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Lesson 13 - THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

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                                           Date




        Anatomy and Physiology
THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
                     Caregiver Education
                          Lesson 8



           MEDCOM/Trainex
Reference: MEDCOM/Trainex
                 Lesson 13
    THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

In this chapter... you will learn about:

• The digestive system.
• Some common problems of the digestive
  system.




                                           3
              Definitions
Anus:         The opening of the rectum located between the
              buttocks.

Bile:         Substance manufactured by liver, stored by
              gallbladder; aids in the digestion of fats.

Bowel:        The intestines.

Colon:        The large intestine.

Defecation:   Eliminating fecal matter through the anus.

Digest:       To break down food substances.

Duodenum:     First loop of small intestine where most of
              digestion occurs.


                                                              4
                      Definitions
Enema:                 Insertion of fluid into the rectum and colon.

Feces:                 Solid or semi-solid body waste.
(Fecal Matter):

Gastric Juices:        Digestive fluids secreted by the stomach.

Gastrointestinal (GI): Referring to the stomach and intestines.

Glucose:               Simple sugar to which food is converted.

Insulin:               Hormone secreted by pancreas.

Laxative:              A substance that aids defecation.




                                                                       5
               Definitions

Peristalsis:   Rhythmic contractions of the intestine that
               help move food along.

Rectum:        The lowest part of the large intestine that
               connects to the anus.

Sphincter:     Muscles that contracts to close a body opening.

Toxins:        Waste products released by disease-producing
               organisms.

Villi:         Tiny fingerlike projections in the duodenum
               which absorb digested food particles and
               release them into the bloodstream.


                                                                 6
        THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

The digestive system is a tube running from the mouth
to the rectum and is about 30 feet long. It is also
referred to as the gastrointestinal tract, or GI tract.
The functions of this system are to take in food,
digest it, so that the body cells can use it, and
eliminate body wastes. The breakdown of food is done
both mechanically by chewing and chemically by gastric
juices and saliva.




                                                          7
     THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
  The parts of the
digestive system are:

  1. Tongue
  2. Teeth
  3. Salivary glands
  4. Esophagus
  5. Stomach
  6. Small intestine
  7. Pancreas
  8. Liver
  9. Gallbladder
  10. Large intestine
  11. Rectum
                            8
         THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
   The parts of the digestive system are:
Tongue, Teeth, and Salivary Glands

Food is taken into the mouth where the teeth grind it into
pieces small enough to swallow. During this grinding process, it
is mixed with saliva, the fluid produced by the salivary glands.
Saliva contains enzymes that initiate the breakdown of food
and moistens the food so that it is easily swallowed. The
tongue aids in moving the food around in the mouth and moving
it down the throat into the esophagus.



                                                                   9
      THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
The parts of the digestive system are:


Esophagus

The esophagus is a tube approximately 10 inches long
which connects the throat with the stomach. The food
moves down the esophagus and enters the stomach.




                                                       10
         THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
  The parts of the digestive system are:
Stomach

The stomach is a pear-shaped muscular sac. It can expand to
accommodate food. The muscles of the stomach contract and
churn and mix the food with gastric juices and digestive
enzymes which break the food down into a thick, soupy
substance. This can take from three to five hours. The
churning action then passes this substance into the small
intestine.



                                                              11
            THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
    The parts of the digestive system are:
Small Intestine
The small intestine is a coiled, muscular tube about 26 feet long. The first loop
of the coil, just below the stomach, is called the duodenum. This is the most
important area for digestion. The partially digested food from the stomach is
mixed with more digestive juices from the duodenum, pancreas, and gallbladder.
 Water is also essential to this process. Within the lining of the small intestine
are thousand of villi which absorb the digested food particles and release them
into the bloodstream to be carried to the body cells. The food mass moves
through the 26 feet of small intestine by a process called peristalsis. Here the
process of digestion is completed.




                                                                                     12
        THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
 The parts of the digestive system are:

Pancreas

The pancreas is part of the endocrine system. It is a long,
thin gland which lies just behind and slightly below the
stomach. The pancreas plays a part in digestion because it
secretes insulin into the small intestine, which helps break
down starch and sugar in the food mass.




                                                               13
        THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
 The parts of the digestive system are:

Liver

The liver is a large organ lying to the right of the stomach.
Bile, which breaks down fats, is manufactured and
secreted by the liver. The liver is also a storage area for
glucose. And it serves as a filtering system which removes
toxins from the blood and produces and stores blood
proteins.



