Bulletin 32 _1961_

G C AFt-:=,.
~.E"                    "

                   UN       liBRARY
                     ,5EP 2"2 1961    .

       ,          UN/SA (;OLLECTIOi~


       for Asia and the Far East

       NO. 32

       84   P.
           Beginning with the present volum~ (No.               32).   the   Transport    and       Communications Bulleiin.
                                                                                                         ..                         of     the
Economic     Commission   for   Asia   and   the   Far   East   (ECAFE).      will   be published     in printed    form.    The   i3ulletin~i
now a semiannual publication. originated in 1950. and serves to disseminate information on transport and com~i!
munication techniques and developments of interest to the region.                    It is prepared by the ECAFE            secretariat with'
 the help o:f special correspondents appointed for this purpose by                   ~ember     and    associate member governments:
'of ECAFE.                                                      .

TRAN SPO!RT        AN D       t

CO'MMUNICATIONS               BULLETIN,,--   .
for Asia and the Far East

NO. 32



          SalesNo.: 61.II.F.2

Price: US$I.00; 7/ stg.; Swissfrancs4.00

    (or equivalent in other currencies)

  I,       ARTICLES

             A,                  Proposed                                                                      Code                                                 on                               a                        Uniform                                                                            System                                                    of                            Road                                    Signs,                                 Signals                                                         and                Pavement                                          Markings.                                               ...

              B,                   Resolution                                                                          196                                               adopted                                                                             by                           the                                         Inland                                                 Transport                                                           Comm~ttee                                                                      of            the               Economic                                           Commission                                              for

           C. D.                 Traffic
                                   Europe,                                                  methods
                                                                                         safety on                           signs                       in'                   of    Washington
                                                                                                                                                                                    and                         highway             signals                                                      administration
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   for                                         level                            crossings                       and                              without
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 highway                                               gates   financing...      ,                     or           with                       half-gates.                                                                     ,..
              F.                 Stabilization
                                   Measu:res'                                                                    to                   ofincrease                    soils                                                 with
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          traffic                                 excessive          capacity                                                           moisture of                         city                             streets
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 content                                            ~                                     ..'.                                                                                                                                                                   ,.
              Railways                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ~
            A.                    The
                                   Railway                    use                                     ofsleepers              brown                                                 in             coal           asbestos                    for                           firing              cement                                    locomotives                                                                          on                 the                        USSR                                                    ra1lways                                                                ,...,                                                    ,.,...
            C.       Waterways    Containers:                                                                                             The                                               ,right                                                  track?                                                         .                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   46

               General            The                         ~se                                       of                     steering                                                                        nozzles                                                           on                                    inland                                           waterway                                                                  vessels                                         of                      the                        USSR.                                                                                               ,                                             48

       ,   A. C.
              B.       NEWS          New
                                      New                OF         use air-riding          THE         and      for                            radar
                                                                                                                                                 REGION'            vehicle-Cushioncraft                  in                        ground                         travel                           surveying.                                                        demonstrated.                                                                                                                ,                                                                                                                                     ,      ,   .,           ",                                     58
                   Railways.                     Burma                               ,                -India                                                                                      -Pakistan                                                                                                               -southern                                                                                   Viet-Nam,             .,          ..,                  ,                                                                                                                   ,             ..,                                           ,

                   Highways.                     Burma                           Pakistan              -China                                                            -Sarawak                              (Taiwan)                                                                           -Thailand -Federation                                                                                          -southern             of               Malaya                                          Viet-Nam -India                                                                    ,                             ,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Japan -Nepal

III.                     NEWS                                 FROM OUTSIDE THE                                                                                                                                                                                         REGION
                     Railways. Africa -Australia
                          South                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 -Canada                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 67

                          Europe -Federal
                     Highways.                                                                                                                                                                                                Republic of Germany -Ghana                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           -Portugal                                                                                                                                                                                            68
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               -Turkey                                                       -United
                                 Kingdom -United           States
                     Waterways               "".."""""'.".""'..'."..                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    71
                          British Guiana. -Italy

IV.                            DOCUMENTATION
                      Highways.                                                                                              ...                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        73
                                                                                                                                                                               ~...                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     73
 V.                       BOOK REVIEWS.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              ";-.                                                                                                                                               78

VI.                        FILMS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        79
     .The     designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion
whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its
authorities. or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers.
                                                         I.   Articles
                Proposed Code on a Uniform System of Road Signs, Signals and
                                  Pavement Markings1
           When mechanically driven vehicles made their             as well as the Convention of 1931 concerning the
     appearance on urban Toads. it became evident that. to          UnifIcation of Road Signals. which was later revised in
     avoid unnecessary interruptions. detentions. congestions       1938 and 1939 by a Committee of Experts appointed
     and accidents. particularly at street intersections. some      by the League Qf Nations for the codification of road law.
     sort of traffic regula,tion was nece&Sary. A few devices       In 'accordance with the above resolution. the United
     for traffic control were introduced. With the growth of        Nations. conference on Toad and motor transport was
     road traffic. particularly in large cities. the situation      cQnvened in Geneva in August/September 1949. The
     became more acute. and was further aggravated by the           draft text of the Inland T ra:nsport Committee of the
     fact that road improvements could not always keep              Economic Commission for Europe. .and the text of the
     pace either with the increase in the volume of traffic or      1943 Convention on the Regulation of Inter-American
     with mechanical developments ln automobiles in power.          Automotive Traffic served as working papers for the
     speed. and size. It thus became imperative to evolve           conference. On the basis of its deliberations. the Con-
      a proper and adequate system of traffic control by signs.     fel'ence. besides-preparing a Convention on Road Traffic.
     signals. road markings and other means for a safe. speedy      prepared and opened for signature a Protocol on Road
     and smooth traffic flow. In the course of the years and        Signs and Signals.
     after intensive studies and analyses of the data available.          The provisions relating to road signs and signals
      a system of tl'affic control was evolved. and road signs      were divided into two parts:
     and signals introduced. Since ,then. there has been a                (i)   general principles. which presumably would be
     continual improvement.                                                     acceptable to all countries included in the
           Road traffic. particularly in large cities. is a                     body of the Convention;
     complex problem. It includes road users. from pedes-                  (ii) detailed provisions. embodying the revised
     trians to drivers of both slow and fast moving vehicles                    system of the 1931 Convention. which were
     with a wide range of performance. and involves men.                        placed in the Protocol on Road Signs and
     women and children-people        of all ages. It operates                  Signals.
      on roads with all kinds of surfaces. grades. widths. align-
                                                                          During this period. two main systems of road signs
     ments and intersections under varying weather conditions.
                                                                    and signals. viz.. the International or European System
     Hence. traffic control. signs and signals and road markings
                                                                    and the American system. were developed in the world
      -so essential for regulation and guiding traffic--,have
                                                                    and a number of countries included portions of both
      been receimg special attention during the last few
                                                                    systems in their national systems. But the 1931 Con-
     decades. From time to time efforts have also been
                                                                    vention had embodied more or less -the international or
     made to standardize all these signs. either on a regional
                                                                    the European system. The question of standardization
     or on a global basis.
                                                                    of -road signs and signals had also been discussed at the
           On 28 August 1948. the Economic and Social               Pan American Highway Congresses in 1929 and again
     Council passed resolution 147 B {VII)       and requested      in 1939. This question was also taken up by the
     the Secretary-General of the United Nations to convene         Inter-American Travel Congress in 1949. and that
     a conference of governments. not later than August 1949.
                                                                    Congress recommended the adoption of a single American
     with the object of agreeing'on ra new world-wide Conven-       system based on the United States Manual on Uniform
     tion on Road and Motor Transport to supersedethe two           Traffic Control Devices. and proposed the preparation
     world-wide Conventions of 1926. namely:                        of a continental convention relating to:-
           (a) Intern'ational Convention rela,ting to Road                 (a) basic traffic regulations. and
               Traffic;                                                    (b) signs or instructions for directing traffic.
           (b) Int~mational Convention 'relating to Motor
                                                                    Such a convention. however. was never prepared. It was
                                                                    not desirable to leave the countries a choice to adopt
        1 Article by M. S. Ahmad.                                   either one of the two entirely different system6. The hope

was therefore expressed during the discussions that an                     As a result of their deliberations. a Code on a
amalgamation of the two systems would be possible.                   Uniform System of Road Signs and Signals. Pavement
Consequently in 1950, in accordance with the Economic                 Markings and Signs for Road Works has been prepared
and Social Council's resolution 272 (X) supplemented                 and has been unanimously recommended by them for
by resolution No.1 0 of the fourth sessionof the Transport            adoption in the ECAFE       region. The recommended
and Communications Commission, the Secretary-General,                Code is now being forwarded to the governments of
in consultation with the Chairman of the Transport and               the ECAFE region with the recommendation that it be
Communications Commission, appointed a group of experts              adopted. If the Code is accepted by the countries of
on road signs and signals who were to devise a unified               the ECAFE      region. as is hoped will be the case.
world-wide system of road signs and signals and to                   there will at least be a uniform system of road signs
prepare a draft Convention embodying such a system.                  and signals and pavement markings and signs for road
                                                                     works. The re5ulting uniformity in this region will no
     As a result of its deliberations and field inspections,
                                                                     doubt greatly facilitate international road traffic and
the group of experts submitted a draft Convention on a
                                                                     increased safety on roads. The Code is reproduced
Uniform Sy&tem of Road Signs and Signals. The
Convention, however, was not universally accepted.
                                                                     CODE ON A UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ROAD
     The subject of road signs, signals and markings was
                                                                            SIGNS AND SIGNALS, PAVEMENT
taken up for discussion at the ECAFE         Seminar on
                                                                               MARKINGS  AND SIGNS FOR
Engineering and Traffic Aspects of Highway Safety in
                                                                                  ROAD WORKS IN THE
 1957, and certain recommendations were made.
                                                                                            ECAFE REGION
       The Expert Working Groups on International                                 PART I -GENERAL                   PROVISIONS
 Highways, at their first series of zonal meetings in
                                                                                            .A rticle I
 November/December '1959, felt that it was essential to                   Each adopting State shall take appropriate measures
 work out a uniform system of road signs and signals
                                                                     to ensure the application of the system of road signs
designed to ensure safety and a smooth flow of traffic
                                                                     and signals and pavement markings described in this
 over the international highway network. They also felt
                                                                     Code. as soon as practicable. and gradually if necessary.
 that, as a number of countries in Asia and the Far East
had not as yet well-developed systems of road signs and                                     Article 2
 signals, these countries could more easily adopt a system                 When this Code comes into force, the adopting
acceptable to the countries of the region as a whole. They           States shall. in accordance with Article 1 hereof. and
 felt, moreover, that unless some measure of uniformity was          as a matter       of urgency take measures to replace                 or to
agreed upon now. the task of unification would become                supplement in order to avoid confusion any signs,
 increasingly difficult if systems in different countries were       signals. or markings which. although they have the
allowed to develop on divergent lines. The Expert                    distinguishing features of those belonging to the system
Working Groulps on International Highways, therefore.                provided in this Code. are used with different meanings.
 at the second series of their zonal meetings in June/July                                     Article 3
  1960, took up the question of road signs, signals and                    I.     It shall be prohibited to add or display on
 markings, and signs for road works. As a basis for                  any   sign   or   other   traffic   control     device     anything     not
discussion. the Experts Working Groups had before                    rela,ted to the purpose of such sign or device.
them the .Protocol on Road Signs and Signals (1949),                      2. Any boards. notices and installations which
the draft Convention on a Uniform System 'of Road
                                                                     might be confused with the signs or other traffic control
Signs and Signals (1952)          and the recommendations            devices or make them more difficult to understand shall
concerning Road Signs and Signals of the ECAFE                       be prohibited.
Seminar on Engineering and Traffic Aspects of Highway
                                                                                        PART II      -ROAD          SIGNS
Safety (1957).        The Experts Working Groups realized
at the outset that. in order to overcome the problem                 Chapter I -        General
of diversity of languages in the ECAFE region. the                                                Article     4
adoI?tion of the use of symbols as far as possible                         This  system of road             signs   shall     comprise     three
would be advantageous. They also felt that, in order                 classes of signs, namely:
to reduce expense in changing the existing signs and                       (a)    warning signs
signals, alternative solutions would have to be permitted.                 (b)     regulatory signs
The groups further recommended that the traffic signs                      (c)    informative signs                                           o-c
should be divided into three categories according to
                                                                          Warning signs are intended to warn the road user
the message they would require to convey:
                                                                     of the existence and nature of danger of the road.

      (a)   wamilllg   sigll1s.                                             Regulatory signs are intended to inform road user
                                                                     of    certain    limitations. prohibitions and restrictions
      (b)   regulatory    signs. and
                                                                     governing the use of the road, violation       of which
      (c)   informative    signs.                                    constitutes a statutory offence.

      Informative signs are intended to guide the road           should subsequently aim at the adoption of warning
 user in the course of his travel and give him such other        signs in the shape of one of the three alternatives as
 information as may be of interest or use to him.                soon as possible.
                          Article   5                                                   Article   10
     1.Where       adopting States consider it necessary              1.The      dimensions of sign plates shall be such
to modify the symbols prescribed in this Code. these             that the sign can be readily discernible and
modifications shall be such as not to alter the essential        understandable.
character of the symbols.                                             2.   For warning signs the standard size shall be:
     2. For the purpose of facilitating the interpreta-               (a) for signs having the shape of a triangle. the
ion of the symbols additional information may be given                     length of each side of the triangle 90 cm
on a rectangular plate below the sign.                                     (36 in)
     3.   In order to educate road users in the use of                (b) for signs having the shape of a diamond. the
the uniform signs prescribed by this Code. these signs                     length of the side 60 cm (24 in)
may be supplemented during the initiation period by the                (c) for signs having the shape of a triangle
signs ,previously used in the country concerned.                            surmounting a rectangle or diamond the
      4. Additions to the lists of symbols for signs                        length of each side of the triangle or diamond
shown in the Table of Symbols for Warning Signs of                          and the height of the rectangle 60 cm
Article 13. and additions to the list of symbols for                         (24 in).
signs shown in the Table of Symbols for Regulatory                    Reduction of the standard size shall be permissible
Signs of Article 20 may be proposed in accordance                only in built-up areas if use of the standard size should
with the adopted procedure.                                      be impracticable.
      S. Additional     symbols for   signs of    local               The siz~ may be increased above the standard
importance created by adopting States, to serve local            size as required.
needs. shall be communicated to the Executive Secretary
 of the United Nations. ECAFE.                                                          Article II
,.                                                                     The competent authorities of the countries concerned
                          Article 6
                                                                shall determine the distances in advance of danger points
       The colours of the signs shall be those prescribed       at which warning signs shall be placed so as to
 in this Code.                                                  ensure. both by day and by night. the best possible
                          Article 7                             efficiency of these signs. taking into account the particular
       Reflecting devices, reflectorization or illuminationused conditions of the road and of the traffic. provided that
        on signs should not dazzle the road user nor            such distances shall not be less than 90 m (300 ft) or
 impair the legibility of the symbol or inscription and the     more than 200 m (656 h) unlessthe conditions prevailing
                                                                 so demand.
 sign should retain the same essential characteristics by
 night as obtained by day.Chapter                                                       Article   /2
                                                                        1.Warning    signs shall be placed facing the
         -II   -Warning     Signs
                                                                 traffic and on the same side of the carriageway as used
                          Article   8                            by the traffic concerned. Under special circumstances
     Warning signs shall have a white or yellow                  the signs may be placed or repeated on the opposite side
 background with red borders; symbols shall ~ black              of the carriageway.
 or dark colour.
                                                                      2. Warning      signs shall be placed at an
                          Article   9                            appropriate distance from the edge of the carriageway.
       Warning signs shall have one of the following               3. In this Code the height of signs above the
 shapes: (1)      an eq,uilateral triangle with one point    ground shall mean the height of the lower edge of
 upwards, (2) a diamond consisting of a square with          the signs from the level of the crown ~f the road.
 one diagonal vertical or (3) an equilateral triangle              As far as possible a uniform height shall be
 with a point upwards surmounting a rectangle or adiamond.   observed particularly over the same route.
              No shape other than one of these three shall
 be used on signs of this class by the parties to this             The height of warning signs shall be not more than
                                                             2.40 m (8 ft) nor, except in built-u,p areas or where
                                                             other special circumstances demand otherwiSf, less than
       Recommendation: In view of the importance of          0.60 m (2 ft).
 arriving at uniformity of all elements of the insignia of
 danger, it is recommended that the retention of three                              Article /3
 alternative shapes for warning signs be regarded as               The adopting States shall accept the symbols
 transitional for a country where more than one alternative  listed in the following table for the indicated signs.
 is being followed and that the authorities in all countries The signs containing these symbols may. where necessary

      for the education of road users, be accompanied by                                                     Article        /4
      plates bearing inscriptions.                                                        Where automatic signals with flashing lights are
                                                                                   installed at level~crossingsthey shall give warning of the
                   Table of Symbols for        Warning      Signsl
                                                                                   approaching train by two alternately flashing red lights.
           (' ) " 0                C       "      "0                 C   "
             J        angerous urve or       angerous urves,                            Recommendation: It is recommended that the
                   This series of signs may be completed by                        two flashing lights be placed on a horizontal line 0.60 Dl
                   each of the adopring States by the addition                     to 0.90 m (2 ft to 3 ft) apart.
                   of symbols which are illustrative of other
                   types of curves.                                                                              Article    /5
            (ii)    "Road     intersection of equal import'ance",                       1. When barriers to traffic are used in connexion
          (iii)    "Intersection between a Major and a Minor                       with road works. such barriers shall be of a colour or
                   Road".      When this sign is placed on the                     colours suitably contrasting with the surrounding and
                                                                                   where necessary reflectorized or illuminated.
                   minor road a "Stop" sign may also be placed
                   on the minor road at the junction,                                   2. Warning      signs indicating hazards of a
          (iv)      "Uneven Road".      Each adopting State may                    temporary nature shall be devised in accordance with
                                                                                   the design standards of the warning signs.
                    elect to substitute for the above sign, signs
                    giving a clearer indication of the type of                     Chapter   III   -Regulatory         Signs
                    danger. These alternative signs are:
                                                                                        A. Stop Sign
                   .' (a) -"Bump"       (sharp rise in the profile
                           of the road)                                                                          Article    /6
                    (b)    -"Dip"        (sharp     depression in        the             I. The stop sign shall be round in shape. The
                           profile of the road)                          .
                                                                                   colour of the ground shall be white, light yellow or'
                    (c)    -"Rough         Road"     (a succession of              yellow with red border. The English word 'STOP'
                           irregulariries in -the profile of the road),            and its equivalent in the language of the country if
                                                                                   desired by the adopting state shall be inscribed in red
            (v)     "Dang~rous Hill".     On signs "Dangerous
                   Descent" the silhouette of an automobile will
                   be shown facing downwards on the hypotenuse,                                             Article 17
                   which will be inclined from the upper left                           1. ; The      stop sign shall be placed facing the
                   to the lower right.    On Signs "Dangerous                      traffic and on the same side of the carriageway as that
                   Ascent" the silhouette of an automobile will                    used by the traffic concerned. It may be repeated on
                   be shown facing upwards on the hypotenuse,                      the other side of the carriageway.
                   which will be inclined from the lower left
                                                                                          2. The signs shall be placed in the immediate
                   to the upper right,
                                                                                   vicinity of the point where the vehicle is required to
           (vi)     "Road N'al'rows"                                               stop.
          (vii)     "Narrow      Bridge"                                                  B. Other Signs
         (viii)     "Opening Bridge"
                                                                                                                  Article    /8
          (ix)      "Road Works"
                                                                                        I.   Regulatory signs shall be round in shape with
            (x)     "Slippery    Road"
                                                                                   a white, light yellow or yellow background with red
           (xi)     "Pedestrian Crossing"                                          borders and symbols black or of dark colour.
          (xii)     "Children"                                                         2. The uniform symbols for signs listed in this
         (xiii)     "Beware of Animals"                                            Code shall be shown on the disc.
         (xiv)      "Low     Clearance"                                                  3. An oblique bar drawn from the upper left
          (xv)      "Narrow      Clearance"                                        quadrant of the ring to the lower right quadrant at an
                                                                                   angle of 450 with the horizontal, shall indicate
          (xvi)     "Level-Crossing    unguarded".     When     this               prohibition. Signs indicating limitation or compulsion
                    sign is placed, a 'stop' sign shall at the same                shall be without such an oblique bar. The obliqlle
                    time be placed.                                                bar may be drawn from right to left on signs used in
         (xvii) "Level-Crossing guarded by gates"                                  countries where the left hand traffic rule applies.
        (xviii) "Road Div~rsion"
                                                                                        4. Where the end of regulation or prohibition is
         (xix)      "Rule of Road" This sign showing the left                      to be indicated by a de-restriction sign, the sign shall
                    hand d'rive or righ-t hand drive is to be                      take the form of the general insignia of regulatory signs
                    exhibited at each country frontier,                            accompanied by a suitable inscription. The border of
                                                                                   the disc and the inclined bar, where prescribed, should
                   list of symbols is included in table I                          be red in colour.


                            Article /9                                        ChapterIV -                Informative Signs
     For regulatory signs the standard diameter of the                                                         Article 22
disc shall be                                                                      1.        Infort:native       signs     ihall     be   subdivided     as
      (a) 40 cm (16 in) in cities of built-up areas, or                       follows:
           60 cm (24 in) in rural areas;
                                                                                      (a) Advance direction signs
      (b) the height above road surface shall not be
           more than 2.40 m (8 ft) and not less than                                  (b)    Direction signs
           0.60 m (2 ft).                                                             (c) Route markers
                            Article 20                  .                             (d) Signs giving ~eneral information.
      The symbols listed in the following table shall be                           2. Informative signs shall be rectangular in shape
accepted b,y the adopting States as the symbols for the                       with white background and black lettering.
indicated signs. The list of symbols set out below may                             A.        Advance Direction Signs
progressively be added to il1. accordance with the adopted
                                                                                                                Article    23
                                                                                   The advance direction signs ihall                      be rectangular
        Table of Symbols for Regulatory Signsl
                                                                              in shape.
       (i)   "Direction    Prohibited"
                                                                                   L.        Direction Signs
      (ii)   "Turning    to     the      Righ,t   (or       the   Left)
                                                                                                                Article 24
                                                                                    Direction signs shall be rectangular with the longer
     (iii)   "About-Turn       (V-turn)     Prohibited"
                                                                              side horizontal and shall bear an arrow or arrows, or
     (iv)    "Overtaking     Prohibited"                                      shall be rectangular, with the longer side horizontal.
      (v)    "No Entry for Vehicles having an over-all                        with one side terminating in the form of an arrow head.
             width exceeding            metres (feet)"                             ,C.       Route Markers
     (vi)    "No &,try for Vehicles having an over-all                                                           Article 25
             ,height exceeding   ,    .metres (feet)"
                                                                                   Route markers shall bear numbers or letters or a
    (vii)    "No Entry for Vehicles exceeding                     .tons       combination of numbers and letters. These signs shall
             laden weight"                                                    be rectangular in shape.
    (viii)   "Speed limit"                                                            D.     Signs giving General Information
      (ix)   "Direction to be followed"                                                                         , Article 26
      (x)    "Signs to indicate restricted or prohibited                           I.   Signs giving                general        information   shall   be
             parking"                                                         rectangular in shape.
              (a) Restricted Parking
                                                                                    2. Signs indicating a locality or other geographic
                   The sign shall be accompanied by an
                                                                              feature shall be of the same cQlour combination as the
                   indication of the limitations or restrictions
                                                                              direction signs.
              (b) Parking Prohibited                                                       PART    III    -.'     ~             r
                                                                                                                 TRAFFIC        LIGHT     SIGNALS
                   The sign may be accompanied by an                                                             Article    27
                   indication relative to the duration of the
                                                                                      1.      A three coloured light sigJlal system shall be
                                                                              used.        It will have the following meaning:
      (xi)   "No Entry for Goods Carrying Vehicles"
                                                                                  Red -indicates    that vehicular traffic must not pass
    (xii)    "No     Entry for Motor Vehicles"
                                                                              beyond the prescribed point;
    (xiii)   "No     Entry for Bicycles"                                            Green -indicates                that vehicular traffic may pass
    (xiv)    "Horn     Blowing Prohibited"                                    the signal;
                             Article 2/                                             Amber -shall      be used only after the green signal.
       1. Regulatory signs shall be placed facing the                         It indicates that the vehicle shall not proceed beyond the
traffic and on the same side of the carriageway as that                       signal unless it is so close to the signal whea the amber
used by the traffic concerned. They may be repeated                           signal first appears that it cannot safely be stopped before
on the opposite side of the carriageway.                                      passing the si'gnal.
     2. The signs shall be placed a.t the point where                                 2.     (a) When'a    single amber flickering light is
the prohibition starts and if necessary at further points                                        used, it shall indicate "Proceed with
where the regulation continues. Nevertheless, signs                                              caution".
prohibiting turning or showing the direction to be followed                                  (b)    When single red intermittent light is used,
may be placed at a suitable distance in advance.                                                    it. shall indicate "Stop, then proceed with
    1 The list of symbols is included in table 2.                                                   caution".

      3. The lights on traffic light signals shall always                                   Article    30
be arranged vertically except where used for special                       (a)   Transverse markings shall consist of a
purposes or where the clearance is limited. The red                  continuous or a broken line. Types of such markings
light shall be placed at the top, the amber light in the             are given in Sectioo A of this Code.
middle and the green light at the bottom.
                                                                            (b)   Where a continuous line is used across one
     4. When traffic light signals are placed on or                  or more of the approach lanes of an intersection. it
at the side of the carriageway, the height of the lower              indicates that line behind which drivers should stop when
edge of the lowest light above the carriageway shall                 complying with a STOP or HALT           sign, an indication
nonnally be not less than 2 m (6 ft 6 in) and not more               given by a traffic signal or a police officer. or any other
than 3.50 m (11 ft 6 in).        When those signals are              traffic regulation.
suspended over the carriageway the lower edge of the
                                                                                            Article    3/
lowest light should be placed as low as possible consistent
with the height of vehicles operating on the road.                         (a)    Other markings, such as arrows painted on
                                                                     the travelled way, oblique parallel lines or words painted
       5. More than one signal face may be used to
                                                                     on the travelled way, may be used to supplement other
ensure so that at least one signal face may be clearly
                                                                     signs or to give appropriate indication or guidance to
visible to traffic approaching from each direction. The
casing of traffic light signals should be painted in black           road users.
or a dark neutral colour.                                                   (b)   Recommended types of such markings are
                                                                      given in Section A of this Code.
             PART IV   -PAVEMENT          MARKINGS
                          Article    28                                                      Article   32
       (a)   Pavement markings are markings indicated                      Markings on ancillary works of the roadway,
by lines, studs, or in any other manfter, on the su'rface            notably kerbs and shoulders, may be .used to improve
of the travelled way or on its ancillary works, such as              the visibility, especially at night, of the kerbs or of
kerbs, foot-paths and shoulders, for the control, warning,           obstacles in the roadway. They may also be utilized to
guidance or infonnation of road users.                               indicate areas where waiting is forbidden, bus-stops, or
                                                                     to give other similar indications.
       (b)   Pavement markings on the surface of the
travelled way are called "surface markings" and shall                                        Article 33
be classified as follows:                                                  (a)    E.ach adopting State shall keep the same
                                                                     colour or combination of colour for all road markings
      (i)     longitudinal markings:
                                                                     having the same meaning.
      (ii)    transverse markings;
                                                                           (b)    Road surface markings shall be yellow
      (iii) other markings.                                          and/ or white, the latter including shades of silver and
      Types of marking at present included           in   each       light grey. When both colours are used, one colour
 category are given in section A of this Code.                       must be reserved for markings other than border lines,
                           Article   29                              intended to control or guide moving vehicular traffic, and
                                                                     the othe"'rcolour must be reserved for pedestrian and cycle
       (a)   Longitudinal    markings shall consist of
                                                                     crossings, border lines and markings indicating existing
continuous lines or broken lines.
                                                                     parking or waiting regulations.
       (b)   When a longitudinal marking consists of a
continuous line, it restricts traffic to the extent: that no                                  Article 34
vehicle shou.Id cross or straddle such a line. Conditions                   Each adopting State shall establish standards
for its use are given in Section A of this Code.                     ( visibility, slipperiness, maximum height above the
       (c.) When a longitudinal marking consists of a                surface), to which the materials used for roadway
broken line, vehicles are allowed to cross it, provided              markings shall conform.
that this can be done with safety. These marking~                                            Article    35
serve as a guide to drivers and to facilitate the movement                 The adopting countries shall endeavour to apply,
of traffic in lanes. Conditions for their use are given ilJ           at the time of the placing or the renewal of the road
Section A of this Code.                                               markings on their roadways, the recommendations
       (d)   A continuous line may be used adjacent to                contained in Section A of this Code.
a broken line. If so used, in countries where traffic
                                                                           SECTION A. DETAILED SPECIFICATIONSFOR
moves,to the right (left) a vehicle should not cross the
                                                                             .UNIFORM   PAVEMENT MARKINGS
continuous line adjacent to and to the right (left) of a
 brolcen line on the left (right) of the lane in which it                                    1. Function
is moving. A vehicle may. however. cross the continuous                      Road surface markings are generally    used to show
line if that line. at the left (right) of the lane in which           the limits of the travelled way and the        parts of the
the vehicle is moving is to the left (right) of, and                  travelled way reserved for the different       directions of
 adjacent to, a broken line.                                          traffic or for certain types of road users,   or to indicate

to the motorist where and how he should drive. They                          The distance between two successive stripes
are sometimes used with other traffic control devices in                     should not be less than the length of one stripe
order to reinforce or make more specific the indication                      nor more than 10 metres.
given by such devices.                                                              Where traffic is slow. the size and
                                                                             spacing of the stripes should be less than
             2.    Type of pave~ent markings                                 those in open country. They may be as
    The types included in the three categories of                            little as 1 m (40 in) long but the gap should
pavement markings consist of:                                                then not exceed 5 m (16 ft).
     (a)   Longitudinal markings, indicating: centre lines,                         On main urban arteries with fast-moving
           border lines, lane lines, restricted overtaking,                  traffic. however. the features or longitudinal
           change in width of the travelled way, or                          markings should be the same as in rural areas.
           approach to obstacles.                                   (ii)     Marking traffic lanes
     (b) Transverse markings, indicating: stop lines,                               If traffic lanes on either a 'two-way or
         pedestrian crossing or cyclist crossings.                           a one-way road are to be indicated. this should
                                                                             be done by means of broken lines.
     (c)   Other markings (arrows, oblique parallel lines,
           words, etc.), used to give further indications                    Open country
                                                                                    It is recommended that. on two-way
           to road users.
                                                                             roads with two lanes. the centre of the road~
              3.       General recommendations                               way should be indicated by a longitudinal
      Pavement markings may !be either painted or                            marking when the traffic volume is large or
indicated by some equally or more effective means.                           when fog is prevalent or in special cases. The
Materials used for this purpose should not be slippery.                      road marking for this situation is normally a
Any material adopted for use. should be given a                              broken line. Only in special circumstances
 reasonably long trial on the 'road before final adoption.                   and under the conditi~ns specified below.
                                                                             should continuous lines be used.
      Studs or other similar devices at present in use
                                                                                    The lanes of three-,laneroads. on sections
are not generally suitable for making continuous lines.
                                                                              of normal visibility. should be indicated by
When used for broken lines or to supplement other
                                                                             broken lines.
road markings, they should not, in relation to the level
                                                                                     Marking of lanes on a multiple~lane
 of the roadway, project more than 1.5 cm or more
                                                                              roadway is recommended.
than 2.5 cm in the case of studs incorpo!"ating
                                                                              Built-up areas
                                                                                     Marking of traffic lanes is recommended
                         4.   Reflectors                                      on roads carrying at .least two lines of traffic
      The use of reflector material or reflector devices                      in each direction. and on one~way streets
 or road markings serves to render them more visible by                       carrying at least two lines of traffic.
 night on unlighted roads. Their use is therefore                                    At the approaches to major intersections
 recommended on such roads.                                                    (especially controlled intersections) where
                                                                              sufficient width is available for two or more
                  5.    Detailed specific~tions1
                                                                              lines of vehicles. it is recommended that traffic
 (a) Longitudinal markings:                                                   lanes should be marked as shown in figure 17.
       (i) Dimensions                                                          In such cases. the land lines may be supple-
                  The width of lines for longitudinal mark.                   mented by arrow m1l.rkings (se6 section (c)
            ings, whether continuous or broken lines, should                   below) .
            be at least 10 cm (4 in) and should not                                   It may also be desirable to mark traffic
            normally exceed 15 cm (6 in).                                     lanes at points where the width of roadway
                  When a continuous line is used alongside                    is reduced ,by kerbs or island,.
            a broken line or another continuous line, the            (iii)    Markings at particular locations.. use of con~
            distance between the lines shou'ld not be greater                 tinuous lines
            than 15 cm (6 in) nor less than 10 cm                                   In order to improve the flow of traffic.
             (4 in).                                                          it may be advisable at some intersections to
                  The broken lines consist of alternate                       replace the broken centre lines by a continuous
            stripes and gaps, each of uniform length. The                     line. or supplement them in this manner (as
            speed of vehicles on the section of road or in                    shown in figures 14. 15 and 16).
  -the            area concerned should be taken into                               Measures restricting overtaking are desir~
             account when choosing these lengths.                             able on two-way roads at places where sight
                   In normal traffic conditions in rural                      distance is restricted (hump-backed bridge.
             areas, the broken line should be divided into                    bend in the road. etc.) or where the travelled
 -          stripe.sof between 2 and 10 m (6.5 to 32 ft).
     t Graphic representationis shown in table 3.
                                                                               way becomesnarrow. or because of some other

                     These restrictions should be imposed on                                    distance of at least 50 m (165 ft), and preS
               sections where the sight distance is less than                                   ferably 75 m (247 ft).
                a certain minimum (M). by means of a con-                                (io)   Use of double continuous line
               tinuous line used in accordance with the                                              On wide roads, a single continuous line
               figures indicated belowa. The value to be                                        may be replaced by a double continuous line.
               adopted for M varies with road conditions.                                       in order to improve its visibility.
               Figures 2 and 3 show. for a two-lane and
               three-lane road respectively. the design of the                            (0)   Conditions for use of continuous (barrier) lines
               lines at a summit with restricted sight distance.                                      The distance and circumstances which
               These figures correspond to the profile shown                                     allow the driver of a vehicle safely to overtake
               in figures 1. where M represents the length                                      the vehicle in front depend on several factors.
               defined above. A (or D) is the point where                                        but mainly on the relative speed of the two
               the sight distance becomes less than M. while                                     vehicles, the speed at which oncoming vehicles
               C (or B) is again more than Mh.                                                  are approaching and the volume of traffic.
                                                                                                       If the longest overtaking distance is used
                     Where the section AB and CD overlap
                                                                                                as a basis for marking barrier lines (that is.
               (figure 4). that is. when forward visibility in
                                                                                                corresponding to overtaking in the most un.
               both directions occurs before reaching the top
                                                                                                favourable circumstances). the lines which are
               of the summit. the lines are arranged in the
                                                                                                then'marked are a guarantee of safety. pro-
               same way. but the continuous barrier lines
                                                                                                vided all drivers observe them. However.
               alongside the broken centre line do not overlap.
                                                                                                they greatly restrict the use of the travelled
               This is shown in figures 5 and 6.
                                                                                                way. for the most unfavourable circumstances
                      Figure 7 shows the design of the lines.                                   do not occur frequently. Indeed. lines de-
               on the same hypothesis. on a curve with res-                                     termined on this basis might well prove more
               tricted sight distance of a two-lane road. On                                     harmful than useful. if they encourage im-
               three-lane roads two methods are possible..                                       patient drivers to cross a barrier line whatever
               Those are shown in figures 3 and 3a. Figure                                      the situation. If. on the other hand. there
               3 should be used where there is a $ubstantial                                    is no barrier line on a section where visibility
               proportion of two-wheeled vehicles and figure                                    is not sufficient for overtaking, the driver is
               3a when traffic is mainly four-wheeled.                                          free to decide for himself whether he can or
                     In figures 3. 3a. 6 and 6a. the angle of                                    cannot overtake safely. a decision he may not
               the oblique transition lines in relation to the                                  always be able or willing to make.
               centre line of the road must be less than 1: 1O.                                        For these reasons the choice of sight
               and preferably 1:20.      In figures 8. 9. 10                                    distance to be used in determining the
               and lOa. which illustrate the methods to be                                       desirability or otherwise of marking a con.
               used to indicate the changes in the width of                                     tinuous barrier line. and also in determining
               the roadway. this angle should be between.                                       the desired length of the line of necessity
                1:20 and 1:40.       In addition. the oblique                                   involves a compromise. The following figures
               continuous line parallel to the centre of the                                     show the recommended range of values of M
               roadway. the length of whi~h corresponds to                                      for various speed of approach:c
               the distance travelled in one second, at the                                          Approach speed          Range 01 IIalues /0' M
                                                                                                       (per hou,)        Minimum                Maximum
                                                                                                 Kilomet,es   Mile,   Met,e,     Feet     Met,e,       Feet
               operating speed adopted.
                                                                                                    100       60      250       BOO        450        1,500
                     When it is unnecessary mark the lanes                                           80       50      160       530        300        1,000
               by broken lines on a normal section of road.                                          65       40      110       365        180         600
               the broken centre line should precede the                                             50       30       60       200        150         500
               continuous lines which accompany it. over a                               (vi) Border lines marking the edge of the traoelled
       a The definition of sight distance used in these detailed specifica-                     way
 tions for lhtiform     Pavement Markings is the -distance at which                                    Border lines marking the edge of the
 an object placed on the roadway at 1".2 m (4 ft) above the road                                travelled way are especially useful when there
 way can be seen by an observer on the road, whose eye is also 1.2 m                            are no raised kerbs. The marking may be
above the roadway.
       b On narrow roads with little traffic, where the layout shown in                         a broken line or a different pattern from that
 figures 2 and 3 might reduce the width of the traffic lanes, figure 2                          used for lane markings, or a continuous line
 could be changed between A and D by a single continuous centre                                 of a different width or colour from that used
line. without a broken centre line alongside, preceded by a broken
 centre line divided into at least three parts. This would certainly
                                                                                                for barrier lines. Studs. buttons or reflectors
 be less expensive and last longer than method I. Nevertheless this                             may be used in conjunction with the line. or
 simplified plan should be used with care and only in exceptional cases,                        as a alternative.
 since it prevents the driver from overtaking over a certain distance
 even though there is adequate sight distance. Wherever possible,                      c The approach speed which should be used in this calculation
 it is essential to avoid using both methods qn the same route or in              is the speed below which 85 per cent of the vehicles travel. or the
 the same region, as this may lead to confusion.                                  design speed if it is higher.

