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Three major world religions

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					CHAPTER

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People and Ideas on the Move, 3500 B.C. – 259
B.C. Chapter Overview Time Line
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1

Indo-European Migrations

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2 Roots of Hinduism and Buddhism

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3 Seafaring Traders Extend Boundaries
4 The Origins of Judaism

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Visual Summary

CHAPTER

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People and Ideas on the Move, 3500 B.C. – 259
B.C.

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Chapter Overview

Migrations and trade networks carry new ideas, languages, and cultures throughout the Mediterranean and as far east as South Asia. Three major world religions, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Judaism, emerge during this period.

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People and Ideas on the Move, 3500 B.C. – 259
B.C. Time Line

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2000 B.C. Hittites migrate to Anatolia.

1100 B.C. Phoenicians begin to dominate Mediterranean trade.

3500 B.C.

259 B.C.

1500 B.C. Aryans invade India.

814 B.C. Carthage founded as a Phoenician trade center.

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Indo-European Migrations

Key Idea
Migrations of Indo-Europeans into parts of Europe and South Asia introduce new ideas and languages and result in a blend of new and old cultures.

Overview

Assessment

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Indo-European Migrations
TERMS & NAMES

Overview

• Indo-Europeans

• steppes
MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW

• migration • Hittites • Anatolia

Indo-European peoples migrated into Europe, India, and Southwest Asia and interacted with peoples living there.

Half the people living today speak languages that stem from the original Indo-European languages.

• Aryans
• Vedas • Brahmin • caste • Mahabharata

Assessment

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Indo-European Migrations
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Assessment

1. List the names of some modern languages that stem from Indo-European roots.

French English

Spanish Greek

Indo-European
Swedish Russian Persian Hindi

continued . . .

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Indo-European Migrations
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Assessment

2. What important contributions did the Aryan invaders make to the culture and way of life in India? THINK ABOUT • roles in society • religion • literature
ANSWER

Possible Responses:

• Roles in society: Aryan caste system ruled India for over 3,000 years. • Religion: Aryan deities of the Vedas entered the Hindu religion. • Literature: The Vedas, Upanishads, and Mahabharata are great literary works with Aryan continued . . .

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Indo-European Migrations
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Assessment

3. For what environmental reasons might the IndoEuropeans have migrated? THINK ABOUT • weather • occupational needs • health
ANSWER

Possible Responses:

• Weather: Grazing lands may have dried up. • Occupational needs: Their population may have grown too large to feed. • Health: They may have been escaping from diseases or invaders.
End of Section 1

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Roots of Hinduism and Buddhism

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Key Idea
Hinduism has no one founder but promotes a unified world view and a rigid caste system. Buddhism’s founder, Siddhartha Gautama, preaches the way of moderation and rejects the Aryan caste system.
Overview Assessment

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Roots of Hinduism and Buddhism
TERMS & NAMES

MAP

Overview

• reincarnation • karma • Jainism

MAIN IDEA

WHY IT MATTERS NOW

The religious beliefs of the Vedic Age eventually developed into Hinduism and Buddhism.

Almost one-fifth of the world’s people today practice one of these two religions.

• Siddhartha Gautama
• enlightenment • nirvana

Assessment

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Roots of Hinduism and Buddhism
Section

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Assessment

1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Compare Hindu and Buddhist beliefs and practices. Hinduism only
Caste system

Both
Reincarnation Cyclical view of history

Buddhism only
The Middle Way (Eightfold Path) Four Noble Truths

Animal sacrifice

Belief in a state of enlightenment (Hindu moksha, Buddhist nirvana)

continued . . .