                                                                14
       THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
 The parts of the digestive system are:

Gallbladder

The gallbladder lies directly under the liver and functions
as a storage bag for the bile produced by the liver. Bile is
released by the gallbladder into the duodenum to break
down fats in the food being digested.




                                                               15
             THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
     The parts of the digestive system are:

Large Intestine

The large intestine, or colon, is a continuation of the small intestine. It is
bigger in diameter, but is only about five feet long. The parts of the food
which have not been absorbed by the villi pass into the large intestine. Here
most of the water remaining in the food is reabsorbed through the walls of
the large intestine. The remaining solid mass is waste material called feces.
This is moved by peristalsis through the large intestine to the rectum,

where it is removed from the body by defecation.



                                                                             16
      THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
The parts of the digestive system are:

  Rectum

  The rectum is a small canal about six inches long
  which connects the large intestine with the anus,
  the opening to the outside of the body. This canal is
  surrounded by sphincter muscles which keep the
  anus closed until voluntary elimination, or bowel
  movement, occurs.



                                                          17
        THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
AGE-RELATED CHANGES

There are a number of changes which occur in the digestive
tract as a person ages. There is a general slowing down of
these systems:

       1. Movement of the esophagus decreases.
       2. Movement of the colon decreases.
       3. There is a decrease in the active ingredients in
          saliva from the salivary glands.
       4. Less gastric juice is secreted by the stomach.
       5. Food is absorbed more slowly in the small intestine.



                                                                 18
             THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
      COMMON DISORDERS OF THE DIGSESTIVE SYSTEM

Many older people complain of digestive and elimination problems.
Some of the most common are:

  •    Ulcer. An ulcer is a loss of tissue or a hole in tissue. Ulcers can
       occur in the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum. They are caused
       by an excess of gastric juice, which destroys the mucous
       membranes in these areas. Ulcers usually cause a burning pain in
       the stomach area an hour or more after eating. Ulcers are
       treated with medication and diet.



                                                                             19
      THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

COMMON DISORDERS OF THE DIGSESTIVE SYSTEM



• Gallstones. Gallstones are cholesterol crystals which settle
  out of the bile in the gallbladder and form gallstones. These
  stones may block the secretions of bile. This produces pain
  and nausea. The treatment involves removing or crushing the
  stones or removing the gallbladder.




                                                                  20
       THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
COMMON DISORDERS OF THE DIGSESTIVE SYSTEM




• Diverticulitis. Diverticula are small, sac-like extensions of
  the intestinal wall that form and become inflamed. This
  disease can cause extreme pain. The treatment is a
  modification of diet, usually to a diet low in fat and very high
  in roughage.




                                                                     21
        THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

COMMON DISORDERS OF THE DIGSESTIVE SYSTEM



• Hemorrhoids. Hemorrhoids are blood vessels surrounding the
  rectum that become enlarged and are particularly painful
  when having a bowel movement. They are usually treated
  with medication but may have to be surgically removed if
  they become very bad.




                                                               22
       THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

COMMON DISORDERS OF THE DIGSESTIVE SYSTEM


• Constipation. Constipation is the buildup, of fecal material in
  the large intestine, which is not easily eliminated. Treatment
  is usually with laxatives, stool softeners, or enema.
  Prevention is preferable to treatment, and it consists of diet
  change, increased fluids and increased exercise. You should
  immediately report any pain, liquid stool or an absence of
  bowel movements to your supervisor.




                                                                    23
       THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

COMMON DISORDERS OF THE DIGSESTIVE SYSTEM


• Fecal Impaction. Fecal impaction is a serious complication of
  constipation. Feces stay in the colon and rectum where water
  is absorbed, which causes the feces to become dry and very
  hard. The intestinal passage may be totally blocked and the
  abdomen becomes distended and is very painful. This needs
  the attention of the your supervisor.




                                                                  24
         THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

COMMON DISORDERS OF THE DIGSESTIVE SYSTEM




   It is the home health aide's responsibility to report promptly
   any GI symptoms to your supervisor if there are signs or
   complaints of nausea, vomiting, constipation, diarrhea, or
   abdominal pain.




                                                                    25
                    THE END ! !

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         and turn in for credit

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       to the test sheet

Information for this lesson was taken from MEDCOM TRAINEX publications
                                                                         26

				
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