    (vii)    Marking    obstacles                                                   should consistof stripes of 50 cm (20 in)
                  Figures t t. 12 and 13 show the- lines                            long and at least 15 cm (6 in) wide. The
             to be used near an island or some other
                                                                                    gaps should be 20 cm (8 in) long. The
                                                                                    spacebetweentwo broken lines should be at
             obstacle on the travelled way.
                                                                                     least 2.5 m (8 ft) wide. When studs or
   (viii) Guide lines for turning vehicles                                          buttonsare used to mark pedestriancrossings.
                                                                                    they should be between40 and 60 cm (16
                    At some intersections it is desirable to
                                                                                    to 24 in) apart.
             show drivers how to turn left (right). Figure
             19 is a suggestion for these guides. which                     (iv) Cycli3t crossings
             should be broken lines; they may be supple.                               Zebra markings are also recommended
             mented by arrows.        Because of the great                       for cyclist crossings but these should be
             variety of layouts at intersections. it is very
                                                                                 distinguished from pedestrian crossings by
             difficult to standardize such markings.                             stripes of a different width from those for
                                                                                 pedestrian crossings.
(b) Transversemarkings:
                                                                                       Cyclist crossings may also be indicated
       (i) General                                                               by studs. buttons or broken lines of a different
                  Owing to the angle at which a driver sees                      pattern from those used for pedestriancrossings.
             markings on a road surface. transversemarkings                      Studs a'Iid buttons are not recommended how~
             have to be wider than longtitudinal ones if the                     ever. The width of the crossings should be
             same visibility is to be obtained.                                     not less than 2.5 m (8ft 4 in).

      (ii) .Stop lines                                                ( c) Other l1}arkings
                   The minimum width of a stop line
                                                                              (i) Arrow markings
             should be 20 cm (8 in) and the maximum
                                                                                        On roads where sufficient traffic lanes
             50 cm (20 in).      A width of 30 cm (12 in)
                                                                                  are available to segregate traffic approaching
             is rec;:ommended.
                                                                                  an intersection, the lilnes which traffic should
                   When used with a STOP sign, the stop                           use may be indicated by arrow markings
             line should be placed in such a position that                        applied on the road surface (see £gures 17 and
             a driver who stops immediately behind the                             18) .They    may also be used on a one-way
             line has the best possible view of traffic on                        road to confirm the direction of travel.
             the other arms of the intersection. consistent
                                                                                         Arrow markings should not be longer
              with the requirements of other vehicular and
                                                                                    than 5 m (16 ft).    They may be supple-
              pedestrian traffic. The indication given by
              the STOP sign and the line may be supple-                             mented by word markings.
              mented by--marking the word STOP             or                (ii)   Oblique parallel markings (see figure 21)
              HALT      on the travelled way (see section C,                              Such markings may be used to delineate
              below).                                                               areas of the road surface, or areas raised
                    Stop lines may be supplemented by con-                          slightly above the road surface, which vehicles
              tinuous longitudinal lines marking the traffic                        should not enter. They are especially useful
              lanes (see figure 20).                                                at the approaches to obstacles in the travelled
                                                                                    way, such as islands.
     (iii)   Pedestrian crossings
                                                                            (iii)   Word markings
                     Zebra markings are visible from a greater
              distance than other forms of road marking                                   Word markings on the road surface may
              and are therefore, especially useful for                              be used for the purpose of guiding, warning
              delineating the position of pedestrian crossings,                     or regulating traffic. The words used should
              The space between the stripes should be equal                         preferably be place names, route numbers or
              to the width of the stri~s and should be                              words which are easily understood inter-
              between 50 and 60 cm (20 to 24 in).         The                       nationally such as "stop", "bus" and "taxi".
              &tri~s should be parallel to the direction of                         The letters should be greatly elongated in the
              traffic. The minimum width y.'hich is recom-                          direction of tr~ffic movement because of the
              mended for a pedestrian crossing is 2.5 m                              low angle at which they are" viewed by
               (8 ft 4 in).                                                         approaching drivers. A method of achieving
                      Pedestrian crossings may also be indi-                        this is illustrated in figure 22.
              cated by studs, buttons or broken lines. Studs                              Where traffic speeds are greater than 50
              and buttons are not recommended, however,                              km per hour (30 mi per hour), lettering
               Broken lines marking pedestrian crossings                             should be at least 2.5 m (8 ft) i~ height.

                            TABLE            OF   SYMBOLS               FOR WARNING                               SIGNS                  Table            1


      ~~            (a)                (b)                                         'Cd)


 (i      i)         (a)                Cb)                                   Cc)
                                                                                                  TY             Cd)                          (e)

 (iii)        Ca)                      Cb)          Cc)                                   Cd)                          (e)                      Cf)

 IIIIII~I._I~. 11111111111.1 ~                                               ~ ~ ~..                                                     ..

 (iv)         (a)                      C,)                   (c)                                C~)              Cv)         (a)                          Cb)

                                  ) ('~~'..                                                       ..fa                              ~
 (vi)                     (vi     i)                  (vi      i i)                              (ix)                              Cx)

                          :tt                             ~                                     1~                     ,., ~3m~

 (xi)                     (Xii)                       (~ii         i)                             (xiv)                            C~)

       TABLE OF SYMBOLS FOR WARNING         SIGNS (Cont'd)              Table   1
-c-                                                  -.


                        ::tat                                                       .

      (xvi)             (xvii)                DIVE,QSION
         Keep ~rGHT       J(S£PRIGHT        KEEP LeFT
              I                J
                                 ..             I
                                 .I.                      .
       (JC;x)    (a)'            .(b)                     I       Cc)

                      TABLE   OF SYMBOLS       FOR    REGULATORY      SIGNS            Table   2



       ~ @,@~ ~
     Ci)             (ii)             (iii)                  (iv)             (v)

       ~1i'O'\                                                   Olj;'\
           ~~~:~;~~~~;~S~:#~'                                    Q                  ~
    (vi)             (vii)            (viii)                 (j~)              (x)                 Ca)

              ~C&)   (xi)              (xii)                (xiii)'           (xi,,)

                                                                                                                                                                     Tab.ie 3

                                                                             I                     1
                                                                            ,                      1
                                                                             I                     I
                                                                             I                    ,
                                                                            :                     I
                                                                                I                 I
                                                                            1                     ,,/
                                                                                I                 t
                                                                                I                 I                                            I
                                                                                1                 I                                            t
                                            .I,                                                                                               ,
                  Fig. I.             Profile of sight distance                 I                 ~                                           '
                                            I                               :                         I                                       I
                                            I                                I                        I                                       '
                                            t                                I                                                                I
                                            I                                I                        t
                                            I                                I                        t                                        I
                                           ,                                 I                        I                                        I
-~-:                                        &                               ,~~
                                                                            r                     II                                           I
                                                                                                                                               .-~-~~                               ~
                                            1                                   I                     I                                       I
                                            I                                   1                     I                                        t
         ---!_-                             ,---                                ;- .~~ --~
                                                                                I                          ---I                               ,
                                            I                                   I                     I                                        I
 --,--                                      1---:                                                 !                                            :--
                                            I                                   .I                                                             I
                  Fig. 2.                   I                                   I,
                                            I                                   I                                                             I
                                            I                                   I                     I                                        I
                                            I                                   I                     I
..I                                                                             I                      t                                          I
                                            I                                   I                     I                                           I
                                            I                                   I                     1                                           ~~
                                            1                                   I
                                                                                I                 ,.I
                                            1                                   I                  I                                              I
                                                                ~~              :_~
                                                                                7---".                i~                                 t-             ---
                                               I                                I,
                                                                                 I                                                            1
                                            :-                        .!-                             I                                           ~
                                            f                                   I                     I                                           I
                  F .      2                   I                                Iff
                    Ig.        a.
                                    Fig. 2. 2a
                                                t                               I

                                                           Design of traffic lines for a two-lane road


                                            ,                                   I'
                                             t                                  I'                                                                I
                                           :                                     t                    1                                           I
    -i                                                     -~                   !_~
                                                                                 I                    '1                            -!        .
                                               t                                t.                                                            I
 -If'                                                                                                                                         1                                 -
        --~~                        f=
                                     -!             ---:   --~-                                  ~
                                                                                                 ==               ---r~
                                                                                                                  --"",,---    ~-        --!                    ~-
 -I                                                                             I'                                                                I                  ---
                                               f                                I                     I                                           f
                                               I                                I                     1                                           I
 ~                                         i                                    i                     1                                       .
                                               I                                1                     I                                           I
                  F .      3                   I                                                  ,                                               I
                    Ig..                       I                                I.                                                                I
                                             I                                   I                                                            .
                                              t                                  ,I                                                           ,
                                             I                                    t                   I                                       .
                                             1                                  I'                                                            .
                                            !                                   I.                                                             I

        ~~..~===._~.~:::                  Jl== ---I

                                                                                                  i- ---1--

                                                                                                                                                  1       --,
                               ~               I
                                                                                t.- 1             I
                                                                                                                                         ,        I                   ~
                                                    t                               I                 I                                           1
 ---I"                                                                                                                                            I
                  Fig. 3a.

--~                                 Fig. 3. 3a                  -~ of
                                                            Design~: traffic lines for a three-lane road
                                                    PAVEMENT              MARKINGS                   (cont'd)                          Table   3

                                                                                     ,I I
                                                                  I                     I
                                                                  I                     I.


                                                               I                     I                            I
                                   I                          ,                                                  ,;
                                   I                          ,I                                                  I
                                   I                          ,I                                                 ,
           Fig,       4       '                                ,I                                                ..
                                   I                              !                     I                        ..
                                  ,                            1                        I                         I
                                   I                           I'                                                 I
                                  !                            I                        I                         I
                                   I                           'I                                                ,
                                   I                          '!                                                 i
                                   J                           .I                                                 I
                                  .~                                                    I                        I
                                  ,                               I                     I                            I
                                   I                              'I,
                                                              '                                                      ,-   ---
                                      j                           ~                     I                            I
                                  I'                              I,                                             ,.
    ---~                          I
                                                             :I                     iI                           :-
       F.         5               I                           I                         I                            I
        Ig.                       I                          I.                                                      I
                                  I                          '.                                                      I
                                  I                               I                                              .
                                  I                           I'
                                                              "                                                  .I

                                  .I                                                '.
                                  .I                                                 I                           iI
    ---I                                                      I,                                                 ~-
                  ~                                      ~              --~-                                     I~
    --,.                                                                            I                            I          ~   --
                                  .,..                                                                            I
                                  !:                                                :                            .
                                  .I'                                                                            I
       F'         6           '                               I                     I                            I
            Ig.                   I                           I                     I                            I
                                  I                          I'                                                  I
                                  I                          .'                                                  I
                                  ,                          i                      I                            I
                                  .,I                                                                            I
                                 !                           '                      :                            I
    -~                           ."
                                 1                            '---1                         -
                                                                                                                 .       ~
                                                                                                                ;!..~-"::- -
    -~ ~                    _i',
                                          ---~-="                       --:-                                     I ~--
                                                                                                                                ~ .-
                                                              I                     I                            I
                                  .I                                                                             I
                                 Ii!                                                                             i
       Fig.       6a.                                        .:                                                  I
                                  ,                          I.                                                  ,
                            Fig. 4. 5. 6, 6a. Working traffic lines when sight distances from
                              :                 opposite directi;ns overlap        :
                               .I'                                                  I
                               I                    .,                             .

                               I        ~
                                                                  .~       ~        ;;:~~~~.

,                           ~:~~;;~
                                                                                                -~              ~

       Fig. 7             Design of lines on a curve with restricted sight distance on a two-lane

                                       PAVEMENT MARKINGS             (cont'd)                               Table 3

                           I.                    .,
                                   travelled in 1 sec.
                                                              ~      ~
                                                                           ~     ~     -..i-           --

     Fig. 8

    ---~O~~-                 0.10~

                                  ~          ~:~~~= 100m                   .1
     Fig. 9                                                                 I

      : -:-                                                                                            ~ -
    : =~ ~ ~==
     Fig. 10

                        ~ -:--
    _..:::~..::._:                              ~~            ~

     Fig. lOa
                       Fig. 8, 9. 10. lOa.    Methods    of indicating   changes in the width of the roadway


                                                                                        D ,..., sec.                  .-
      -~=~-~~~~~~~                              ~~~~~,
                                                    ~!1f8                              -~
                                                                                       ~;;             --
               0 ,..., sec.


     Fig. 11

~                                     c-
                                                                  :-:(                                                      I~~
                                 PAVEMENT         MARKINGS        (cont'd)                                 Table   3            ;j,~
~~--                                                                                                                   -1tf',

                                               0,30       ~~~~~~-


       Fig. 12

       -~                                               ~
                                .11.:=SS~~ t
                                        ~t-         ---"-":-t
                                                                030    -- ---

       Fig. 13
                  Fig. 11, 12, 13.   Lines indicating the approach to islands or obstacles on
                                     the roadway

                                                         ...~                I L","_,,___~~
                                                                                       ~           -
                                          ..                       ,
                                                         30,0                  r'
       Fig.14                                                                I I

                   ,      --.                                                I l
                   t                      ..
                                          ,                       .
       ,;. ,"
       Fig. t 5   I.        so.o .1.                    "',0 ~II             .I ("

                                                   PAVEMEt-4TMARKINGS (co~t'd)                                                                Tobfe ~
      -..)                      ---~                                             --=~---~                        I l~
                                 I                             F~                         v
                                 I                            ,

     Fig.            16          i~ ,0.0.1:                                      'O'O~II                               (

                               Fig.   14. 15. 16.       Use of continuous                lines      at inter-
                                                        sections !br             .improving       traffic

                                                                                 ~3,Omi3.0~                                           -
            ,                 .1,.:'*                                                  ~.~              ~"'-                          ---
                                              1"...1"                   ~~                    jt

                                      I                                                                                ~
                                      ~            30,0             ~                 30,0                            ~
      Fig.                                                                                                            ~,

                                                                        ~().             ,

       ~ .,..1'- ~ ~
       13,0:3,0           I
                                                                                               1--         .2                         I

       --I                                                                                    I                                ---
                      ~          I"""""""          I                    I                     I                                           I
                                                   I                    I                                                             I
                                          30,0     .,..30,0         ~~                        l~-.-~                 60,0            ~i

     Fig,. 17, 18.            Arrow     markings   showing     traffic          approaching        an       intersEiction

                                                         PAVEMENT MARKINGS                                                           (cont'd)                                                                  Table 3

--I-'                           ~.,:.:2...,
                                          '-                                                      ~                                 '"
                                ,                                                                                                  ,. ~"                                  ~
                                I                                                                                                 ;~                                      ---

--                              I
                               ,I                                                                              1
                                                                                                               ~~   ..,.-."                  ,.                 ..-
                                                                                                                                                                                             --                     .


  Fig.          19    Guide               lines         for          turning

                                                                                                                                             120         (80)

                                                                                                     I                                                                                            ,~
                                                                                                                      ~~                                                                -~             ~

                                                                                                     I                                                                          "
                                      ,                                                              I                                                                '   ,
                                                  ,                                                                                                 ,-

                                                       ~~                                                                                "
                                                                      ' ~,                                                 "        "
                                                            80<&0)                                   t                                                                              '


 Fig.      20        Continuous                       longitudinal                        lines          marking               traffic              lanes

        NOTE:          In     sketches                  No,          14        to    20        the        figures          given              for          dimensions                        of    dotted   lines

                       and          intervals                 should                be        regarded              only           as    mere                   indications

                                                                                                          18                                                                                                                        "


                                PAVEMENT         MARKINGS            (cont'd)            Table   3

.::::-~ :
    Fig. 21.        Oblique   parallel   line markings


                                         0,50 m -1   m                   0,50 m -..1 m

 Fig 2.4.      Kerb markings


               .~                                                                                            i,
                                                                                              ~, "
                                                                                              "c     c
                                 PAVEMENT MARKINGS         (cont'd)                 Table 3          ;~

                      0                                                    0
                      5                                                     S
                     10                                                   10
                     15                                                   15
                     20                                                   20
                     25                                                   25
                     30                                                   30
                     35                                                   35
                     40                                                   40

                      0                                                    0

                      5                                                     5

                     10                                                    10

                     15                                                    15

                     20                                                    20

                     25                                                   25

                     30                                                    30

                     35                                                    35

                     40                                                   40


    Fig. 22.   Worcd markings on road surface for "stop"     indication

                                                                                              1 ';
                                            PAVEMENT        MA,RKINGS           (cont'd)                Tobie   3

                                                 Right -angle        parkingI



                                                         Side walk                                              I

                    '// / / / / / / / /'/             / / / / / / / / / ~/ 7 / / / / / /

                                               Oblique -angle         parking


                                                          Side walk


                                                    Parallel curb parking

                     T                    T                     T                     T             T
                                                         Side walk


                      lr                   T                lr                        T        lr
                                                         Side walk

                     1'/// / / / / / / / / / / / / /./ / / / / / / / / / / / /

         Fig. 23.   Lines indicating      parking space limits


        (io)    Parking   space limits                                        (vi)   Kerb   marking3   to improve   visibility
                      Parking space limits may be indicated                                 Kerb markings as shown in figure 24
                on the road surface by appropriate lines (see                        may be used where necessary to enhance the
                                                                                     visibility of a kerb (especially at night).
                figure 23).
                                                                            (vii)    Bus stops
        (v)     Marking    indicating    parking   restrictions                           The continuous line on the kerb used to
                      Kerb or road surface markings may be                           denote "parking prohibited" may also be used
                used to show where parking is prohibited.                            to advantage to indicate the length of kerb
                The marking should ,be a continuous line                             which should be reserved for buses. This
                covering the top of the kerb or on the road                          marking may ,be supplemented if desired by
                surface close to it. If desired. the face of                         word markings on the road &urface, or by
                the kerb may be si,milarly marked.                                   an area of distinctive road surface.

      B. Resolution              196 adopted by the Jnland Transport  Committee of the
         Economic               Commission for Europe on Signs and Signals for Level
                                Crossings without Gates or with Half-Gates1
               (Adopted     00 18 December 1959 replacing         Inland Transport Committee re&olution 186)

THE      INLAND           TRANSPORT           COMMITTEE,                    them on the other side of the road wherever circum-
A.     Signs and signals for level cr()ssingsequipped with                  stances such as the visibility of the signals or the
                                                                            density of traffic so require;                .
       automatic signalling to give warning of the approach
       of trains                                                            -or      in exceptional cases, on an island in the
CONSIDERING        that the standardization in Europe of                    middle of the carriageway at a height of not more
   automatic signalling to give warning of the approach                     than 2.2 m or, where so required by local conditions,
    of trains at level crossings would increase the safety                  such as a very shal1pbend obscuring the view, on
    of both road and rail traffic;                                          the off-side verge of the road;
CONSIDERING        that article 49 of the 1949 Protocol                5. to adopt as the approach sign for level crossings
                                                                          equipped with automatiC'signalling to give warning of
    on Road Signs and Signals already prescribes the
    use, by day and ,by night, of flashing red lights to                  the approach of trains:
    give automatic warning of the approach of trains at                     -for   level crossings equipped with half-gates, sign
    level crossings without gates but with automatic                        I, 8 prescribed in article 15 of the Protocol on
   signalling;                                                              Road Signs and Signals of 19 September 1949;
RECOMMENDS                governments -                                     -for     level crossings without gates, sign I, 9
 1. to adopt quick-flashing red lights, whether accom-                      prescribed in article 15 of the above-mentioned
    panied by a sound signal or not, as automatic light                     Protocol;
    signals of the approach of trains at level crossings               6.   in the case of level crossings equipped with half-
    without gates and at level crossings equipped with                      gates, to place on the carriage~way over an appro-
    automatically operated half-gates placed in a staggered                 priate distance on either side of the level crossing
     formation one on each side of the railway track;                       a longitudinal mark prohibiting all vehicles ap-
                                                                            proaching the crossing from passing over on to the
 2. to attach to these flashing red lights the meaning of
                                                                            left-hand side of the carriageway (in countries
    an indication to all road users that they must not
                                                                            where traffic travels on the right), which mark may,
    cross;                                                                  as from an appropriate distance from the level
 3. to attach the same meaning to these red lights when                     crossing, be replaced by a directional separator in
    they are shining continuously owing to a technical                      the form of a physical obstacle separating the two
    fault;                                                                  halves of the carriageway but so designed that it
 4. to employ, for these signals, one flashing red light                  doe:>not constitute a danger to vehicles approaching
     or two red lights placed on the same level and                       it;
    flashing alternately, and place them in the im-                    7. to refrain from attaching either to the absence of
    mediate vicinity of the railway track:                                flashing or continuous illumination in the signals
       -either    on the near-side verge of the road-and                  mentioned in paragraph 1 above or to the presence
       wherever possible, if a St. Andrew's cross sign is                 of a flashing yellow light mounted on the same
       displayed, on the same post as that sign-and repeat                support as the flashing red light or lights, the meaning
                                                                          that a road user approaching a level crossing need
      1 Economic Commission for Europe document E/ECE/TRANSI
514, &acex I.                                                             not take any precautions;

      where a position signal indicating that no train is          B.    Approach    signs for certain   railway   crossings
      approaching is installed. .to arrange for it to be           CONSIDERING       the danger that, if sign I, 9 of the
      placed on the same support as and preferably under-              1949 Protocol on Road Signs and Signals is used
      neath the flashing red light or lights. and to take             as the approach sign for railway crossings where,
      the form of one of the following devices:                       when a train is passing, road traffic is controlled by
      -a     slow-flashing lunar white light.                         hand-signals given by an attendant, it may lose some
                                                                      of its force as a warning to road users;
      -a     continuous green light;
                                                                   CONSIDERING        that article 15, paragraph 7, of the
                                                                       Protocol allows the use of Sign I. 21 as the approach
   9. in the case of level crossingsequipped with half-gates,         sign for such railway crossings;
      to attach ,to such ihaM-gates, when extended across
                                                                   DRAWS ATTENTION           to the possible value of using
      the road, the meaning indicated in paragraph 2 a,bove
                                                                      sign I. 21 described in the 1949 Protocol instead of
      for flashing red lights;
                                                                      sign I, 9 as the approach sign in such cases, or at
                                                                      least in some of them, and of not putting up St.
       not to authorize the use of flashing red lights as a
                                                                      Andrew's crosses at railway crossings where sign I.
      road signal, apart from the case mentioned in
                                                                      21 is so used;
       paragraph 1 above. except to give warning of the
       approach of trains at level crossings with gates, the       CANCELS its resolution 186 (E/ECE/TRANS/480,
       approach of an aircraft crossing the road at low               annex 3); and
       altitude, the closure of a ferry-boat landing-stage or      INVITES    governments to inform the Executive Secretary
      the opening of an "opening bridge", on the under-                 of the Economic Commission for Europe, when
      standing that flashing red lights shall in all cases              he so requests, of any action they may have taken
      indicate to all road users that they must not pass.               pursuant to this resolution.

     C. Current         methods         of highway         ad.,                       and highway             financing
      The Highways and Highway Transport Sub-                      recommended that the financing of highway projects should
  Committee, at its fifth session,held at Kathmandu, Nepal,        be based on sound economic principles and that economic
  in December 1960, reviewed the document on the Current           benefits of road improvements should be estimated in
 Methods of Highway Administration and Highway                     advance.
 Financing       (E/CN.II/TRANS/SUB.2/28).                The            Regarding the sources for financing road develop-
 Sub-Committee observed that road transport in the region          ment and ma,intenance,the Sub-Committee noted that the
 had developed very rapidly and th~t the rate of increase          most prevailent source for financing road work in the
 had outsuipped that of railways as well as inland water-          countries of the 'region was a gov,ernmental appropriation
 ways.      The Sub-Committee, however, realized that              from the general budget. It was considered desirable
 investment in roads by the countries of the region was            that a road ~und be created on a non-lapsable basis in
 still lower, it, therefore, stressedthe importance of speeding    order to facilitate planning and execution of road works
 up road improvements. Regarding highway administration,           on the basis of integrated long term programmes. The
 the Sub-Committee emphasized that no single model                 Sub-Committee also suggested that governments should
 organization or highway administration could be recom-            consider the use of other sources for financing highway
 mended as suitable to ,all of the region; ,however, it            construction and maintenance, such as public loans, tolls,
 recommend,ed th,at, where resources permit, a highway             and taxes on vehicles, spare parts, gasoline and road
 depal1tment should have divisions of pLanning and                 side public amenities.       The Sub-Committee, however,
 programming, traffic engineering and safety, survey and           e~ressed the opinion that, as a general rule, it was not
 design, materials research, and testing, construction,            desirable to levy tolls on the traffic because of the limitation
 maintelJlance.mechanical equipment, store and administra-         it imposed on its development, but where large capital
 tive services. The Committee, also recommended th,at              investment was needed, as in the case of a large bridge
 road ,research land Iroultine materia.! testing and control       or where a highway line was being provided as an alter-
 should be undeI1lJaken sepa'r,atedep~rtments.                     native route, levying of tolls could ,be considered.
       The Sub-Committee noted the tendency in the region                The Sub-Committee noted the serious damage ca,used
 towards unification and simplification of highway adminis-        ;by animal-dra~       cairts 00 road surface, their hind-
 tration, the increasing participation of central governments      rance to the smooth flow of traffic in big cities of the
 in financial and technical control, in training technical         region, and recommended that animal-drawn carts should
 personnel, and in becoming increasingly aware of the              be taxed, and that, where possible, iron tyres of carts
 advantages of careful analytical study of financial and           should be replaced by rubber tyres.
 administrative problems of highway development.                        The Sub-Committee stressed the importance of
      After reviewing the current methods of highway               gathering statistics and requested the secretariat to assem,ble
 financing in the countries of the region the Sub-Committee        basic data on the basis of the recommendation of the


 First Study Week in Traffic Engineering and H,ighway                        of authority for matters of constr,uction, improvement.
 Safety. In accordance with the suggestion of the Su'b-                      maintenance and general administration, roads should b~
 Committee, the main part of the 'report on Current Methods                  classified into various categories in accordance with
 of Highway Administration and Highway Financing is                          functions, volumes and patterns of traffic flow. The
 reproduced in this issue of the Transport and Communi.                      classification is also necessary in the interest of efficiency,
 cations Bulletin.                                                           balanced development and effective execution of road
    (EX:tract from document E/CN .11/TRANS/Sub.                              works. Such a classification of roads provides a basis
            2/L.8,  dated II August 1960).                                   for the establishmentof long range developmentprogrammes
                                                                             and priorities within each system, and for the specification
                        I.     INTRODUC'TION
                                                                             of appropriate design standards for each category with a
        The road motor transport industry, with its com-                     view to ensuring a maximum return on investments.
parative chea,pness construction and operation and, above
                                                                                   In advanced countries, roads have generally been
 all, its flexibility. has a special significance for the countries
                                                                             classified in four groups. The number of classified road
 of the ECAFE region. A number of factors make the
                                                                             networks, and their extent, however, is decided according
more intensive development of road transport highly
                                                                             to general economic conditions, especially in relation to
desirable. The topography is often such that it is cheaper
                                                                             the transport system in the country. Most countries of
to construct roads than railways. Most of the population
                                                                             the ECAFE region classify their roads in four main net.
lives in small rural communities which are more easily
                                                                             works; although the nomenclatures differ, the functional
and habitually linked up by road rather than rail. More-
                                                                             characteristics of each category are almost the same.
over, the national plans are taking increasing account of
the growing highway needs, and as these local plans are
                                                                             TABLE I.      ROAD CLASSIFICATIONSAND AUTHORITIES RESPONSIBLE
implemented, the stage will be set for the improvement                               FOR ADMINISTRATION        IN     SOME COUNTRIES       OF THE
and expansion of international highways (and of other                                                     ECAFE        REGION
communications)       .
                                                                                     Country          Roadsdassifi.d in,           Administered     by!
       The figures for expenditure on road construction in
 the countries of the region reflect this important trend.                   Bunna                  Union highways              Central Government
 The total e~pend'iture for the development of highways                                             Main roads                  Central Government
                                                                                                    Dislrict roads              District council
 has reached the level of about US$688 million in 1958,                                             Slate roads                 State government
which is equivalent to US$275 per registered vehicle and                                                                        Central     Government a
                                                                             India                  Nalional highways
to US$382 per kilometre of road. The wo~ldl expen-                                                  Slate highways              State governments
 diture on highways per registered vehicle on an average                                            Dislricl roads              Local authorities
is only US$166.      The investment. however, on roads in                                           Village roads               Local authorities
  1958 by the countries of the region. per capita, was still                 Japan                  Nalional primary            National Government b
less than «:medollar, which is one-eleventh of the world                                            National secondary          Local     Government
average (see table 6).     The region possesses  only about                                         Prefectural roads           Local     Government
                                                                                                    Municipal roads             Local     Government
2.5 per cent of the world motor vehicles and 12 per cent
                                                                             Laos                   Main roads                  Central Government
 of the world total length of roads.       Furthermore, the
                                                                                                    Nalional roads              Central Government
 number of motor vehicles per kilometre of road is on an                                            Local roads                 Central Government
average. less than 1.5, and the motor vehicle ownership                                             Jeepable roads              Central Government
 index (number of people per registered vehicle) is 332                      Philippines           Nalional roads               Central Government C
in the region, as against 7..1. and 18 for the world,                                              Provincial roads             Provincial governmcnt d
                                                                                                   City roads                   City governments e
respect!ively. In order to meet the urgent need fGr highway
                                                                                                   Municipal roads              Municipal     governments
development and improvement and to deal with changes
in the nature and volume of road traffic. it is imperative                   Viel-Nam, Republic Nalional Roads
                                                                               of               Inter-Provincial Roads
for the countries of the region to establish an efficient and                                   Provincial Roads
integrated highway administration as well as a balanced                                         Communal Roads
and stable method of financing highway construction and                                         Municipal Roads
                                                                                 a Financial   responsibility only.
         II.      REVIEW OF CURRENT METHODS OF                                   b Large-scale repair and construction only;       the Highway        Public
                   HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION                                    Corporation is responsible for     toll roads. bridges and tunnels.
     An efficient and closely knit administrative system is                      c Highway Department.
an essential prerequisite for a proper development of                            d Through     district engineers of Highway      Department.
highway networks. The ever growing volume of traffic                             e Through     city engineers of Highw.aY Department.
and changing road 'buildiAg "techniques need effective
administration of financial and technical matters in order to                      Outside the region. networks designated as national.
ensure the balanced development of road systems. It is                       connecting places of countrywide importance. and carrying
generally admitted that, in ordet to simplify the allocation                 the g.reatestpercentage of the total traffic. generally com-
    1 Excluding    Bulgaria,   China   (mainland),   eastern Germany.        prise I 0 to 15 per cent of the total kilometrage of all
Romani.. and USSR.                                                           roads, as is shown in the following ta!ble:

