Pest Management - Holistic Pest Control by suchenfz

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									                                                                               Biological Control


    Pest Management - Holistic                                   The action of parasites, predators, and
          Pest Control?                                          pathogens in maintaining another
                                                                 organism’s density at a lower average
   2. Modern control tactics and the birth of IPM                than would occur in their absence

                                                                De Bach (1964)

                                        IPM_2 2008




              Biological Control                                               Biological Control

   • American Innovation                                        • American Innovation
                                                                  – Plum curculio in Missouri
      – Plums in Missouri
                                                                  – First case of transporting
      – Sunny California                                            parasitic insect from one
        • Cottony-cushion scale                                     locality to another
   • Tropical islands                                               (CV Riley, 1869)

   • Not always a Success!
      – Partula snails




              Biological Control                                  Cottony-cushion scale in California

• Islands in the Sun                                            • 1888-89
  – Hawaii:
    Sugar cane weevil

  – Mauritius:
    Rhinoceros beetle




                                                     Pest Management 2                                     1
                    Biological Control                                    Plant breeding
Not always a Success!
  e.g. Partula snails in Polynesia                        • Crop improvement
     African land snails were introduced to
                                                            – Bigger yields, better quality
         Tahiti as a source of food - they
         escaped and started eating crops.                • Plant resistance
     1974 , in an effort to control the land                – Pest and disease control
         snails, a smaller predatory species
         of snail was introduced; Euglandina
         rosea.                                           • What are the pay-offs?
     This species started to feed on the
         native Polynesian tree snails.
     Partula nodosa: one of nine species
         once common on Tahiti; 3 now
         extinct in the wild




                    Plant Resistance                                   Blast Those Pests!

 • Grape phylloxera                                       • DDT and other
 • Hessian fly on wheat                                     organochlorines
 • Wheat stem sawfly                                      • OPs
 • Chinch bug on                                          • Carbamates
   sorghum                                                • Pyrethroids
 • Bugs on cotton                                         • IGRs
                                                          • Neonicotinoids
                                                          • Etc ...




                                               Pest Management 2                              2
              Blast Those Pests!                                                The Pesticide Debate:
                                                                                 Costs and Benefits
• Rachel Carson: Silent Spring                                     • The chemical barrage, as crude a weapon as a
                                                                     caveman’s club, has been hurled against the
                                                                     fabric of life
• Resistance                                                         Rachel Carson (1962)

                                                                   • If pesticides were completely banned, crop
• Resurgence                                                         losses would probably soar to 50% and food
                                                                     prices would increase 4-5 fold
                                                                     Norman Borlaug (1972), Nobel Prize Winner for work on
                                                                     the Green Revolution




  More recently …                                                          Integrated Pest Management?

• Is organic really                                                Let a man profess to have discovered some new
                                                                   Patent Powder Pimperlimplimp, a single pinch of
  better for health &                                              which being thrown into each corner of a field will
  the environment?                                                 kill every bug throughout its whole extent, and
• Does fair trade help                                             people will listen to him with attention and respect.
                                                                   But tell them of any simple common-sense plan,
  the majority?                                                    based upon correct scientific principles, to check
• “Food miles” -                                                   and keep within reasonable bounds the insect foes
  misleading?                                                      of the farmer, and they will laugh you to scorn.

                                                                       The Practical Entomologist - Benjamin Walsh, (1866)
                                        9 December 2006




       Organic / biodynamic farming
 How is biodynamic different from organic?
 • Every biodynamic farm aims to become self-sufficient in
                                                                     Integrated Pest Management (IPM) –
   compost, manures and animal feeds.                                         first formal definition
 • All external inputs are kept to a minimum.
 • Compost is treated with special herb-based                        Integrated Pest Control is applied pest
   preparations.                                                     control which combines and integrates
 • Crop quality is improved using natural manure and                 biological and chemical control –
   quartz based preparations.
 • Ecological diversity is a goal of landscape
   management.
 • An astronomical calendar is used to determine
   auspicious, planting, cultivating and harvesting times.                                         Stern et al (1959)

                               www.biodynamic.org.uk/




                                                        Pest Management 2                                                    3
                                                                                    IPM
       Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
                                                                • The aims of IPM are to
     Integrated Pest Management is the                          • Modify the population of the pest to
     intelligent selection and use of pest control                achieve levels below the economic
     measures to ensure favourable economic,                      threshold
     ecological and sociological consequences                   • Apply all suitable biological and
                                                                  technological knowledge to achieve this
                                                                • Do this in a manner compatible with
                                                                  economic and environmental
                                                                  requirements.




The ‘IPM pyramid’                                                  Basic Components of an IPM
“Conventional”                                                             Programme
                                   Pesti
       Intervention                -cide                     • Prevention
“Biorational”
                                 Biological                  • Observation


                            Physical-mechanical              • Intervention


                                 Cultural
         Prevention




         Prevention – indirect measures                            Observation – Decision tools

 • Aim to limit or prevent initial severity of               • To determine when and what action to take
   pests                                                       – Crop monitoring
     – Crop location                                           – Decision support systems
     – Crop rotation                                           – Area-wide management
     – Crop husbandry
     – Plant breeding
     – Habitat management
         • Trap cropping
         • Inter-cropping




                                                  Pest Management 2                                         4
     Intervention – direct measures                                           Deciding when to intervene
                                                               Thresholds
• To reduce effects of damaging pest                             – Action threshold
  populations to acceptable levels                                    • Pest density that warrants initiation of a control measure
  – Cultural                                                     – Economic damage threshold
  – Biological                                                        • Amount of damage that justifies the cost of controls
  – Interference                                                 – Economic injury level
  – Chemical                                                          • Lowest pest density that will cause economic damage
                                                                 – Economic threshold
                                                                      • Level at which controls should be implemented to
                                                                        prevent increasing pest population reaching economic
                                                                        injury level




     Summary of available methods                                    Integrated Crop Management (ICM),
                                                                      Integrated Farming Systems (IFS)
                   Rational Use

                                                                     Integrated Crop Management is a
                    Pesticides                                       cropping strategy in which the grower seeks
                                         Biological
  Host plant                                                         to conserve and enhance the environment
  resistance                                                         while economically producing a safe and
                    Integrated Pest                                  wholesome product. Its long term aim is to
                      Management
                                                                     optimise the needs of consumers, society,
                                           Quarantine                the environment and the producer.
       Cultural
                          Interference




 Or is “Good Agricultural Practice” (GAP) a
                                                                                         ICM - GAP
            better expression?
                                                                 •   Conservation headlands
 • “Integrated Pest Management” (IPM) or                         •   Crop islands
   alternatively “Incredibly Popular Mantra”                     •   Diversity
                                                                 •   Soil science
 • “Integrated Crop Management” (ICM) or
   alternatively “Input Costs Marginalized”                      •   IPM
                                                                 •   GM crops
 • “Integrated Farming Systems” (IFS) or
   alternatively “Inadequately Funded
   Solution”
                                                                                                            www.dropdata.org




                                                      Pest Management 2                                                              5

								
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