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Roots of Hinduism and Buddhism
Section

MAP

2

Assessment

2. How might the belief in reincarnation provide a form of social control? THINK ABOUT • karma • the belief in the interrelatedness of all life • caste
ANSWER

Possible Responses:

• Karma: Karma motivates people to obey society’s laws. • Belief in the interrelatedness of all life: People would be reluctant to harm any life form. • Caste: Those born into a lower caste might work hard to achieve a higher caste in their next life.
End of Section 2

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Seafaring Traders Extend Boundaries

Key Idea
Ancient sea traders spread goods, culture, and innovative ideas in the Mediterranean and beyond. The Phoenicians are not only a great seafaring people but give the world the first written alphabet
Overview Assessment

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Seafaring Traders Extend Boundaries
TERMS & NAMES

Overview

• Minoans
• Aegean Sea • Knossos • King Minos

MAIN IDEA

WHY IT MATTERS NOW

Trading societies extended the development of civilizations beyond the Fertile Crescent region.

Traders spread knowledge of reading and writing, including an ancient form of the alphabet that we use today.

• Phoenicians

Assessment

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Seafaring Traders Extend Boundaries
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Assessment

1. Below is a list of accomplishments. Identify feats that were Minoan and those that were Phoenician. • dominated trade (2000–1400 B.C.) • set up numerous city-states • developed an alphabet • produced a famous purple dye • jumped over bulls for fun • produced fine painted pottery Minoan • dominated trade (2000–1400 B.C.) • jumped over bulls for fun • produced fine painted pottery Phoenician • set up numerous city-states • developed an alphabet • produced a famous purple dye
continued . . .

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Seafaring Traders Extend Boundaries
Section

3

Assessment

2. In Herodotus’s account of how the Phoenicians sailed around Africa, what words show Herodotus’s doubt? Why do you think he expresses doubts? THINK ABOUT • the sources that reported the feat • Herodotus as a historian • the Phoenicians’ seafaring skills • the fact that the trip was not repeated for 2000 years
ANSWER

Possible Responses:

• “What some may believe, though I do not.”

• Herodotus was a historian. He did not want to tarnish his reputation by reporting something unlikely. There was no evidence of a second trip, so Herodotus was rightly skeptical.

continued . . .

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Seafaring Traders Extend Boundaries
Section

3

Assessment

3. The Phoenicians founded wealthy city-states around the Mediterranean. These city-states often competed with one another. Do you think it would have made more sense for the city-states to cooperate or did competition make them stronger? THINK ABOUT unified country • advantages of a • advantages of independence • benefits of competition
ANSWER

Possible Responses:

• Cooperation: Had Phoenicians united, they could have pooled their resources and been an even stronger and more profitable trading power. • Competition: This keeps traders on their toes, so Phoenicians End of Section 3

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The Origins of Judaism

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Key Idea
The religion of the ancient Hebrews is the world’s first major monotheistic religion. The Hebrews establish covenants with God, who is over all people. Their ethical and moral systems, as set forth in the Torah and Ten Commandments, become a foundation for Christianity and Islam.
Overview Assessment

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The Origins of Judaism

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GRAPH

TERMS & NAMES

Overview

• Palestine • Canaan

MAIN IDEA

WHY IT MATTERS NOW

• Torah
•Abraham • monotheism • covenant

The Hebrews maintained monotheistic religious beliefs that were unique in the ancient world.

From this tradition, Judaism, the religion of the Jews, evolved. Judaism is one of the world’s major religions.

• Moses
• Israel • Judah • tribute

Assessment

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The Origins of Judaism

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GRAPH

Section

4

Assessment

1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List the major Hebrew leaders discussed in this section. Then give one piece of information about each. 2000 B.C.
Abraham: Father of Jewish people

1300 B.C.
Moses: Led Hebrews out of slavery

1200 B.C.
Deborah: A prominent judge

1020-922 B.C.
Saul, David, Solomon: Kings under whom Hebrews united

continued . . .

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The Origins of Judaism

HOME

GRAPH

Section

4

Assessment

2. What were the main problems faced by the Hebrews between 2000 B.C. and 700 B.C.? THINK ABOUT • the quest for a homeland • other peoples hardships • problems among Hebrews
ANSWER

Possible Responses:

• • • • • • •

constantly moving from place to place being forced into slavery in Egypt fighting with neighbors over land worshiping other gods performing forced labor paying high taxes dividing the Hebrew kingdom in two

End of Section 4


				
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