TABLE                   2.              NETWORKS                    DESIGNATED       AS NATIONAL        IN   RELATION    TO               The authority and responsibility for the improvement,
        TOTAL                 ROAD LENGTH                           IN SOME CoUNTRIES         OUTSIDE THE REGION                     maintenance and other general management of highways
                                                                                             ungth of
                                                                                                                                     are delegated, in most countries of the region, to more
                                                                                          "National" or                              than one organization; usually they are shared by the
                 Country                                                 Totollength     oth.r similarly  National syst.m
                                                                          of al/ roads   d.signat.d roads   asp.r cent               national governments and local governing bodies and
                                                                             (km)              (km)        of total roads
                                                                                                        -                            agencies. The national system of the Philippines. Burma
                                                                                              9,800              10.5                and Japan are administered direct by the central govern-
                                                                                              1,978              8
                                                                                                                                     ment. In Japan, road construction and repairs of the
            Federal                     Republic               of        260,(XX)           26,831a              10                  Primary National Highway are undertaken by the central
Spain.                  Kingdom
                        States                  {If                        47.164            7,732               16.3                government.
                                                                          II 9 .(XX)        25,300               13
                                                                                                                                           In the case of countries with a federal system of
                                                                           38.500            4,127               10.7
                                                                          124.515           19,649               15.7                government, the question of highway administration presents
                                                                          307,619           45,O86b              14.6                certain special problems. In certain countries, the federal
                                                                                                                                     road system is centrally administered. and state roads in
        America                             :                           3.322,000          388.OQ()C             11.6                the federating units are administered by the states, but
                                                                          83.022             9.440               11.3
                                                                                                                                     technical control and financial assistanceare generally the
       Source:    United Nations. Annual Bulletin of Transport                                                        Statis-        responsibility of the central government as in Austria and
  lics for Europe, /959.                                                                                                             the Federal Republic of Germany. Federal roads or
        a Motor roads and Federal roads.
        b Urban and non-urban trunk and class I roads.                                                                               major highways in certain countries remain state roads,
        CState primary systems.                                                                                                      but the federal government exercises control over and
                                                                                                                                     assumes financial responsibility for them, as is the case
       In some countries of the region. the length of the
                                                                                                                                     in India, United States of America and in Switzerland.
  national systems expressed as a percentage of the total
 .road kilometrage. does not revea.Ia similar general pattern.                                                                             The secondary highways, local roads and streets are
  as will ,be seen from table 3.                                                                                                     ad"ministeredby local, municipal governing bodies or other
   TABLE                 3.             NETWORKS                    DESIGNATED AS NATIONAL              IN   RELATION     TO
                                                                                                                                           As mentioned earlier, it is not possible to lay down
                       THE TOTAL                      ROAD LENGTH                 IN SOME CoUNTRIES          OF THE
                                                                        ECAFE        REGION
                                                                                                                                     a hard and fast rule for a uniform system of highway
                                                                                                                                     administration which would Ibe valid in all circumstances,
                                                                                            Lengths of                               although certain general principles may be enunciated
                                                                                          "Notional" or
                      o""lry                                             Total length     other similarly National systetn           which could form a broad basis for action in respect of
                                                                         of a/l roads    designat"d raads as per cent of
                                                                                                                                     the size of the organization, its general and Special func~
                                                                              (km)             (km)
                                                                                                    .       total roads
                                                                                                                                     tions, and measures for the attainment of efficiency in the
  China. a
  Ceylon Republic                                     of a
                                                       ,       ..
                                                                           25,600                                2S.9
                                                                           15,593                                 9.4                operation and management of highwaJYs.
   India c
  Laos.                           .."      " ." .."     ..."        .
                                                                          529,123                                 4.2
                                                                                                                                           The size of the admrnistration will of course depend
                                                                          146,676                                17.0
                                                                            3,909                                SO
                                                                                                                                     upon the volume of work to be undertaken, but the basic
  Ph"l "                .d
      1 Ipplnes
   Viet-Nam.                             Republic              of          59,682                                23.8                organizational structure must in all cases logically conform
   -                                                                        15.025                               23                  to the functions of the organization.         Basically, the
                                                                                                                                     functions assigned to highway departments are to select,
        a International Road Federation, Highway Expenditure&, Road
    and Motor Vehicle Stati&tic& for /958.                                                                                           design, construct and maintain roads and bridges.
        b Ba&ic Road Stati&tic& of India-eighth (1957) (supplement).
        CExcluding municipal roads: As of March 1959.          .                                                                           The following basic divisions should therefore be
        d The Colombo Plan, Special I&&ue, October 1959.                                                                             included in a highway organization:
                                                                                                                                             (i)   Planning and Programming Division. to carry
    Organizational                                    structure and general functions                                                              out various planning surveys and studies in
          The type and structure of the administrative authority                                                                                   order to prepare technical. operational and
    which will control the various activities connected with                                                                                       hnancial plans and 'program'mes of short and
    different classes of roads, tndicated above, are influenced                                                                                    long term activities of the highway department.
    by the overall governmental administrative structure, and                                                                                      The planning of the location for. and the
    by the geographic and economic conditions of the country.                                                                                      construction and maintenance of good service-
    Conditions vary but each classified highway system is                                                                                          able highways should be based on accurate
    nearly always managed ,by a specific public authority. such                                                                                    and comprehensive facts. These facts may
    as the state, districts, countries or municipalities. The                                                                                      concern geography, population distribution and
    Dlain arteries carrying the long distance traffic are managed                                                                                   activity, presenttraffic vdlurnes and trend,s,and
    by the central government, while the highways which are                                                                                        the extent and conditi'on of existing facilities.
    ~sed predominantly by local traffic are managed by the                                                                                         The Planning and Programming Division
    Interestedadministrative bodies. The general control and                                                                                       should assembleand correlate these facts upon
    co-ordination. however, and the di'rection of national                                                                                         which ,the planning engineers determine where
    policies in respect of highway ad,ministration should be                                                                                       highways should best be located and what
    the concern of the central government.                                                                                                         types of construction. methods of maintenance

              and traffic control will give the most efficient              Furthermore, a special group of experts might be
              highways at a reasonable cost.                           constituted, primarily at headquarters, to a.dvise the staff
       (ii) Surveys and Design Division, to undertake the              on techni<:a,lmatters and to solve technical problems.
            necessary field surveys and preparation of                       In addition to technical services,both at headquarters
            plans, standards and specifications for roads              and at the region8Jlor local level, it is important to have
            and bridges.                                               a separate special branch at the centre to study and
                                                                       co-ordinate the various programmes and to exercise a
      (iii)   Construction Division, to execute construction
                                                                       degree of control over projects. The importance of such
              directly or to supelWiseconstructions of roads
                                                                       a section is obvious; proper co-ordination and close control
              and bridges and to advise improvements in
                                                                       would avoid waste.
              standards and specifica'tions based on the
              e~perience gained in the course of actual
              construction.                                            Co-ordination
      (iv)    Maintenance Division, to take responsiibility
                                                                             The administration of a highway network is a com.
              for keeping highway networks in good and
              safe operating conditions.                               plex economic function with a comprehensiyescope. The
                                                                       regulation and control of the technical} standards of high.
      These main divisions should be supported by the                  W8!YS,and the management of highway financing, have
following technical auxiliary divisions:                               important repercussions on national economies.        Such
                                                                       important matters cannot be left to the local authorities;
       ( v) Materials Research Division, to undertake                  higher level co.-ordination and control on a country-wide
             research for the construction of roads and                basis are essential for the proper administration and
             bridges, to determine the quality and char~               development of highways and highway transport. Fu,rther.
             actertstics of the materia.ls used in construction        more, in order to obtain maximum. efficiency in road
             and maintenance of 'road works.              The          transport, it is also necessaryto keep abreast of technical
             Division might have a central laboratory with             progress in road construction if the most suitable highway
            branches at selected local points to effect                for the traffic is to be built at minimum cost.
            continuous investigation, to study technical
                                                                             Invariably, in most countries a numiber of authorities
             prdblems, and to advise executive staff on such
                                                                       are directly or indirectly concerned with the development
            'matters as bridge construction or other special
                                                                       and operation of h~ghways and highway transport. Close
            problems. Laboratories, both at the centre
                                                                       co-ordination is therefore essential in order to ensure the
             and in the field, might be assigned other
                                                                       best management, technical and administrative, in the
             functions such as the study and standardization
             of materials and material specifications.                 general interest.
                                                                             Some measures of co-ordination of the activities
      (vi)    Eq,uipment Division, to provide and maintain
                                                                       of the different technical bodies responsible for highways
              all mechanical equipment required for the
                                                                       can be achieved ,by the setting up of a central research
              construction and maintenance of roads and
                                                                       organization.     This organization might delegate the
              bridges, to select economic equipment suitable
                                                                       routine work, such as testing of materials, ap,plication of
              for the special conditions of the country and            constroction techniques and other similar activities, to
              for the type of work to which they wouJd                 subsidiary regional bodies which might also undertake a
              be put to maintain them in good and service-
                                                                       limited amount of work in the standardization of specifica-
              able condition.
                                                                       tions locally. A certain amount of freedom in the matter
      (vii)   Supply Division, to purc:hase and supply                 of developing standards and construction techniques
              materials and equipment needed by the depart-            designed to meet local req,uirementsis desirable because
              ment, to survey market conditions and to store.          economic road construction and maintenance depend very
              classify and distribute v~rious materials an~            much upon geographical and topographieal conditions.
              spare parts used in connexion with the general
                                                                            Subsidies provided by the central authorities to the
              functions of highway department.
                                                                       local bodies for the development of highways are also
     (viii)   Traffic Safety Division, to provide and main~            important in improving co-ordination in technical matters
              tain traffic control devices, to control the             and in the implementation of road works in accordance
              operation of vehicles on roads and to maintain           with set rules, programmes and priorities. As subsidies
              safe driving conditions on highways.                     are eagerly sought after, technical eonditions attached to
                                                                       the gr.anting of subsidies wiN be readily accepted and
    .This structure should be supplemented by administra~
tive divisions e.g., for personnel, accounting and legaJ               soon become norm8!1practice. The granting of subsidies
                                                                       might be subordinated to compliance with certain priorities,
                                                                       to the preparation of a coherent programme of works
        The organization of highway administrations should             and to the acceptance of specific geometrical characteristics,
include field offices with the necessary authority and                 and finally to the inspection of the projects by the central
facilities.                                                            controlling bodies.

      Pa,rticularly efficient and rapid co-ordination can be          case of local work, it is preferable for the local authority
organized when the same technical teams of engineers and              to co-operate with other authorities, either at the same
workers carry out locally the works of the various                    level, or with those of higher levels, in order that it can
authorities. It is quite possible to have a local engineer            dbtain adequate and suitable equipment and the right
using credits drawn from various 'budgets and working for             personnel to supervise and execute the work.
the state and local government. The local authority might                   In certain cases, where the highway network is
derive greater benefit from these competent agents who                spread over a wide area, there might be some advantage
are better equipped than its own personnel.                           in setting up small mobile working teams which can
      A unified system of terminology in technical matters             frequently inspect various sections and 'repair damage
is also highly desira'ble. This would lead to a uniformity            without delay. This type of mobile team may not be
 throughout the country, and would assist investigations by           necessary in countries which have a proper maintenance
the various technical ,bodies on the laying down of                    organization, or where the use of the highway network is
standrordized specifications and in other similar technical           very limited.
questions.                                                            Technical     control   and      financial    aspects

                                                                              The central administrative authority must exercise
Importance        of   efficiency
                                                                      control over techni<:aJ   matters in approving and supervising
      In addition to a high 'level of co-ordination in road
                                                                      road projects. The approval of the project should be done
administration. other factors contribute to the efficiency of
                                                                      by the competent staff, equipped with the necessary data
the organization and administration of a highway network.
                                                                      on soundings, geological surveys, laboratory studies,
In discussionson the organization of a highway administra-
                                                                      hydrology, climate and traffic statistics. A special team
tion. it is necessaryto consider the technical qualifications
                                                                       of inspectors with wide experience and high technical
of the staff who will be required for the various technical
                                                                       a,bility is also needed, during the execution, if the work is
and other assignments. It is also. important to ensure that
                                                                      to conform to the approved projeots. Financial cont'rol
suitaJble and qualified staff. when recruited. are weN paid.
                                                                      must be exercised over expenditure, and it is in fact
and hence remain in their jobs. Technical personnel in
                                                                      exercised in most countries by a special body. Although
the organization should be graduated at both the central
                                                                      such a control is necessary, the adoption of measures
and local levels in order to ensure efficient execution and
                                                                      intended to facilitate the preparation and the rational
adequate supervrsion of technical work.       It is also, very
                                                                      execution of projects is more effective in ensuring high
important that the st8!ff be kept informed of current
                                                                      technical standards and finan<:ial soundness. Althou~
developments in the techniques of highway construction                specific financial grants are placed at the disp06al of
and maintenance and hence improve the efficiency and
                                                                      officials in charge of road works for each fiscal year,
quality of their work.      Periodical refre'sher courses and
                                                                      the duration of many important road works usually exceeds
in-service training of the staff. at various technical levels.
                                                                      the limits of the fiscal year. It therefore :becomes  necessary
are also helpful.
                                                                      to develop a suitable type of programme financing which
1\1ethod     of   execution     of   road   works                     in effect amounts to a governmental pledge, or authoriza-
                                                                      tion, to grant the total sum necessary annually over a
      In many countries. i,t is common practice for certain
                                                                      period of several financial years.
highway works to be carried out directly by the govern-
ment departments. while others are entrusted to contractors.                 In this connexion, it is necessary to 'bear in mind
In that case. the problem of distribution of such jobs                that a careful evaluation of the cost of the project as a
between governmental agencies and ,private contr,actors               whole is essential, as otherwise work might be undertaken
requires speciaclattention.                                           which cannot be completed within the financial appro-
                                                                      priation for the project. Such a survey must necessarily
       It is common practice in most countries for the
                                                                      include a careful evaluation in which aM necessary com-
 governmentto undertake small maintenance and emergency
                                                                      plementary works are accounted for and no major item
jobs. Large-scale work. requirrng specialized equipment
                                                                      escapesscrutiny. In addition, it might be useful to allow
 and highly skilled personnel. is usually entrusted to
                                                                      a 10 per cent margin for contingencies. In this connexion,
contractors who move from place to place and undertake
                                                                      the value of a road fund, with its great flexibility and
work ,in different parts of the country on the basis of
                                                                      security, is obvious. In most countries, the road fund
 contracts obtained by publi~ tender. This procedure
                                                                      derives its resources from the general budget which is
stimulates competition among the contractors. and ensures
                                                                      granted ,by legislation. Some countries have even given
 that the work is done at competitive prices without sacrifice
                                                                      statutory sanction to the fund.
 of technical standards or of adeq,uate control. both
 technical and financial. over the entire project. It might           Special     bodies   entrusted      with     road   administration
be noted that. in the case of major projects which require                  Two types of special bodies responsible for road
 a 10ng period. there is no special financial or technical            administration can be defined, namely, one in which the
advantage in the department itself undertaking the work               jurisdiction of the body extends over one particular role
unless it is in la position to contrdl costs over a period of         or a particular well-defined network, and another in which
time. Besides. the structure of a government organization             the competence of the ,body extends over the entire high-
does not lend to execution of large-scale work.        In the         way system.

      The first type of organization is mainly concerned                   (2)      It is also important to ensure a wide dis-
 with toN systems. Thi.s organization may be a public                              semmation of technical information by the set-
 body or a private enterprise, or a mixed concern including                        ting up of materials testing and research
 local authorities and elljoying the fInancial support of                          laboratories~ the establishment of central study
the StJate. with private oapital participat~ng as a minority                       services, refresher courses to staff at all leveJls.
interest.                                                                          convening of periodic technical conferences.issue
       In certain countries, a special body has been formed                         of written instructions and technical publications.
for the construction and maintenance of the entire networ'k                (3)      In Iprog'rammesfor the execution and financ-
of exp'ress (high speed) highways, such as in Belgium                              ing of highway ,projects, due account must be
and Italy.       It is aolsounderstood that in 1956 the                            taken of all the relevant economic and other
Government of Japan established a Public Highway Cor-                               aspects, and the planning must be based on
poration which has taken over practically all toll road                            accurate statistical appraisals. Where adequate
construction and maintenance. The setting up of special                            statisttcal data are not available, special services
non-governmental bodies to administer 'certain or all high-                        must be 'set up to collect. compile and analyse
way works has the advantage of flexibility and facilitates                         suchdata.
the financing and operation of large sections of the network.              ( 4) Proper administration of highway projects calls
Government administration, being rather rigid. sometimes                        for the control of the technical and financial
tends to become unsuita'ble for 1arge scale work where                          plans during rather than after execution. The
methods similar to those em,ployed in private industry have                      administration must be such that it is equal to
to -be used. It is very important. however, that close                          the tas'ks enumerated above.
control be exercised over such agencies by the competent
department of the government, and care must be exercised                    IV.      REVIEW OF CURRENT METHODS OF
if excessivepowers are no~ to be vested in those bodies.                                  HIGHWAY. FINANCING
                                                                           In view of the growing importance of highways to
     III.   CONCLUSIONSAND RECOMMENDATIONS                           the national economies, it is essential that they be main-
                                                                     tained and improved.
       A highly developed and integrated system of highway
administration has ,been evolved in a number of countries                  In a review of the current methods of highway
of the region, notably in Japan, India, Pakistan, Philip-            financing in the countries of the region, a common feature
pines, Federation of Malaya and Ceylon.          However,            immediately stands out.       The introduction of motor
certain aspects, such as unified and co-ordinated control            vehicles has revolutionized the character and function of
at the national or federal level, are still'! not always             road transport. Highways have become arteries of com-
sufficiently closely knit, and the system of highway ad-             merce carrying a large and increasing share of the total
ministration and cont.r°l is largely influenced by the               trade of the countries and connecting widely separated
administrative and political structure of national govern-           centres of economic activities with ever growing numbers
ments. There is a marked tendency toward simplifying                 of fast moving motor vehicles. The chan,gein the function
and unifying the highways administration in most countries           of the highways has necessitated changes in design, con-
of the region, and govemments are progressively participat-          struction and execution, and also in the method of
ing in financial and technical control, especially in the            financing. In this respect, the ECAFE region is in a
smaller countries.                                                   period of transition. Changes in function and character
     Governments are becoming increasingly aware of the              of highways so far have brought about changes in methods
advantages of careful and analytical study of the 'financial         of financing by placing a larger financial responsibility upon
and administrative problems of highway development and               the central governments.      Almost all countries of the
highway transport, and some of the countries, such as                region, furthermore, are still faced with growing needs
Japan, have made considerable progress in this direction.            and paucity of resources.
                                                                           In advanced countries, changes in the function of
     The following points maoy,be considered as a basis
                                                                     highways have been mostly recognized and met. The
for further improvement where required:
                                                                     present pro'blem is largely one of Improving roads in order
     ( 1) Since road admilliistrations are generally based           to accommodate the ever increasing size and weight of
          on the political structure of the national govern-         vehicles and traffic volume. This may require methods of
          ment, it is desirable to develop national highway          financing which are different from those in the countries
          administrative policy in such a way as to ensure           of the region where roads are mostly built to ensure
          a maximum degree of co-ordination between the              countrywide connexion and open up new areas, ut~lize
          different authorities responsible for construction,        untapped resources, stimulate internal and international
          maintenance and operations.         This can be            trade, and encourage social and community development;
          achieved by controlling ,the projects initiated
          by local commooi'ties, through State subsidies,            Expenditure     on roads
          or by the supervision or execution of such works                The investment on highway improvement and deve-
          by engineers of the highway department of the              lopment in the ECAFE region has not kept pace with
          central government.                                        the demand's created by the rapid increase in the volume

    of highway transport and with the need for more and                                                                                                                                    TABLE              7.            TOTAL                  ANNUAL                         EXPENDITURES                ON ROADS         AS

    better roads. This is illustrated in the following tahle.                                                                                                                                  PERCENTAGE OF NAll0NAL                                                            INCOME AND TOTAL                   ANNUAL
                                                                                                                                                                                                 GoVERNMENT                               EXPENDITURES                                     IN THE ECAFE             REGION
TABLE 6.                                        TOTAL ROAD LENGTH, NUMBER OF MOTOR VEHICLE AND                                                                                                                       AND CERTAIN                              OTHER                        COUNTRIES,        1958
                       EXPENDITURES  ON RoADS IN THE ECAFE     REGION                                                                                          AS
                               COMPARED WITH THE WORLD,    1958 a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Total expenditure
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      on    roads   as percentage   of

                                                                                                                                                   ECAFE ECAFE ,.gion                                                                                                                                 National          Total budget
                                 [e.m                                                                                                 World a      ,.gion .xcluding Japan                  Country                                                                                                    income            expenditure

Number                  length         of   b        (in motor
                                                       (in              million
                                                                            million)        vehicles     km)                    (in
                                                                                                                                                     830         739            Burma.
                                                                                                                                                                                Cambodia                                                     ,                ,...                                      0.66                 2.1
                                                                                                                                                       1.8c         0.89                                                                                                                                   ].508             8.4
                                                                                                                                                                                China,             Republic                     of                        :          ...                                   0.708             2.0
'Total   million)         expenditures                                                 on               roads                   (in
                                                                                                                                        \04             2.5          3d                                                                                                                                 0.35                 23
                                                                                                                                                                                 F ederat;on
                                                                                                                                                                                Korea,                       "'.."'..'.'."'.Malaya of
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Republicof                                                                                          0.95                 4.6
Motor million              vehicles         US$)                  per                   1,000                         persons         ]7.300         688         319                                                                                                                                    0.748                2.9
                                                                                                                                          54.3          3          1.76                                                                                                                                                      1.6
Road                    expenditures                                            per:                                                                                                                                                                                                                       1.56             10.0
           (US$)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           034&              1.4
Motor Person.                   per vehicle
                           vehiclekm                motor   per                     vehicle
                                                                                   road                    km                          1.185         382         358                                                                                                                                    022                  1.4
                                                                                                                                        166          275         245            Philippines
                                                                                                                                                                                Thailand                       ""."".""",                                                                               1.41                10.9
                                                                                                                                          9            0.83       0.43                                                                                                                                  0.%                 6.2
                                                                                                                                          7.1          1.4         1.4          Australia.
                                                                                                                                                                                Finland.                     Republic
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Federal                         of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Republic                           of                              1.44              6.2
                                                                                                                                         18          332         568                                                                                                                                    2.61&                6.6
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           3.48&            10.2
    Source:  United                                                                                     Nations, Stali3tical Year  Book, 1957;                                                                                                                                                          0.92&                3.5
Economic Bulletin for                                                                                   Asia and the Far Easl (Vol. X, No. I),                                                                                                                                                          2.80a               12.4
1959.                                                                                                                                                                            United
                                                                                                                                                                                Italy.               Kingdom
                                                                                                                                                                                               Zealand                                     "'"       .'. USA.                                           1.04&                4.0
    International Road Federation, Highway Expenditure3, Road                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2.82&            10.8
and Motor Vehicle Slat13tic3 for /9.58.
    a Excluding   Bulgaria, China    (mainland), eastern Germany,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       0.77                 23
Romania and USSR.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2.70&                8.2
   b 1957.
   c Of 0.4 million km is paved and gravel or crushed stone sur-                                                                                                                    Source:     United Nations, Economic Survey of Asia and the
face, and of 1.4 million km is graded, drained earth and unimproved                                                                                                             Far East, 1958; Annual Bulletin of Transport Stati,tics for Europe,
roads.                                                                                                                                                                          1959; Statistical Year Book, 1958.
     d Including 3 wheel vehicles.                                                                                                                                                   International Road Federation, Highway Expenditures, Road
                                                                                                                                                                                and Motor Vehicle Statistic! for 1958.
                                                                                                                                                                                           a ]957.
      The foregoing table also shows that, within the
 region, the bulk of highway investment has taken place                                                                                                                                It is interesting also to note that in 1958 the annual
in Japan. Table 7 shows that in many countries of the                                                                                                                           total road expenditure in most countries of the region is
 region investment on roads is comparatively small in relation                                                                                                                  less than one per cent of national incomes and under 4 per
to national income and total budget expenditure.                                                                                                                                cent of total annual governmental expenditures.

                                                                                           ECAFE   COUNTRIES, 1958

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Road   .~p.nditure     per
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Motor        Total
                                                                                                                                                                          Length of                "ehic/es expenditure                                                          },/otor               Road
                                                                                                                                                                         ro..dsa                 regislerea   on roods                                                          "ehicle                (km)                Person
                                 Country                                                                                                                               (1.000 km)                  (1,000) (million USS)                                                         (US$)                (USS)                (USS)

                    China,                         Republic              b                    of                ...
                                                                                                                                                                           5.0                       6.7                                    2                                     300                 400                  0.15
                                                                                                                                                                           13.0                    35.2                                     6                                     170                 461                  030
                                                                                                                                                                           3.4                       9.3                                    6.3                                   677                1.852                 1.40
                                                                                                                                                                          25.6                   98.5                                       8.4                                    85                 328                  0.91
                                                                                                                                                                           15.6                   14.5                                      4.4                                   303                 283                  0.44
                    Federation                                     of              Malaya                                                                                  10.5                  99.3                                      16.5                                   166                1.556                 2.10
                    India.                          Republic                                       of                                                                     195.7                 358.0                                     125.0                                   350                 638                  0.31
                                                                                                                                                                            2.3                  77.0                                       8.5                                   110                3.617                 0.44
                                                                                                                                                                          146.7                1,209.0                                    377.0                                   306                2.580                 4.00
                                                                                                                                                                           23.5                  27.1                                      11.2                                   413                  476                 0.50
                    Thailande                                           Republic                                      of                                                   14.8                  49.0                                      10.0                                   204                  675                 0.12
                                                                                                                                                                           29.1                 147.2                                      65.4                                  444                 2.247                 2.88
                                                                                                                                                                            8.1                  64.6                                      18.9                                  292                 2.333                 0.90
                                                                                                                                                                            10.1                 49.2                                      25.6                                  520                 2.533                 2.08,

                          Source:                                       International                                           Road Federation,   Highway    Expenditures,     Road and Motor                                   Vehicle Stati&tic& for                                       /958, where not otherwise
                           a Including paved, gravel or crushed stone surface and graded, drained earth roads.
                           b Afghani&tan, Human relation& area jile& (New Haven, 1956); all-weather roads estimated 5,000 km.
                           C Cambodian Public Works Departmenl reply to ECAFE            questionnaire.
                           d Ministry of Construction, Road Bureau, Road& in Japan, /960.
                           .A Comprehensive Evaluation of Thailand's Tran&portation R"quirements, /959.

      A look at the magnitude of the expenditure on                                                                                        appears to be relatively higher than in outside counlrie,.
highways in each country of the region shows that there                                                                                    However, the stage of development of highways which
are considerable deviations from the over-all picture for                                                                                  requires rather large investment should be considered.
the region as a whole.                                                                                                                     The sums allocated for roads in relation to the general
     The real sjgnificance of the expenditure on roads de-                                                                                 budget expenditures, and above all the share of national
pends on both the volume and the na,ture of the im-                                                                                        incomes assigned to road improvement in most countries
provements and maintenance carried out. This amount is                                                                                      of the region, are relatively small.
closely related to the length of the road networks. volume.
type and composition of traffic that each country possesses.                                                                               Current sourcesfor highway reVenues                      ;i~~
Table 8 below clearly indicates that certain ECAFE
                                                                                                                                                General budget
countries have an accelerated road improvement programme
and that theilr expendjture is compal'atively high.                                                                                                              are
                                                                                                                                                 Various SOUl'ces currently drawn on by countries
                                                                                                                                           within and outside the region for revenue for highway
     These countries are not only markedly different from
                                                                                                                                           development. The summary tables of current methods of
the rest of the countries of the region but also from
                                                                                                                                           financing road works within and outside the region, tables
advanced countries. This fact also emerges from the
                                                                                                                                            10 and 11, indicate that the most common source for
previous comparison of annual total road expenditures
                                                                                                                                           financing road works is the governmental appropriation
with national incomes and total budget expenditures.
                                                                                                                                           from general budgets. The soundness of this practice
                                                                                                                                           cannot be denied. The application thereof, however, has
                KlLOMETRE OF ROADSa AND PER MOTOR VEHICLE IN THE                                                                           given rise to some uncertainty. The resources available
                          ECAFE                               REGION AND SOME OTHER COUNTRIES, 1958                                        for highway development from budgetary allocation can-
                                                                                                                                           not always be accurately predicted, nor can definite fore-
                                                                   (In United            States dollars)
                                                                                                                                           casts of governmental policies in this respect be made.
                                                                  Avtrage            1                             .4""a,e   annual
                                                                                                                                           This naturally leads to difficulties in the rational execution
                                                                     expend   itu,..                                  expenditure          of road works, as road facilities can only be
          ECAFE region                                                                       Outsidethe
                                                                                               regioll                         Per         effectively planned and executed on the basis of in.
                                                                  Perkm                                             P., km vehicle
                                                                                                                                           tegrated long-term programmes. Fitful            or sporadic
Ceylon.                  Republic                    of
                                                                    400        300         Australia.                 597      114          development is not conducive to the development of a
                                                                   461         170         Belgium                  1,131       99         sound and adequate system of highways. Since the roads
                                                                  1,852 677                Finland.                 1,448      490
                                                                                                                                            of local nature are also used by general traffic, central
                                                                    328 85                 France              ,     890       128
                                                                    283 303                Germany, Federal                                bodies frequently grant subsidies to local bodies concerned
 Federation                         of                                                     Republic of      ..,    4.440      251          with the construction and maintenance of such roads.
            Malaya                                            .   1.556        166         Italy                   1,143       121         This practice is followed in countries both within and
                                                                    638        350         New Zealand.         .816
 Iran..                  Republic                        of
                                                                                                                               111         outside the region.
                                                                  3.617        110         Portugal.                 843        74
                                                                  2.580 306                Spain     ."..""          332       132
                                                                               4]3                                                              Road funds
                                                                    476                    Switzerland.       ..2.819         304
 Pakistan                           ".'.'                           675        201         United      Kingdom 1.250           69                In most countries. the shortcoming of exclusive
 Philippines                                  ...                 2,247 444                United States..         1.797       157
                                                                  2.335 292                                                                budgetary nnancing is avoided either by programme alloca-
                                                                                                                                           tion. as provided for by legislation which permits a regular
            Republic                     of         ..            2,533 520                                                                and steady allocation of funds at special level for a period
                                                                                                                                           of years, or by special road funds which. in effect, amount
    Source: International Road Federation, Highway                                                                  'Expenditures,         to statutory provision of finance for lang-term highway
Road and Motor Vehicle Statistics for /958.
                                                                                                                                           development. Any comprehensiveprogramme of highway
      United Nations, Annual Bulletin, of Transport Statistics for
 Europe, /959. Road Administration in Japan, /957.
                                                                                                                                           development involves long range planning and stage deve-
      A    Comprehensive Evaluation    of Thailand's Transportation                                                                        lopment which are greatly facilitated if committed revenues
 System, /959.   Ceylon, Administration Report of the Commissioner                                                                         are available and not merely sums provided by annual or
 of Motor Traffic for /958.                                                                                                                biennial legislative budgetting. The method of financing
                       a Excluding                            unimproved roads.                                                            road works by road funds should encourage the careful
                                                                                                                                           and economic employment of the extensive productive
                                                                                                                                           resources absorbed in highway development.
       The figures of road expenditures per vehicle in
 different countries, table 9. would seem to show that the                                                                                       Road funds are built up in many ways. Road user
 general activities in the field of highway improvement in                                                                                 taxes are a principal source, though tolls, subsidies frolI1
 the countries of the region hav~ been aimed at connecting                                                                                 the general budget and taxes levied an ripari,an pI"operties
 potential traffic-generating economk centres, or improving                                                                                can also be assignedto the road f~nd. As shown in table
 existing links between such centres, rather than accom-                                                                                    12, road user taxes (especially motor fuel tax) are often
 modating the existing traffic.                                                                                                            a main source of nnance for road funds. It is also
                                                                                                                                           clear that. in most countries, taxes an motor fuel and oil
      Furthermore. the expenditure on roads per vehicle                                                                                    represent one of the main sources of funds for highway
 and per kilo metre of road in most countries of the region                                                                                development.

                          TABLE 10. THE CURRENT                                         OF
                                                                                                             Wit. eredit financing
                                                With currentreuenues                                                                                                   Toll financing
                                                                                            Issue~ b~                     Issue~ b~
              Countr~                                                                                                                     Issued b~
                                                 Road           General          N.eion.z          Local          Federal        State     Muni,i-        Public           Ezpr.ss       Bridge an~
                                                 funds         reuen,.es           GOllt.          GOllt.          GOllt.        GOllt.     palit~        roau              R'dYS           1..nMI
              China, Republic       of                               ,,--
                                                                     "                                                                                             '        -"

               India """"""'"                      cb                "              ---"                                                     "              --"
               japan                               "                 cb            "a               "               --"                                    "                -"
              Laos C
              Pakistan         .,                  "                 "
                                                                     "              " b                                                                                                      "

               Thailand                                              "

                Note: The available infonnation does not pennit to prepare the above table on the basis of construction and maintenance.
                " = applicable.                   --=     information not available.
                 -=     not applicable.            cb = Second by importance.
                 a Issued by the Highway Public Corporation.
                 b Issued exclusively for amortization and liquidation of existing toll bridges.
                 CAccording to recommendation of the Transport Advisory Council, in 1950.


                                                                                                    With c:re~it
                                                         With '~rrent reu.n~es                                                                       Toll fina_,ing
                                                                                      Issuedby      Issuedb~                                                        Olners
                CouNtry                                                                                       Is$",d by
                                                           Road           General Nalional Local Fe~eral Sidle Muni,i-                                   Brid,e Qnd
                                                                                                                                            Public Erpres$
                                                           f~nd$          regenues GOllt. GOllt. GOllt. Go.,.   pality                      roads wars tllnnel Parking Property
              Austria                    ,..:             "a                "
                                                                            "b       "c                                                                            "             --

              France                 ,...,                "b                "
                                                                            "d       "
                                                                                     -"            -;..          ---V                                                            ---

              Germany. Federal Republic of                "e                "          --"                                  "         "       ---"                                          -
              Netherlands.                                "r                \1
                                                                            "         "             "                                                              "             "          -
         --   United Kingdom.                                               "         -"                g

                "     = applicable.
                 -=     not applicable.
                --=      infonnation not available.
                a Special additional tax on fuel allocated to federal roads.
                b Only for maintenance.
                COnly for improvement and construction.
                d A special road investmentfund. the revenue of which representsa portion of the fuel taxes.
                e A special tax on gasoline gasoil and a portion of transportation tax are allocated to transportation.
                r A portion of taxes on road users is .llocated to road works.
                g Not to a substantial extent.

              In certain countries of the region. receipts from taxes                                        India, japan, Norway, the Philippines and Switzerland.
         on road traffic are generally less than the expenditure on                                          Japan, for instance, which used to finance its road projects
         highways, as shown in table 13.     On the whole, the tax                                           by a governmental appropriation from general tax revenue
         burden per vehicle in the countries of the region is higher                                         up to 1954, has established, under the Five-Year Road
         than in the countries outside the region.                                                           Improvement Programme, a temporary special fund for
                                                                                                             roads for five years by earmarking gasoline tax revenue
'"            A number of countries have more or less guaranteed                                             for roads.   Thus. a reasonable relationship between the
         the regular execution of road works by specifically ear-                                            road users burden and road improvement spending has
         marking certain resources for this purpose.    Wherever                                             been effected, road improvement accelerated,                              and it has
         such a system exists, road improvement works have pro-                                              become possible to establish a well-planned                                long-range
         gressed rapidly. This is the case for Austria,  France,                                             financial programme for road works.


                                TABLF, 12.          THE CURRENT SOURCESOF REVENUES OF HIGHWAYS IN SOME COUNTRIES OF THE ECAFE                                                                                                                 REGION
                                                                                                          C"stoms a"d
                                                                                                           e."cised',ties                   Taxes on
                                                                fro", stateaid roadH"rstaxes a
                                                         Reven"es                                            on fHel!,                      transport                    Pro~rty tax"s
                                                                                                          ,'ehid"s,parts,                  of goods&                      fo' ,oads                                                      OtlJ~,s
                                                                                                                a1!d                       pass.,'g,,'s
                    Cou"try                                                          Sp~eial                aceesso,i~s
                                                                                    RoadFMnd                                                                to            to
                                                     go to      laps-    non-                   Ge"e-       Gene.                                         gene.         g""~.                        ..
                                                                 oble    lops-
                                                                          oble     laps.   non. '01
                                                                                           laps- ,~.         ro/
                                                                                                      Road ,e-                            to
                                                                                                                                        road               ,al
                                                                                                                                                           'e.    to,o/ 'e'
                                                                                                                                                                ,oad          lolls '
                                                                                    able   able ve"ue fHnds ven"e                      jttnd              venu. fund venMe R~4s .,iig", Par~ints Othe"                                                                                           Loans

             Burma                ...,                            V                                 V                           V                                                                     V
            China,               Republic:     of                V                                  V                                                           V                                                                        V
             lndiab                                              V                          V       V        Vc                 Vd                              V                                     Ve                                 V                                      \'                  V
             Japan                             ,.                 V                         Vf      V                           V                               V                                                    V                   Vg                     V
            Laos        ,                    ,..                  V                                 V                           V
            Philippines                                                      V h            V                                                                                         V                                                  V                                      VI
             PakistanJ                                                                      V                 V
                 a Motor fuel tax, r"gintration, driver and road carriers' licences fees.
                 b Federal and state governments.
                 e Central Roads Fund obtained from customs and excise duty on motor spirit                                                          by the Central                                   Government                        and distributed                              to the
          state or provincial governments.
               d Including motor vehicle and spirit sale, wheel and enh'ance tax"s.
               e As betterment tax. levied on land benefiting from ilnprovement of highways.
                f Gasoline tax proceeds of 5 years set for road improvement.  Be~ides local road tax levied on ga~oline is allocaled 10 prefecture
          as their road fund.
               g An agency, the Japan Highway Public Corporalion, empowered to issue bonds and borrow from the Government. was ~et up
          especially for construction and operation of all toll road~.
               h Stale aid is not a permanent 50urce for highways. The Congress mayor         may not appropriate any amount for a fiscal year.
               i Internal revenue, tax on agricultural proceeds. gifts and inheritance tax.
               i According to recommendation of the Transport Advisory Council, 1950.
                    V   =        applicable.

