difference in electronegativity.
          29. define molecule and molecular formula.
          30. state the octet rule.
          31. write Lewis structures containing single, double, and triple bonds.
          32. explain the use of resonance structures.
          33. compare ionic with molecular formulas and properties.
          34. write Lewis structures of polyatomic ions
          35. describe properties of metals.
          36. use VSEPR theory to predict shapes of molecules or ions.
          37. explain hybridization.
          38. describe intermolecular forces and polarity.
          39. explain exceptions to octets, deficient and expanded octets.
       Language of Chemistry:
       The student will:

Lancaster City Schools        Science Course of Study        Grade 11-12           1/11/05

              1. determine formulas and name ionic compounds.
              2. determine formulas and name of molecular compounds using
                  oxidation numbers or Stock system.
              3. assign oxidation numbers.
              4. calculate percent composition of a compound.
              5. compare ionic with molecular compounds.
              6. determine empirical formula of a compound from percent or mass
              7. find molecular formula from empirical formula.
              8. list requirements for a correctly written chemical equation.
              9. write a word and formula equation from a chemical reaction.
              10. classify reactions and predict products.
              11. explain significance of an activity series to predict if reaction will
              12. write net ionic equations.
              13. define stoichiometry.
              14. describe importance of mole ratio in stoichiometric calculations.
              15. calculate moles and mass of a reactant or product give the mass or
                  moles of a different reactant or product.
              16. determine the limiting reactant given two reactants.
              17. calculate the amount of product formed from the limiting reactant.
              18. distinguish between and calculate percent yield given theoretical and
                  actual yield.
       Phases of Matter:
       The student will:
          1. state kinetic molecular theory as it applies to properties of matter.
          2. differentiate between ideal and real gases.
          3. describe properties of gases.
          4. define pressure as related to force.
          5. describe how pressure is measured.
          6. convert units of pressure.
          7. state STP.
          8. explain relationships between gas volume, pressure, and temperature.
          9. calculate final conditions of a gas from changes in a gas volume, pressure,
              and/or temperature.
          10. use Dalton’s Law to calculate partial and total pressures of a gas.
          11. define standard molar volume of a gas.
          12. use standard molar volume to calculate the mass of a gas.
          13. state ideal gas law.
          14. use ideal gas law to calculate pressure, volume, temperature or amount of
          15. use ideal gas law to calculate molar mass or density of a gas.
          16. explain how Gay-Lussac’s Law and Avogadro’s Law apply to volumes of
              gases in chemical reactions.
          17. specify volume ratios using a chemical equation.

Lancaster City Schools       Science Course of Study       Grade 11-12           1/11/05

          18. use volume ratios and gas laws to calculate volumes or masses of gaseous
              reactants or products.
          19. state Graham’s Law of Effusion/Diffusion.
          20. determine relative rates of diffusion of two gases of known molecular
          21. describe motion of particles in liquids according to kinetic theory.
          22. describe phase changes of matter.
          23. explain physical equilibrium and LeChatelier’s Principle.
          24. interpret phase diagrams.
          25. discuss physical properties of water.
          26. calculate heat energy involved in phase changes of water.

       Solutions and Their Behaviors:
       The student will:
          1. distinguish between heterogeneous and homogeneous mixtures.
          2. compare properties of suspensions, colloids, and solutions.
          3. distinguish between electrolytes and nonelectrolytes.
          4. list three factors that affect solubility.
          5. distinguish among saturated, unsaturated, and supersaturated solutions.
          6. explain solution equilibrium.
          7. explain the meaning of “like dissolves like”.
          8. describe enthalpy of solution.
          9. compare effects of temperature and pressure on solubility.
          10. calculate the concentration of a solution and determine the mount of solute
              in a solution.
          11. write products of dissociation for ionic solutes.
          12. predict formation of precipitates from a mixture of soluble ionic
          13. write ionization of molecular compounds.
          14. draw the structure of the hydronium ion.
          15. distinguish between strong and weak electrolytes.
          16. list four colligative properties of solutions.
          17. calculate freezing point depression and boiling point elevation of a
          18. explain the effect of electrolytes on colligative properties.
          19. describe and calculate vapor pressure of solutions using Raoult’s Law.
          20. describe and calculate the osmotic pressure of a solution.
       Acids and Bases:
       The student will:
          1. list five general properties of aqueous acids and bases.
          2. name binary and oxyacids.
          3. define Arrhenius theory of acids and bases.
          4. define Bronsted-Lowry acids and bases.
          5. define and relate conjugate acid and conjugate base.
          6. explain why an amphoteric substance acts as an acid or base.

Lancaster City Schools       Science Course of Study        Grade 11-12          1/11/05

          7. explain the process of neutralization.
          8. define Lewis acids and bases.
          9. describe the self-ionization of water.
          10. define pH.
          11. explain and use the pH scale.
          12. calculate pH, [H+], and [OH-].
          13. describe how an acid-base indicator works.
          14. explain how to carry out a titration.
          15. calculate molarity and molar mass from titration data.
       Chemical Reactions:
       The student will:
          1. define temperature and state units.
          2. define heat and state units.
          3. perform specific heat calculations.
          4. explain heat of reaction, heat of combustion, and enthalpy.
          5. solve problems involving heat of reaction, heat of formation, heat of
              combustion, and enthalpy.
          6. explain enthalpy and entropy and the tendency of a reaction to occur.
          7. discuss free energy.
          8. explain concept of reaction mechanism.
          9. use collision theory to interpret chemical reactions.
          10. define activated complex.
          11. relate Eact to heat of reaction.
          12. define chemical kinetics and factors that influence reaction rate.
          13. define chemical equilibrium.
          14. discuss factors that disturb equilibrium.
          15. explain and perform calculations involving solubility-product constants.
          16. predict whether precipitates will form when aqueous solutions are
          17. assign oxidation numbers to reactant and product species.
          18. define oxidation and reduction.
          19. balance aqueous redox reactions.
          20. explain auto-oxidation.
          21. relate chemical activity to oxidizing and reducing strengths.
          22. explain what is required for an electrochemical cell.
          23. describe nature of voltaic cells and electrolytic cells.
          24. describe chemistry of electroplating and rechargeable cells.
          25. calculate cell potentials from standard electrode potentials.
       Organic and Nuclear Chemistry:
       The student will:
          1. relate carbon’s atomic structure to its ability to form covalent bonds.
          2. identify the different allotropes of carbon.
          3. describe diverse number of carbon compounds.
          4. compare structural and geometric isomers.
          5. write and name structural formulas of alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes.
          6. explain properties of alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes.

Lancaster City Schools       Science Course of Study        Grade 11-12          1/11/05

          7. identify functional groups of organic compounds.
          8. classify and relate properties of organic compounds from their structural
          9. describe and distinguish between the organic reactions of substitution,
              addition, condensation, and elimination.
          10. explain the relationship among and structures between monomers and
          11. relate structures to their properties.
          12. define and relate the terms mass defect and nuclear binding energy.
          13. explain the relationship between nucleon number and stability.
          14. explain why nuclear reactions occur and balance a nuclear equation.
          15. define radioactive decay, half-life, and nuclear radiation.
          16. define and relate decay series, parent nuclide, and daughter nuclide.
          17. explain how artificial nuclides are made.
          18. define and distinguish between roentgen and rem.
          19. describe three devices used in radiation detection.
          20. define nuclear fission, chain reaction, and nuclear fusion, and distinguish
              between them.
          21. explain how a fission reaction is used to generate power.
          22. discuss possible benefits and current difficulty of controlling fusion

Lancaster City Schools       Science Course of Study         Grade 11-12           1/11/05

To top