           TABLE 13. TOTAL ANNUAL EXPENDrrURE ON ROADS AND                                                              In countries with developed  traffic. the need for more
             HIGHWAy-USER TAX REVENUES PER MOTOR VEHICLE IN                                                       and better roads has been met by the partial       allocation  of
                         VARIOUS COUNTRIES 1957                                                                   revenue   f rom roa d user taxes, a I th oug h It IS recognize d                                                                         ...
                                           (In United     State~ dollars)                                             that           a system                  under              which                the entire                       revenues                      derived                    from
                                                                                                                  road traffic   is systematically                                                               and exclusively   utilized for
                                                               Higkwoy us., t...~,                                highway     development   would                                                               be in conflict with the prin-
                                           Totol               Po,t      As              Road                     ciple               of         budgetary
                                          ture on
                                                               ear.     p.r-
                                                              mar~"d centage Reven",
                                                                                         ture                     were
                                                                                                                                 enslty IS ow,
                                                                                                                                                     un S aval 1 bl e f rom roa d
                                                                                                                                                                         ..unity.                 I
                                                                                                                                                                                                           In    the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 f           d
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   .                of the                region

                                           roads Annual        fo,     of road
                                         (million) revenMe ,oads ~rpendi- ",oto'
                                                                                p.,       per
                                                                                                                  taxes are not su {;Ien
                                                                                                                                         t t     t bl ' hd
                                                                                                                                             0 es a IS a roa         n
                                                                                                                                                                   fu d th t
                                                                                                                                                                           'a can
                                                   (million) (million)  tu,e   vehicle 1Ie~~C~:-                  support the necessary highway      development    and improve-
Burma                                        7.2        9.2             -128               301     235            ments.                      In          such           cases,                 special                grant                 must               be         given                 from
Ceylon'                                      8.4       17.7a            -210               197      94            the               general               budget,

Germany, Federal
  Republic of"                           773.1        109.5           72.6         14       34     240                                Tolls
 India'                                  180.6        170.0 a          8.0         94      442     470                               The            financing                         of       road             construction                               by         levying                    tolls
Japan'                                    282.5       186.0 b     186.0            66      155 c   235            has been employed                                           in various                        countries.                             The                 practices                     in

Philippines.                     ..105.0              48.5            42.7         46      360     468            meeting                    road              costs              through                  tolls             are,            however,                           divergent.
United                                                                                                                In            some         countries,                       such                as       India                   and         Philippines.                                  there
          Kingdom'               ..340.0            1,366.0             -402               253      63            has                been          a tendency                              towards               abandoning                                     the        toll          system
 United                                                                                                           in order to facilitate                                               the flow of traffic.  There    is, how-
   States.                      ...7,702.0          5.801.0     5,801.0            75       86      115           ever, a tendency to                                                 utilize this means of financing    in the
                                                                                                                  case                of     specialized                          road                 construction                          works                    such               as ex-
            Sourcc.:               'Admtnt.trahon         Report        of the Comml..ron        of motor                                             .                       h             U.
       'United  Nations Annual Bulletin of Tran.port Statistics for                                               Repu,bhc   of Germany,   France  and                                                                                       Japan,                   and                tunnels
  Europe 1959.                                                                                                    and bridges as in Norway   and Japan.
        'Basic Road Stati.fics of India, 1957.
        .Road Adminiafration in Japan 1957, and Road Bureau, Minis-
  try of Construction, Road. in Japan, 1956.
                                                                                                                                     Japan,                   . .or d er
                                                                                                                                                                                               0 mee
                                                                                                                                                                                                               t th
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         e ex enslve
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         t         .                n~e
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            d f
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             r im-

       .Highway     Department of the R. of the Philippines.                                                      provement                       of highways    and to supplement available  fiscal
      'Statiatical  abatract of the United State. 1959. IRF, Highway                                              resources                      established  in 1956 "the Japan Highway     Public
  Expenditures, Road and Motor Vehicle Statistics for 1958.                                                       C
                                                                                                                    orpora bIon,
                                                                                                                                            t ~"
                                                                                                                                    w f lC IS anGagency     a can h
                                                                                                                                                                        . .
                                                                                                                                                                        h h                                                  th t                               .                b           ds a s
      a Including cusloms and exci~e duties.                                                                         II                     h                    d Issue .1  on
                                                                                                                                                                             '                                                                                                                   .
       b M t
            0 or fueI taxes onIy.                                                                                 we    as ., orrow    rom t e   overnment   an    t us utllze                                                                                                                     pr!-
       c Including 3-wheelers and excluding motor cycles.                                                         vate capital for the construction    of roads.

      The system of tolls for the construction, maintenance                      otherwise it might be difficult, in the event of the need
and operation of roads offers several advantages, especiaHy                      arising, to meet additional expenditure for subsequentim-
where there is a lack of funds and a great need for high-                        provements if the committments in r~ard to a previous loan
way improvements and accelerated financing. A toll                               still continued. It is therefore clear that loans for high-
system,where feasible, must be self~sufficient. A success~                       way financing should be resorted to in special circumstances
ful toll system in a way, therefore, proves the economic                         only.
soundness a particular road construction which is heavily                               It is the normal practice to meet "loan annuities"
capitalized. A toll system may also, to some extent,                             (redemption and interest) from budgetary resources.
avoid undue discrimination favouring road transport against                      However, in order to reduce the burden on the ordinary
the railways. In addition, a system of toll levying is a                         taxpayer, such annuities might also be financed partly or
method of voluntari'ly channelling the flow of resources                         wholly by special tolls or taxes levied on the road users.
on the basis of demand and profitability, thus precluding
                                                                                      S!atilte    labour
the possibility of such resources being used for other pur~
poses. However, a toll system also has serious disadvan-                                Another method by which the road user may make
tages. This aspect will be discussed more fully later in                         a material contribution to the construction and mainten-
this document under the heading "Some important aspects                          ance of highways serving his locality is what may be
of highway financirig-(vi)    advantages and disadvantages                       termed "statute labour". The members of the com-
of financing of highway development by tolls".                                   munity, particularly in the more remote villages, provide
                                                                                  a certain number of working days and in some cases are,
     An alternative which has been tried out in some                             if necessary, assisted by their employees and vehicles. It
countries has been the levying of surtax on motor fuel in                        is also not unusual for a taxpayer to contrtbute the mone-
the area served by specialized highway facilities, such as                       tary equivalent of the working days to be provided on a
expressways.                                                                     predetermined basis. Although this systemis simple it has
        Loans                                         .                          been found that, with the rapid developmellt of highway
                                                                                 construction and maintenance techniques, casual and un-
       Loans, as a source of highway financing, have been
                                                                                 skilled labour provided by the ordinary citizens does not
 used particularly in the construction of large Sltructures
                                                                                 constitute a very useful contribution. Consequently, this
in primary improvements of roads by countries within
                                                                                 pr~ctice is confined to rural areas for the simpler types of
and outside the ;region. Thi,s method ha,sbeen adopted es.-
                                                                                 construction and maintenance.
pecially by local governments and small communities, but
sometimes also by national governments. The F deral                                    This system has, to some extent, been utilized to
Republic of Germany, Belgium and the Philippines Gov~                            construct rural roads in India under the community deve-
emments, for instance, resorted to loans for financing of                        lopment programme of "Self-Help".      Although in many
highways, the service of the loans is borne by the general                       countries the principle has been recognized, it hils been
budget in each case. The financing of road works by                              applied only on a small scale.
public borrowing has been used as a means of catching                                  Road      tax on land
Up, in a relatively short period, with overdue improvements                              Funds for road construction and maintenance come
when the authorities decided to transform a road network                          not only from the direct beneficiaries but also from those
to a better type of road pavement, with higher capacity                          to whom indirect benefits accrue from the development of
because of present or anticipated heavy increase in traffic.                     roads. Road tax on land is one of the sources used for
 In the United States of America, for instance, the accumu~                      raising additional resources for road development. The
lated postwar need for highway modernization, and the                            value of a property tends to increase with the development
ever inereasing traffic demand, forced many states to                             of highway facilities in the neighbourhood and it is logical
 accept an accelerated highway development programme                             to expect the owners of the properties to pay for this
which contemplates a high eapital outlay in a short period.                      enhanced value, to the extent that it has re:sulted directly
This hlas caused an increasing trend among the states                             from the construction of the road in the vicinity. Only
towards the use of credit fin8!ncing. During the five-year                        few countries have considered recovering from the property
period, 1946-1950, the states, counties and other local                          owners the land appreciation due to the construction of a
un~ts issued bonds for ov,ertwo thousand million (2,186) 1
                                                                                  new road or to the improvement of the old network. In
dollars, using various forms of credit financing. There is.                      some countries with highly developed economies high~y
however, a tendency to avoid high debt-service charges                            authoriti'es in urban areas have resorted to expropriation
associated with toll-revenue bonds by the use of general                          not only of the land required for the roads but also of
obligation or limited obligation bonds secured by road                           other nearby land which might be used for residential and
Usertaxe& and other pledged revenues.                                             industrial purposes. After completion of the road, the
     It must, of course, be remembered that to the adop~                         land is resold at a considerable profit, which has helped
tion of creilit financing as a normal method involves a                          to Jinance the road construction itself. Although theore-
considerable financial risk. It is sound practice to rely                         tically there can be no valid objection to such a procedure,
on current revenues to meet current requirements, since
I     'Public   Roads.   A   Journal   of   Highway   Research   (October
                                                                                  it would not in most cases be justified, unless the com-
                                                                                  munity thus affected was in an extremely affluent position
    952; Washington
                  D.C.).                                                         and could pay for the improved facilities. In some cases,

there appears to be.a possibility for levying a special tax     of the sub-grade soil arid consequently aTe less costly to
on land, the value of which has increased because of the        build.  Their maintenance. however. calls for a periodic   ,
construction of a new road or the improvement of the            renewal of coating the cost of which is far from negligible.
existing ones. If direct taxation by a new levy on the
                                                                      A country. therefore. in deciding to modernize a
appreciated value of a land cannot be made, existing land
                                                                road network by bituminous coating. should also take into
taxes might possibly increase.
                                                                 account the cost imposed upon its future budget through
     Other sources                                              indispensable periodic resurfacing without which the pave-
                                                                ment will eventually be lost.
      There are other sources currently used to provide
funds for highway developments. such as special taxes or              Roads serving .light traffic need generally not be
levies and contributions of a non-monetary nature, such         surface-coated. Their construction is very, economical.
as donations of land. or the supply of free labour on a         but they necessitatemaintenance involving a relatively sub-
self-help basis.                                                stantial expenditure that should ,be taken into account as
                                                                adding to the annual costs. Coating this type of roads,
      Special taxes, in some countries, have been imposed
                                                                where traffic is light. no doubt improves their quality. but.
on parking. not only to ensure provision of adequate park.
                                                                contrary to what is often thought. does not reduce the
ing facilities. but also in an attempt to augment resources
                                                                maintenance cost of the road because the coating itself is
for the development of highway facilities. In certain
                                                                expensive to maint:ain. These ruads should. therefore, be
countries. receipts derived from roadside publicity and
                                                                improved and constantly maintained by periodic regarding
 from the concession of roadside amenities, petrol stations.
                                                                and spreading new surfacing materials in order to com-
workshops and restaurants, have ,been assigned to road
                                                                pensate for wear and tear and to stabilize the surface.
maintenance. In addition, a few minor sources should be
                                                                 In the region. the percentage of this type of roads is very
mentioned. The sale of agricultural piodu<:ts obtained
                                                                high. and their immediate conversion into surfaced roads
from the exploitation of land and trees along the roads.        would be very burdensome.              .
and fines paid to the road traffic police operating on the
roads have also been used to meet the <:ostof road main.
                                                                     Prime   importance of maintenance
                                                                   MaintenaJIlce work, that is keeping the highway
Some important aspectsof highway financing                   assets,including installations, in sound and safe condition
      In the light of the information made available by the is of prime importance and the highest priority must
governments of the region and outside, as given at annexes  naturally be given to maintenance financing programmes.
 I and 2 to this report, it would seem that the following    It is obvious that neglected or sub-standard maintenance
                                                            will eventually be more expensive to the community. as
points should be considered in connexion with 'highwayfinancing.
                                                            it will ~nevitably lead to higher repair costs. The up-keep
                                                             of a road will have to be in proportion to the importance
      Road expenditure                                       of the particular road in the national highway system,
      Different methods of finan<:ing may be adopted for    especially when funds are limited. When consideration
the various ty'pes of road works. It is therefore essential is being given to the improvement or moderniz'ation of a
that each country should clearly distinguish and define     specific network. due account must also be taken of the
road works in order to secure a proper distribution of      resulting increase in maintenance expenditure necessaryto
resources, a balanced execution of road works and an        keep the highway in good condition.
effective utiliz'ation of available resources. This is es.           Various argument$ have been adduced for and
pecially important for the implementation of 'planned           against the financing of highway development by public
expenditure, and for the avoidance of negligence of             borrowing. Although this method of financing has its
maintenance in favour of spectacular <;onstiuction works,       advantages for highway development. it is undesirable that
and expensive periodi<: repairs resulting from neglect of       highway maintenance costs should be met from borrowed
regular and normal maintenance.                                 funds.
      It is not possible to give 'a yardstick for the proper          It is not uncommon in some countries to effect re-
ratio between maintenance and construction expenditure.         ductions, as a measure of economy, in funds already
since it depends on many varying factors. The cost of           allocated for maintenance work, but this practice can have
constru<:tion and maintenance of different types of roads       serious consequencesin the long run. Again, in other
also differs considerably. depending on factors such as the     cases,funds allocated for maintenancehave been cut down
geography, ~eology. location of the sources of materials.       in order to accelerate the pace of improvement of the net-
wa.ge index and price of fuel.         Concrete roads, for      work. Appropriations of a part of the maintenance funds
example, serving heavy traffic and warranted by it. are         to new construction have also been resorted to. Such a
costly to construct and require little maintenance for a        measure may result in a slight increase in the total length
good many years provided that they ,have been properly          of the road network or in a greater length of higher-grade
constructed. Flexi'ble pavement: mlacadam sta,bilized           road surface, but, it is undesirable because it will in~
foundation-covered with certain surface coating materials       evitably lead to a general deterioration of the existing road
etc., on the ~her hand. a:re less sensitive to deformations     surfaces.

      Percentage    necessary    to   ensure   proper   maintenance     between empty weight and average gross weight of a given
     The portion of credits al.located to the maintenance               vehicle of similar structure have led certain countries to
and improvement of road networks varies considerably                    adopt the empty weight system.
from country to country. The !'atio should be considered                      It is interesting to note that the burden of registration
in relation with the nature of the road works, the im-                  fees, though vary~ng with the weight or capacity of vehicles.
portance of the traffic and the state of development of road            is not in direct relation to the service rendered by highways.
equipment. Besides, the expenditure on road construction                Thus. motor vehicles paying the smallest annual tax often
varies considerably with the amount of earth works and                  pay the largest tax per ton~kilometre, while those paying
 superstructure,whereas the maintenance cost of roadways                a seemingly large annual tax often pay the lowest tax
and its dependencies-shoulders,  trenches is much less valria-          per ton-kilometre. This usually applies also to the other
ble. It is therefore not possi'bleto establish a well defined           highway user taxes. The point is illustrated by a study
proportion between the construction expenditure on a road               carried out in the United States of America of the highway
 and maintenancecosts.                                                  user taxes contr~buted by vehicles of different type and
                                                                        weight groups, as shown in the following table.
      Means   of   augmenting     maintenance       budgets
                                                                            TABLE    14.     ESTIMATED   AVERAGE    STATE      HIGHWAY       USER    TAXES
     In most countries, the maintenance of roads is                                 PAID IN    1955 PER VEHICLE,        PER VEHICLE-MILE       AND
financed through the general budget. If the budgetary                                                    PER   TON-MILE
resourcesare not sufficient, they may be supplemented:
                                                                                                                       Av.rag. ral' of pa)/m'rlll
      1. By requesting those who cause exceptional wear
         and tear on the road surface, such as heavy or                                                     p" v.hi..l. P.r v.iIid.-mil.P.r lorl.mil.
                                                                                    Type                       (USS)           (US "'rlll)      (US ""'11)
         regular transport by factories, quarries and indus-
                                                                        Passenger cars...                          50             0.54              0.26
         trial concerns, to participate in the appropriate                                1.:__-:_--
                                                                        All trucks and combll."I1U'"            131               1.21              0.18
         additional maintenance costs.                                  Truck combination "Iun"
                                                                        Buses.                                  470                1.85             0.20
     2. l;3y utilizing statute lal:\our in certain rural areas                                    _I__~..       881               2.25              0.12
         to clean ditches and spread or supply road                         All   vehicles                         64              0.67             0.23
                                                                                Source: SamsonE., "State Highway-User taxespaid in 1954
     3. By obtaining subsidies from central bodies.                         and 1955 on vehicles of various types and weight groups", in
     4. By obtaining compensation funds, based on                           Public Roads, (February 1958).
         neigh'bourly help among local communities.                               The analysis of the above table shows that average
                                                                            tax payments per vehicle have the tendency to increase
      Taxes   imposed    on     highway   traffic
                                                                            sharply with size and weight. But on a ton-mile basis
       T axes can be imposed on all traffic circulating within              the trend is reversed.      The passengervehicles average
 the country as a whole or on traffic using particular routes
                                                                            0.26 cent compared with 0.12 cent per ton-mile for the
 or structures such as !bridges and tunnels. The vehicle
                                                                            heavy vehicles.
 and the motor fuel used to provide convenient items for
                                                                                  Attempts to achieve an equitable division of the tax
 taxation which can produce substantial revenue with con-
                                                                            burden. among vehicles of different sizes and weights have
 venience and certainty. The motor fuel tax and motor
                                                                            not been successful. as the allocation of highway costs to
 vehicle licence fees are, therefore, two essential elements
                                                                            different users requires the measurement of highway costs
 of the highway t'axation systems. Motor fuel taxes con-
                                                                            occasioned by different types of vehicle. So far it has
 stitute the most important single source of highway
                                                                            not been possible to find a workable method for such
 revenue. As the tax payment is a small fraction of the
  cost of owing and operating a motor vehicel, the co~sump-                 calculations.
  tion of fuel appears to be relatively inelastic in relation                     An attempt has. however. been made by the Group
 to prices. The tax therefore produces substantial revenue.                  of Experts on Track CO5ts1to determine the nature and
        Motor vehicle licence fees-another form of tax on                   magnitude of the highway costs occasioned exclusively by
  highway traffic and a source of highway revenue-are                       the movement of each particular category of motor vehicle.
 determined on various, bases, such as weight, horse power,                 and to apportion the cost among the various categories of
  age, flat r,ate or a com'bination thereof in differen't countries.        motor vehicle. The report endeavours to compare the
  For passengercars, the vehicle weight is the most widely                  costs occasioned by 8-ton axles. It concludes that. at
  used criterion. For commercial vehicles, the gross loaded                 the present stage of research. there is no really satisfactory
  Weight is the basis most frequently used. Those methods                   method of determining the shares of the various categories
  which rely on more accurate weight factors such as gross                  of vehicles in the responsibility for highway construction
  Weight and axle weight are subject to the weakness that                   and maintenance costs that are occasioned by the special
.they depend on the submission of correct reports by                        characteristics of certain vehicles. The outcome of an
  operators.      The use of empty weight as a basis for                    ~periment2 carried out in the Un~ted States-in order to
  graduated licence fees is also open to serious objection, as              establish. among other things. maximum permissible
  loaded weight and axle weight are probably the chief                          ""Report to the Inland Transport Committee on Track Colt
  factors determining the relative wear on highways. How-                   for Motor Traffic" (W /TRANS/226.     W /TRANS/GVL/15).
   eVer, the simplicity of administration of empty weight                   31 August 1959.
                                                                                ."United States Test Highway" in State Transport Review.
  taxes and the existence of a high degree of correlation
                                                                            (Bombay; April 1959).

 dimensions and weights of vehicles to be operated on roads               It should however be remembered that, although
 -may,      however, provide some basis for an equitable            financing by toll has a number of disadvantages, these
 distribution of tax burden among road users.                       are not insurmountable.
        Ton-mileage, based on weight carried and distance                  It is generally accepted that tolls should cover only
 covered, reflects more accurately the actual use of the             part of the advantages offered by the expressway,
highways by different types of vehicles. It has defects,             because, if the toll charges were equivalent in monetary
 but there is a trend toward wide acceptance of the ton-mile        value to the gain of the user of the expressway, he would
as the 'best available unit of measure of tax responsibilities.      not be very interested in using it, particularly as some of..
The distribution of the tax burden by the combined system            the advantages may not always be fully realized. Also,
 of motor fuel tax, registration fees and mileage rates,             advantages are not always the same, they vary according
measuresin terms of ton-miles, may be the most acceptable           to the circumstances. When the regular highway is con-
method. Registl'ation fees and fuel tax are, however,               gested during peak hours, the need to use an expressway
regressive,while weight-distance rates are progressive. In          is greater than at a non-peak period. However, the rate
order to make the system as a whole progressive or even              of the toll levied will have to be more or less fixed,
proportional. on a ton-mile basis, the weight-distance tax           although variations might 'be possible during certain months
would have to constitute a much larger element in the               'or days in a month.
system, or the ton-mile rates would have to be graduated
                                                                          Having regard to the arguments for and against toll
more sharply, or both. The principle of the reported
                                                                    levies, it might be desirable to decide upon mixed financing,
ton-mileage tax is widely accepted but is difficult to
                                                                    that is partly from community funds and partly from the
enforce. Nevertheless, the highway user tax, paid by
                                                                    tolls levied on the road users. The subsidy to road
motor vehicle operators for the service of highways.
                                                                    construction might be provided either as a lump sum, grant,
produces not only substantial revenues with convenience
                                                                    or as a part of the annuities for the servicing of the loan.
and certainty but may .also be designed to remove all or
                                                                    Contributions to the annmties themselves might be varied
the major su,bsidyelementsinvolved in government provision
                                                                    as the traffic increases.
of highways and thereby promote the economic allocation
of resources.                                                             Financing   by loans

      Advantages and disadvantages of financing of high-                   Financing by loans should be resorted ~nly in the
       way development by tolls                                     case of large-scale development projects. Loans not only
                                                                    accelerate the pace of road construction, but also make
      .Important roads and special structures are often
                                                                    it possible to undertake large-scale construction without
financed by a system of tolls. Although a toll levy can
                                                                    delay. The advantages of such an accelerated programme
effectiyely service a loan raised to provide a spe~iaI high-
                                                                    lie in the reduction of vehicle operating costs, accident
way facility. there are many arguments against this system,
                                                                    costs, and, lastly, of time. All these benefits will be
among which the following might be mentioned:
                                                                    realized sooner, (and their accumulated value over a
       (a) projects hecome more complicated and costly,             given time will be much larger) than they would be
             as all traffic must pass through a turnpike of         under long-term current revenue. It also eliminates the
             control point requiring costly and special layouts.    costs of stop-gap improvements that would be necessary
       (b) A toll expressway may not d;rectly serve the             under a long-term current revenue programme.              In
            entire area traversed by it, as certain users may        addition, the judicious use of credit financing in highway
            be compelled to make a long detour in order to          in}provements will not only result, in savings to vehicle
            have access to the high-speed expressway.               operators through reduced operating costs but also accelerate
       (c) The organization required to enforce collection          the growth of highway transport.
             of tolls will itself absorb a portion of the                 Loan financing automatically implies the appropria-
            receipts.                                               tion of certain specified resources for the servicing of the
       (d) A toll on a new expressway might have the                loans and for redemption. These allocations might be
            effect of making a nuffi,ber of users continue to       made either from the general ,budget, or from the
            use the existing road. Such "traffic evasion"           proceeds to special taxes such as those on fuel, or from
             may, among other things, cause serious incon-          proceeds derived from the use of the facility itself, such
            venience to traffic and reduce toll receipts, while     as tolls, parking fees, etc.
             adversely affecting the economic efficiency of
                                                                           Loans are raised in different ways, and the period of.
            the expressway itself.
                                                                    redemption will depend upon th~ total of the loans to be
      .(e) Progressive construction, that is construction           serviced. For example, the duration of .loans serviced
            section by section, in order to avoid bottlenecks,      from the general budget and of those to be met from the;
            is not possible. Under toll financing, the whole        proceeds of special taxation might be different from the"
            work must be carri~d out as a single operation          life expectancy and industrial amortization of the facility.
            in order to realize the benefits of a toll levy.        The rate of interest on a loan will primarily depend upoP;
      (f)   Any charge will prevent some potential users            the ordinary money market rate of the country, though
            from travelling on the r~ad, and therefore reduce       i,t might be slightly lower in the case of loans raised by ,ai"
            the total social 'benefit from the road.                public authority. Loans may be drawn either from publ!cc

funds with the help of banks, or directly from the treasury.         by special road taxation. This practice has generally led
The second alternative entails no risks. The servicing               to excellent re'sults and is to be recommended.         The
charge on a loan at any specified time is usually made up            existence of a special road fund will also give the highway
of sums allocated for the progressive repayment of the               planners confidence to develop a long-term programme.
debt and of the interest on the unpaid part of the loan.             Economic feasibility of road works
A debt may be repaid either by the progressive constitution
                                                                             It is axiomatic that road improvement works must
 of a reserve fund or by partial payments every year.
                                                                      only be financed if such expenditure can be economically
When the rapid expansion of road traffic is expected, a
                                                                     justified. It is however not always possible to evaluate,
progressive or deferred system of repayment may be
                                                                      in monetary terms, the benefits accruing from a particular
desirable, but; if the forecast of traffic increase does not
                                                                     network of highways and consequentlythe economic benefits
materialize, seriou5 financial repercussionsmay be expected.
                                                                      can only 'be estimated. The tenth International Congress
As a rule, loans for the financing of highw,ay developments
                                                                      of the Permanent International Association of Road
should not be resorted to if other means are available.
                                                                     Congresses which met in Istanbul in 1955, concluded, in
Nevertheless, experience has shown that, with judicious
                                                                      principle, that the economic justificatrcm for la highway
managemen~, financing of highway developmentby loans
                                                                      project should be decided on the basis of its dilrect contri-
can be helpful in ensuring rapid development. On the
                                                                      bution to the national revenues. It will be a,greed
whole, it seems that smaller communities make u'se of
                                                                      that it is rather difficult to make accurate calculations.
loan for highway development more frequently than the
                                                                      In general, the following considerations should be applied:
                                                                           In the case of a road construction project in an
The need to programme construction and maintenance
                                                                     area which has so far had little or no other means of
work and to plan the allocation of resources
                                                                     transport, the problem is one of estimating the direct
      In order to improve the highway network, it is essen-          economic b8l1efits, such as lowered transport costs, possi-
tial to carry. out a number of improvement works. The                bility of expleitation of new resources, and i~creased
following are the more imporl?ant of such improvements:              economic activity. The indirect advantages which will
       (a) the construction of roads according to standards          follow the opening up of a new area after the building of
            suitable to the traffic requirements in those            the rOlad ,are also amen,able to direct e~aluation, and,
            regions where they do not exist;                         often, social considerations come into the picture as well.
       (b) the improvement of existing highways by the               However, care must be exercisedto ensure that only factors
            lessening of gradients; the ,construction of bye-        of immediate relevance are taken into account.
           passes to avoid 'busy urban thoroughfares,                      Technical considerations such as the determination
           widening of narrow roads, improvement to, or              of the maximum axle load permissible on the road will
            removal of, dangerous points;                            have to be specially examined, bearing in mind the fact
      (c) the construction of improved types of highways             that, the heavier the permisstble axle load, the lower
           to replace old roads (this might include con-             will be the price of transport. This advantage is, to
           struction of expressways to facilitate flow of            some extent, offset by the heavier initial cost of construction
          traffic).                                                  of the road. Consideration must also be given to the
                                                                     choice of the right -type of pavement to ensure economic
       For the effective implementation of improvement pro-          operation of vehicles -utilizing the road and the longest
jects, it is essential to draw up a long-tenD programme,
                                                                     possible service life of the highway. .
adequately phased, in order that consl?ruction   and improve-
ment works can be carried out progressively withi,n the              Cost of construction of highway networks in developed areas
available financial resources. It seems hardly necessary                  The problems of road construction and improvement
to emphasize that a thorough survey of a road construction           in a densely populated area which already possesses     an
project will not only avoid waste, but will also rule out the        extensive network of highways are distinct from those
construction of highway network unsuitable foT the type of           of highway development in the more sparsely populated
traffic which it has to carry. A thorough and a compre-              areas. In fact, the main problem is one of conversion or
hensive survey will assist in proper planning and ph'asing           replacement of existing roads ,by higher ty_pesurfaces for
of development work, and will give rise to considerable              heavier and faster traffic. The economic justification for
savingsbecause of a more judicious allocation of resources.          such improvement of 'a road network is mainly in the
In France, highway development plans m,ake a distinction             benefits to be obtained ,by the road user after completion
between normal improvements designed to meet growing                                1
                                                                     of a scheme. The main advantages flowing from
traffic requirements spread over a period of years (usually          improvements of a highway network can be enumerated
ten years), and future improvement works for the expected            as follows:
traffic increase on a long-term basis. Another important
factor to be borne in mind in financing highway develop-                   Reduction in cost of traffic
 l11entworks is the need to ensure regularity in the allocation          When the new facilities become available, there
 of resources during the entire period of execution of the           may be a shortening of the distances between two locations
programme.        To ensure regularity in the allocation of          -   1 "Economics   of   Highway   Engineering"   (ECAFE   document
 funds, many countries have established road funds financed          E/CN.II/TRANS/Sub.2/18).

served by ,the highway. Moreover, the advantages derived           conditions, since the economic value of a possible advan1Jage
from an im,provementwhich would relieve congestion and             in the distant future is not the same today. In oth~r
ease gradients can easily be evaluated. If the average             words, we have to discount the future e(:onomicvalue of
number of vehicles using a particular road is ascertained,         the advantage. It would also be borne in mind that the
the reduction of traffic expenditure can be calculated by          value of an advantage may change w1t'h each year
the advantages noted above. Anot'her advantage that                follow,ing the increase in traffic.
might result from .. improvement would be a change in
 h              d d an                                                   Th f II     .    f   I        b     d t     I I    h
t e pattern an
    ,       f h
                       b '      f   ffi b       h      '
                   IStri utlon 0 tra c etween t e various
                        k h' h       ld I d       .k     d
                                                                            e I 0 oWIng ormu a may e use 0 ca cu ate t e
                                                                   present va ue 0 future advantages: (A)
sections 0 t e networ w IC wou           ea to qulc er an
 easier flow.                                                                                             1           n
                                                                                   A=Ag(                          )
     Saving in time                                                                                   1 +     r
       It is well known that relatively few PeQplemake use         where Ag is the gross advantage matenalizing in the year
of a highway solely for pleasure. Road users too, are              nand r is the rate of interest.
particularly sensitive to a saving in travel time which may                     "                                 .
 follow an imp,rovement of the highway. However, it is                 , Ag WIll be different for each year, as It depen?s, ~n
unjustifiable to give too high an economic value to the            varying factors s~ch .as the amount of tra.ffic. The Initial
time saving factor. The importance of the time factor              cost of construction IS to be compared with the ,sum total
varies with the route selected and the total duration of           of all the adV1antages  (A) calculated for a period up to
the journey. Taking this factor into account and the               the year in which it is e~ected that Ag will have become
average rate of increase of speed resuJting from the               negligi,ble,because of obsolescenceor for any other reason.
improvement, the valu.e of. th~ averag~ time sav,ed can be                If the series of discounted advantages are represented
calc';1lated. T~e $aVlng -In time v~rle~ according to the           by Ai, and the useful life of the asset by N, then the
state of congestlo~ on the r~ad and IS different at the pe~k        total d~scountedadvanltage which is to be compared with
and non-peak periods. It IS therefore ne(:essaryto o,btam           the cost of construction is
a mean value for this factor .by making a number of
calculations corresponding to the different volumes of traffic                                 i =   N
at various parts of the day.                                                                   ~     Ai
     Increasing safety                                                                         i =    1
      A rngher degree of highway safety can be achieved                     The calculation is further complicated as the useful
by a systematic improvement of the so~called "black-spots",         life of the road v,aries according to the local conditions
which have been proved statistically to be dangerous points,         (local roads, expressways, etc.) .Maintenance            and
and by incol1poratingin the highway certain safety features.        rehabilitation costs during the service life of the road will
This h,as been conclusively proved in the case of express-          also have to be taken into account. Finally, the rate of.
ways wh'ich have resulted in as much as 60 per cent                 interest must be determined too, in relation to that of
reduction in ,the num'ber of accidents. In addition to these        other pUJblicinvestments such as electric power, ii'Ng:ation.
social benents, there are economic advantages which can             and so on, for which the government is also responsible.
be directly evaluated. A calcula'tion of the financial              When a general idea of the econom,ic    value of the highway
loss, resulting from fatalities. injuries or other material          facility has ,been obtained, it should be possible to choose
 damage, caused by accidents, as well as from the higher             from among a num:berof different projects under considera-
insurance costs which will be charged, will indicate the            tion. Then fiI1lanoing programme ,of the government,
 monetary benefits of the improvement of the highway                 suitable priority for finance should be given by the govern-
 on this score.                                                      ments to the project chosen. Detailed calculation in
                                                                     which the relative importance of compe'ting schemes is
Appreciation of land values                                          examined, becomesvery impoi1tantwhen financing is planned
     Although the construction of a modern highway                   by toll levies. The problem becomes even more difficult
need not necessarily bring about an appreciation in the              when the complete transformat~on of an entire netwo:k
values of neigh:bouring properties, but this is sometimes            is envisaged. as improvements to a particular road will,
the case. particularly in suburban areas where housing or            inev~tably draw traffic from otl]er roads in the vicinity. ;J
industrial development is liable ,to 'take place. This factor                                                                     '
 can aJso be taken into account.                                    Indirect benefits
                                     .In                                   many cases, the indirect benefits from an over~allc
 Realization of benefits and traffic forecasts                      1mprovement of highway facilities ~re not taken into"
       U'sually, the advantages derived from a road im-              accoun~, as it is held that in any case practically any,;"
 provement tend to increase progressively from year to year         improvement in any field of economic activity yields;,
 as the traffic grows. In estimates of the value of a               inwrect benefits of some kind, and that it is therefore not""
 future advantage, it is essential to base the calculation           right to consider only th'oseadvantages,accruing from road"
 on the 'present value' of such an advantage under existing         works in isola,tion.                                     "/,~,


     The need for         adequate statistical   information   in planning                on a continuing basis. Such funds serve a useful
     highway         development                                                          pul'pDse, since they enable highway engineers to
                                regarding the Mture and density                           plan long~term highway development programmes
     of the traffic which will make use of the facilities provided                        with a definrte assurrancethat adequate finance
     will permit proper planning and phasing of the highway                               will be avai1able. It is suggested that counl1nes
     development programm~ and thus allow the actual traffic                              which do not have such a fund should give con~
     needsto be met in the most economical.manner. Statistical                            sideration to the ,possibility of establishing one.
     surveys and periodic highway ti'affic <:ensuses      including                   5. In some cases it migh/t be expedient to resort to
     detailed informa~ion of the number and nature of highway                             financing highway project.s ~th pub1ic loans,
     accidents are obviously very importan!t. Such studies are                            in order to supplement regular budgetary aUoca~
     a prerequisite to the proper planning of hmghway                                     ,tions Iprovided that interest and redemption rates
     development.                                                                         do not impose too high a burden in relation to
                                                                                          the sum invesred.
                V.                   AND CONCLUSIONS
                      RECOMMENDAT,IONS                                                     llhe choice and the rate of tax~ imposed on
                                                                                            l'oad traffic mus;tbe fixed with great care and in
           In the light of the information made available by
                                                                                           particular take ,account of the incidence thereof
     the governments of the coul1ltJries the region and of
                                                                                           on the transport economy.
     current trends in m~hods of highway financing reflected
     in the analysis of the situation oUitsidethe region, it would                     7. The     recorery of land appreciation affecting
      appear that the following recommendarionscan be made:                                private proper,ty is a metlhod of financing Wlhioh
                                                                                           has so far not ,been mUlChu~ed. However, in
          .,.        In ,the financing of highway projects, economic
                                                                                           celtJaincases,substanitialfund,s may be obtainable
                     soundness must be the guiding principle.          In
                                                                                           ,from this source.
      .order                to reduce the total cost.of highway projects,
                     it is essentialto ensure that complete preliminary                    Financing by tolls, which has the advantaf6'eof
                     surveys alre ca,rried out ,and that the projects are                  creating a new source of revenue independent of
                     ex~cuted in the most efficient. manner.                               general budget, makes iIt pos~'~bleto finance
                                                                                           important projects pr,omptly. There are, how~
                2.   Suffic~entfinanoial ,allocations for tlle maintenance
                                                                                           ever, cel'tain disadvantages in ~his system.
                     of existing roads must be made, and that.
                     ,according to priority.                                               Al1Fmal-drawn vehicles play an important part
                                                                                           in providing transport facilitJi:esin the countri~
                3.   Improvement and construction projects should be
                                                                                           of the region, and the wear and tear caused on
                     based on integrated phased programmes, and
                                                                                           the road surfa<:;eby this meth'od of transport
                     strictly adhered to. Long..term highway financing
                                                                                           is considerable. In view of the fact that these
                     pro&,ramm~sshould be in dilfect ,relation to tech-
                                                                                            ~mportant users of highway facilities conitribute
                     nical pLanning, and designed to ensure a high
                                                                                           to a large ext,entto the increase in h,ighway main~
                     degree of con!tJinuity.
                                                                                           !tenance costs, it is suggested that this form of
                4.   The funds allocated t'O highway development                           tr,ansport should also be subject~d to some kind
                     should perhaps be on a non-lapsable basis. In                          of taxation. The level of t!he tax rate may,
                     some countries, it !has been the practice to estab-                    however, have to depend largely on the ability
                     lish a special fund on a non-lapsing basis in                          of owners of such vehicles to pay and it will also
                     order to finance highway developmentprogrammes                        be affected by policy oonstderations.

                                                 D. Traffic         safety        in Washington
                                       (E)Ctract from an a:r.tidel in Traffic Quarterly, New York,          JuJy, 1960).

             The metropolitan area of Washington wi,th a popu-                    gramme.' It has ilts standing committees: traffic engineering,
      lation of approximately 2,133,000 ihad a traffic accident                   poli{;e enforcem,em, driver 1icensing, vehicle inspection,
       ev~ry thirteen minutes, an injury from a traffic accident                  courts, public education, leg~slation, civil defense.
       every 42 minutes, a traffic death every 2 days, and                               The improvement of safety was the result of patient,
      econ()m~closs from traffic accidents ~n excess of thirty                    considered and persistent action, and ~h'e council can
       million US$ annually.                                                      point to such results as:
            In 1952 there was established the Metropoli~an                                  (i) greater uI1Tformity in. police enforcement of
      Area Traffic Council, composed of represerna,tives theof                                  traffic regulations,
      local 'gov,erning'bodies, county and c~ty managers, officials                        (~i) establishmentof area~wide oohools and cou'rses
      of 'police, traffic, motor vehicle, and public /Worksdepart-                              in po1i;ce traffic enforcement and traffic
      ments, jud~s, stage officials and legislators, and ot!hers.                               engineering for police officers and traffic
      T'he coun(;il ;acts according Ito the annual action pro-                                  engineers employed by Washington area
                1 By Anthony   L. Ellison.                                                       jurisdictions,


        (iii)an effective communications system and co-                              When a driver gets to twelve points be is out. He
             ordinated emergency procedures for heavy                          loses his privilege of driving. Points received for
             snowfalls and other traffic emergencies,                          individual violations are erared from the d,river's record
        (iv) adopti'on of point system and fe-registration                     three years from the date of the offense, The driver
             of drivers in M,aryland,                                          improvement process is thus continual. The foremo&t
         (v) area-wide co-operation in the "Traffic Court"                     safety value of the p'oint systemis educational.
             television programme, roa.dside s'afety posters,                                                             in
                                                                                    On 15 February 1960, was inSlt~tJuted th'e depart-
             and other forms of traffic education,                             ment of motor vehicles a new and more intensive test on
        (vi) annual organization of large-scale col1lferences                  the rules of the £Toad,and a major Sltep forward Was
              on metropol~tan Washingiton traffic problems                     also made in checking the psychological qualifications for
             to :focus publGc atten!tion on area traffic needs,                safe driving of new applicants.
       (vii) preparati,on of a u'I1!iform manual providinlg
                                                                                     If the applicant fails 1!he atl:itude test, he must
              for standardization of the area's traffic signs
                                                                               attend the District of Columbia Traffic School and then
             and s~gnals.
                                                                               return for re-examination.
     Tl1~ main putpose of driving licensing was to grant
                                                                                     The Traffic School ,is conducted four days weekly
l1heprivilege of driving only to those who:
                                                                               in daily three-h,our morning classes, Students attend two
       ( 1) 'are physically ca:pahle of safe driving,                          weekly sessions for a tot,al of six hou'rs. The school
       (2) possesses  knowled'ge of the rules of the road,                     motto is: "At!titude-Skill-Knowledge:        Key to Safe
            :and                                                               Driving".   To complete ~e cou'rse successfully, the
       (3) have a proper driving aJtJtitu,de.                                  student must pass a written final examination, He then
    -Suspension ,or revocation of the motor opell"ator.s                       graduates with a written certificate.
permit to remove irresponsible drivers from the road was                              Re-examination of all drivers once every six years
the crux of the progr,amme. Th~s auth,ority is an                              ha~ not yet been esl1a:blished. Re-examination of drivers
 extremely effective weapon for officials who have to deal                     who re--applied for a pe1'mit after having had t'heir
with the IJorblem, ,it is even more effective than a fine                      privilege of driving revoked was introduced. It is also
or a j'ail sentence.                                                           proposed to require re-examina~ions according to the
       To 'identify the unfit driver, t!he "poin!t system" was                 schedule:
introduced. A careful record of each driver's traffic                               Age 65-    ~ nbten r
                                                                                               ,-. '--      -      r    r ."c ___5 ~-"
                                                                                                         test on rules ot tne road and
violations and accident was k~pt. Park vi01ations were                                         vision test.
not recorded. The points in the driver's record, based
                                                                                    Age 70- The same, plus the reaction test, plus a
upon ,a pU!blrishedpoint schedule were added over a
                                                                                            physical e~amination by the applicant's
period of three years.
                                                                                            own doctor,
       When a motori'st 'receives his first poinlts, he also
receives a friendly warning letter. A total of five points
                                                                                    Age 75-The         same as age 70. plus the complete
                                                                                               road test.
calls th~ driver in for a conference on safe driving with
one of hearing officers. -If the violator gets eight points,                          The most recent innov,ation (February 1960) was
he receives notice of suspens~onof ,his permit. This                           the requirement that 'all d,rivers who contribute to a
suspensionmay last from two to thil'ly days. Subsequent                        fatality on the highways undergo a complete examination.
suspensionsare from fifteen to ninety days depending on                        both physical and mental, as a condition to reta,ining or
the seriousnessof the case.                                                    regaining their privilege to drive.

                     E. Measures              to increase           traffic        capa.city         of city streets
                               Source:       Transport-Communications          Monthly   Review,     (June   1960).1

       In preparing the paper, the au,thor was intereSited                     Act. 1956. which empowers some local authorities to
to 'realize the e~tent to which his ideas for the future                       make Orders creating one-way streets and prohibiting or
have altered or 'advan~ed'. The present emphasis on                            restricting waiting or loading and unloading of vehicles.
the urgent nwd to assisttraffi,c movements and to ~rove                        Undoubtedly the application of ~h'esepowers can increase
traffic safety by 'all means, obher t!h'ant!he construction of                 the capacity of OUTcrty road system.
new urb,an ro,ads of modern design, has of course ari5en
 from two causes, one being that the rate of tnCrea5eof                        Traffic growth estimates
traffic has been subSitantially greater than we expected                             The 1950 Ministry Memorandum suggested, in
at the time w,h'cn we were preparing our development                           certain cases, that an increa&e of 40 per cent over 1938
plan highway ,proposals,and'th~ other. that we have been                       would be adequate. In Manchester this was attained
slow in using th,e powers contained in the Road T'raffic                       by about 1954. The Ministry's present published
                                                                               estimate of future traffic growth is 75 per cent over 1954
    1 Article   by   R.   Nicholas,   City   Surveyor   and   Engineer.
                                                                               values for 'rural areas, but it provides ~{) estimate for

urban areas. The smaller use made since the war of                         It is quite evident that traffic wardens and a ticket
licenced vehicles may have resu1ted from the inadequacy             system would ensure compliance ~th             kerb parking
of oUT road syBtem, particular-ly in urban areas.                   restric-tion regulations and thereby secure the advanta,ge of
                                                                    applying these regulations so ,as to ensure a more ready
      In ideal circum!tances one-way sdhemes can of                 acceptance of them.
course be applied over a large area, but SIn'all scale one-
way street systems can be used to relieve very heavily                     So far 'as traffic engineering is concerned. in
used junctions, wherever 1he existing road system will               Manchester a traffic engineering section has been
permit a one-way system to be operated round blocks of              emablished in my department wi,thin the planning organiza-
existing property.                                                  tion. and the section is responstble for all research work
                                                                    relating to parking problems. immediate measures of
     Obviously one-way streets are always objected to
                                                                    alleviation. interim measures and ultimate higlhway
by transport undertakings on the grounds that greater
                                                                    planning solutions.
mileage is involved, but research will disclose whether the
time saved may not be a more important factor.                             As part of this process. regular studies are made of
                                                                    traffic movement I!hroUighall main roads in the city by
      The possibility that one-way systems might be                 using a van in which. a dictaphone is installed. The
operated at peak hours only might well be worth consider-            assistant responsible for the research uses the dictaphone
ing, the main difficu1ty of course being to devise a system         and a stop-watc,h to record movements between specified
of movable signing.                                                 junctions. while a motor-cyclist outrider is employed who
      The applic'ation of kerb parking restrictions so that         is required to go forward and invemigate the cause of
rhey prevent loading and unloading of commercial vehicles            any delays 'which may arise.
at t>eak hours may make ~t worthwhile to provide lane                     One way of increasing the capacity is to install
ma'rking on many of our streets, which could then take              parking metres and thereby prevent this parking accom-
four lanes of traffic; that is, two in each direction. Lane         modation being used by the lon'g-'term or all-d,ay parker.
marking in such streets is quickly disregarded if the use                  The profits from the parking metre scheme have to
of the kerb lane cannot be guaranteed. Increased traffic            be used towards the cost of providing off-street parking.
capacity can of course be obtained by substituting                   In this connexion. it is sul'Pt.isingto find that the profits.
vehicular operated traffic signals for fixed time signals,          after paying all charges relatil1lg to the provision and
wi,th lane marking on the signal approaches and complete            operating of the parking metres. then become liable for
peak hour parkin~ prohibition.                                      income-tax. It may be that no local a~orities pay in-
                                                                    come-tax at t!he present time. but such a possibility could
Tidal flows                                                         arise.
    The Jarge-scale linking of traffic signals may not              Off-street parking
necessarilyincrease traffic capacity, except where this can               Off-street parking might be attractively anoanged at
be combined with one-way movement.                                  suburban stations where these are provid~d with frequent
                                                                    local services which terminate in t!he business area.
     T l'affic capacity can be increased where tidal flow
arises,if the number of tl1affic lanes available for morning            Otherwise. the provision of fringe pa;rking areas may
and evening movement can be varied.                                 well prove unattractive. Indeed. where there is con-
                                                                    siderable demand for development purposes. and. there-
      Traffic capa:city can, of course, be increased,
                                                                    fore. multi-storey parking would have to be used. the
pa!rticularly in one-way streets, where a narrowing of
                                                                    small saving arising from the use of oh'eaper land would
footpaths enables a further 'traffic lane to become av~ilable.
                                                                    not enable the parking fee to be reduced to an attractively
     Traffic flow can be improved by pedestrian control             low level.
including, of course, the provision of guard rails.
                                                                           The best position for off-street parking is on the
   Much 'has been heard recently of traffic engineering             innermost ring enclosing the city centre. Off-street park-
as if it were some new subject and figures have been                ing could be placed underground-under open spaces or
publish,ed of lIhe large staffs employed by cities in the           sites which are to be developed above ground level-in
United States. The problems and Vhe solutions in that               multi-moreyed buildings. either ramp or mechanical types.
country are obviously not the same as in ours, and                  and perhaps (best of all in ,the lower floors of composite
certainly neither the police nor local authorities have been        buildings. Examples can be seen on the Continent where
given much encouragementto employ successfully the kerb             the firm floor of the building covers the whole of the site
parking restrictions permissible under Section 33 of the            and is used for car parking purposes and above this. on
Road Traffic Act, 1956. .
                                                                    stilts. i~ placed the tower of fiat slab block or offices.
     A concentration of police in peak hours in the                        As to the future. I am convinced that there will
centra,l area of Manchester during t:he Christm,as shopping         have to be new roads provided to relieve present con-
Period bas shown what can be done. Indeed, during                   gestion and so absorb traffic from the present road system.
that time no traffic congestion airose,whereas in previous                  It should be possibl~ in I1he larger urban areas to
years serious hold-ups have taken pl~ce..                            effect a considerable relief of existting congestion and

     enable the present road system largely to continue in use                This would not only involve pedestrian segregation
     until it can be improved in the process of redevelopment.           but als.o complete building segregation. In addition.
     if two or even three radial roads and one ring road within          there would be complete segragation at all junctions.
     the area are converted to ul'ban motorway or expressway                   Roads designed in this
                                                                         greatly reduce traffic accidents. way would, of course"

                         .Stabilization           of soils with excessive moisture content
                            (Extracts from a'rticlesl in Avtomobilniye    Dorogi, October 1960, in Russian).

           Two articles on soil stabilization published in                     The water content, moreov~r, is an important factor
     ..Avtomobilniye    Dorogi",   October 1960, contained               in the process. The stabilization can be performed on
     descriptions of the use of hydrosilicate and cement and             soils wi~h excessive moisture content and with optimum
     gy'psum for soils wi,th excessive moisture content.                 moisture content. The highest strength of stabilized
                                                                         soils was obtained when the moisture content was a,t the
     I.     Stabilization with hydrosilicate                             liquid limit, although no compaction could be performed.
            Pulverized sodium silicate may be used for                        The following recommendationswere made:
      stabiliz,ation of soil with an excessive'moisture content. It
                                                                              1.     Pulverized hydrosilicate and sodium silicofluoride
     is soluble in cold wa,ter and generally the water contained
      in the soil was found sufficient for ~he stabilization process.                (coagula tor) may be used for stabilization of
                                                                                     sandy loam and loam soils wit:h excessiveand
      Sodi\lm-silicofluoride was ,used as the coagulator because,                  , optimum moisture content. In the soils with the
     'with sodium silicate, it gave a gel more stable than the gel
                                                                                   optimum moisture content there is not, how-
      obtained when coagulator calcium chloride was used.
                                                                                   ever, sufficient water to dissolve hydrosilic,!te
           Hydrosili<:a'te [Na2(H2O)3Si3O7]-a        light 'grey                   co~letely .
     pulver, 97,6 per cent soluble in water, has 24 per cent                   2. The most advisable method of work is to mix
     grade of 11ydra,tion. 3-modulus of hydration and 3-modulus                    hydrosilicate with sodium silicofluoride and then
     of silica.                                                                                          to
                                                                                   to apply the miJQture the soil by m,ixing them
           The best results were obtained when hydrosilicate                       ca:refully together.
     and sodium silico-fluoride were 'applied simultaneously.                  3. To stabilize sandy loam soils with excessive
     Thus the ,time consumed in mixing chemicals with the soil                     moisture content, 10 per cent of hydrosilicate is
     became the shortest so far achieved and the strength of                       necessary: and to stabilize loam wit!h excessive
     sta:bilized soil, the highest.                                                moisture content, 12 to 15 per cent (of soil
                                                                                   weight) of hydrosilicate should be applied.
           The pulverized hydrosili<:ate is dissolved in the water
     contained in the soil and because of the coagulator's                     The optimum amount of sodium silicofluoride is 6
     activity it becomes a gel. Tihe pores in !!he soil are filled        per cent of the weight of hydrosilicate.
     wrth this gel and the gel covers the soil particles and glues       2.   Stabilization   with   cement ana gypsum
     them together.                                                              It is well known th~t cement may be applied as a
                                                                          stabilizer to soils with moisture content close to the
           The amount of sodium silicofluoride should be 6
      per cent of the hydrosilicate weight.                               optimum. Water excess sharply diminishes the strength
                                                                          of stabilized soil and, therefore, when the- road~mixmethod
           The      chemical process may be expresse'd by the             is applied to the cement stabiliza'tion process, die mixers
      formula                                                             and co~action machines usually have a limited output
                                                                          because of the excessivemoisture content of the soil.
              Na2SiF6+2(Na20        x   3SiO2)+nH2O=6NaF+
                                                                                To increase the workability of soils with excessive
      7SiO2+nH2O                                                          moisture content, i,t is advisable to add some gypsum to
              However, the binding and hardening processes are            the cement, the main aim of gypsum being to bind the
          Dore complex.                                                   water excess (awroximately 18 per cent of the gypSUI'll
                                                                          weight) and to change the soil consistency.
           The strength of soil sba:bilized in this way depends
      on the amount of stabilizer and the soil's quali,ty. The                   It is emPhasized that, because of a slight water-
      strength of stabilized soils decreases signifi,cantly when the      resisting property of gypsum, an excess of free gypsum
                                                                           may be the sou'rce of decreasing the strength of the
      amount of hydrosilicate decreases from 15 to 6 ,per cent
                                                                          stabilized soil. In this connexion the gypsum m'ust be
      only; ,and. in particular, the strength of 'sandy loam
      samples 7 day old decreased five t~mesand that of loam              very carefully dosed.
      samples ten times. For           loam stabilization. more                It was found that, for sandy loam and loamy soils,
      hydro silicate (12 per cent of soil weight) has to be used          with an excessive moisture content equal to 75 per cent
      than for sandy loam soil sta,bilization (10 per cent).              of the liquid limit, the gypsum added must not be more
             1By A. P. Parphenoff,
                                V.P. Podlepskaya L. A. Markov.
                                               and                        than 3 per cent of the soil weight.

      The use of gypsum for cement stabilization of soil           that, the cement-and gypsum were mixed with soil by
makes possible the execution of work when the moisture             means of a scraper and the mixture was comp,acted by a
content in stabilized soils is as high as 73 to 82 per cent        ten ton roller on pneumatic wheels. The soil was sandy
 of the liquid limit.  It was found that gypsum accelerates        loam, the moisture coment was 75 per cent of the liquid
the h,ardening of cement and increases the strength of             limit, the height of stabilized course was 15 cm, the
cement soil stabilization.                                         cement used was 7 per cent and gypsum 3 and 5 per cent
                                                                   of the soil weight. It was found that the soil stabilized
      The process of stabilization was performed in the            with cement and 3 per cent of gypsum gave much better
following way: soil with excessive moistuTe content was            results than the soil where 5 per cent gypsum was applied,
loosed with a scraper and then the necessary amount of             and therefore tne use of above 3 per cent of gypsum was
cementand gypsum was distributed on the su'rface. After            not recommeijded.


                                                                                                   A. Railway sleepers in asbestos cement
                                                                 (E~ract                                      from         an article                    in The Railway                  Gazette,                     London,                  4 Dec.                  1959)

       , W'hile e~pe~imentation with alter~~tive m.aterials for                                                                                                                   sleeper with bolts the heads of which fit into bushings
    railway sleepers In place of the traditional umber form                                                                                                                      securely cast in the sleeper during manufacture.
    has engaged the alttention of many railway authorities for                                                                                                                                      '"                      .
    a number of yea,rs, as yet lrttle appears to be generally                                                                                                                           The following table gives the dimenSIons of some of
    known of the advances made in Italy in the production                                                                                                                        I!he types of sleeper already produt:ed.
    of railway                     sleepers in asbestos cement.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       '~
                                                                                                                                                                                     Thickness of sleeper (h)                                                      cm                               10                12              14:
           Research on asbestos railway, sleepers was started                                                                                                                        Weight (approx)                                                               kg                            122                 148          175'
    before the 1939-45 war ,by an Italian, Ing. A. Mazza,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ';':
    then President of Eternit S.P .A. of Genoa, Italy;      1t                                                                                                                   Spacing                                                                           cm                               60         .65                 6$,'
    followed   INs outstandingly su~cessful invention for the                                                                                                                    -.'"
    manufacture of asbestos cement pressure pipes.   For some                                                                                                                    Max, axle load                                                             Met. tons                               24                25              2~,
    twenty yea:rs prior to, ibis ,attachment to t:~is industry, he                                                                                                               Max. speed                                                                  km/h                                   55               100          140
    had served on the Italian State and other railway organiza-                                                                                                                        .
    tions as ~ pe:manent way construction engineer.           His                                                                                                                       The first practical te&t of these sleepers was under-
    approach ,In thl~ field ca~not therefore be en'tirely attri-                                                                                                                 taken by the Italian State Rail..vays near Frugarolo on
    bu,ted to Industnal enterprJse, but results from a correla-
      ,     f h' kId                                   ,,'I.
                                                                                                                                                                                .h G
                                                                                                                                                                                             T ' I ' . 1937
                                                                                                                                                                                        enoa- unn me In          .0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     F II
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                th t t    h'
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  e es, w IC h
    tlon, 0     IS now e ge first of the ,problems facing rauway                                                                                                                was very successful further laboratory te~ts were carried
    engineers and secondly of the outstanding charactelistics                                                                                                                    out and subseque~t improvements were made.             These
    of asbestos cement.                                                                                                                                                              I d '        h         ' I           h M ' l -G      I                                                                                -      '

                                                                                                                                                                                 resu Ite In anot er practlca test on tel        an enaa lue
                                                                                                                                                                                near Voghera.
       Asbestos cement ~ailway sleepers are manufactured
 by compressing several thin layers of a&bestos cement                                                                                                                                In January 1957, the sleepers were used on high
while they are still in a pliable condition and a'rrailiged                                                                                                                     density track near Lungavilla, which is also on the Milan
 in such a way tha,t ,the fibres are evenly orientated.    Com-                                                                                                                 -Genoa      line and speeds of up to 85 mi (136 km) were
 pression is carried out to very ,high pressures in modern                                                                                                                      experienced.     Since ,I!his date, Italian State Railways have
hydraulic presses equipped with dies and moulds.            The                                                                                                                 used considerable numbers of the sleepers in their normal
finished al'ticle ,is completed in one operation, d\Jring which                                                                                                                 reconstl'uction and replacement programme for both main
the bushings for the fixing 'bolts ~re firmly ini!orporated,                                                                                                                    and seconda,ry lines.      Similar slee~rs have been laid in
the prescribed inclination of rail sea,tings is provided and                                                                                                                    Germany, Finland, Mozambique and Venezuela. Lengths
token steel reinforcement is placed longitudinally        in the                                                                                                                have been laid in the international          trial tracks in the
sleeper.                                                                                                                                                                        Netherlands.

                 A 'I. presen,t
                                    '            th
                                                           e s eepers are supp Ie In two c asses.
                                                                 d     d'
                                                                              I' d '
                                                                                 h "
                                                                                        d d
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Certain tests carried out have revealed ,that, ~ile
                                                                                                                                                                                                      ' I      I' ,
                                                                                                                                                                                                  ectnca qua 1t1es of the asbestos cement sIeeper are
           lese vary In                                  IC ness epen mg on t elr Inten e use                                                                                                      "
           , . II
                         y   ..m            respect              0
                                                                                                      c       density
                                                                                                                                  and       speed.             Both
                                                                                                                                                                                              .              h
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      for     modern
 h '          I
                      '   b "
                                                              s ape             ItO               t
                                                                                                                         ' "
                                                                                                                traditional                timber          sleeper,
                                                                                                                                                                                s eepermatena.
                                                                                                                                                                                                           ' I
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ' I
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      f h

                                                                                                                                                                                                          ISOatlon 0 t e ral 1 can b e
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Com I
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In       qua
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             .    rty       to       ot    er
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                .                     0

t elr rectangu ar section
I            h           0
                           elng consistent throughout
                               h                                          d             h                                              "
                                                                                                                                                                                  h'  d b ~.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      rile         Intro
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         d    '
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 uctlon            0     non-con                 'uctlve
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           .     pa    d   s    b e-

    engt         .tier                           types           an                 s             a.pes           are          being        considered                to                 I  d I      '  f     '           .
  ' h        'fi      '                                                                                      "                 ,                                                tween ral an s eeper or astemtJIg accessones.
SUit t e specl c requirements                                                                         of varIous Interested railway
author1ties.                                                                                                                                                                          While the service life of the asbestos cement sleeper
                                                                                                                                                                                can only be assumed at ,the present stage, practical tests
      The fastenings offered are of two types: one, a                                                                                                                           have shown that it remains unaltered after 20 years of
rigid fixing for secondary lines and sidings; the other, of                                                                                                                     use, and accelerated tests appear to indicate that a mini-
the spring-clip type for high speed traffic. Both types are                                                                                                                     mum life of 50 yea,rs can be expected, without loss of
for use wi:th flat-bottom rails and both are fixed to the                                                                                                                       physical or mechanical properties.

      B. The use of brown coal for firing                                                                                             locomotives                               on the USSR railways
                                                                                     (Contributed by the Government of the USSR)

     A very wide variety of brown coals is extensively                                                                                    slag is removed in this way not only when the locomotive
used on the USSR Railways for firing locomotives.                                                                                         is stationary but also, if ne<;essary,  when it is running.
     The qualities of the mo!t typical kinds of brown coal.                                                                                   .Every    lo~omotive.on the USSR Rail';Vays.has a flat
used for ,this purpose are given in table 1.                                                                                              tlltm'g grate with an aIr aperture 10 mm In wIdth and a
     Th             f b          I   th
         e amount 0 rown coa m e mIxture vanes rom
                                                      f                         .                 ..                                      surface area equal to 20 per cent of !!he sum of the cross.
                          ...sec                                                                                                               Ion areas 0f the flues and fire t ub es.
25 to 75 per cern and IS regulated by Its quality, by the
                               h                d                 I       .en
                                                                                                                                                 Wh      I      t.
                                                                                                                                                                          fi d       th I
                                                                                                                                                                                                       re    WI
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  .     ow.ca       one
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         .     coa,
capacIty             of    t       e   ten          e'r    coa          bInS,       by         means      of      the   stoker

                     manual                or       mechanical)                     and         ,by    climatic         condI-            h.
                                                                                                                                          th e
                                                                                                                                                    h   syp h on
                                                                                                                                                            I   .   h 'as
                                                                                                                                                                                  .   be     use d    more   f requen      tl y   th an       wh en
tlons.                                                                                                                                    ..
                                                                                                                                               Ig        ca one
                                                                                                                                                                d fcoa hIS
                                                                                                                                                                ffi    I   .d
                                                                                                                                          IS Increase or t e su Clenty rapl preparation 0f the
                                                                                                                                                                                         b urn t .e   Th     power         0f
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  th e       syp h on

       The firing of brown coal in a mixture with coal                                                                                    fire box for forced operation. On locomotives of about
raisesthe general effieiency of the coals used in comparison                                                                               1,500 to 1,800 indicated horsepower, the syphons have
to firing in a ,pure fOl1ffi.                                                                                                             a 500 mm2 !team duct cross-seCJtion and six expansible
      Brown coal is also 'used as ,a prophylactic medium                                                                                  nipples in the syphon ring. The diameter of each nipple
to prevent the formation, on 1Jhe fire gralte, of a solid mass                                                                            at ilts smallest cross-section (the nack) is 5.5 mIn.
of melted slags when mixtures containing anthracite and                                                                                          Better results with brown coal firing are achieved
lean coals are burnt. In such cases,loeomotives are fired                                                                                 on locomotives with mechanical stokers.
with a triple mixture in the following proportions:                                                                                             The use of brown coal places greater demands on
               (i)20 per cent brown <:oal                                                       plus' 40 per cent                         the the1'lnal and techni<:al<:ondition of the locomotive; i.e.
                  volatile coal plus 40 per                                                     cent anthracite or                        the surfaces of the boiler and the firebox must be free
                  lean coal;                                                                                                              from seale and soot, the smokebox must be hermetically
            (ii) 33 per cent brown eoal                                                         plus 33 per cent                          s~aled, gasi~cation must be eliminated, tlhe steam distribu-
                  volatile coal plus 34 per                                                      cent anthracite or                       tlon mechanism.must operate. ~orrectly, and the dome and
                  lean coal;                                                                                                              grate must be In good condItion.
           ( "' ) 40           t b         I                                                      I       40 per cent                           In recent years, .locomotives fired with low-calorie
             111     I tper cen
                        '          rown coa                                                     ,pus
                                    I  l20                                             t           .1- . t       I                        coals have been equlpped with s~lementary     finng unl!ts
                          vo a I e p us                                  per        cen          anrnracI e or              ean           usIng fuel oil. For this propose, a tank of 1.5 to 2 m3

         .c.oa                                                                                                                             capacity ,is fi,tted on the 'tender, and the firebox equipped
     A tilting gra;te IS essential m locomotives fired by                                                                                  with a ,burner under the fire hole. On stretches where
brown eoal ,in order to regulate the he~ght Ctf the general                                                                                the going is heavy, the burner is switched Ctnand in this
layer ~f c.oal and clinkers on the grating, which is done                                                                                  way more steam is formed. Average fuel oil eonsumption
by oSCIllatIonof the grate and 'removal of the slag. The                                                                                   is 250 to 300 kg per 100 km travelled.

     TABLE           1.    AVERAGE                  QUALITATIVE                 CHARACTERISTICS OF BROWN COALS AND VOLATILE COALS FIRED IN A MIXTURE                                                          WITH      BROWN COALS ON
                                                                                                       LOCOMOTIVES OF THE                 USSR             RAILWAYS

                                                                                                                                                         El.m"ntary analysis of tM
                                                                          T"chnic..l           analysis                                                 anhydrous and ashl"ss ".ass

                                                                                 Substanc"s  of
                                                                 Total          th" anhydrous             Ash of
                                                             moistur"            and ashl"ss                 th"                                                                                             Combustion           T"mp"ratur" at
                                                             co"t"nt                mass                  dry mass                                                                                              h"at                ",hich ash
                                                                  "/.                    "/.                   %                 C                  H                                                  0          cal/ke              m"lts (oC)
       Brown              coa/'                                                                                                                                                                               I
               Moscow                                     ...32.4                        45.0             29.0             67.0                 5.0                 1.3                3.2            20.8        6,650           1,050-1.500
               Raichikhin                                      37.2                      41.0             10.4             70.0                 4.3                 1.1                0.3            24.3        6,350           1,150-1.250
               Bogoslov                                        27.0                      43.0             16.0             70.0                 4.5                 1.5                0.7            23.3        6.400           1.250-1,350
               Kansk                                           32.3                      48.0             10.4             71.0                 4.8                 1.4                0.4            22.0        6.600
               Artemov """'"                                   24.1                      49.0             17.2             71.5                 5.7                 1.5                0.6            20.7        6.950           1,200-1,400
               Chelyabinsk                                      16.8                     43.0             20.4             73.0                 5.2                 1.7                0.9            18.5        7,050           1.150-1,500
               Chernovsk                                       33.0                      40.0             10.0             75.5                 5.0                 1.3                0.7            17.5        7,200           1,100.1.200
           Volatile            coals, /ired in
           mixtures             with     brawl!
               Donetz """""                                           3.9                39.0             17.1             80.5                 5.4                 1.5                2.5             8.3        8.100           1,100-1,200
               Kuznetz                                                 5.5               39.0              8.2             83.0                 5.8                 2.7                0.7             7.8        8250            1,100-1.300
               Cheremkhovk                                            10.4               45.0             16.0             78.0                 5.7                 1.6                0.6            13.3        7.800           1.000-1.350
                                   C. Containers:                The      right     track?(Source:
                                            Railway Age. New York. 30 May 1960)

       Containerized transportation today is a bit like the                 More progress has been mllde in equipment than in
polrticians' classic Position on Motherhood: everybody's              anY'thing else, although many of the developments repre,
for it because it just isn't proper to be otherwise.                  sent individual ideas and are not compatible with one
      Recent weeks have produced a flurry of speeches,                another. For example. railrr;>adsare already offered no
announcements and ideas about how containers can -                    fewer than four flat-car designs, apart from the "standard"
indeed will, in time--revolutionize transportation. Only              flat used in conventional piggyback operations. The con.
 an occasional protest is heard, usually a "technical" one            tainers themselvesinclude minor variaticms. although most
 about integration and through rates, about the lack of               of the newer designs are following standards recommended
standardization in equipment, or about the not-so~simple              by the National Defense Transportation Association and
matter of how 'best to transfer containers from one carrier           the American Standards Association-8x8 , with lengths
to another.                                                           in multiples of 10ft.
                                                                            The container sales manager of one highway trailer
       Attempts to analyze what is happening carry certain
                                                                      builder told Railway Age a few d,ays 'ago that containeri,
built-in hazards. Each manufacturer, for example, is
                                                                       zation today is in the same shape railroads were in before
certain his development is the key to standardization.
                                                                       general adoption of the automa,tic coupler. and that truck.
Moreover, i,t is necessary to distinguish between present
                                                                      ing was ~n before adoption of the sl3andard kingpin.
day piggybacking, which already includes some varieties
of containeriZJatioo, and pure coomine,rization which,                       A,t no place in the picture is this high-lighted more
ultimately, would consist entirely of units without wheels.           sharply than in rega,rd to the question of how to transfer
But transportation men are being for~ed to consider such              container units from one ca:rrier to another. A few years
points, and occasionally check~rein their thinking, lest the          ago. when Spector Motor Freight and the PRR began
very real potentials of containerization be washed out by             experimenting with the 17 -~t Mobilvan box. the answer
ideas ra'cing off in every direction at once.                         seemed to be in a heavy-duty fork lift.       But this hasn't
                                                                      worked out because the cost of fork-lift equipment of
      Those shippers, carriers and manufacturers who are
                                                                      this type (about one dollar per pound of lifting capacity}
promoting the boxed freight concept do have a powerful
                                                                      is considered tOQ expensive for general use.
story. To the national economy, the promise of integrated
intermodal transportation; to carriers, lower costs and                      Later developments have included a direct side-t~
faster tel1Ininalhandling; to shippers, single-package trans-         side transfer introduced by Railiner, Inc.; Flexi-Van's
portation from production line to consumer.                           ~urntable-equipped flat cars for side loading; a roll-on.
                                                                      roll-off plan worked out by General American-Fruehauf
     C. E. P. Sm~th, a transportation analyst with F rue~             and. of course. variations of the lift-on, lift-off idea used
hauf, has been studying the container idea for months                 by the Missouri Pacifi,c, among others.
and recently he put a price tag on what he believes
                                                                            Which. if any, of these systems will ultimately pr~
comainers can save in transportation. He told the T rans-
                                                                      vide the accepted standard it is too early to tell. As
portation Research Forum in New York on May 3:
                                                                      things stand now, the transfer question has not been
       "T,he cost of moving goods around this country                 answered to everybody's satisfaction. and it remains <me
amounts to approximately $60 / ~ billion annually. .About             of the phYMcalhandicaps to growth.
half of this is spent on inter-city movement; the remainder                 The prevailing interest in equipment suggests that
is spent in a grand tiddly-winks game of shuffling goods              container service is technically feasible now, 'as indeed it
on docks, platforms, between vehicles, and in other wide              is. Shiplines. both interna,tional and coastal, are already
e~penses like packaging, damage claims, insurance, and                providing such service.
the like."
                                                                            Sh1P operators like containers because they eliminate
      Conbainerization proponents, like Mr. Smith, view               pilferage and because of the great savings they provide in
the container concept as filling the need for "total trans~           loading-unloading cost. In coastal service, loading and
portation" -origin      to destination, including in-plant            unloading costs can run as high a 50 per cent of total
handling at both ends of a move. This is essentially a                terminal expense; with containers. these costs can be re-
materials handling concept with all that is implied by                duc~d sharply.
it regarding automation. W,hen its labour-saving poten-                    Fishyback may actu,ally provide an added push to
tial Is coupled with its propensity to expedite terminal
                                                                      land-carriers, if things go the way they are expected.
handling, the idea is not without appeal.                             Some sh~plines talk of landing as many as 1,000 vans
      But the container idea is hardly a reality yet.                 a week at New York port alone. in the not-too-distant
Sketching in the b'road outlines of containerization is e:asy;        future; if they do. some land-carrier is either going to get
it is for working out the infinite details that mu,ch time            set for inland moves or else sit by and watch the business
will be required.                                                     go to; contrac~.or .private. trucks.

      Nor, on the same basis, can air freight be over-           advantages to make it worth while--as    an end to clear-
looked in the container picture. Airlines, some with             ance problems for example?
converted passenger equipment now, but w~th new cargo
                                                                       Will container used by other carriers generate a
aircraft on the way, are already engaged in a big push           maTket too big to be ignored and not to be served other-
for fre~ght. Containerization is one tool for minimizing         wise? And, if it does, how can the container idea be
airport delay and keeping their expensive planes in the
                                                                 made to payoff unless balanced movements between major
air. Railway Express, apparently, has taken a look at
                                                                 points are assured?
this situation and found it promising, judging by recently
announced plans for a co-ordinated service with United                 In all .this free-wheeling talk about integration, is
Airlines to serve non-airport points.                            there a suggestion that through rates with other types of
       In iliis fast.,moving pattern of development, railroad    carriers is assumed?
traffic officers are faced with a host of questions that need          And, speaking of rates, what about legal requirements
answers.                                                         to observe freight classrfications? If the container idea
       Is containerization, first of all, merely an e~tension    i,nvolves pricing on the basis of so-much-per-unit, is not
 of present piggybacking or is it the logical "next step,"       anything over say 20,000 lb, apt to jeopardize the
combining piggyback's advantages with enough added               whole box car rate structure?


    A. The use of steering nozzles on inland waterway vessels of the USSR
                                      (Contributed by the Governmentof the USSR)

       A large propol4tion of the goods moved by the inland         nozzles working effectively as rudders. both when going
waterway fleet of the USSR is still shipped by barge.               a,head and a'stem.
The pusher method of moving barges is widely used                         After the technical feasibility of using a steering
owing to its ftmdamental economic advantages over the               unit consisting of steering nozzles had been demonstrated
towing method. However, the transition from the towing              with marked ~uccesson pusher tugs, thought was naturally
to the p'Usher mf!thod required extensive improvement of            given to the possibility of using a similar steering unit on
the steering and manoeuvring cha:racteristics of the pusher         self-propelled cargo vessels, since easy steering and man-
vessels. Units consisting of screws with nozzles were
                                                                    oeuvrability as a means of en&uring navigational safety
first used on pusher vessels speci£cally to increase their          and reducing running time is not less important for such
manoeuvrability.                                                    vessels than for pushed flotillas. The problem in this
       These steering nozzles were lighter and of sounder           specific case was simplified by the fact that use of steering
 design than. and their perfotmance was equal to the well-          nozzles in conjun<:.tionwith the screws of cargo vesselsis
known United States multi,ple rudder unilt used on pusher           always advantageous,as it results in increased thrust though
vessels with two groups of rudders one in front and one             the power of the main engines remains the same. Con-
 a,t the stem of the screws, each group with individual             sequently, in this case too, as in that of pusher vessels.
 control lever.                                                     the nozz.leshave to be movable and not fixed.
       The manoeuvrability of a flotilla of barges moved                  The soundness of this idea was confirmed when it
by a pusher vessel is acknowledged to be completely satis-          was put into practice. Cargo vessels fitted with steering
 factory only if the steering unit of the pusher v~sel is           nozzles proved to he swifter ,and more manoeuverable
effective both ahead and a&tern. Good manoeuvrability               than vesselswith rudders.
 aiIld pull-back when going astern alre not particularly
                                                                          At the present time, six types of ~sher vesselsand
importall1t in a, tUig since there ~actors are not directly
                                                                    five types of self-propelled cargo vessels having steering
related to the manoeuv\1ability of the flotilla of barg~ in
                                                                    un}ts consisting of steering nozzles are being extensively
 pull towing; but, m the c,ase of pusher v~sels, they are
                                                                    used by the USSR river fleet.
 of vital importaillce aiIld, in fact, constitute the foundation
 of the economic advantages of the pusher method.                         Fulrthermore. the river fleet will shortly be supple-
       Good mailloeu\'rability of flotillas when under way          mented by the addition of the following newly designed
                                                                    vessels: pusher vessels used for lock work (600 HP),
 and taking bends is of great imporbance in r~ucing
                                                                    pusher vessels used for normal work (2.400 HP), and
 runnin~ time. Passage through nasrrow and winding
 stretches m the c,haillnel of Ithe river while keeping at a        diesel cargo vessels with a 5.000 ton carrying capacity.
                                                                    all with &teering units consisting of steering nozzles.
 safe distance from oncoming vesselsand flotilla~ of vessels,
 entry into locks, and bringing the flotilla of barges along-             A characteristic feature of river vessels is their
 side in the port for load~ng ~nd unloading are an factors          shallow draught, which is demanded by the nature of
related to manoeuvra:bili'ty'a'nd the need for slowmg down          their work. and therefore, in the majority of cases, the
the flotilla.                                                       steering and engine unit is installed in a duct-like stern.
                                                                    The photograph in figure 1 gives a general picture of
     The flotilla of barges Calll be slowed down
                                                                    this type of stem showing the installation of steering
by reversing the engines only if the pusher vesrel
                                                                    nozzles. The vessel shown has an 800 'hp engine.
can be steered when going astern. If not. the flotilla will
                                                                          It will be seen that the steering and engine unit of
begin to drift. and the direction of the drift will depend
exclusively on fortuitous circumstances which it will be            this vessel is not cumbersome; although its dimensions are
imposs~bleto anti<:ipalte;this frequently leads to dangerous        small, it is hi~ly efficient. as may 'he judged from the
and emergency situations. In the ca'se of a steering unit           following data.
using the conventional type of rudder. this factor calls for                When pushing two barges, each with a can-ying capa-
the installa,tion of the two groups of rudders mentioned            city of 3.000 tons, in still water, the total length of the
above; whereas. if the vessel is equipped with steering                                                                a
                                                                    flotilla being 230 mebres,the pu&her craft reacl1es speed.
nozzles. no add~tional units are required. the steering             on a straight course, of about 13 km/hr; the diameter

of the turning circle is 490 metres and the speed at whicl1               Another extremely important advantage of vesselswith
the angle of course changes (angular velocity) is 25                steering nozzles was the fact that they could be steered
deg,reesper minute. The time required to achieve this               when going aSltem-something which was quite impossible
angular velocity from the moment the nozzles are placed             in vesselswith conven,tionalrudders.
Tn position is 35 seconds, and is equal to the time neces-                The steering nozzles not only improved manoeuvra-
sary to check the ,turn of the flotilla (by checking angular        bility considerably, but also increased the spee:d of this
velocity). The greatest angle of turn of the flotilla while         type of vessel. The speed of vesselswith steering nozzles
its speed is being checked is 8 degrees. To bring the               is 5 to 6 per cent hi8her than that of vessels with fixed
flotilla to 'a full stop by going into reverse takes less than      nozzles and rudders. This is largely due to improved
four minutes, and the distance covered is 320 metres.               streamlining of the devices used to attach the steering
The reverse speed of the flotilla is 70 per cent of the             nozzles to the hull and also to their more slender profile.
forward speed. The flotilla is fully manoeuvrable in
                                                                                                   units \vith steering nozzles is
                                                                           TIle v,alue of Sltee:ring
                                                                    illustrated by thei'r rapid and wide-scale entry into use, as
        The first pusher unit of this series to be built was
                                                                    they have been fitted to more than ten types of river vessels
subjected to detailed manoeuvrability tests. One of the
                                                                    in less than 10 years from the time they were first intro-
items in the test p'rogramme was the determination of
the relationship ,betweenthe diameter of the tw-ning circle,
the angle at whicl1 the steering nozzles are set, and the                 A word should be said about some of the constl'Uc-
normal operating conditions of the main engines. The                tional feature of the steering nozzles in use.
Rizbek method was used to determine the elements of                        As is known, the steering nozzle is a profiled circular
the tu,rn, and all measurements were taken by syn-                  drrectiorllal nozzle around the propeller, fixed to the veltioal
chronized and automatic instruments. The purpose of                 rudder-head, the axis of which intersects the axis of the
the test was achieved by the series of data obtained on             propeller shaft in the screw area, so that it can be easily
tile track of the movement of the flotilla's centre of gravity      turned around the revolving 'screw. In order to increase
in turning. An example of this kind of record is given              the steering effect of the steering nozzle when the vesselis
 in figure 2, and further graphical processing of this record       proceeding with enginesstopped the rear palt of the nozzle
makes it possible to draw up a diagram of changes in                is fitted with a vertically profiled plane, namely. a stabi-
the speed of movement, the angle of course, the angle of            lizer. In some cases, for the same purpose, two radial
 drift wi,th the flotilla's centre of gravity in relation to the    ribs are also fitted to the lower part of its external surface,
stage reac~led in turning, as shown in figure 3. The                as shown in figure 6.
programme also included Kempfs standard zig-zag tests.                     This figure shows a typical example of the installa-
A model graphical presentation of the results of sucl1 tests         tion of a steering nozzle on a twin-screw shallow draught
 is given in figure 4.                                               river pusher vessel with a deep stern duct. In this par-
        Similar test data for various types of vessels make         ticular example. the full advantages of the circular form
it possible to compile a sound and objective picture of              of the steering nozzle are of necessity sacrificed so as to
their operating characteristics (manoeuvrability and                make it possible to install a screw the diameter of which
 stability) .,                                                      is as large as the draught allows. The top part of the
       For purposes of comparing ,the steering efficiency of        nozzle takes the form of a vertical cylinder. forming part
the steering and engine unit of vesselswith steering nozzles         of the steering mechanism of the nozzle inside the hull
and with conventional rudders, a diagram of the manoeu-              of the vessel itself, \vhile on the outside i.t remains a well
vrability of diesel cargo vessels with a carrying capacity          streamlined nozzle.         This design ensures that more
of 2,000 tons must be drawn up on the basis of te~ts with            rational use can be made of the stern duet for the installa-
this type of vessel under naJtural conditions. Such a               tion of the steering and engine unit.
diagraJffiis given in figure 5.                                           The steering effect of the steering nozzles. like that
      Th1s diagram presents graphically the relationship            of the rudders. is achieved by swivelling them around the
between an unspecified angular velocity and the steady              rudder-head axis, thus disrupting the symmetry of the
tul'n of a vessel with rudders and a vessel with steering           screw race past the nozzles and creating a transverse force.
nozzles, depending on the angle at whicl1 the rudders or            the strengbh of which depends substantially on the angle
nozzles are set. It will be seen that the difference in the         of turn (amount of helm) of the nozzles as well as on
speed of the turn of vessels of the same type for a given           the amo'unt of work being done by the propeller (load).
turning circle is practically twofold in favour of the vessel       The steering nozzle with its stabilizer and the propeller
with steering nozzles, for any angle at which the steering          should therefore be i.egarded as a single steering and
device is set. In this connexicm, it should be mellltioned          propulsion unit, and calculations of the performance of
that the surface area of the three rudders on the test              the steering nozzle as a rudder should be based on
vessel amounted to 7.5 per cent of the submerged area               ca.Ieula,tioosof the performance of the propeller with the
of the cross section of the hull, but that the entire area          nozzle as the propelling device. and the parameters of the
of projection of the two steering nozzles with stabilizers          steering effect of the nozzles representd in relationship not
of the ather vessel was only 2.5 per cent of this cross             only to the angle of helm but al&o to the pa'rameters of
section.                                                            the propelling device.

      The design and the construction of steering nozzles               with a curvature of the trailing edge improves the steering
for vessels was accompanied by research work aimed at                   qualities of the nozzles when the vessel goes astern.
determining corresponding general rules and the most effi-                   5. The advantages of fitting a vertical stabilizer
cient form and dimensions for steering nozzles. It goes                 to the rear part of the nozzles are as follows:
without saying that, w1thout the extensive use of the re-
                                                                              (a) Torque is removed from the rudder-head of the
sults of ,this researe:h, ~t would have been impossible to
                                                                                  nozzle when the vessel is proceeding ahead;
achieve the progress made in improvinrg the manoeuvrability
of vessels through the use of steering nozzles.                               (b)   a counter-propeller effect is obtained on the
                                                                                    propelling unit;
       I.t is interesting to note that accurate shaping of the
 longitudinal cross-section of the nozzle of the aerody-                      (c) steadiness of movement and manoeuvrability of
namic supporting wing type is not necessary in the case                           the vessel is increased;
 of steering nozzles. In this connexion, we may refer to                      (d) the manoeuvrability of the vessel when under-
the results of ,propeller tests with two types of steering                        way with engines stopped (inertia movement)
nozzles, which differed only in the profile of the longi-                         is im,proved.
tud~nal cross-section. During these tests, the load on the                    A symmetrical profile with a relative thickness of
propeller was typical of that for the propeller of pusher                about 12 per cent is used as a stabilizer. The length of
vessels (Ce = 8).          Trhe values obtained for the unspeci-        the stabilizer cord is 0.8 to 0.9 of the length of the
fied ,coefficients of transverse (rudder) force of the nozzle           nozzle, and when it is installed, it is raised 25 per cent
-C        y, the longitudinal force (pull) -C         x and the         inside the nozzle.
coefficient of the centre of application of these forces (the
                                                                              6. The stern of the vessel to whioh the steering
relative ordinate from the leading edge) -C        p, are shown
                                                                        nozzles are to be u,tted should have very sloping- sides.
in ,fiugre 7 and a function of the helm angle.
                    .                                                   However, the stem .level lines can also be quite full.
      It ,may be seen tha't nozzles with type A profiles,               Careening of the hull at the stern is ,highly undesirable.
shown by straight lines and curved spouts, possess con-                 The surface area of the brackets (as well as t~e ehamfers
siderably ,better steering characteristics C y at large angle           of the ,propeller shaft) should be minimal in order to
of helm than nozzles w~th aerodyn8!micprofile B. More-                  prevent excessive screening of the water flow from the
over, the pull characteristics C x of the nozzles in the                nozzles when steering in reverse. For the same !l'eason,
undeflected position and also at small angles of helm are               efforts should be made to avoid the installation of addi-
somewhat 'better in type A nozzles than in type B nozzles.              tional projecting parts such as rudder-head bearings,
                                                                        projecting spurs, ete. As far as possible, there should
      These results made it possible to recommend for
                                                                        be nothing immediately in front of the nozzle.
praotic.al use nozzles of the profile and dimensions shown
in figure 8.   In addition to their hydromechanical advan-                    7. The upper dimensions of the rudder-head and
tages, these nozzles offer obvious advantages in respect                other pai'ts of the steering nozzles should be determined
of efficiency and technology.                                           in such a way tha,t the nozzle ean touch without d,amage
                                                                        the bed of the watercouTse in the shallowest water likely
     The other main practical conclusions deduced from
                                                                        to be encolmtered.
the analyses of the results of research and experience in
the use of steering nozzles on vesselsare as follows:                        8.   It is sufficient if the maximum angle at which the
                                                                        nozzles can be put over is fixed at 35 degrees.
     1. Steering nozzles should be fitted as far towards
the stern of the vessel as possible; this helps to keep the                                    Bibliography
vessel on a steady, straight course. The exact position                  1. Basin, A. M., Investigations into the manoeuver-
should be determined when the steering nozzle is designed.                   ability of vessels wi,th steering nozzles. Works of
                                                                            the Leningrad Institute of Water Transport Engineers,
      2. The length of the &teering nozzle, ensuring good                   issue XXVI.    Pub. "River Transport", L. 1959.
steering qualities, should be not less than 0.8 of the
                                                                         2,   Bogdanov, B. V., Lake pusher vessels of the
diameter of the screw, and in the case of screws which
have high load coefficient values the length should be equal                  Zelenodolsk type. River Transport Journal, No.5,
to the diameter.                                                              1958.
                                                                         3.   Bogdanov, B. V., Propelling units and barges for
      3. The rudder.,head of the steering nozzle should
                                                                              use in pushing, Pub. "River Transport", M. 1959.
be installed 0.45 to 0.50 of its length from the l~ding
edge.                                                                    4.   Efremov, G. V., Resu1tsof tests with the Zelenodolsk
                                                                              pusher vessel. River Transport Journal, No. .10,
       4. The coefficient of the opening of the nozzles
 ('relationship of the area of the entry cross-sectionto the
                                                                         5.   Novik, R. I., A dry cargo diese vessel with a
screw area) should be taken as from 1.2 for cargo vessels
to 1.35 for pusher vessels. and the coeffi<:ientof expan-                     c3!rrying capacity of 600 tons.    River Transport
 sion (relationship between the area of the exit cro$S-section                Journal No.4, 1957.
to the area of the cross-se<:tion the screw area) should                 6.   Rachkov, A. S., Sergeev,V. I., Lake p,ushervessels.
be takl'l1 as 1.15. A 15 per cent expansion together                          Shipbuilding Journal No.9,   1958.

     7. Semenov,L. A., Determination of the supporting                                Captions to figures
        power of the resistanceof steeringnozzles. Ship-           1,   Pusher vessel of 800     HP   equipped with steering
        building Journal, No.9, 1957.                                   nozzles.
     8. Sokolov, V. F., Kovalenko, G. A., Kuznetsov,               2.   Track of the centre of gravity of a flotilla. propelled
        Y. N., The manoeuvering                   equipped
                                qualitiesof vessels                     by a pu'shervessel of 800 HP and consisting of two
        with steering nozzles. River Transport Journal,                 barges on a turn with helm set at an angle of 35
        No.4, 1958.                                                     degrees. proceeding at average ~peed (main engines
     9. Urlang, F. D., Shushkin,
                               V. N., Tests of the new                  not going full ahead).
        "OT -801"    pushervesselRiver Transport Journal                Diagram of changes in speed of movement of the
        No.5, 1959.10.                                                  centre of gravity in a pushed flotilla. angle of course
                                                                        and angle of drift on turn.
        Shushkin,V. N., Hydromechanicalcalculations in
        the designof steeringnozzles. Works of the Central         4.   Diagram of zig-zag manoeuvre by pusher vessel of
        Inland Waterway Vessels Research Institute, issue               800 HP with flotilla.
        XXXVII, Pub. "River Transport", L. 1959.                        Diagram of manoeuverability of diesel cargo vessel
 II.    Shushkin,V. N., The use of steeringnozzles to                   of a carrying capacity of 2.000 tons with rudder
        improvethe manoeu~rability of river vessels.Collec-             and steering nozzles.
        tion "Perfection of screw propelling units", Pub.               Construction plan of installation of steering nozzle
         '.River Transport", L. 1958.                                   on shallow-draught pusher v~ssel.

 12. Shushkin,V. N., Experiencein the installation of              7.   Hydromechanical characteristics of two       types of
     steeringnozzleson dieselcargo vessels the "Sixth
                                         of                             steering nozzles for a pusher vessel.
     five-yearplan" type. River Transport Journal No.                   Optimum relationships between the dimensions and
     .I0, 1958'.                                                        profile of a. steering nozzle for river vessels..

                    Figure   1.   PUSHER   VESSEL   OF   800 HP   EQU'IPPED   WITH   STEERING     NOZZLES.


                   LII   o -.:.
                   CIJ         0
                   => II.

               1   <~z

                   .J          0

                   II. O(/)
                   _a:  a:


         200   4     0

                                                                          /       \
                                                                      I           \
                                                                      I               \ DRIFT
                                                                      I               F'-'-'
 .3                                                         -\    /                    \
                                                        /                                  \
                                                    /            'J                            \
                                                  /"                                               \
                                              /                                                        \
                                             /..\                                                          \
                                         f                                                                 ~.
                                         /                                                                     \

Figure    3.       DIAGRAM     OF   CHANGES                 IN    SPEED               OF               MOVEM            ENT    OF   THE   CENTRE   OF   GRAVITY   IN   A
                   PUSHED    FLOTILLA,       ANGLE               OF COURSE AND                                         ANGLE    OF DRIFT     ON TURN.



                                    "0                                                                     >-
                                    -g                                                                     In
                                    ~                                                                      UI
                                    0                                                                      a:
                                     ~                                                                     ;:)
                                    Q)                                                                     UI

                                    g                                                                      0
                                    ~                                                                      Z
                 c::                                                                                       ~
                  0                                                                                        «
                 E                                                                                         N
                 "Q)                                                                                       G
                 'l:                                                                                       -

                       0                     0                                      0              0
      .0                                         0                                  0              0        DI
                       ~                         C\J                                (\J            rt)     .-

                           .pJDOqlDJS..                        I                                JJOd-
                       ~        I            ~I~           I   I        I   ~   I   ~       I      ~
                       0                         0     0       0            0       0               0
                       I()                       V     N                    N       V              I()
                                w6~ u! Juewow                               I           I              I

           N                                     :I:
            c         C4
            ~         ...>
            C         01
                              .U1.               C/)
            01    m   ~                          Z

            In                                   0



                                                 ()         .
                                     T   ...()
 3                                               >-1




.   m              I .
    >-              oJ
    0               oJ
    0               <


    e               -
    <n              0

              .0    Q



  Cp i.




.06                                                                                            I                          i-
                                                                                                                      i   I

       04                                                                                     L      A

       0.2                                                                                                   B





        Fig'ure     7.      HYDROMECHANICAL       CHARACTERISTICS              OF    TWO     TYPES               OF
                                     STEERING    NOZZLES   FOR A           PUSHER    VESSEL.

                  d= 0.02       DM
                                                                       Rudder head axis            d =0 .If D

                            r--                                                                          x
                            0                              0.2     b          x                      0
                            -:                                    .0                                 ~

         Screw axis

         Figure     8.      OPTIMUM      RELATIONSHIPS           BETWEEN      THE   DIMENSIONS               AND
                                 PROFILE   OF A STEERING          NOZZLE     FOR RIVER   VESSELS.

                                   A. New use for radar                          in ground          surveying
                                  (Sou:rce: Etudes Routieres.Geneva. Switzerland. July 1960).

      T'he uses for radar have been extended, albeit                                  It should be noted that three observation statiQns
recently, the field of topography.! Two new development                         could all have their reflectors aimed a,t the aircraff
took place a short time ago in the United States: one                           simultaneously; in this case, the recorder would have to
relates to the measurement of distances between two sites                       be modified in order to indicate the three distancesmeasured
not vrsi,ble to one another, and the second concerns the                        at the same time. Thi~ arrangement, although more
measurement of distances between sea and coast.                                 compli<::ated,offers a considerable advantage in that the
I.    Use of a transmitting-receiving aircraft                                  first measurements can Ibe checked, and this may, in
                                                                                certain cases, simplify and speed up the work of ground
       For this purpose, use is made of a light aircra,ft
equipped with an electromagnetic microwave apparatus
which is both transmitter and receiver.          Two ground
                                                                                2.   Ocean or inland waterway operati?ns
stations, the distance between which is to be measured,
keep a reflector aimed at an aircraft flying overhead.                                 Equipment similar to that descr~bed above can be
T'his latter is equipped with an automatic 'recorder which                      installed in a vessel navigating at sea or on an inland
notes the distances separating the transmitter on board                         waterway. Stations scattered along a coast or river
the aircraft from the reflector on the ground. When the                          bank re!lect the intercepted waves in the direction of the
sum of the two distances is minimal, the aircraft is on                         vessel so that, at any time, the vessel knows how far it is
a: vertical pls,ne passing between the two stations. As the                     from the reference station. The sextant "fix" of a vessel
altitude of the aircraft, the altitude of the ,two stations and                  can therefore be replaced by a radar measurement,which
a miteorological correction coefficient (affecting the speed                    is Ibetter in that it can be made at any time,' even at
of wave propagation) are 'all known, the horizontal distance                    zero visrbility.
between the two stations can be calculated.
                                                                                     Applications in inland waterway navigation are
     A s~le flight over a mounta~nousor afforested area                         numerous and interesting; Ifor example, a dredger, at night
can thus provide a topographical measurement which                              or in dense fog, can proceed along the fairway accurately
would otherwise take a long time and ,would be difficult                        without the need to have the reflectors on the bank
and eJCPensive carry out.                                                       operated by permanent personnel. All that is neceSS3!r
     ], See Etudes Routieres, August 1959 and June 1%0.                         is a sufficient number of rece~versalong the bank.

                     B. New air-riding                     vehicle         -Cushioncraft                demonstratedl
                                         (Source: Modem T~ansportLondon. 2 July, 1960).

      The demonstration at Bembridge, Isle of Wight,                            plantations in the Southern Cameroons. The company
of a new type of air~riding vehicle formed a prelude to                         hopes to be able to avoid the high cost of 'building roads
full~scale testing on 1Jhe Bembridge airfield and. later this                   and also the l<mg lorry runs over indifferent runs, otherwise
year, in West Africa under intended operating conditions,                       necessary, whioh cause 'bruising or scarring of the fruit.
The manufacturer of this vehicle is a very large operator                       Rights of way are being sought to bulldoze tracks ,from
of agricultural aircr8lft and has studied the potential of an                   plantations to the river, thus making possible carriage
air~riding vehicle in lniany overseas countries. Investiga-                     without intermediate handling clear from plantations .to
tion is said to have shown possibilities with such craft of                     banana ships at the down-river wharf.
accelerating the pace of development in areas without                           Generql   description
roads and where rivers ,become seasonallyunnavigatable.                               The Cushioncraft is circular, 18 ft lOin in diameter
      The present prototype vehicle, named Cushioncraft,                        and 8 ft hi~h; it has an empty weight of approximately
has been built at the request of a private company w,hich                       one ton. It carries a driver 'and ,two passengersin a caib
intends to study its potential in banana transport from                         mounted on the deck, where lliere is also space for outside
                                                                                cargo. The craft is designed to operate about 11 to 15
     1 See also   section Ill.   "News    from   outside   the   region-
Hovercraft,                                                                     in a,bovewater or ground. The power unit is a Coventry

Climax two-litre petrol engine givtng up to 170 bhp                         After con$ideration of these factors. it was decided
which drives a la'l1gecompressor running round the cir-               that a Cushioncraft of empty weight about one ton and
cumference of the vehicle and two rear"'nlountedpropeUers.            cushion Mea ,of ,approximately 200 sq ft representedthe
The peripheral compressor, which is the most i~ortant                 minimum practical size which could be expected to satisfy
feature of the design and reduces losses iby keeping the              commercial ,requirements. The cost per pound of basic
length of ducting to a minimum, supplies air to a single-jet'         we~ght of such a machine 1n .production is not expected to
nozzle around the :bottom edge of the craft to maintain the           exceed that of simple light airoraft (abou,t £ 2 per lb
air cushion.                                                          of empty weight) and could in large production be similar
      The compressoris driven mechanically by a friction              to that of motor transport vehicles (about I Os. to £ I
wheel at \he rear of the craft and cons~stsof 40 aerofoil             per lb.).
blades fixed radially to an inner and outer shroud ring,
the whole being kept in place by a series of rollers. The             Working   principles
compressoris mounted in a short vertical duct. Below                         The simplest fOTffi of air-riding vehicle comprises a
the rotor this duct curves inwards so that the air is directed        plenum chamber or box. open underneath. into which air
towards the centre of the craft. The duct is lOin wide                is pumped by a compressor or fan. Pressure rises in the
at the efflux and the resulting "thick" jet helps to stabilize        box until it is Lifted off the ground. permitting the air to
the craft 'when riding on t:he air cushion.         The two            leak out around the lower periphery. Plenum-chamber
propellers mounted above the deck at the rear, which                  mach~nesare not efficient except at very low clearance
provide horizontal propulsion, are of variable pitch and              heights. when th~ area ibetweenthe lower periphery of the
can 'be varied collectively, to provide ahead or astern               machine and the ground ,through w,hich air may leak is
propu.}sion, or differentially for steering.                          small. Plenum-Chamber machines are thus only practical
     Controls comprise a combined hand throttle and                    over very smooth ground where low clearance heights are
clutch to engage the compressor and control 'ground clear-            acceptable.                        .
ance and a steering wheel, which can be ,pulled backwards                    The Hove'roraf,t principle is a refinement of the ba'sic
and forwards from the control panel to provide ahead or               system. in which air is ejected inwards from the under-
astern travel or turned to 'steer left or right. Six small            surface of the cra,ft. tJhrough a nozzle extending around
pneumatic-tyred wheels a,re,fitted beneath the Cushioncraft           the whole of the ,perimeter. A region of high1Pressure
to enaJbleit to be pushed about on the ground when                     air is thus generated !beneath the cralft. which in turn
the engine is not running. These wheels oan be jacked up              deflects the curtain air outwards. When the cumion is
and down to provide sufficient ground clearance for                    establi&hedthe ai'r culitain 1'Sof c]rcula'r profile touching
serVICing.                                                            the surface of ground or water before going to wa'ste in
Work potential    and cost                                            the atmosphere.
     Design studies have shown that reasonably powered                      Apart from being a source of air to replenish the
Cushioncraft in the smaller sizes could be expected to lift           cushion as required. the air curta~nis a seal that provides
approximately t'heir own empty weight to smaller clea'rance           a pressure step between the cushion and the atmosphere.
heights, which would still permit them to TUn over semi.              The basic components of a Cushioncraft are therefore
prepared ground and over water. These studies also                    an air mta!ke, a compressordr,iven by an engine. a nozzle
showed that there is a lower 'practical limit to size, since,         arrangement which in simple form is a single nozzle
when the cushion area of the ma'chine is very small, the              extending around the periphery of the cra,ft and an area
power requrred to mai:nJtainthe air cushion increases                 of structure within the air ,cul'tain which takes the uniform
                                                                      cushionload.                                             -

                                  c. Tourism and international travel
"Visit-the-Orient-Year,   1961"   Campaign                            a resolution1 calling upon governments, inter~alia, to
       The Economic Commission for Asia and the F a:r                 co-operate in maki'ng this campaign a success. In pur~
East (E.CAFE), taking note of the proclamation by the                 suance of the ,recommendations of the Commission, the
Government of the Philippines and other countries of                  Executive Secretary addressed governments of the ,region
 1961 as a "Visit-'the-Orient- Y eaT" so as to increase the           offering them full support in ensuring the success of the
world tourist traffic to the countries of the ECAFE region            1961 campaign. and suggesting that special faciLities
and believing that such a proclamation was an a.pprQpriate            offered ,by govel'nmentsfor tourist and the special tourist
initial step toward the maximwn participation by all coun-            atb1action~8Jvailable in each country may be published
tries of the E.CAFE region in the development of the                  through the regular ECAFE secreta'riatpublications such
travel industry with a view to enlal1ging their share of              as the Transport and Communications Bulletin and others.
the tourist trade and foreign exchange earnings which                     1 ECAFE    resolution 32   (XVI)   on "Development   of tourism
will benefit their economies,adopted at its sixteenth session         and international trade" of 17 March 1%0.

 In response to the Ex~utive Secretary's suggestion. the                          members, that a 5 per cent discount will be
Government of India (Department of Tourism) has for-
                                                                                  shown on all the scheduled pnces over the
warded to the s~retariat a brief note setting out the                             bookings ili,at may be ,received for the yea,r
special tiacilities the Government of India will be offering                      1961                                           ;
to touris~ during the "Vasit-the-Orient- Year" in 1961.                      ( 4 ) Hotels-All     hotels which are members of the'
Information received f,rom the Govermnent of Ind!a is                              Federation of Hotels and Restaurants Ass~;
summarized below for ,the information of governments.                              ciations of lnd,ia Ihave agreed to give off season];
      It is hoped to publ~sh in subsequent !ssues of the                           concession during the summer of 1961. The
Transport and Communications Bulletin, similar informa-                            exact nature aIl1damount of concessionwill be
tion received from other governments.                                              a:nnouncedI alter.
r                   '.
Loncesslons to tourists
                                                                                                 SPECIAL EVENTS
      In response to an appeal made by the Department
of T oul1ism various organizations ell!gaged in promoting            Birth    Centenary     of Poet   Tagore
tourism have agreed to give the following concessions:                      The year 1961 marks the centenary of the birth of
                                                                      Rabindra,nath T agore, the greatest poet of modem India
      (1.) Railways-Bona       fide touri.sts, certified as such
           by ,an officer of the Department of Tourism in            (1861-1941).                                    philosopher,
                                                                                        A poet, dramatist, coIDIPoser,
                                                                     novelist, educationist and 'artist, T agore wrote his works
           India or any 'of its iforeign offices will be
                                                                     both in Benga1i and Eng1ish. Many of the great books
           entitled to a 25 per cent concessionon the basic
                                                                     whioh he wrote in Benga1i he himseLf translated into
           fa.re for the a-ir-conditioned class on the Indian
                                                                     English. For his Grtan J ali, considered his greatest
           R'ailways during the year 1961. This is 10
                                                                     literary masterpiece,he was awarded th~ Nobel Prize for
           per cent more than the discount already being
                                                                     literature G'll 1913. Rabindpa1nath T agore was also a
           all.owed tt> foreign tourists who travel by air-
                                                                     leading patriot and is considered one of the makers of
           conditioned class. In the case of a com.bined
                                                                     model'n India. India's National Anthem is one of his
           ticket for air-conditioned and first class (where
                                                                     composition. His greatest achievement .as an educa:tionist
           alir-conditioned accommodation is not available)
                                                                     was his experimental school at Sa!J!tin~ketan(80 miles
           a conc.essionof 25 per cent will be allowed
                                                                     from Ca1cutta) em!bodying the pr,inaples of education as
           on ~he ,basic fare ;for air-conditiQned class only.
                                                                     taught by him. Today it has gr,owninto a great institution
                 "Travel As You Like" tickets will be                -the Vishva1bharati University.
           av,ailaJblefor 30 days for the air-conditioned
           class and nrst-cla'ss (wI1ere air-conditioned ac-               Celebr,ationsof Tagore's brrth centenary will be held
           commodacion is not ,available) at a lump sum                                                    his
                                                                     in India and abroad to commem'orate man,ifold services
           of Rs 495 (about US$I 04) inclusive of                    to art and 'literature. Functions will begin from May,
           Passenger F a're Tax.                                      1961 and continue during the rest of the year and a
                                                                     Ta,gore Week will be held at Delhi. M;adTas. Bombay.
     (2)   Air Lines                                                 Calcutta and other cities ,and towns. Delhi will be venue
           Indian Airlines Corporation on domestic flights           for an l[lltemational Literary Conference to be held in
           -Foreign     Tourists 'holding valid introduction         November 1961 to drscussproblems of interest to writers
           cards issued 'by Indian Em!bassies   and Consular         of the East and the West. An exhi'bition. "T agore in
           Offices a'nd all foreign toutists booked by inter-        Ind~a and Abroad" will 'also ,be held at Delhi at the
           ,national airlines and sales-agents holding con-          same I:~me. Later ,this exh~b~tionwill be taken to all
           firmed passages on the pa!rt/icular Sf?JctOfS   on        ~he Sta:te capitals of the country. Cultural shows will
           which concessiQnsare allowed will be entitled             be staged to mark the occasion at Delhi and Calcutta
           to a 5 per cent concessionon single and round             in -the fi!'st week of May 1961.
           t~ fares during the year 1961. The period
                                                                     ECAF E      seminar on tourism
           of validity of the concessionwill be 30 days.
           These concessionalfare journeys may be com-                       India will be hQst ,to a seminalr on tourism to be
           bi,ned either with other dQmestic journeys or             held in New Delhi between ApI1iI 24 and May 2. 1961.
           international journeys. The special fares at              under the auspices of ECAFE as part of the "Visit-the-
           concessional rates have b!een made applicable             Oriem-Year. 1961" campaign. The first seminar of its
           on 12 pre-arraJngeditineraries.                           kind ever to ,be held in this region, it will discuss out-
                                                                     standing problems in regard to statvsIJics-methods of
                 T'hese concessionalrules will be a,ppli~a,ble
                                                                     compi1attOl1'and interpretahOl1; publi'city-th~       image "to
           to infants, children and tour conductors.
                                                                     project; tacilities-iti'a,nsport and travel bal'riers. hotels.
                  An additional facility provided is that            m'otels and supplementary accommodation; and training
           tou'rists can rbreak journey on all the routes on         facilities for tourist ,personnelin the ECAFE region. The
           which concession will be applicable.                      lntemational Union of Offi-cial T-ra'Vel Organizations
     (3)   Shikar Outfitters-The Indian Shikar Outfitters             (IUOTO)       is also co..operating in the organiza,tion of t!his
           Association has announced, on behalf of all its           semmar.

Import of ammunition by foreign sportsmen for hunting          temple a're exceptionally beaubiful workis of art. Apart
                                                               from the supel1b carvings that cover the structu're are
                                                               the enormous rock-cut horses amd elephants flanking the
                                 promotion. the Government
      In the [nterest of ,toul1ist
                                                               temple. Puti, one of the holies~ places for the Hindus,
of India have decided to allow every bona fide foreign
                                                               famous for its J a,ganna:tih temple and its annual Car
tourist to impol't foUir hundred calrtridges for sporting
                                                               Festival in July is one of !!he most colourful temple
pUllposes. which one 'h'undred cart:ridges will be allowed
                                                               fesj)ivals ~n the country. Puri ,also offel1s excellent sea
to be passed free of customs duty and the .remainingthree
                                                               b8!thing. Its climate ,is pleasant for most pa'rt of the
hundred on payment of duty ,bwt without an Import
                                                               year and its sea.;beachis ,a great attracbion.
Trade Licence.
     Th,is concession will be granted wit:hout reference       Issue of liquor permits in Rajasthan
to the numiber of fire-arms 'brought IiIn by the tourist or                              of
                                                                     T,he GoV'el1nment Rajasthan has authorized the
!!heperiod of stay of the tourist in India.                    following officers to issue liquo'r pel1lnitsto foreign tourists:
Road transport to Konarak                                            (1) T;he Su'b-Diviflional Officer, Mt. Abu.
                                                                     (2) The Go!Jle<:tor, Sirohi.
    The O'l'issa State Til'M1~portServices have announced
new timiqgs for bus services from Cuttack to Konarak.          Coming events-Holi
and Pu'ri to Konarak.                                                As the month of March dawns in northern India,
   Cuttack-Konarak:                            65 miles        tihe cri.sp cool b~eeze of winter will have faded away
    7.30        Cuttack                        19.30           and, the sweet, but shortlived spl1mgwould be drawing
    9           Bhubaneshwar """"."",.         18.10           to a close. On the third of the month people allover
   11.30        Konarak                        15.30
   Fare: Upper class: Rs.4.03 np
                                                               north India will celebra'te the:i:r gayest of festivals-the
           Lower class: Rs.3.10 np                             H'o1i which symbolises tJhe harvest season. On this day
                                                                                            and haJmle~s
                                                               all people, in cities, tOWJl'S             .literally let them-
    6.30         Puri                          16.00           selves go ,in what amounts ,to unfettered frolicsomeness,
    9.30        Konarak                        13.00           overflowing wIth 'mtrtih and colour. Groups of revellers-
   Fare:   Upper class: Rs.3.64 np                             men, women and children~band themselves together in
           Lower class: R~.2.77 np                             smalll groups seeking friends, relatives, and strangers and
       Bhubaneshwar (now the Capital of the State) .           thl'owing co~oured powder 'amdsquirting coloured water on
Puri ,and Konarak ~'n Orissa are famous for t,hei'r magni-     them. The spirit of HoLi pervades all 'and the sound of
ficent ancient temples. uni'ivailled for the profus.ion M1d    music and dirums mingiles freely W!ith their unsophtisticated
intri{;acy of the1r carvings. Every ,form and expression.      revelry. By noon the infectious mood of hilarity mellrJWs
the mos.t earthy and the most 'refined, a profusion of         dvwn and people retreat quietly into their homes for a
erotic passion. ,are all captuTed in stone for genel'atioos    bath and a feast. In the ev{!ni~ they exchange visits of
of art lovers to awreciate.        B,hubaneshwaT alone has     goodwi~l, and fl1iends and relatives fondly embrance one
over a hundred medieval temples. Among the temples             anof11er.
 of KonaTak. ,the Sun Temple (Built in 1255 AD.) is                  In the night, bonnres are lilt in every locality under
the finest and most impressive. Executed in the arch,i.        the fu11 moon, and groups of people go round it chanting
tectural image of the myth~C'alcharriot of the Sun. the 12     hymns and making ceremO!]i~1offerings of the haJrvest
pairs of enormous wheels carved on the outer walls of the      produce to the sacredfire.

                                         II.   News       of the            region
       Study Week on the construc,tion of the                    and Calcutta and the other between Amingaon and
            rai:l-cum-road   brildge' over the                   Siliguri.
          Bra'hma'putra rive'r at Pandu, India
                                                                        At the bridge site at Pandu, opportun,ities Were
      In the COUl'se the discussions that took place at          provided ,to the delegates to observe and study at first
~he sixth session of the Ralilway Sub~C-omrnittee,on a           hand the te<ihniquesin progress. One of the ~nteresting
suggestionmade by t!he ECAFE secretarna,t     that it might      features of this :bl'idge is its extra deep foundations for
be desiralble for experts to visit and observe some major        the pi~,     a!OOut199 feet 'below H.F .L. of R.L 177;
englneering projects an the process of implementatli'on in       i.e. the 'bottom of the ma~nwells have to be taken tl>-
the region, the leader ~f the India delegation stated that       22 R.L.                                     in
                                                                               The sinking of heavy <:alissons deep flowing
his Govemment would be happy to pl'ov,ide facilitlies for        water for these foundations was a technique that was
a team of railway ,bridge engineers to observe and study         studied with much linterest by the delegates. A demon-
the techniques -of a major -bridge ,construction work over        stration of. centering a caisson and grounding it in deep
the B ral1maputl1ariver -at P andu (Assam Sta,te).               flowing water wa:s given.
     In v,iew of the considera,b'leinterest shown 'by the                  Paper on the folloWling subjects were read. and
representatives who attended the Railway Sub-Committee               the engineers concerned clari,fied vaTious po~nts that were
meetlng, the ECAFE secretall'ia,tpursued the offer made              raised 'by the par,ticipaints.
and a Sbudy Week was 'organized by tjhe Indian Govern-
                                                                           1.Location  of the ,base line.
ment under the auspices of ECAFE,            and held in
                                                                          2. Design of the concrete mix and its control.
November 1960.
                                                                          3. Planning for the Brahm~putra Bridge Project.
     The Study Week wa~ inaugu'J1ated New Delhi                                                               and well-sinking.
                                                                          4. Construction of the foundatJiorliS
on 21 November 1960. and was attended by railway                          5. Design of the gi:rders !'or th:e Brahmaputra
and hi~hway e~ecutives from Cambodia, Ceylon. New                                Bridge.
Zealand, Phillwines, Thailand and the USSR.                               6.     Design of the well a/I1dpiers.
     The Study Week included two tours of ins~tion                        7.     Erection of girdel's of the Brahmaputra BTidge.
of a number of installa,tions of I'ailway and associated                  8.     Keeping 'Ulpthe morale of con~truction organiza-
engineering interest. One tour was between New Delhi                             tion.

BURMA                                                                from 1 J anuaJry 1959, and t!his helped ,in lachievdng  the
                                                                     government's objective of bringing down the cost of living
                Burma railways, 1959-60                              and, wil1h other measures taken, has benefitt~d the ra~!lwaY
       Wlith ,the improvement of law and order in the                by the larger '¥olume of traffic carried and by increased
country, it Ihas now become possible for the Un~on of                earnmgs.
Burma, railways to undertake projects fOJr mcreaSling
efficiency of operation. and to d,ivert resou;rces to the                  Dul'ing the year. top prrority was given m wagou
                                                                     sUipply 'a:nd special arrangements were made for the
railway system in order to meet the needs of an eXlpand-
ing economy. The re-introduction of nigh,t train running             transport of building ma!terials (bamboo and scantlings)
from 1 January, 1959 has made possible the more                      required for housing construction in ~he satellite toWUS
intensive u:t~1izationof ro11i1ngstock, ,thus enabling the           of OkIQa.Japa and Thaketa-and     for the transport of road
railway to prov,ide better and quicker serVicesto pa'ssenger         metal required fur widening the Rangoon-msem R~ad...
and freight and at the same time earn greater revenues.              The following opel'abing features deserve special mention:

       With the provision of additional Ipassengerstock.                       (i)   The number of pa,ssengersca'rrie,d inc!l'ea~d
 better serwces 'hav,e been provided on the hill sections.                           :from 27 mrllion to 33 milli'on. whi'le coachiug
      A reduction of 20 rper cent 'on frelilght for a number                         ea'm'~ngstopped the figures of 1957-58 b~:
 of lagl'ic\iltural and other commodities was put into effect                        'about 75 la:khs K}"ats (US$I.57 miJli:on).

      (~j) The goods traffic reached the 3 mililion ton            the plain. So far, the Bank Jl!a,s  lent US$328 m~Hion-
           'malrk.                                                 the }largest amount ever lent by 1JheBank for a sin.gle
      ( i~i) The doubling of the Cilrcular RaJ~lway line           project-to   assist in financing the Indian Railways pro-
              around Rangoon [s in progress and the double         gramme of expansion, the sa1ientfeatures of which are;-
             line is eJlJPected be opened in the very                    1. to iocrease carrying capacity and improve opera-
             near future. To pl'ovide better transport                      tional efficiency;
              ~aJcilitiesfor the r,esidentsof the new satellite
                                                                        2.    to increase freight capacilty from       114 mTllioo
             town of Okkalapa, ,the construction of a loop
                                                                              to 162 million tons a year;
             line encirdli~ng the enhire new town is con-
             'templated and a prelimin:ary survey has been               3.   .to increase passenger cwpacity Iby about 15 per
             completed.                                                       cent;
      (iv)   The r~abilitation of the Ibridges on the Pegu              4.    to acquire 2,161 locomotives, 88,363 passenger
            lIme lis I:he only remaining ,item of major con-                  cars and 111,739 freigiht cars;
             S~l'uct~nalwork, and ,it is hoped that thi's work          5. to double 1,300 m]les (2,080              km) of main
             will also be completed before the end of IJhe                 line tl'alck;
       .present       year.                                             6. to Ir~lace 8,000 miles (12,800            km) of tl1ack;
       (v) A shaff tl'aining centre has been established,
                                                                         7. to coo'stJl'oct830 miles (1,328 km) of new lines
             and thrreerefres'her courseSfor supervisory staff
                                                                              to give acce&s coal and ore fields and to areas
             from jaor ~a,i.tway depa'rtments have been
                                                                              lacking transportatlion;
                                                                         8. to electrify 886 miles (1 ,418 km) of main lines
      (vii) The introduction 'of Burmese telegraphy by
                                                                               in regions of high density passenger and freight
            stages wa:s commended in Ma1'Ch 1959 and
                                                                       .t~affic;       and
            up-to-date over 600 staff have been trained
            to receive land send messa,ges Burmese.                     9.    to construct 'br,id'gesand to improve yards and
                                                                              signalling facilities.
     (vii)   A Ra,ilway Welfalre Institute had been form-
             ed with a capital of K.J00,000 (US$21 ,000)
             and a. RaJilway Staff Shop has :been opened
             nea'r the General Office in Bogyoke Street,
             Rangoon. Prowsion wa,gons are plying up
                                                                     Pakista,n Regionall Trarini'ng Cern'trer in Railway
             and down the railway line on pay da~s, to
                                                                       Operating and Sig'na'lling, Wall ton, Laihore
             enaJbleth~ ;railway staff throughout ,the rail-
             way system to buy essentiaJcommodities at tihe        (Source: Trainees' Information Bulletin W,altan. Lahore)
             cheapest possilble rates.
                                                                         The 13th Sign'alling and 16th O,perating courses of
                                                                   the Pakistan Regional Training Centre at Walton. Lahore.
INDIA                                                              will commence on 1 September 1961. The series of in-
                                                                    forma:tion bulletins issued by fhe Prmcipal of the Training
                 New rail co,ns'truction                           Centre from time :to time provides prospective trainees with
 (The Railway Gazette. London, 4 November 1960)                    informatian reI.altingto the location 'of the Centre, facilities
                                                                   availa,ble for travelling by train and ,by ,air to Lahore from
     The Railway BOiard has sanctioned the construction            Karachi and New Delhi. passport ,and visa requirements.
of a metre-gauge line from Udaipur to Himmatnaga!r cover-          currency permitted to be Ibrought into or taken out of the
ing a distance of a,bout 219 km (137 mi).           The            country, catering provided at the Centre, the clothing
construction work on the new line, whi£h will connect              I'ecommended to be brought by the ,trainees for use in
north Guj:arat with soulJhem Rajasthan and will allso              summerand w~ntelr.land the type of education,al equipment
br~ng Udaipur ~n direct contact with Ahmedabad. wil'l              supplied to the students I!o keep their lecture notes, etc.
be calrmed out by the Western Railway.

      US$70 million loaln for India;n railways
                                                                   VIET .NAM.         southem
(Source: International Bank for Reconstruction and
 DeI)elopment Press Release No. 644, 29 July 1960,                                    Marn-irne   rehabilrtaltioln
                 Washingtoo 25, D.C.)
                                                                    (The Railway C azetter, London, 28 O~tober 1960)
      Dumng July 1960, the World Bank made a US$70
million loan to India for tihe improvement and expanmon                                            of
                                                                        Repa~rs to ~e main -1rnes tihe Viet-N am railways
of Indian Ra~IWiays; it covers the 'greater part of the            in soUithernViet-N am, whim were considerably damaged
foreign exchange req1.l!ired the final year of the railway         du~ing the 1941-1945 war and the civil war, have
programme under India's second five-year plan afJ1d                recently !been completed so as to permit the operation of
accounts for about 1/4 of all the public expenditures of           through services.

BURMA                                                               commodities. As a result of this new I-ink, fallow lands
               New survey being started                             can be reclaimed and turned into jute and rice cultivaung
      (World   Highways, London, 1 October 1960)
      A .new survey of the Rangoon to M,andalay route
                                                                           Bridge on the Bombay-Cape Com'ori'n
                                                                                      na'tionat hig'hway                   !
in Burma is lbeing initiated Iby the International Co-
                                                                        (State Transport Review, Bombay, June 1960)        ,\
operation Adminisrnation of the United States (ICA) i,n
order to design a project that ~ll make maximum use of                   The Aroor bridge on the ,Bombay-Cape Comori~
the existing road. It ,is,believed that the approximate sum         national highway has ,beenopened ,to the traffic, It pro-
of US$30 million granted by ICA wiLl be sufficient to               vides a <::ontinuingroad between Emakulam and T rivan-
provide an adequate highway.                                        drum. The length of this pre~stressedreinforced bridge
                                                                    is 343 m, the width 9.75 m. and the cost of construction0
CHINA      (T a,iwan)
   Taiwaln's Ea,s't-Wes't hig:hway o'p,e'nto 'tra,ffic                         The Western     Express Highway
      (World Highways, London, 1 June, 1960)
                                                                         (State Transport Review, Bombay, J,uly 1950)
      Taiwan "s east-westCross Hi~way construction began                  T,he Western Express Htglhway sta:rts from Mahim
in 1956.     It is a smgle-lane roadibed and 1:raffic moves         Causeway (Bombay) and wi:ll join ~he existiIJIgGh~d.
under ~trjct control with occasional checkpoints where cars,        bundar road at Dahisar. The tengrh of the eXipre5
tl1ucksand buses c'an pass in either direction. The trans-          highway will be 25.3 km (16 mi).        It will have a
island highway connects Hualien on the east coast with              two-lane dual camage-way 26 metres wide and will
T,aidhuDg on the western side. The highway rises to                 cater for a traffic owpacity of 1,200 ve~les per hour.
heights Qf nearly 2,100 metres. Twenty-six bridges were             11he estimated cost of construction is OS$6,140,000.
erected, 900 metres of tunnels were bored through rock                                                             is
                                                                    The work began in 1959 and final complelJion expected
and 4,800 metres of .bypass were constru'cted at oheck              in June 1966.
points to permit :two-way traffic. The leng~h of the road
is 298 km (186 mi) and the cost about US$10.5                       JAPAN
million.                                                                World Bank's loan for Japanese toll road
      H,ighway conditions do not pel'mit speeds much over                ( World Highways,' London, 1 April 1960)
40 kilometres (25 mi) an hour on level sectionlS; and,                   The world Bank has lent Jwpan OS$40 million
in the curving, tunnelled ,mountain areas, speeds are re-           for construction of a 72 kilometres toll 'highway betJween
duced considel1a1bly.                                               Amagasahi and Ritto ,to link the Osaka and Kyoto
                                                                    metropolitan areas.
                                                                          The four-lane highway will have Limited accessand
       Malaya!n road developmen't progra'mme                                              en
                                                                    will bypass all tOW!1JS route. Ii will comprise the 6rSt
    ( World Highways. London. 1 December 1960)                      section of a 184 kilometre (115 mi) toll route from
      The Federation of Malaya is plannilllg 2.400 kilo-            Kobe to Nagoya. The total <:ost of the Amagasahi-
metres of road projects costing US$50 mil~ion. The                  Ritto project is estimated at OS$131 million, with
Programme includes 31 rural projects tot3JHing 670                  completion scheduled for early 1963.
kilometres. Most of fuem are laterite roads wh~cIhwill                            The Meishjln superhighwary
withstand local weather conditi<ms. Asphalt and crushed
                                                                        (State Transport Review, Bombay, June 1960)
stone w~ll 3JlsoIbe used. Long-term projects include the
development of the !1ich cent\13JIvalley of the main                      The Meishin Superhighway, already under con-
                                                                    struction, is scheduled for completion in t:he Spring of
mountain ranges I~n east Perak. north Pakang and west
                                                                    1962. A ,four lane route wi1!h a ,median strip, it will
                                                                    l'un 185 kilometres (116 mi) from Nishinomiya, near
INDIA                                                               Kobe, to Komaki, north of N ag°Y'a. The project will
        New road   liln,king the Garo hil1s wi'th                   fonn the western section of ~he proposed 542 km (336
                   plains of As'sam                                 mi) eXipressway  Ibetween Kobe and Tokyo..
   (State Transport Review. Bombay. Octo'ber 1960)                                        Road news
      A new 58 km (36 m). road linking the Garo hills                     ( World   Highways, London, June 1960)
with ,the !plain areas of Kamrup and Gaolpara district was                                .5~Year   plan
opened recently to veh~culartraffic. Th~s road. constTu~t-                The J apan Hj~way Public Cor,pol'ation has ,pUiblish
ed tihrouglh,h.ll districts ~n five months reduces the distance     ed a su'rvey of the 5-year road improvement programme.
between Gauhati and Tura ,by 80 km (50 mi).                Th~s     It envisa'gesa tota:l expenditure of OS$1 ,490 million, 80
new ~angram-Assogiri-Bajend{)loa            road will serve as      per cen:t of which is to be allocated for Govermnent!
an important artery of hill districts producing agricultural        projects (one quarter of tJhese being for toll road

 developments) and the balance of 20 per cent will be            to be completed after 1965.     Construction will take
 spent on local road works.                                      place on the Hindu Bagh-Loralai-Oera       Ghazi Klhan
     In Ma,1'ch 1958 about 8Y2 per cent of the total             roa,d ,and on new bridges over the Sutlej river near
mileage of J &paneseroads was sul1fa,ced;
                                        and it is expected       Bahawalpur, I!he Ravi rivi!r near Lahore. the Jhelum
that by the end of the five-year ,programme nearly 13            rear Jlhdlum and the Oeg Nalla between Lahore and
per cent of the total network will have been surfaced.           Gujraruwala.
Under the plan it is proposed to construct about 200              In East P'akistan 1.190 km (740 mi) of highway
kilometres of expressways and 300 km (187 mi) of tollroads. which work is now in progress will be completed.
                                                           A numlber of feeder roads will conni!ct sugar mills and
                                                           othi!r factories with ~he nearest railways. An allocation
                      Tokyo roads                          was made for completing 210 km (130 'mi) of new roads.
      Plans drawn up for highways in and around Tokyo                  For Karad1i and special areas--the route from
include eight new toll roads to ,be completed by 1965            ~arachi to the civil airport will 'be improved and a
 at a cost of US$336 million.                                    new bridge over the Malir river will be begun. Somi!
                                                                  1.400 km (870 mi) of new roads will be constructed in
          .T       okyo--'Komaki     city   highway              the far north of West Pakistan and in other under-
      The 4-lane road con;nectmgTokyo with Komahi city           developed areas.
wi11 be 294 km long (184 mi).            It is eStimated that                         Road programme
cars will be a,ble to do I!his journey in 4 hours and trucks
in 5 lhours. A quarter of the total length of the highway
                                                                        (World Highways, Landon, June 1960)
wll cons~stof 160 tunnels and the longest of these will                 A US$627 million programme for road development
be the 8.5 km K,amisaka tunnel under Mount Ena.                  has been approved. Of the sum, projects worth US$356
Estimated costs are about US$896 mi1lion. The survey'            millian have allready been carried out. Of the balance, .
of the proposed super-speed motorway alorllg the present         US$62 million is to be allocated for 1961.
Tokaido h~ghway is to be completed 'at the end of 1960.
The Jength of this mororway will ,be 349 kilometres (218                      Roa'd transpo,rt in West Pa:kistaln
mi) and construction costs about US$53 million.                       (Modern     Transport. London, 16 July 1960)
                                                                       The Government of West Pakjstan has decided to
NEPAL                                                            halt the policy of nationalization of road transport and
       Highways        a'nd e'conomic       dervelopmenlt        to transfer the industry gradually to private operators.
                                                                  It has, therefore, decided not to e~pand the activities of
       (World       Highways.      London. June 1960)
                                                                 the Road Transport Boal'd which has already invested
      Nepal has received a considerable amount of foreign         a:bout 58,000 miLlian l1upees. A quarter of the capital
aid which. for the mo~t Ipart, :h'as been used in road           of the West Pakistan Road Transport Board is held by
building. It is considered tha.t the most essential require-     the Pakistan Government and ,the rest by the provinci,al
ment for economic development is roads. Very few of
them were at present motol'able. Work has begun on
rhe construction of some 800 kilometres (500 mi) of                    The Government's present policy of engaging private
the North-Sou'th "feeder" roads.                                 capital in the industry alims at using public funds thus
                                                                 saved for other p'rojects.

PAKISTAN                                                                  Road    construction   in Easit Pa'kis,ta'n

                 Fi¥e- Year   road programme                        ( World    Highways, London,     1 December 1960)
                                                                      Construction and im,provernentof 848 km of road
 (Warid        Highways. W ash~ngton. 1 November 1960)
                                                                 in East Pakistan was awroved.    Major roads included
     Pakistan has pro\')ded US$114 million for hi.ghway          in the program'me are Jessore~Khulna. Dacca-Aricha.
development in its second five-year ,plan (1960-1965) .          Goalundo-Rajcari. Companiganj-BTahmanbaria, Kushtia
T1he programme provides US$52.5 million each to ,be                                            and
                                                                 -Jheniadah. Comilla-..;C'handpur Kus'htia-Ishwardi.
used in East and West Pakistan and US$9.4 million
for use in Karacl1i ,and other special areas.
      In West Pakistan. about 1.370 km (850 rni) of
 new roads and the improvement of 400 km (250 mi)                                 North    Borneo higrhway
 of existi,ngroad was planned. The bridge over the Indus                (World     Highways. London, June 1960)
Ri\'er neaq- Thatta; will also be completed. The plan                 The Sarawak Govemment has announced plans for
includes the construction of 724 km (450 mi) of road             the building of a US$78.4 million highway from Kuching
along the Makran coast. and 177 km (110 mi) of                   to Jesselton. This is a long-term project and for the
the KaJat-Khuzdar section of tJhe Karachi-Kalat-                 present, the link between Kuching aJ11d     the existing
Quetta road. The barrage areas will 'be opened up by             K.uala Belit/B,runei town trunk road in B,runei is beini
the constroctron of 1.970 km (2.225 mi) of new roads             constructed.

THAILAND                                                         VIET -NAM.     southern
                  Roads programme                                       New bridge across the Metko'ng rive'r
       (Warid   Highways, London, June 1960)                       (Warid     Highways, London.    1 December 1960)
                                                                      A new bridge across the Mekong river at Mythvan
      The draft roads programme, which provides for
                                                                 in Vinh Long Province (Republic of Viet-Nam) will
arterial l~nks to all parts of the country by 1966, is
                                                                 be built 'to replace the present fer,ry service.
under study. Priority !has been given to the Tak-Mae
Sod link in an arterial plan between the Central Pdain                 The bridge will be 640 metres long wil!h 6.9 metres
and the North and North-East. The whole programme                wide roadway. A 2.7 metres 1ane for pedestrians and
envisages a ,budget of US$14 million (306 million b'd!ht)        limited-speed vehicles will be built on ;both sides of the
next year, rising to a peak of US$29 million (433                I'oadway. Cost of the project is US$ 7.1 million.
million bah,t) in 1963. This ,is apart from foreign aid              Construction is expeeted to ,begin in March     196]
which is very considerable.                                      and compl~tion-end of 1963.

                                                       News from outside the region

                         World    tourist    traffic                              traffic were recorded by a few ~oun:tries.t!he most notable
                                                                                  oc~urrmg in Barb.ados ,and Egypt. whose traffic decreased
           (Modem       Transport, London, 2 July 1960)
                                                                                  by 25 per cent and 14 per cent respectively. It is evident
          According 'to the twelfth annual report of the Study                    that international tou,rist traffi~ in Europe as a whole
   Commission of the International Union of Official Travel                       increased substantially. On account of the Brussels ex-
   Ol1ganizations on Intema,tional Travel Statistics, most                         hibition in 1958. there was a rise of 60 per cent in the
   countries of the world enjoyed a higher volume of tourist                      number of visitors to Belgium. Turkey had t 4 per
   traffic from a,broad in 1958 than in 1957. The report,                          cent more visitors. Spain 13 per cent. the Netherlands
   International Travel Statistics, 1958, has just been                            12 per cent and Austria 10 per cent. In the Canbbean
   published.1 It cantains statistics covering 55 countries,                       area, Bermuda recorded an increase of 28 per cent and
   from Ailgeria to Viet-N am and pro\"ides an indication                          Puerto Rico 17 per cent. It is also noted th.at nearly
   of the main trends in world travel. Decreases in tourist                        92.500 of its 131,000 tourists reached Bermuda by air
       1 Published by the British Travel    and Holidays
                                                           Association, 64        and that 89.000 of these emanated from the United
   St. James Street, S.W.I.                                                       States and Canada.

   SOUTH AFRICA                                                                   singleline non-token working :between attended stations,
                                                                                  and for ~he safe ~litting of block sections on both single
                 Concre'te sleeper rnsu1a'tion on
                    Sou,th Africain ra.1ways                                      and double lines to increase t:heir carrying capac~ty.
   (Source:~ The Railway Gazette, London, 1 April                 1960)                 Compared with the alternative of resleepering with
                                                                                  wood, the neoprene pad insulati,on permits of much greater
          Large orders have been placed iby the South African
                                                                                  economy.      An example drawn from estimates on the
   Railways (S.A.R.)      fOff two types of concrete sleepers
                                                                                  S.A.R. is the difference between: ( 1) the cost of
   suitable for neoprene pad insulation for ,Centralised T l1affic
                                                                                  providing neoprene pad insulation for eight interloop,
   Control (C.T.C.) so thait the curre!IJtS.A.R. progr,amme
                                                                                  between Klerk~dorp and Veetienstrome, Where the track
   of Laying long-welded l1ails on concrete sleepers for main-
                                                                                  is ~aid on steel sleepers, which is cited £ 9,000
   line track may be cal1ried out without hampering electrical
                                                                                   (US$25,200);    and (2) the estimated cost of re-sleeper-
   sign,allingdevelopments.                                                       ing with wood, which is £ 70,000 ($196,000).
         A fastening designed ,by S.A.R. technicall s~aff as
                                                                                        Experimental use of the pads has established the
   the result of the work of Railways resea'rchteams uses a
                                                                                  expectation of a five-year life for ,the pads at the
   neoprene insulation pad and a natural rubber resilient
                                                                                  minimum.      These experiments included extensive field
   pad, together with a steel baseplate, coach-screws, and
                                                                                  tests, dating back to June, 1956, and laboratory tests,
   clips. This is one of the types adopted.
                                                                                  including accelerated laboratory tests, which did not,
         Another research team has an alternative method of                       however, ,s~mulaterail creep or side thrust.
   fastening of the Fist type. Like the one designed by the
                                                                                  Field tests with neoprene pads
   Railways staff, this also uses a neoprene pad between
   the rail and the con<:rete, but the fastening is a ~pecial                            Actual field tests on seven widely separated sections
                dlip held in position by a bar that ,passes                       of the South African Railways systems included an
   through the sleeper.      This bar is insulated from the                       installation at Fortuna, regarded as having been made
   concrete with a phenolic resin compound.                                       under the worst possible conditions. Fortuna is a water-
                                                                                  ing station with. a normally heavy concentration of burning
   Steel   sleeper   insulation                                                    ash and water at the water columns after the passage of
        Insulation of steel sleepers with neoprene pads has                       trains. Sa:mplepads withdrawn after nearly sevenmonths
   been investigated over the past two years by the S.A.R.                        indicated that where installation was done properly,
   as a part of a comprehensiveresearch ,programme. The                           mechani<:aJwear would :not cause failure within a'bout
   object has been to evaluaote relia~ble, safe, and easily-                      five years. The pads were used on steel-sleeperedtrack;
   maintained insulation systems suitable for C. T.C., for                         steel has been used on two running loops and the siding,


while the main line at Fortuna is on wooden sleepers.                 been made in a half-mile (0.8 km) length at Milton,
It was found that wet ash on the wooden sleepers caused               near B,rigbane, as part of the subul1ban quadruplication
a shunt 'resulting in circuit failure; insulared steel sleeper        project. Five different types, including one of Swedish
tracks contin~led to fun~tion.                                        design, are under observation, as well as a normal timber
      tnrtial m~'a:lIarions perfotmed during these field              sleeper mounted on rubber ,pads.
eXIPeriments  resulted in some failures which were found,
on investigation, to be due to lack of e~perience and of              CANADA
incorrect installation; since then. these faults have been                        Abolition   of steam haulage
progressively overcome. They were not att!ribu,table to                (The Railway Gazette, London, 21 October 1960)
the inherent qualities of tJheneoprene pads.                                Conversion from steam to diesel motive power pro-gr
                                                                              rapidly during 1959 and, by the end of 1960,t.h
AUSTRALIA                                                                  steam locomotive is expected to :have disappeared
                                                                      from Canadian railways with very few exceptions. In
             Tests with concrete sleepers                             1959, 446 coal and oilJburning engines weire with.
 (The Railway Gazette, London. 4 November 1960)                       drawn from 'service,leaving only 1,541 steam locQmottves
    The Queensland Railways has laid down a section                   in operation. Diesel units inf:reasedto 3,155 from 2.799..
of con<:r~te-sleeperedtrack to test its behaviour under               and electric locomotives were reduced in number by 51..
heavy s~burban traffi<: conditions. Trial installation has            compared with a reduotioo of 64 in t'he previous year.

EUROPE                                                                 The weight of ve'hic,les in in'terno'tio'nall 'traffic
        Plain on vehicle weight a'nd leng-th                          (Etudes Routieres, Geneva, Decemlber i 960, in F.ench)
   (Worid Highways, London, 1 June 1960. page 5)                           At the meeting of the ministers of transpoi1theld Tn
      A plan for ,an mtemation,al agl'eement00 weights and            O{;tober 1960 at the Hague the following maximum loads
measures for vehicles moving in international traffic has             and dimensions of mdtor cars Tn European internationalt~
been considered by a Committee of the European Coo-                         were agreed upcm:
ference of T ranSIJort Ministers. The Committee con-                       Silligle axle load                         10   tons
dluded that a formal agreement should be reached on the                    Double        "                            16   tons
following limitation (in metric tons):                                     Total weight of vehicle with trailers
     Maximum weight for single axle                10 tons                        and of alticuilated vehicles        32   tons
     Maximum weight for tandem axle                J6 tons                 Total length of vehicle wil!h trailers..   16.5 metres
                                                                           Total lengtih of articulated vehicles..    15 metreS
     Authorized   load:
                                                                            It was also agreed that the vehicles having the
           trucks with t:wo axles.                16 tons             characteristics higher .than those above should not be used
           trucks with three axles.               22 tons             for intematicm,altraffic ~fl!er 31 December 1965.
           traotor-trailer combinations           32 tons
                                                                          The following countries so far have accepted I!hesep
Maximum lengths specified by the Committee were:                                West Germany, Austria, Belgium. Denmark,S
     Trucks with two axles                        11- metres                France. Greece. Luxembourg. N oTWay, Portu~al,
     Trucks with three axles.                     12 metres           Sweden, Turkey and Yugoslavia.
     Buses                                        12 m~res
     Semi-trailers                                15 metres           FEDE'RAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY
                                                                      Railway crossing a'nd railway a'cciden'ts i'n Germo,ny
     Europealn road laborato'ries co1labo-ra'tion
                                                                                               in 19S8
(Etudes Routieres, Geneva. December 1960. in French)
                                                                          (Die   Bundesbahn, Da!rmstadt, November 1959.
       The representatives of road laboratories of tl1e                                       in German)
countries: England, France, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal                    The number of accidents at railway level crossings
and Splain at a meeting held in Madrid, M-ay 1960,                    in the Federal Republic of Gel'many has been registered
agreed on collaboration among European road laboratories,             for many years by the Union Railway, with a vie.w t~
with regard to the following matters: exc'hange of in-                improving traffic safety. In 1958. the number of railway
fol1ffiation, technical br-bliography, studies and researches         level crpssing accidents involving loss of and injury to
and -~ommon experimental works. The creation of the                   human lives was 228 (32.70;0).        Of those resulting in
central body was a;lso announced.                                     material losses,such as damage to railway and road user's
      Other European countries whiGh did not participate              property, 110 (14.4%, accidents involved ccmsiderable
in th-e meeting such as Au$tria. Denmark, Norway.                     losses to road vehicles only. and 9 (1.30;0) accidents
Sw-eden and Switzerland, were invited to pal1ticipate rn              resulted in the loss of animals. A fu,r,l!her analysis of
this project.                                                         these accident figures reveals that 138 ;personswere killed

and 427 persons injured .rn a total of 35 l1ailway                         It is often inspirin;g and encouraging to see a local
aocidents. The number of persons considered as killed                chief or District Commissioner and his people constrocting
includes persons who died within 30 d,ays of the accident.           roads under the technical supervision of a Team of Mass
as a result of injuries sustained. The 'responsibility for           Education and Commooilty Development. While the men
the acridenlts mentioned a,bove was apporti~d          in 63         are engaged iII1the cutlass, pickaxe ,and spade work, the
rnstancesto Ithe r,ailways (9.1 0;0) and in 630 instancesto          women and children supply stones and earth.
 tile drivers of vehicles (90.5) or other road users; 3 o~her
accidents (0.40;0 were due to other causes).                         PORTUGAL
      Moreover, in 1958 there were 1,677 cases of road               Use    of lateri,tic     materialls    in    highway           co'nstruction
users damaging barriers put up :by railways, which resulted             (Highways           and   Bridges   and   Engineering            Warks,
in the death of 4 persons land injury of 175 persons.                         Ashlford, Middlesex, 14 September 1960)
      Of the 3,063 railway accidents which took place in                  Portuguese la,boratories have carried out studies on
1958 in the Union and other !railw,ays in Germany, 1,841             the properties of lateritic materials and the following
were on fenced crossings and the 'balance of 1.222 were              discoveries have been made:
at level crossings which were not fenced.
                                                                             1.Lateritic cuirasses applied in the construction of
      ill the Federal Republic of Germany. West Berlin                           macadam behaved satisfactorily.
and Saar excluded. there were 703,944 htghway accidents
                                                                            2.   La,teritic cuirasses, when ,mixed with limestone
resulting in the death of 11.697 persons and injury to
                                                                                 in equal proportions in doU!ble !bituminous coat.
350.992 persons, during 1958.
                                                                                 ings, .likewise lbehaved satisfactorily Ibut, indivi-
                                                                                 dually applied, they produced a very rough
                       Accident ra'te
     (Modern Transport. London. 16 July 1960)                               3.   Crushed stone lateritic' detritus applied                          in
                                                                                          courses produced corrugations.
      Intense 'use of the motolWay between the Ruhr.
Koln. Fr.ankfurt and Stu'ttgart by heavy lorries (up to                     4.    In spite of their deficient grading and low
5.000 in each of 24 ,hours) resulted in severe damage                            ,C.B.R., lateritic soils seems to -be good for
to the concrete pavement which was not reinforced.                               mechanically sbabilized base courses. This is
Renewal of the su,rface involved difficulty. danger and                          the apparent conclusion to 'be drawn from the
delay while all traffic in both directions was concentrated                      'behaviour of a road made up of a base course
on one carriageway. Accidents to lorries were numerous                           of this 'type grouted with 1.2 ~g/m2 MCO and
due to d,rivers over..fat)gue or to ,brake failures on long                      coated with a 3 cm thick 'bituminous sul'facing.
down gradients. In 1955-58. in the Federal Republic                         5.   Transport and construction operations seem to
 17.7 to 21.8 per cent of all vehicles in accidents were                         alter soil characteristics, increasing the percentage
lorries.                                                                         of fine aggregate and .lowering the plasticity
   From March 1956. a third system was required.                                 index, although this remains above the limits
Minimum engine power of 6 h.p. per ton of gross weight                           currently recommended.
was also required. Heavy traffic was prohibited on
the motorways from 10 p.m. on Saturday to 10 p.m.                    TU~KEY
on Sunday.                                                                       Bridge over the Bosphorus
                                                                       (The Railway Gazette. London. 12 February 1960)
GHANA                                                                     The Turkish Government is to proceed with .:he
                                                                     construction of a combined road-railway su~nsion ,bridge
                 Self-help roads in Ghaln'a                          across the B09phorus straits. It will run from Ortakoy
   (Highways     and   Bridges   and   Engineering   Warks,          on the European side to Bey.}e~bey on ilie Anatolian
                                                                     side. It. will be about 1344 metres 10l1!g,     ,the section
      Ashford,    Middlesex, 14 September 1959)                      over waiter :being 1050 metres. T,he bridge will -be
      In the construction of feeder roads in the hinterland,         about 50 'metres 'high, sufficient to allow the passa,geof
the Depa'rtrnent of Social Welfare and Community                     any ship likely to traverse the straits. The cost is
Development of the Ghana Government has played the                   e~pected to be albout 05$50.4 million.
major part. It has ,been preaching the gospel of Self-
heLp through Communal La,bour and Voluntary Contri-                  UNITED         KINGDOM
bution, intensively and extensively; and, as a result, the                          New       road    research         facilities
people in the farming areas have realized the vital roles
                                                                           (International     Road     Safety    and     Traffic      Review,
they ihave to play in the Development of Ghana. With-
out waiting for the Government, they build schools,                                          London, Autumn 1960)
sanitary facilities, good systems of wa,ter supply, and                    A new road safety research ;track is being built
roads for vehicles to transport their cocoa and foods to             in Britain. at Crowthorne. Berkshire. It is designed for
big towns for sa.Ieand e~port.                                       research in traffic and safety measures with particular

emphasis on vehicle ,behaviour, including high speed studies                                    IYz   tons. 737,320.    Total  goods vehicles
up to 130 km/h (80 mi/h».             It is in the form of a                                    1,325.616, and total hackney vehicles over eight
figure of eigh,t with la large paved area in the centr~. The                                    were 77,099 (including 3.212 trolley ,buses). There
total length of track is a,bout 4,800 m (3 mi). and it                                          were 4,965.772 private cars.
will contain a num,ber of different test sections ,and also
varying types of road surfaces.                                                                 UNITED               STATES
       The facilities for studying the effect of colour of                                                  Accidents               a't highway grade crossings
road...1.suuace on visibility with headlamps have ..albeen                                                  (R        .1 way     .
                                                                                                                               S 19na    II mg
                                                                                                                                            '        an d   C ommumca     .         .
                                                                                                                                                                                 t Ions

  d b k.
provIded        as   well
                               as   for   studYing
                The expenments on the guIdance and     hlgn     speed       sklddmg                              B    . t0I , Connect. t , Feb ruary
                                                                                                                                     ICU                                 1960)
an t ra mg.
control of vehicles in fog wi"l also be performed, and                                               The following statistical data on accidents at highway
th necessarywires emitting signals, which can be detected                                       grade crossings were published (see table below):
by simple electronic devices in the vehicles, have been
provided 'below the road surface.                                                                  Traffic            engineering            at eighth                 Pan-American
      T,he large paved area in the centre of the track                                                              Highway Congress
will serve for investigations on the layout of road                                                    (Traffic Engineering. Washington, July 1960)
junctions.                                        .e                                                                     I .         .
                                                                                                       Th f 0II owmg reso utJonsreIatmg to tra ffi c engJneenng
                                                                                                                  '                                     "

             ..The   researches on the safety aspects of vehicles                               were adopted at the plenary sessions of the eighth Pan
           will mclude:                                                                         American Hig,hway Congre5s:
                Safety problems of 'high speeds.                                                       I.    To urge the crea,tion of a permanent technical
                 Behaviour of vehicles                  particularly during                                  committee. with staff. within the Pan American
           emergency ibraking- (different               tYiPes of surfaces.                                  Congress Organiz-ation, to deal with traffic and
           various braking systems).                                                                         safety problems on a continuing Ibasis.
                 Fiactors affecting the motion and response of a                                       2.    To encourage ,greater uniformity of traffic control
           vehicle when known steering inputs are applied.                                                   devices among all the countries of the Americas
                 Motion and response of vehicles under adverse                                               and to :bring these. standa~ds closer to those
           conditions or when maLadjusted.                                                                   proposed ,by the United Nations.
                Running of vehicles into kei'bs of various shapes                                      3.    To enc~urage the holding .of periodic mee~ings
           land dimension.                                                                                   and semmars for traffic officIals of the Amencas.
                ,Controlled crashes of vehicles into fixed ;ba!rriers                                  4.    To urg~ the i.n~lusi°n. of. traffic. engineering
           and/or other vehicles.                                                                            courses m the cIvil engmeenng currIcula of the
                                                                                                             various ,universities in the Americas. Further.
                I~pact of vehicles into guard rails, fences and                                              to encourage the creation of scholarships in
           vegetatIon.t                                                                                          h.
                                                                                                               IS ,e ld and an exchange 0f students and
                     Census o,f motor vehicles                                                               teachers [between Universities.
       (Modern Transport, London, 6 February 1960)                                                     5. To stimulate urban 'transport planning in the
        At the end of September. 1959, the number of                                                      metropolitan areas.
vehicles in use on the roads of Great Britain was                                                      6. To Ul1gethat traffic, safety and planning data
8.606.047.    Service ve'hicles and those of Government                                                   be g,a:theredby each country and dissemin,ated
departments were not included. Goods vehicles over                                                        widely for the ibenefit of all traffic officials.
three tons in unladen weight nUm!bered208.643; those                                                   7. To develop special studies of problems relating
between 1Yz and 3 tons, 379,653; and those under                                                          to night driving.

                                                                                       1956                                    1957                                           1958                        c\
                                                                                           Number of                                 Number of                                    Number of            \.'!;ii
                                                                        Number              Persons          Number                   Persons               Number                 Persons                ;;o
                                                                           of                                     of                                              of                           ~.',~
                                                                        accidents      Killed    Injured     accidents         Killcd       1niured         accidents         Killed      Iniuredi~
       Accidents at highway grade crossings.                            3.639         1.338      3.755       3.569             1,371        3,767           3.099         1.271           3.161            .l~
       Accidents at highway grade crossings involving                                                                                                                                             C5'~
         motor vehicles """""""""""""                 3,379                           1:202      3,629           3,283         1217
                                                                                                                                ,           3613 ,          2831
                                                                                                                                                             ,.           1129            3.026.'1~     ~~
                                                                                                                                                                                                      ;oW      '.

       Derailments of     trains at highway                   grade                                                                                                                              c}w.
        crossings involving motor vehicles                                  66           49        115                58            32               58            48           20            77co,:;,~
       Miscellaneous        train   accidents   as a   result    of                                                                                                                                :'.;t~~

       Motor vehicles registered """"""""'"                                         62,212,510                             67.135.546                                    68,299,508               .'1,"':.
                                                                                         70                                                                                                               i.'

     8.   To pulblish all ,the papers presented on subjects            studies showed ,favourable difference of 19 per cent in
          ,relating to traffic operation, safety and planning,         the total num!ber of accidents on the edge-marked sections
          in a separate congress docu,mentfor wide distribu-           of the road as compared with the total number on
          tion to traffic and highway officials.                       similar unmarked stretches.     Thus. the Connecticut in-
     T'he eig,hth Pan AmerKan Highway Congress was                     vestigation showed tha,t the marking of pavement edges
held in Bogota (Columlbia) from 20 to 28 May 1960.                     contri'butes to a major reduction in accidents involving
    Pavement      marking    improves     traffic   safety
       (World   Highways, London. 1 Ma,rch 1960)                              Skewed    jo1nts   in concrete   pavelmenlt
                                                                            (World   Highways. London. 1 Ma~ch 1960)
      Researches from Ohio and Connecticut showed a
substantial reduction in hi,ghway accidents and an improve-                 California and Washington have installed skewed
ment in traffic flow achieved !by the simple technique                 transverse contraction joints in plain <:oncrete pavements
of marking the outer edges of pavements to delineate the               as part of the normal construction procedure. The joints
travelled way from th~ shoulder. Beginning in 1957.                    are skewed just enough for the wheels to move across
the Ohio Department of Hig,hways [began marking pave-                  each joint one at a time; they are reported to show
ment edges on certain sections of two-lane roads. Other                superior performance to contraction joints placed at right
similar sections were left unmarked.        Before-and-after           angl~ to the pavement centre-line.


BRITISH      GUIANA                                                    Venice. The major work necessaryto achieve this is t:he
                                                                       taming of the midd;le' reaches of the river from the
    C.learrng aquatic vegetu'tion by "Mana'tee"
                                                                       mouth of the Adda tributary to the mouth of the Mincio,
     The following infolmation has been received from
                                                                       a distance of approximately 87 miles.
the Fishery Research Officer, Fisheries Laiboratory, De-
                                                                                A cross section of the Po in this region bears a
parbment of Agriculture, Botanic Gardens, P.O. Box
                                                                       resemblance t() the M'ul'ray between Albury and Echuca,
 174, George Town, British Guiana, eoncerning the use
                                                                       having a well-defined flood plain about 1Yz miles wide,
of "Manatee" for clearing aquatic vegetation:                          within which the ma'in river and a number of branches
            "'We have conducted experiments last year                  meander. The intention is to confine the river, at low
      and this year (1959 and 1960) which have been                    water, to a single navigable channel, 320 yard! wide,
      very successfu.l and 'have proved conelusively that              8.2 feet deep, with a maximum velocity of 2.3 feet
     these animals (Manatee) are capable of weed                       per second. This will allow normal river traffic with
     clearance in a most effective manner. It has been                 vessels up to 600 tons, drawing two meters (Approx.
      found that they can remove the submerged and                     6Yz feet), t() pass in safety.
     floating aquatic plants from an acre of water in                           T,he river course will be guided around 51 curves,
      eight weeks if two medium sized (8 ft) animals                   with training works on the outer ,bank only, since it is
      are left in the canal. T,hey are voracious grass                 feared that a ,fully confined river would erode from its
     feeders and do not affett fish and are seemingly                  up!tream reaches and silt up m its lower reaches. The
     unaffected by alligators and even by electric eels.               curves are 'paralbolic.
             "I   am compiling a pwblieation on the                             Where the training bank is constructed in the dry,
      "Manatee" as a weed control animal but I thought                 that is, clear of the present river course, a trench is
      that, if there is still interest from the Asian territories      excavated to the profile of the required 'bank, which is
     whith h,ave m!ade inqui'ries (Ceylon, Malaya and                  then faced with brushwood, staked and woven for con-
      Thailand), then we could make arrangements for                   tinuity, and covered with a layer of stone. A stone
      shipment of these animals.                                       facing is continued into the desvgned'bed of the river for
             "The main cost would be freight, since the                a distance of about 25 feet. The river is then Jeft to
      animal cost will be a/bout £ 25 each and freight                 remove the remaining 'block of soil by erosion.
     eharges are .likely to ,be about £ 400 for two                             Much of the training wall, however, is sitUiated
      animals, though one shipping firm has given a                    within the present course of the river, and this calls for
      quotation of US$375 for shipment from Geor,ge-                   a more comprehensive type of "dyke" with both faces
      town, (British Guiana) to Bangkok."                              strengthened to resist erosion. The dyke is faced with
ITALY                                                                  faggots laid again&t ,round concrete piles. T,he piles aFe
                                                                       spaced at six..foot intervals and stand six feet out of the
    River   improvement      work    in northern     Italy
                                                                       ground. The faggots, consisting of !tone is placed which
( A qua -Official Journal of the State Rivers and Water                continues well into the bed of the river. The dyke is
     Supply Commission, Victoria, November    1960)                    filled with river silt dredged from the vicinity of the
    The River Po in Northern Italy will one day                        designed river bed. The oper,ation is repeated in layers
become ,the main artery for traffic ,between Milan and                 u'II!til the dyke reaches the Tequired height.

      In view of the waning of river traffic on the            Revere, capa!ble of producing 1Yz million 'bundles
Murray and the problem of derelict canals in England.          annually.
it is of particular interest to see works Ibeing carried out         An estimate of the cost of this work, which Was
on such a scale for the improvement of commercial river        prepared ,before the Wa'r, gave a fi,gure of £ 2.7 million
navigation.                                                    but as the work is still in progress, the final figure could
                                                               be in excess of fhis.
                                          which is more than
       The total .length of eIn'baIl!kment,                          Any reference to this interesting undertaki!IJgs'hould
23 miles, will have required 1.700,000 cubic yards of          include a tribute to the enthusiasm of the staff of "II
beaching stone, 1,300.000 cubic yards of cobble s,tone         Magistrato per il Po," th~ Authority responsible for the
for fIlling the faggots. and 10.000,000 bundles of willows     planning and execution of the work. In their own words.
for faggot making. These willows are obtained from the         the object ,before them in "to join together the Metropolis
20,000 acres of willow plantations between Piacenza and        of Lombardy and the Queen of the Adriatic."
                                         COACH-BUILDING              V.D.C.: 631.431.72: 621.82         HYDRAULIC DRIVE FOR
 BODE,      A.    "W,hat factors have determined the                                                    DIESEL LOCOMOTIVES
 development of German Railway coach..building over the
 last trwelve years" E.T.R. National Technical Review,               "HydrauJic drive for diesel locomotives" (Engineering,
 Darmstadt, November 1959, !pp. 10-14.                                          London, 8 January 1960 p.61)
       E{;onomy of construction and operation, and
                                                                            The article descrIbes a transmission designed by
 travelling comfait ,are the important ~actors whi{;h h:ave
                                                                      Fluidrive Engineering Company, Middlesex, for use with
 influenced the German {;oach..building industry during the          the Paxman 6YHX Hi-Dyne oil engine in the Hudswell
 past decade. Standardization and the introduction of
                                                                     Clarke 225 hp locomotive. The transmission consists
 light-steel construction have led to a considerable reduction
                                                                      essentially of two Vulcan-Sinclair fluid coupling has an
 in weight. Notaible examples of lightweight construction
                                                                     impeLler (conne<:ted to ,the engine) and a ,runner (the
 are articulated trains and ,trans-European e~press trains
                                                                      output memlbel:) which between them ,form a "Working
 having their underframe, body~frame, outside panelling              circuit,"    When the working circuit is filled with oil, the
 and roof made of an aluminium alloy (AIM'g SiF32).
                                                                      impeller acts as a centrifugal pump and transmits power
 T,he reduction in weight on short cars is proportionately
                                                                     using the kinetic energy of the oil. Distinguishing fea,tures
 greater than on larger ones, Ibut this is not the on:Jy
                                                                      of the Hi-Dyne Fluidrive cornbina:tion are: (i) ratio
 ronsideration; an equ,ally im,portant factor is the economi{;aI
                                                                     changes up and down at predetermined speeds, which, as
 production of the coa{;hes.
                                                                      they do not depend on the driver's judgment, result in
       Demand by !passengers for 'higher standards of                 simplicity in handling, (ii) smooth ratio changes up to a
 comfort has highlighted the importan{;e of air-conditioning,        higher speed gear without the marked drop in tractive
 elimi'nJation noise and the riding qualities of the running         effort present with a conventional engine and a stepped
 gear. Minden-Deutz and Munich-Hassel bogies, which                  ratio transmission and (iii) a ,uniformly high horsepower
 are the standard Ibogies on the German Federal Railways,            at the track over the entire speed range, The drawbar
 combine a space-saving desi,gnw~th low ,frequencies in all          horsepower developed by the locomotive is claimed to be
 directions of movement, and insign~ficant wear of axle              more than 80 per cent orf the gross horsepower output of
 bearings.                                                           the engine.
   (DocumentationNotes, Lucknow, February 1960)                          (Documentation Notes, Lucknow, May 1960).

U.D.C.:    625.712.6                                PARKING           that traffic speed, on streets in the central area with an
 "Big savings prdbable from London motorways; cost of                average width of 12 metres, was increased ;by about 4 km
 offstreet parking space" (Highways and Bridges and                  per 'hour for every 63 pa'rked vehicles per kilometre
 Engineering Warks, Ashford, Middlesex, 16 December                  removed. Where the average width was 9 metres, the
 1959,p.8)                                                           corresponding figure was 4.5 kilometres.           In these
                                                                     investigations the streets were never completely cleared of
     ,Estimates of the proba,ble savings to traffic in five          parked vehicles; remov'al of the 1ast few vehicles might
years time from motorways in London, which have been                                           a:
                                                                     be expected to IproduCie proportionlately greater effect. 00
put forward to the Insi,titution of Civil Engineers, show
that savings may well Ibe between US$210,OOO and
                                                                           Running speeds in Central London during the day
US$350,000 per kilometre per annum, assu.mingthat only               are about 24 km (15 mi) per hour. The widening of 1
40 per cent of traffic will be transferred to the motorways.
                                                                     km of street in Central London Iby a,bout 1.5. mi although
On the 'ba,sisof a 5 per cent per year rate-of-return, these
                                                                     extremely variable, might involve a capital cost of ,between
savings would justify expenditure of the order of                    US$75,000 and US$I,750,000.           The cost of removing
OS$4,3 75,OOO-US$7,000,000 per kilometre.                            63 parked vehicles from it is not available; but, up to the
      From observations 'before and after the imposition of          present time, it has in effect been the coSt of making a,nd
waiting regulations in London it was, however, estimated             enforcing waiting regulations on the streets concerned, plus


the cost imposed on moving traffic in other areas ,by the          thick which ,rests upon the 'ground surface for a density
vehicles dispersed from the streets affected ,by the               or moisture determination.
regulations, plus the cost arising 'because drivers cannot               This test is a non-destructive method whereby the
stop as near to their destination as previously, less the          radioactive source produces a radiation of gamma al\d
cost of accidents that have tbeen saved. It is, however,           neutron 11ays   into the material to be measured. Thest
possible to estimate ttheproba!ble cost of parking.                raY's are pa'rtially ,absorbed and partially reflected. RaYf
     An income of aibout U5$364 per car space per                  reflected pass through Geiger-Muller counter tubes in \he
annum is required to cover the expenses of a garage in             surface gage ,and ~hen are amplified and itransmitted through
Centra'! London. On this assumption,the cost of parking                                                         are
                                                                   an electronic circuit. Counts per minUJte ,read directly
the 63 cars off the street would 'be U5$22,932 per year.           on a reflected ray counter gage. Counts per unit of tim~
This is to :be compared with the capital sum of between            are related to density and moisture by means of calibration
U5$875 ,000 -and U5$I,750,OOO for widening, on which               curves.
31minimum return of 5 per cent per annum, i.e. U5$43,750                 Advantages of the nuclear test method are the
-U5$87,500,       would 'be expected. Thus the an~ual
cost of widening would be subs,tarnially greater than the
                                                                         1.   It is non-destructive and does not disturb soil
annual cost of providing off-street parking space.
However, it was concluded tha,t the optimu,m traffic and                      struoture.
road system is that which minimises total costs of roads                2.    It eliminates the various conventional field- test
and traffic operation.                                                        procedures requiring highly trained personnel.
                                                                              Owing to the increased 5peed of producing
     The average running speed of 24 km (15 mi) per
                                                                              density results by :the new method, closer
hour on main streets in Central London is provided by a
                                                                              control over quality can Ibe maintained than
flow of 1,200 vehicles per hour on 12 m wide streets
                                                                              with ,time-consuming conventional test pro-
and of 720 vehicle per ,hour on 9 m wide streets.
                                                                              c~dures.    The. new method causes less
Removing 63 parked vehicles per km on these streets
                                                                              interence with the contractor's operations.
would speed up traffic to 28 and 28.5 km (1 7.5 mi) per
hour on the two widths respectively.                                    3.    It reduces the personal element involved in
                                                                              conventional test procedures, thereby increasing
      Assuming the calculated average traffic composition
                                                                              .the consistency of density and moisture t~t
and the average costs, there would be a saving of about
0.65 cent per vehicle..kilometre in the 12 m street and
0.73 cent per vehicle.;kilometre on the 9 'm street. Annual             4.    It ,provides a means of performing density tests
savings ,per kilometre of the order of U5$39,375 for the                      upon la:rge-slzed a'ggregatebase courses and on
 12 m wide street and U5$26,250          for the 9 m wide                     frozen material, which is not practical with
street might thus ibe expected. This is of the same order                     conventional methods.
as the annual 'cost of U5$22,932           which might 'be              5.    If effects a monetary saving because of its
incurred in removing the 63 parked vehicles per kilometre                     grea.ter speed and closer control over quality
into off-street car parks.                                                    than the time-consuming conventional test
      There is a need for further research on the economic                    procedure.V.D.C.:
aspects of future Ibenettts, on more research into cost data                 625.746:    674.243                   ROAD SIGNS
and into basic relations ;between traffic speeds and road
conditions, especially gradienits. There is, however, a            "Use of plywood for highway signs" (Traffic Engineering,
more urgent need for much research into the economic               Washington, June 1960, pp 46..49)
aspects of traffic and roads in urban a:reas as well, as                 Federal, state, county and city algenciesin U.S.A.
it is necessary tha't consider8lble information about traffic      will erect an estimated 2 million traffic signs during 1960,
speed, flows, accidents, and road conditions should be             either as replacemen'ts or as new installations. The
collected in order to carry out the economic assessment            increasing ,traffic has intensified the need for more and
of schemesin road programmes.U.D.C.:                               better signing and there will :be a never-ending need for
                                                                   replacement of worn, outmoded or vandal-damaged
         625.7:   624.131.43                                       markers.
"Highway   compaction control" (Roads and Streets,                       The initial cost and the expense of installation and
Chicago, januairy 1960, pp 73-75 and 102-104, 6                    maintenance are factors which will be more critically
pages)                                                             considered thian ever before. The Interestate system has
     The following note on a new nuclear test instrumeqt           reduced the numlber of reg,ula,tory and warning signs
developed ,by the Miohigan state highway department for            needed, Ibut the number and size of guide signs will be
determining density and moisture content during highway            increased to cope with higher allowa:ble speeds. Adopting
em'bankment compaction is included in the article.                 availalble materials to new des~gns  presents certain problems
     The nuclear gage employ~ a radium-226-berylium                to the traffic engineer.
radioactive source mounted in a stainless casting                        Sign faces must be kept free of obstruction; sign
approxima~ely 25 cm (lOin)  square land 5 cm (2 in)                mater~als must .be easy to inSl!al, yet capable of being

 easily replaced either in whole or in part, and panel sizes                   662.66:662.613
 must !be large enough to keep joints to a minimum. The                                         NEW CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL
 basic materials should ,be permanent but of suc'h a nature          "Pulverized fuel ash as a construction material" (The
 that costs win ,be low.                                             Institution of Civil Engineers, Proceedings, London,
        Of the leading materials used in th,e manufacture of         August 1960, 13 pages)
 sign-aluminium, steel, and ov,erlaid ply'wood-the latter is                The article contains a description of the material
 probably the least known. Since many states in USA                  which results from the burning of pulverized coal, and
 are now using plywood extensively. its advantages and               of methods of extracting and handling it. A review of
 limitations are worthy of discussion here.                          its principal uses in the civiJ engineering and building
        Plywood, as a basic ,product, is of course familiar,         industries is also given.
 but important technological improvements as applied to                     Dry pulverized fuel ash is composed of silica,
  sign material are rela;tively new. M,edium and high                 alumina, and iron oxide in chemical combination. It has
  density overlays fo\ plywood panels have been given a              pozzolanic properties. A typical analysis is as follows:
 surface of resin-impregnated fi:bre. This ,provides an              silica (5iO2)-42.6       per cent; alumina (A12Oa)-32.4
  excellent face which is capable of being treated with               per cent; ferric oxide (Fe20a)-10.4           ,per cent; ,lime
 reflective sheeting or paint. OverJays also prevent surface          (CaO)-S.1       per cent; magnesia (Mgo)-2.S          per cent;
 checking which in the past has been the greatest deterrent          sulphate (as 50a) -0.9        per cent; alkalis, etc.-I. I per
 to ithe use of plywood as a sign material. They retain              cent; loss on ignition-S per cent.
 their recognized inher,entstrength and now have a smooth,                  It was suggested that P.F. ash used as a raw
 lasting surface.                                                     material should comply ~h             the following general
                                                                      specifications: silica-3S    per cent minimum; magnesia 4
        Plastic-faced plywood signs with edges sealed with
  varnish and aluminium, plus three coats of ,paint came              per cent maximum; sulphate:- 3 per cent maximum; loss
  through the accelerated test in eEellent cond~tion. Over-           on ignition-12       per cent maximu:m; specific surface-
  laid plywood is particulal1ly ada,ptable to large control           2.200 sq cm/g minimum.
  signs. Memlbers can be minimized because of the inherent                  The loss on ignition gives an indication of the
   strength of plywood panels. Large panels help eliminate            extent to which materiaJ remains unburnt. The specific
                                                                      g.ravity of P.F. ash averages about 2.2 and it's bulk
   unsightly joints and contrj,bute sUibstantially to economy
   in installation.                                                   d~nsi;ty (without artificial compaction) varies between 800
                                                                      and 1,120 kg/ cu m.
        Plywood sign clips have been developed to provide                   The use P.F. ash as a raw material of portland
 simple installations for signs. The new clips eliminate               cem~nt concrete improv.es its resistanceto chemical attack,
 drilling through horizontal farming members and reduce               reduces heat generated in setting and increases its com-
 tolerance in falb'rication. The si,gn clips can be used
 either in the shop or on the site.                                  pressive strength..
                                                                        P.F. ash is used also for cement manufacture, for
        These aluminium plywood clips are particu.Iarly              lightweight ag.gregatebrick manufacture and for building
 helpful in the installation and maintenance of larger,              blocks, as ",ell as in its unprocessed form for load-
 mult~panel signs. Clips make it possible to remove one              bearing or structural fitls and for non-load-bearing fills.
  settion of the sign without distul1bingthe rest.                         It was noted that the a'pplications of P.F. ash for
        While new forms of plywood ,have their advantages,           road construction are: partial replacement of cement in
 there are a.Isosome limitations.                                    soil stabilization; incorporation in remixed water~bound
        Plywood is more 'bulky than other materia~s and              macadam (wet mix), as well as for use as a filler for the
 requi'resmore storage space.                                        asphaltic pavements.

             629.124                                  PORTS        A new light.weight, manuaJly operable, weather-
  "Sea raft can harness wave action" (Marine Engineering/    tight M,acGregor hatch cov~r for river barges is now
  Log, Philadelphia, Decem:ber 1959, p.3 Y4 page)            availa,ble. It has been specially desi,gnedto suit existing
        The US Army Crops of Engineer's Beach Erosion        as well as new vessels. The oov,er, 1t is claimed, lands
  Board currently is testing a "Sea Ra:ft Mobile Pre-        itself ideally to either centre or end opening oper'ation~.
  fabricated Breakwater."     This sea raft is said to hold  Ha,lf the hatch can 1"eadily be opened and tJhe covers
  great promise as a wave harnesser in such marine.operations on the other half.            Full opening o'f a hatch can
             as loading and unloading of sh~psin unprotected also tbe accomplished if d,eck space permits stowage
  areas, off-&hore oil drillin,g and Iproduction, dredging,  outside the hatch covers.
  pipeline laying, etc.                                             The cover design is simple and rugged and its
  V.D,C.: 629.122.3.011                        ENGINEERING weight only 39 kg/m2.          The elimination of costly fittings
  "Strong light-weig,ht hatch covers for river barges"       permits low initial cost and minimum maintenance. The
  (Marine      Engineering/Log,    Philadelphia,   December  use of T,eflon bushings in ,the wlheel assem!blies eliminates
   1959. p.110 Y4 page)                                      the need ,for .lu!brication.


V.D.C.:   629.123.56:    624.014.7                   CRAFT        The effect of heavy Irfting on sta:bility, the necessity of
"Inland tan~ker made of aluminium" (Zeitschrift fur               having working and storage areas on deck, the Jiving
Binnenschihrt, Duisburg, December 1959. pp 542-                   and working accommodations required for all-weather
544)                                                              operations, as well as the special gear .required on all
                                                                  tenders to set and relieve buoys in a positive, safe, and
      A design has been completed for the German                  efficient manner, have all had their impact on hull design...
standard self-propelled vessel "Gustav Koenigs," which            Li'kewise, propelling and auxiliary machinery has had to
is to ibe built of aluminium. In comparison with a similar        be designed and developed for those special and versatile
vessel built of steel (len~h 67 m, breadth 8.2 m), the
 aluminium craft will have a carrying capacity of 120 to
 130 tons more. Further advantages are: (i) resistance                               (Marine   Engineering   and Shipbuilding
 against corrosion of Iboth the ,hull and the tanks, (ii) the                        Abstracts,London. February 1959)
cargo will remain clean, (iii) it is easy to clean the tanks
when a di;fferent type of liquid fuel has to 'be carried, and     V.D.C.: 629.123: 621.56                       ENGINEERING
                                                                  CHRISTENSEN,         .,Automatic regulation of refrigerator
 (iv) the metal is non-spa'l'king.
                                                               plant for ships" (H ansa, Hamburg, 12 December 1959.
     The cost of the aluminium vessel is 30 to 40 per
cent more than that of a similar steel vessel. It is           pp 2687-2692)
expected, however, that the cost can Ibe reduced when                 Refrigerator plants for ships may be divided into
vessels are 'built in series. In spite if the high cost of     three groups: (i) cooling and freezing plants for the
the new vessel, economic calculations ,have shown that its     holds, (ii) cooling plants for the ~hips' stores, (iii) air-
extra cost can ,be recovered within a few years, mainly        conditioning plants. A very common method of regulating
becal1'sethe 'aJdvlan~age larger calrrying capacity at the
                         ms                                    the temperature is to let the installation work at a constant
same draught Ibecomes of outstanding im,portance during                                       it
                                                               power and ,alternately sw:vtch on 'and off as required. If
the dry seasonwhen vessels can be only partially loaded.       the permiss~ble te~rature     variation is small, the above
                                                               system leads to frequent switching and, in such cases, a
U.D.C.: 674:620.178.1                          ENGINEERING regulator governing the installation's output is to be
                                                               preferred. In these oases,the circulation of the refrigerant
WOODS,         R.P.    "Resistance of timbers to marine
                                                               is regulated ,by a thermostat. This type of control is
borers" (The Dock &- Harbour Authority, London, July
                                                               often used in installations working with X-refrigerant and
  1957, pp 101-104)
                                                               direct evaporation.
       A survey is presented of work being carried out
 in different parts of the world to determine the resistance  V.D.C.:      629.122.036                        ENGINEERING
 of ti,m:bersto marine borers. A brief historical survey is
 given and various testing techniques are discussed. Certain  VOLPICH,         H. "Paddle and vane-wheels on models
tim:bers are already 'known to have a hi'gh resistance, such   and in actual practice" (H ansa, Ham'burg, 12 December
 as Greenheart, Pyinkado, T ul'Penine, T otara (a softwood      1959, p.2632, 1/3 page)
-Podocarpus totara), J arra,h, BaS'ra ;locus, Man!barklak.           Recently, t,he use of vane wheels has once again
 Belian and other species. Apa,rt from certain toxic           been suggested for some shallow draught vessels for
chemicals which tend to leach out, it has been found          wa'terways in India. Vane wheels are three or ,fou.r
that silica, SiO2, is the chief substance offering resistance bladed propellers with the shaft ,a'bove the w,ater line.
to Teredo. In the United States. a series of tests showed      They are always used in pairs normally rotating in
that 0.5 .per cent of silica appeared to be the .minimum      opposite directions. If they are made to turn in the same
concentration necessary for eomparatire immunity. An           direction, their steering effect is considerable.. It is
examination of the tests allover        the world wherever    claimed that the advantages of vane wheels are: high
analysis of the woods is undertaken, generally confirms       propelling efficiency, reduced wake and reduce wave
this belief. It should lbe kept in mind that the ,behaviour   formation. At normal operating speed, the vane wheels
of a wood differs according to the 'geographical locality     operate in the stern wave, which gives them the same
of immersion, tropical waters ,being far more 'harmful        advanta~ as a propeller working in a tunnel but without
than those in temperature regions.U.D.C.:                     the latter's disadvantages. Vane wheels are conveniently
                                                               accessilble,so the vessel need not be docked for repairs
            629.124                           CONSERVANCYCOWART.
                                                              to the propelling gear.
                K.K. "Vessels for servicing aids to naviga-
                                                                     Whilst the vane wheels are not suitable for high
tion for U.S. Coast Guard" (Paper read at the 1958            propeller loads, they may be used advantageously for
annual meeting of the Society of Naval Archite.cts and
                                                              very shallow draugh;t self-propelled vessels.V.D.C.:
Marine Engineers, New York)
       To provide background material for naval architects                 629.122.02                         ENGINEERING
and marine engineers, the author has covered over a               KRAPPING£R,           DR.-Ing.   O.    "Wide     propellin,~
hundred years of the development of vessels servicing             devices working at the surface of deep and shallow water
aids to nav~gation. Considerable material ;pertaining to          (Hansa, Hamburg, 12 December 1959, pp.2630 -'"'"26
operation requirements for buoy tenders is presented.

       A theory is presented for calculation of propelling       The calble was wound around a drum and the rotation
 devices havillig consideralble width but limited deptJh for     speed of the drum was measured by means of a photo--
 work in shallow water. This is a departure from the             electri<: cell to determine the exact speed of the model.
 conventionaJmethods which were ..based the assumption
                                                                 V.D.C.:   629.1.013                        ENGINEERING
 that ,the propeller worked in deep water. For calculation
 purposes, it was assumed that the width of the propelling        "Push towing on the Danu:be" (ReVue de la Navigation
 device was so large that the current pattern might be           lnterieure et Rhenane, Strasboul'g, 25 November 1960,
 considered as two~dimensional. Furthermore, it was              pp 808~811)
 assumedtha,t the propeller worked in an ideal fluid. The           This article summarizes the views of Hans Scherer,
 interfering influence of air drawn in near the water surface Director, Austrian Danube Shipping Company, on the
 was also neglected. Graphs are 'given for determining        merits of push~towing on the Danube. The suitability of
 propeller efficiency and other relevant coefficients..       pusher towing from ,a technical 'and economica.l point is
                                                              reviewed. F'rom ,th~ point of view of propulsion, the
            629.122 (44)                     INSTRUMENTS push-towing unit s'hould consi$t of at least six balrges to
 DE GORIAINOFF,            H. "Renewal of the Frend1          become more economical :and prevailing condphoos will
 inland waterway fleet" (Revue de LaNavigation lnterieure     usually not lbe suitable for this number. Suitable equip-
 et Rhenane,Strasbourg,25 April 1959, pp 266~275)             ment i~ at present not a¥ailable.
                                                                    Steering devices will be required on Ibarges, heading
       The article describesthe progress made in constructing the pusher~nit, and this will increase the cost of
 new French canal barges, or "peniches," of improved          construction and operation. The rapids in the iron gate
  design, which are intended for expansion of the fleet and    section create special problems. In order to further
  replacement of obsolete units. In order to test the hull    compare ,towing techniques, a programme for tank-testing
  of bal1ges, a simple experimenta;l tank was constructed     models ,has been. undertaken and a small pusher tug of
 and equipped with a low-co~t device for propelling the       275 hp is being built for trials in the upper part of the
 models. This devi~e consisted of a system of pulleys         Danube, and the different conditions prevailing on various
  and a traction cable moved by a des~endingweight. The       sections of the river will have to ,betaken into consideration
  size of the weig,ht was a ,measurefor the tractive power.   in designing such equipment.


                                                              Book reviews
      HAMMOND           R.:    Tunnel engineering London, 1959.             BELLIS     W. R.:       Increasing city street capacity, an
      pp. XIV-332                                                                       article in Traffic Quarterly. 1959 N 13 (I}
                   fig. 113. Price 55s.                                          .p.        74-89.
            The su!bjectis treated as follows:                                    The problems of urban congestion in the U.S.A.
                                                                            are examined and recommendations are made for in-
                   1.A    brief history of tunnelling                       creasing traffic flow without widening streets. The many
                   2.  Tunnel lining methods                                factors which affect street capacity are briefly discussed.
                   3.  Shield tunnelling                                    It is concluded ,that many streets not operating efficient:ly
                   4.   Subaqueoustunnelling                                could. without physical alterations, be reorganized to
                   5.   Rock tunnelling                                     double the traffic flow. by better control of vehicle and
                   6.   Tunnelling through difficult ground                 pedestri,an traffic. Streets at present operating efficiently
                   7.   Tunnel Survey methods
                                                                            will not carry more traffic.
                   8.   Long tunnels.
                                                                               (Road Abstracts. London. July 1959. page 165}
          (Roc:zd Abstracts. London. July 1959. Page 161)U.S.
                                                                            DA VIE5.    E. Roads and their Traffic. London. Blackie
             Secretaryof Commerce: U.S. House of Repre-                                and Son Ltd.. 1960 Page 352. price 35s.
                   sentatives. 85 th Congress, .l st session. House                The book co~tains the writings of thirteen authorities
                   Document N. 93. Washington D. C. 1959,                   on roads and traffic. It covers every aspect of the com-
                   pp viii-232.    illustrated, Price US$O.60               plicated problems of roads and their usage, and gives an
            The Report is presented under the following chapter             excellent picture of aims, functions and possibilities of
      headings:                                                             traffic engineering. Among other things, it explains how
                   Introduction;                                            the data derived from traffic studies should be applied
                                                                            to road planning and it contains a great deal of detailed
                   The traffic accident problem and its setting;
                                                                            inform!ation. Some of {he subjects dealt with and their
                   A review of ,the highway transportation system;
                                                                            contributors are as follows:
                   Evaluation of current highway safety activities;
                   An adequate highway safety programme.                     1. Applications    of Traffic
                                                                                Engineering                  by Prof. Hugh Jones,
          (Road Abstracts. London, July 1959, page 162)
                                                                                                             by Dr. F euchtinger
      HIGHWAY         RESEARCH     BOARD:    Bulletin 200,                        British motorway           iby Mr. James Drake
                   Washington D.C.  /958. 'pp. 50, price
                                                                             3.4.Continental Motorways
                                                                                 5.6.                        by Mr. M. de Bussy
                                                                                  Urban Motorways            by M. M.     Hondermacq
            The Bulletin includes the following papers:,
                                                                                  Urban Traffic    Control   ,by SiT Herbert Manzoni
            W.L.    HAAS:         Decentralization      in   highway
                                  administration                                  Parking Problems           by M. Nicholas
            J .E. STONER:         A programme for development                7. Road Signs and Mark-
                                  and research in local rural                   rngs                         by My. A. Summedield
                                  highway administration.                    8.9.
                                                                                Road Lighting                by Mr.    Granville Berry
            T.J. OWENS:           Consi,derations and methods for
                                  developing metropolitan area
                                                                                  Road Research Labora-
                                                                                  tory                       by Mr. Cha.rlesworth
                                  transportation studies.                         Highway   Administra-
           (Road    Abstracts. London, July 1959. p.153)                          tion                       :by Co!              Lovelt


                                     VI.       Films
             The undermentioned films have been added during
       1960 to the list of the Transport and CC>Inmunications
       Division Film Circulating Lilbrary:
         I.   Diesel Train Driver. Part II
         2.   Rail Stress
         3.   Works    Study and To
         4.   On the Track of Efficiency
         5.   Steel Road
         6.   Steel Rhythm                                16               B     ' ,
         7.   Steel Ride                                            rom        ntlsh films
         8.  Report on Modernization
         9.  British LocC>Inotives
.10.         Travel Game                                        .
       11 .Long     Welded Rails
       12. Hydraulic Torque Converter
       13.    Soviet excavators                       '
                        '                .'           r    35       mm     fil   ms    f rom
       14.    S,ovlet       Road   Bulldmg     Mac-       the       USSR



Shared By: