VIEWS: 10 PAGES: 68 POSTED ON: 8/12/2011
Launch of the Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle Demonstration in Strasbourg 26-28 April 2010 Supported by ADEME Table of contents — Introduction 5 — Toyota 15 — EDF 33 — Partners 49 — Image Bank 59 Introduction — Foreword 7 — A project for tomorrow’s mobility 8 — A new type of cleaner vehicle for sustainable mobility 10 — Superb versatility adaptable to the needs of the whole family 11 — Available and smart charging 12 Launch of PHV demonstration 5 6 Foreword Working together in building low-carbon mobility, Toyota Thanks: and EDF have been developing since 2007 a pilot project for conducting tests on plug-in hybrid vehicles combined Toyota and the EDF Group express their thanks to ADEME, with communicating charging technologies. the City and Urban Community of Strasbourg, as well as all the public and private partners in the Alsace region, Today, we are launching the second phase of this project. who accepted to take up this challenge in innovation. It comprises a demonstration, in real-life conditions in Strasbourg and its region, concerning about one hundred plug-in hybrid vehicles and a network of dedicated charging infrastructures. This ambitious and pioneer programme is backed by ADEME (the French Energy Efficiency Office) within the framework of its “Demonstrators Fund” research programme for vehicles with zero-emission of greenhouse gases, and benefits from the valuable support of the City and Urban Community of Strasbourg. For three years, this project will be the subject of top- level scientific and technical monitoring. In a few months we will be drawing the first conclusions which we will then share with you. During this two-day introduction programme, you will be able to meet and talk with our partners and many car- users in order to understand their motivation concerning the project, and more clearly identify their personal or professional transport needs. You, also, can become a player in electric mobility for a few hours by testing the Prius Plug-in Hybrid and its charging system. Launch of PHV demonstration 7 A project for tomorrow’s mobility About one hundred plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHVs) in a demonstration in Strasbourg and the surrounding region EDF and Toyota have teamed up for a large-scale real-life testing of the newest generation of clean and economic vehicles in Strasbourg. This demonstration, supported by the City and the Urban Community of Strasbourg, will enable verification, under real-life conditions, of the applicability of a new solution to individual mobility. Its objective is to record actual savings achieved by the users during their day-to-day trips, the whole year long. Furthermore, the project has received funding through the «demonstration fund for low-greenhouse gas emission vehicles» created within the framework of the Grenelle de l’Environnement administered by ADEME. Starting in April 2010 and during a three-year period, around 100 Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles (PHVs) will be allied to a number of operational recharging solutions, designed to facilitate electric charging and billing procedures. 8 The EDF – Toyota partnership Since September 2007, EDF and Toyota are partners in an experimental programme involving the use of 3 PHV prototypes in the fleet of EDF, and since September 2008 of 1 vehicle at EDF Energy in the United Kingdom. EDF and Toyota also experiment a new generation of charging points, called ‘PLC’, which are able to communicate with the vehicle. The demonstration programme is the logical follow-up to this initial research and development phase, during which around 50 participants from the EDF Group took The scientific and technical part as drivers of the first generation of PHVs. contribution Based on very encouraging results from these initial The ensemble of these advanced mobility actions enter tests, EDF and Toyota decided to pursue testing at the into the body of thought centered on the «carbon-free» next level, experimenting using one hundred or so of vehicle, and backed by the plan presented by the French the latest-generation PHVs with – thanks to lithium- President in October 2008. As such, this testing project ion batteries – increased autonomy, and within a large benefits from assistance granted on the part of the European metropolitan area. ADEME administered «Demonstration Funds». A network of partners serving the These greater-metropolitan-scale experiments will allow for a better understanding throug experience in a mobility of tomorrow number of areas: In Strasbourg, EDF and Toyota have forged partnerships — for automaker Toyota, the validation of the techno- with actors in the public and private sector (businesses, economic feasibility of the PHV solution prior to local authorities) eager to introduce PHVs into their engaging in mass-market commercialization in the vehicle fleets as service vehicles, or as company cars for middle term their personnel. — for energy supplier EDF, the testing of different The diversity use profiles will allow for a determination operational charging solutions, and the selection of of the ecological footprint and economic impact of these the appropriate infrastructure as it relates to safety clean and cost-saving vehicles, within the urban and and cost suburban milieu. — for the local authorities, a study of the new ways in which the public travels in a multi-mode context, Strasbourg - first city to experience harmoniously combining public and individual the PHV in Europe transport Strasbourg has always been an innovative city on — for the French government, a definition of the transportation matters. In an economy-minded and conditions for success for electric mobility in their dynamic institutional environment, municipal groups adaptation of future regulatory issues and community leaders were actively deliberating the question of sustainable mobility. — for experts from the scientific community, an enrichment of their reflection on sustainable mobility The collaboration between the City and Urban Community of Strasbourg and the ensemble of partners is a guarantee of the smooth functioning of the operation. Electricité de Strasbourg, an EDF subsidiary, will provide an operational contribution of paramount importance to the project. Launch of PHV demonstration 9 A new type of cleaner vehicle for sustainable mobility The vehicle developed for the Strasbourg demonstration Its principal advantages are: and offered for lease by Toyota is a rechargeable version derived from the hybrid gasoline/electricity Toyota Prius — a reduced ecological footprint, thanks to an electricity III model. emitting little CO2, less atmospheric pollution, less noise The plug-in hybrid powertrain — reduced energy consumption and reduced energy costs (gasoline/electricity) thanks to an electricity at Principles of operation up to 5 times cheaper than fossil fuels — over short distances of up to 20 km, the vehicle — freedom of movement over a distance of several functions noiselessly and with no emissions in electric hundred kilometers mode — energy conservation and the preservation of fossil fuel — the battery is rechargeable in one and a half hours, resources for a full charge on residential/domestic wiring, at public parking facilities, or at a roadside terminal (on The project objective is the realization of tangible savings a 230 V, 16 A nominal single phase outlet) for drivers on the cost of their daily travel throughout the year. — for longer trips, the vehicle functions in hybrid gasoline/electricity mode 10 Superb versatility adaptable to the needs of the whole family This family sedan can transport 5 passengers and their Night recharging on the domestic grid at reduced rates luggage with ease (trunk volume: 400 liters) possible Modular seating: The Toyota rechargeable hybrid offers a In-town trips: multitude of interior seating arrangements. — Functions in electric mode — Lease duration: 36 months Longer trips: — Toyota, through its Strasbourg dealerships, will provide maintenance and technical follow-up for the — Functions in hybrid mode, combining the electric vehicles motor and the gasoline engine Principle vehicle characteristics: — Highly fuel-efficient — Gasoline engine: 1.8 VVT-i / 4 cylinder — Zero emissions in electric mode — Electric motor: 60 kW — Vehicle can attain speeds of 100 km/h in electric mode — Battery: Lithium-ion — Continuously variable transmission Launch of PHV demonstration 11 Available and smart charging Charging points in and How is the battery charged? around Strasbourg The PHV is recharged in the same manner as your other everyday electrical devices, provided a specific, dedicated Drivers will be able to recharge the battery of their Plug- outlet is available. The user plugs the detachable cable of in Hybrid Vehicle (PHV) through use of recharging points the PHV into the socket of the charge point. The duration located at company parking sites or at home. While for a full recharge is around one and a half hours. During out on the road, thirty or so recharging points will be the demonstration, only approved and registered EDF available to drivers along roadways and at public parking charge points are authorized for use. facilities within the greater Strasbourg metropolitan area. Easy-to-locate charging points Working closely with the City and Urban Community of Strasbourg, these points are installed near municipal nerve centers. They are easily visible and accessible to all. The charging network has been designed to serve a wide range of vehicle user outings. 12 Implementation sites of charge points at public parking sites and along roadways Background map: SIG-CUS 2009 Charge spots in public parking Curbside charging spot Curbside charge and car sharing Charging spot and car sharing in public parking A full charge in one and a half hours Launch of PHV demonstration 13 Charging point conditions of use The electricity transferred will be charged to businesses, Thanks to a secure 3G modem communication link, when recharging takes place at the workplace; and to the terminals are in contact with a supervised central the employee when charging takes place at his/her control system. This system, managed by Sodetrel**, residence. At public parking sites and along roadways, will provide real-time information on the status of the the cost is not charged to users. charging point and coordinate a maintenance program. Vehicle recharging data will be amassed by the system A full recharge costs around 0.40 €*. throughout the test period The communication-enabled charging terminal – the solution of the future This project will permit EDF to test out the different * Based on the blue rate (least expensive) as operational recharging solutions. Automobiles are of 31 March 2010 offering more and more services to drivers and ** SoDEtrEL passengers (screens, electronic controls, communication A wholly owned EDF Subsidiary, Sodetrel provides and navigation systems…). It is within this frame of clients, local authorities and/or public transport reference that EDF has developed a new system of authorities a complete “onboard energy” service communication-enabled terminals. Integrated inside the for batteries and recharging systems destined for electric powered vehicles: assessment, investment, charging point and within the vehicle, the system uses leasing, maintenance, safety guarantees, 3 to 12 onboard technology as a way to simplify to the fullest year contracts. the terminal infrastructure, and make vehicle recharging as easy and as safe as possible. The visual aspect of the the current Sodetrel market concerns electric buses for the most part, but also includes delivery trucks, terminal essentially presents an electrical outlet – one passenger shuttle-type watercraft and small tourist specific to PHVs. To activate the system, the user plugs in trains. his vehicle; the terminal then begins communicating with the vehicle. If the safety and energy credit conditions Sodetrel will superintend operation and maintenance of the charging terminals for the are confirmed, the transfer of electricity to the vehicle Strasbourg project throughout the 3 years of testing. commences. 14 - Introduction 16 - The Prius Plug-in Hybrid 19 - Limited lease programme 24 - The Future 27 Launch of PHV demonstration 15 Introduction — Toyota’s 40 year quest for sustainable mobility — 2.3 million Toyota hybrid vehicles already sold worldwide, accounting for 80% of global hybrid sales — Modular Hybrid Synergy Drive® paves the way for diverse eco cars — Flexible Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles – ‘best of both worlds’ extended EV range with no constraints 16 Heritage – a 40 year quest for sustainable mobility Although the reduction of CO2 emissions did not Today, while other manufacturers are only beginning to become a mainstream global issue until the 1990s (the develop hybrid technology, Toyota has already launched 1997 Kyoto Protocol outlining specific numeric goals), the third generation of its multiple award-winning Prius. Toyota has, in fact, been researching and developing environmentally-friendly mobility solutions for over 40 The launch of the Auris HSD presages the introduction of years in the quest for the ultimate eco car. as many as 10 new Toyota hybrid models globally by the early 2010s, with a target of achieving worldwide annual After addressing the possibilities of various types of sales of one million hybrid vehicles within the same time hybrid systems in several research and development frame. programmes, Toyota decided to focus its efforts on realising mass-production hybrid vehicles that could be Toyota has already sold 2.3 million hybrid vehicles made available to society at large. worldwide (accounting for 80% of global hybrid sales), contributing to a reduction in automotive CO2 emissions This early vision has since been entirely vindicated. The of about 12 million tons and giving the company an world’s first mass-produced full hybrid vehicle, the Prius, unquestionable lead in the drive towards sustainable was launched in Japan in 1997 and in Europe in 2000. mobility. Its unique Hybrid Synergy Drive® (HSD) powertrain established a major industry milestone in sustainable mobility and its name, meaning ‘to go before’ in Latin, quickly became symbolic of a car that was launched even before environmental awareness had become a mainstream social issue. Launch of PHV demonstration 17 Modular Hybrid Synergy Drive® – the core technology Plug-in hybrid platform technology – extended EV range Though convinced that Hybrid Synergy Drive® is the core technology platform for the future, Toyota believes it is important to follow more than one path in the quest for with no constraints environmentally-friendly mobility solutions. 70% of Europeans are expected to live in urban areas by 2015. As a result, the demand for environmentally- Hybrid Synergy Drive® has been specifically designed to friendly, short distance commuter vehicles is expected be modular and, adaptable to diverse energy sources, to increase, and industry attention is now focused on may be readily used in Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles (PHV), electricity. Electric Vehicles (EV) and Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicles (FCHV). Electricity has high potential as an alternative to oil, may be produced from renewable sources such as solar, wind, tidal and hydro-electric power, can be readily supplied, and is carbon neutral at the point of consumption. In this context, the environmental merits of EVs as urban commuters are well proven, and their future in providing sustainable mobility is assured. However, the further development of such vehicles is currently handicapped by the weight, size and cost of the large capacity batteries required to offer satisfactory range, and the lack of an adequate recharging infrastructure. In focusing on PHV technology, Toyota has addressed both of these issues. The Prius Plug-in Hybrid is a full hybrid vehicle in which both the electric motor and petrol engine can drive the wheels. A fully electric, EV mode is employed for city driving, while the hybrid powertrain’s petrol engine awards the car true long range capability. 18 The Prius Plug-in Hybrid — Plug-in Hybrid technology – a significant expansion of Hybrid Synergy Drive® — Expanded, 20km EV driving range with zero CO2, NOX and particulate emissions — First Toyota full hybrid vehicle application of lithium-ion batteries — 136 DIN hp delivers 0-100 km/h in 11.4 seconds and 180 km/h top speed – performance to match any conventional hatchback — Combined fuel consumption of only 2.6 l/100 km – a reduction of 30% over that of the Prius — Extraordinarily low CO2 emissions of just 59 g/km Launch of PHV demonstration 19 PHV technology – a significant expansion of Hybrid Synergy Drive® Setting a new benchmark in environmentally-friendly The Prius Plug-in Hybrid delivers impressive, seamless mobility, the new Prius Plug-in Hybrid represents a acceleration and remarkably quiet operation, while significant expansion of the Hybrid Synergy Drive® returning unparalleled fuel efficiency and the lowest system’s capabilities. possible emissions. Building on the core technology of Toyota’s renowned full hybrid powertrain, the Prius Plug-in Hybrid addresses the specific needs of urban-based customers with a significantly extended, fully-electric EV driving range for shorter journeys, while the hybrid powertrain’s petrol engine awards the Prius Plug-in Hybrid true long range capability. 20 Performance – unparalleled fuel efficiency and emissions The Hybrid Synergy Drive’s® powertrain generates European homologation combined cycle – a reduction of a total system power output of 136 DIN hp, offering 30% over that of the Prius. performance to match any conventional 2.0 litre diesel or petrol hatchback. The Prius Plug-in Hybrid will accelerate In addition, the new PHV generates significantly lower seamlessly from 0-100 km/h in 11.4 seconds, and on to a NOx emissions than diesel engined cars of comparable top speed of 180 km/h. performance, and zero particulates. Thanks to its extended EV range, the Prius Plug-in Hybrid When operating in its extended EV mode, the Prius Plug- returns a remarkably low fuel consumption figure of in Hybrid generates zero CO2 and NOx emissions, driving only 2.6 l/100 km and CO2 emissions of just 59 g in the for up to 20 kilometres at speeds of up to 100 km/h, dependant on battery charge and driving conditions. Hybrid Synergy Drive® – PHV system architecture The Prius Plug-in Hybrid adopts the same full hybrid charge has been consumed, the Prius Plug-in Hybrid system architecture as the normal Prius, with the automatically operates as a full hybrid until recharged additional benefit of a larger battery that can be plugged- from an external power supply, thus eradicating the in and recharged from an external power source. limited range constraints of a conventional electric vehicle. Hence, the Prius Plug-in Hybrid features a 1.8 litre VVT-i petrol engine, a powerful electric motor, a generator, Maximising the Hybrid Synergy Drive® system’s efficiency, a high performance lithium-ion battery and a power the electric motor also acts as a high-output generator control unit. A power split device employs a planetary during deceleration and under braking, to effect gear set to combine and re-allocate power from the regenerative braking. Normally wasted as heat, kinetic engine, electric motor and generator according to energy is recovered as electrical energy for storage in the operational requirements. The full hybrid drive system’s high performance lithium-ion battery. seamless, E-CVT continuously variable transmission is controlled by Shift-by-Wire technology. Powered by the lithium-ion battery, the electric motor works in tandem with the petrol engine to boost acceleration during normal driving. Power allocation is constantly adjusted between engine and electric motor to combine optimum performance with maximum fuel efficiency. The electric motor alone powers the driven wheels when the Prius Plug-in Hybrid is operating in EV mode. An EV range of up to 20 km is dictated by battery charge and driving conditions. However, once the EV battery Launch of PHV demonstration 21 Lithium-ion batteries Enhanced Eco driving – a Toyota full hybrid experience first From start up and at speeds of less than 100 km/h, the new Prius Plug-in Hybrid automatically operates in EV mode, driving under electric motor power to offer The Prius Plug-in Hybrid marks the introduction of an extraordinarily smooth and quite ride. Requiring lithium-ion batteries in a Toyota hybrid vehicle for two full hybrid technology, this unique driving mode is not key reasons: firstly, having superior volume energy available to drivers of mild hybrid vehicles. density, they are more compact than their nickel-metal With vehicle range dictated by battery charge, the EV hydride counterparts, offering a significant increase in EV drive mode allows for urban driving with minimal noise driving range with minimal adverse weight or packaging and zero CO2 and NOX emissions for up to 20 kilometres, issues. Secondly, they may be recharged far more quickly contributing to a significant reduction in the new Prius than nickel-metal hydride alternatives. Plug-in Hybrid’s overall fuel consumption. Two thirds of the battery pack must be recharged Two alternative, ‘on-demand’ drive modes - ECO and through connection to an external, plug-in electricity POWER - may be selected to further increase driving supply. The remaining third is integrated within the efficiency, performance and fuel economy. Prius Plug-in Hybrid’s full hybrid drive system in the conventional manner, and is constantly recharged during In ECO mode, throttle response to aggressive accelerator normal system operation. pedal inputs is reduced and air-conditioning control optimized for improved fuel economy. Depending The complete battery pack of a Prius Plug-in Hybrid can on driving conditions, the ECO mode can help drivers be fully recharged in 1.5 hours from a standard, 230V achieve a perceptible reduction in fuel consumption. household outlet. The POWER mode also modifies the response of the Prius Plug-in Hybrid to throttle inputs, here boosting power to improve acceleration and enhance driving pleasure. The POWER mode provides a 25% higher throttle response to accelerator pedal input. 22 Extensive driving support monitors The Prius Plug-in Hybrid features comprehensive Eco driving support for those who wish to adopt even more environmentally-friendly driving techniques. Various new functions have been incorporated in the Eco Drive Monitor from the normal Prius, allowing customers to maximise the benefits of the PHV’s extended EV driving range. Hybrid System Indicator The Hybrid System Indicator dial shows the point at which the engine will start under acceleration, allowing the driver to moderate throttle inputs and maximise the use of the EV mode. The Energy Monitor - which displays the current operating conditions of the engine and the flow of electric power in real time - incorporates an EV driving range display, showing how far the Prius Plug-in Hybrid can travel under electric motor power alone with the Energy Monitor remaining battery charge. In addition, an EV Driving Ratio indicator shows how much of the total distance driven so far has been under electric motor power alone. In combination, these functions help drivers to develop relaxed, fuel efficient driving techniques and maximise both EV driving and overall hybrid system efficiency. EV Driving Ratio Unique plug-in features exclusive to PHV Making full use of a PHV design that accesses electricity in CO2 emissions effected by the use of an external power from an external power source, the Prius Plug-in Hybrid source, determines the equivalent number of trees, and features a unique, Remote Climate Control System. gradually grows them one at a time in the display. As more trees are grown, a forest is formed to show the This is a pre-air conditioning system, capable of both driver’s contribution to environmental preservation. heating and cooling the vehicle interior when the car is plugged in, offering occupants a comfortable cabin temperature from the moment they get into the vehicle. It also improves the overall efficiency of HSD, by minimising air conditioner energy consumption during vehicle start up, further lowering fuel consumption. An innovative graphic display of a growing forest lets customers see in real terms the benefits of battery charging for CO2 emissions reduction. The computer graphic image is based on how much CO2 is absorbed by a tree in a one year period. Whilst the vehicle is plugged in, the system calculates the reduction Launch of PHV demonstration 23 Limited lease programme — Ongoing since 2007 – Toyota PHV evaluation in partnership with EDF — Worldwide limited lease of 600 Prius Plug-in Hybrids in 2010, of which 200 will be distributed throughout Europe. — European programme begins with about one hundred PHVs in Strasbourg, France – key partnership and highest concentration of Prius Plug-in Hybrids — Simultaneous creation of European recharging infrastructure by EDF and subsidiaries in office and public car parks, public roads and users’ homes 24 Background – ongoing PHV evaluation in partnership with EDF, since 2007 At a ceremony in Tokyo on 14th December 2009, Toyota start of Toyota’s ongoing partnership with French energy handed the Mayor of Strasbourg, Roland Ries, the key company EDF, was dedicated to intensive research and to the first new generation Prius Plug-in Hybrid. This development through real life road trials in France and event marked the start of a worldwide limited lease the UK, with a specific focus: project involving some 600 vehicles, of which 200 will be — on the relationship between the new technology distributed throughout Europe. involved and its users; — and on research into the development of a public, This is the second phase of Toyota’s global PHV viability private and company recharging infrastructure. verification project. The first phase was announced by the company in July 2007, and involved about 20 vehicles, of which four in Europe. This first phase, marking the The limited lease programme Toyota’s European Prius Plug-in Hybrid limited lease Toyota also has plans to introduce the Prius Plug-in project starts in Strasbourg, France, at the end of April Hybrid on a global scale, with participants including 2010, with the three year leasing about 100 Prius Plug-in Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Japan and the United Hybrids by private companies and other organisations, States of America. including government bodies, local authorities, energy providers and a car sharing company. The ultimate goal of the limited lease project is to bring the Prius-Plug-in Hybrid to the market in a few years. Some 20 vehicles will be introduced in the UK, and another 20 in Germany. The remaining vehicles will be dispatched to other European countries including Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Belgium, Netherlands, Italy, Portugal and Spain. Launch of PHV demonstration 25 Real world driver behaviour analysis Both in Europe and around the world, the limited lease programme will allow Toyota to fine tune its ongoing PHV research and development. The gathering of real world vehicle-use feedback will enable the company to better understand customer expectations of plug-in technology, while spurring the development of a public access charging station infrastructure. All Prius Plug-in Hybrids will be equipped with data retrieval devices which will monitor everyday user activities such as when, and how often, the vehicle is charged, the extent of battery depletion at the time of charging, trip duration, percentage of EV use and EV range, and fuel efficiency. Strasbourg – chosen by Toyota and EDF as a key viability project partner The city of Strasbourg, France, has been chosen as the The project has received financial support via the key viability project partner by Toyota and EDF in the Research Fund for Low Carbon Vehicles managed by the investigation of market acceptability of PHV technology. French Environment and Energy Management Agency, ADEME. The city of Strasbourg has had a notably advanced mobility strategy in place for a long time, making it the EDF will create a complimentary recharging ideal location for a large-scale demonstration of the infrastructure. It will install charging points at the urban-friendly practicalities of the Prius Plug-in Hybrid. facilities of project partners, in public parking lots, on public roads and reinforced plugs at users’ homes. « This project is an international recognition of our initiatives towards sustainable mobility, which started more than 20 years ago » said Roland Ries, Mayor of Strasbourg. « The arrival of these plug-in hybrid vehicles in our urban landscape will open a new chapter in our transport policy. » 26 The Future — Prius Plug-in Hybrid paves the way for diverse Hybrid Synergy Drive® applications and co-existing eco car variants — Advances in battery technology, and charging and fuelling infrastructures fundamental to Electric Vehicle (EV) and Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle (FCHV) development — Electric Vehicle technology – providing short- to mid-term sustainable mobility — Hydrogen fuel cell technology – the potential to change the face of motoring forever Launch of PHV demonstration 27 Prius Plug-in Hybrid – paving the way for diverse applications of Hybrid Synergy Drive® Prius Plug-in Hybrid represents just one further Hybrid Synergy Drive® is readily adaptable to use in application of Hybrid Synergy Drive®, the core Electric Vehicles (EV) and Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicles technology in Toyota’s quest for sustainable mobility. (FCHV). However, the mass production of EVs and FCHVs remains dependent on two key factors: a significant Rather than the former replacing the latter, both advance in battery technology, and the provision of standard and Plug-in versions of the Prius full hybrid will comprehensive recharging and refuelling infrastructures co-exist on the market for the foreseeable future. for both electric and hydrogen fuel cell powered vehicles. With the new Prius Plug-in Hybrid targeting the most environmentally conscientious, urban-based customers, it is expected to be some time before its sales outstrip those of the Prius itself. Electric Vehicle Technology – providing short- to mid-term sustainable mobility Toyota has already accumulated an unprecedented depth Nonetheless, through further advances in battery of knowledge and engineering capability in the field of technology, and cooperation with governments, electric vehicles (EVs). Ten years ago, some 1,900 RAV4 related organisations and other companies in charging EV battery-electric vehicles were either sold or leased infrastructure development, Toyota believes these over the course of a three year test programme. Nearly obstacles will be overcome. half of these 160 km-driving range, large battery vehicles are still on the road. To that end, Toyota has continued with the development of short range EVs for commercialisation. At the 2009 However, even with a 160 km range, EVs as a primary Tokyo Motorshow, the company unveiled its FT-EV II mode of transportation do not offer what most concept, a small commuter EV with a top-speed of customers see as true mobility- and the absence of a 100km/h and a driving range of over 90km. Toyota plans comprehensive recharging infrastructure continues to to launch a lithium-ion battery equipped EV by 2012 in hinder market acceptance of the battery electric concept. the US. 28 Battery Technology – the key to true EV mobility The battery is a key element in hybrid technology. There Fully committed to the most rapid possible advances in is no doubt that battery technology has progressed battery technology, Toyota established its own Battery significantly in the 13 years since the introduction of Research Department in June 2008 and has been the first Prius. Each successive generation has seen developing in-house battery technology since the early a reduction in battery pack size, weight and cost, yet 1990s. improved efficiency. By September 2010, Toyota’s successful joint-venture However, challenges still remain. For instance, the cost of partnership with Panasonic EV Energy (PEVE) will have a lithium-ion batteries needs to be reduced significantly, or production capacity of 1.1 million battery packs per year. a more affordable alternative found. HSD technology readily adaptable to use in PHV, EV and FCHV Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle Motor/Generator Battery Fuel tank Engine Motor/Generator Electric Vehicle Motor/Generator Battery Fuel tank Battery Engine Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle Motor/Generator Battery Hydrogen tank FC Stack Launch of PHV demonstration 29 Fuel Cell Technology – the potential to change the face of motoring forever With the potential to offer lasting solutions to on how to produce hydrogen, how to deliver it and environmental and energy source problems, Fuel Cell how to implement a fuelling infrastructure depends on Hybrid Vehicles are considered by many to represent the the combined efforts of all sectors of society, including closest thing yet to the ultimate eco-car. governments. Fuel cells produces electricity through a chemical reaction To that end - and in anticipation of the imminent between hydrogen (stored in the vehicle) and oxygen commercialisation of a number of FCHVs - Toyota, Ford, (from the air), with no other emissions but water vapour. Daimler, General Motors, Honda, Hyundai/Kia and Renault/Nissan signed a Letter of Understanding in A fuel cell can convert as much as 80% of hydrogen’s September 2009 calling for oil and energy companies energy into usable power - about twice the efficiency and government organisations to cooperate in the possible with current generation petrol engines. creation of hydrogen infrastructure networks of sufficient Toyota began work on FCHVs in 1992. The company density in Europe, Japan, Korea and the United States by applies its own HSD technology to FCHV development, 2015. replacing petrol engines with fuel cells, and conventional In 2010, Toyota started a three-year Fuel Cell hybrid fuel tanks with high pressure hydrogen counterparts. vehicle programme, involving 120 advanced FCHVs Toyota’s latest fuel cell hybrid, the FCHV-adv, received around the world, including Europe, to demonstrate vehicle-type certification from Japan’s Ministry of Land, the technology’s performance, reliability and everyday Infrastructure and Transport on June 3rd 2008. This practicality. vehicle can travel 830 kms on a single tank of hydrogen, In 2010, Toyota joined the Clean Energy Partnership, emitting only water vapour. an organisation supporting the development of fuel Though a fuel cell vehicle emits no CO2, the emissions cell technology and hydrogen supply infrastructure in resulting from various hydrogen production methods Germany. Toyota will contribute five FCHV-adv to the must be considered for an accurate, well-to-wheel programme in Germany by 2011. appraisal of FCHV energy efficiency and environmental Our goal is to introduce this technology on the market in impact. 2015. Moreover, a smooth shift to a hydrogen-based society will be a significant undertaking. Reaching a consensus 30 A Fuel Cell produces electricity through a chemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen, with water vapour the only emission w ﬂo ron Elect e- e- e- e- ½O2 OXYGEN H2 H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ Catalyst Polymer Catalyst H2O negative electrolyte positive electrode membrane electrode Launch of PHV demonstration 31 Prius Plug-in Hybrid - main specifications Engine Displacement (cm3) 1798 Max. output (kW (hp) / rpm) 73 (98) / 5200 Max. torque (Nm / rpm) 142 / 4000 Emission level Euro 5 Motor Motor type Permanent magnet synchronous motor Max. output (hp / kW) 80 / 60 Max. torque (Nm) 207 HV battery Battery type Lithium-ion Max. EV cruising range (km) 20 Recharging time (min) 100V 180 200V 100 Transmission Transmission type Electric continuously variable transmission (CVT) Performance Max. speed (km/h) 180 Max. speed in EV (km/h) 100 Total max. output* (kW (hp)) 100 (136) Acceleration: 0 to 100 km/h (s) 11.4 Exhaust emissions CO2 (g/km) 59 Fuel consumption Combined New European Driving Cycle (l/100km) 2.6 Dimensions Overall length (mm) 4460 Overall width (mm) 1745 Overall height (mm) 1490 Vehicle weight (kg) 1500 * the combined total power of the engine and electric motor (using the battery) exhibited as a hybrid system (toyota in-house measured figures). toyota Motor Europe reserves the right to alter any details of specifications and equipment without notice. Details of specifications and equipment are also subject to change to suit local conditions and requirements. Please enquire at your national toyota Pr department of any such changes that might be required for your area. Vehicles pictured and specifications detailed in this publication may vary from models and equipment available in your area. Vehicle body colours might differ slightly from the printed photos in this publication. 32 — EDF, an actor in innovation in the field of “Low-Carbon Mobility” 34 — EDF, leading the energy change 36 — EDF is preparing the electric mobility of tomorrow with its partners 40 — EDF in the Service of Innovation in Electric Transportation 43 Launch of PHV demonstration 33 EDF, an actor in innovation in the field of “Low-Carbon Mobility” 34 EDF and “Low-Carbon Mobility” Transportation accounts for 27% of world energy consumption and 61% of petroleum consumption planet- wide. It remains one of main causes of atmospheric pollution in the world and is responsible for 23% of CO2 emissions. The EDF Group is strongly committed to promoting Active partnerships electric vehicles to accompany its customers in moving towards modes of sustainable mobility in line with goals The Group has initiated a policy of active and open for reducing CO2 emissions and fighting pollution. partnerships in the various technological solutions developed by automakers (both “pure” electric vehicles The emergence of electric mobility requires the and Plug-in-Hybrid vehicles) ith major players like development of batteries with greater and greater Renault, PSA and Toyota. security and performance and the deployment of an appropriate charging infrastructure. A strong commitment EDF possesses solid experience in operating electric The EDF Group has committed to acquiring 5,000 vehicles and charging stations, recognized scientific electric vehicles in France over the period 2011-2015. This and technological expertise with both batteries and commitment represents 100% of the vehicles slated to infrastructures, and a capacity for production of low- be replaced over a period of 5 years and capable of being carbon energy that is unique in Western Europe. substituted for with electric vehicles. Que pouvons-nous attendre du développement What can we expect from the development of de l’électricité dans les transports ? electricity in transportation? — less dependency on petroleum fuels; — per-kilometer fuel costs up to five times lower; — 8 to 10 times less CO2 emissions in France; — an end to local pollutants, and thus considerable health benefits; — a strong reduction in noise pollution; — a new mode of mobility. Launch of PHV demonstration 35 EDF, leading the energy change Today’s world is faced with a major energy challenge: How to respond to growing needs in a context of climatic constraints and disappearing resources? With its R&D capabilities, its expertise and experience in nuclear production as well as renewable energies, and its efficient-energy offerings, EDF offers competitive solutions for sustainably reconciling economic development and climate protection. 36 Who are we? — An integrated energy group (production, transport, distribution, trading and sale of energy); — The leading operator of nuclear generating stations in the world; — Europe’s leading electricity producer; — France’s leading electricity supplier; — 95% of our production in France emits no CO2; — 38 million customers worldwide, including nearly 28 million in France; — 161,000 employees around the world. : EDF Media library ® Hydro electric dam: Sainte Croix de Verdon Launch of PHV demonstration 37 The issues facing us Securing energy supplies in France and in Europe. Contributing to the fight against greenhouse gases. Faced with the increase in energy demand, and in We are already emitting five times less greenhouse particular for electrical energy (an expected rise of gases than the average for European electricity +1.6 per year in Europe through 2030), EDF, thanks producers. to its installed base of nuclear and hydroelectric stations and its production from other renewable energy sources, enjoys a very low dependency on imported fuels. Nuclear, hydroelectric, fossil-fueled generation: each energy source has its place The diversity of our installed base of electricity production facilities enables us to respond to the many constraints imposed – managing fluctuations in demand, securing energy supplies, producing energy without greenhouse-gas emissions, and anticipating tomorrow’s energy sources. : EDF Media library / BEAUCARDET ® Nuclear Power Station: Saint Laurent des Eaux 38 EDF, benchmark supplier of competitive and low-carbon fuels An electric vehicle powered by the French production etc.), which is even more harmful to the environment base emits between 10 and 20 grams of CO2 per km*. On than conventional petroleum. a European scale (taking in Germany, Poland, Portugal, and Greece, who still use coal extensively), the balance With its ability to supply very-low-CO2 fuel to Plug-in- remains very favorable to electric, at 105 grams of CO2(3) Hybrid vehicles, EDF is contributing to the emergence of per km, or 34% less than vehicles powered by internal- clean solutions for transportation. combustion engines(1). In France, an internal-combustion vehicle emits an * Source: French Environment and Energy Management average of 160 grams of CO2 per km(1). Even if the goal is Agency (ADEME) to reduce CO2 emissions from cars powered by petroleum (1) French automotive market average for 2008. Emissions fuels to 110 grams of CO2 per km in 2020(2), those from “well to wheel” (source ADEME), or the equivalent emissions will remain an estimated six times higher than of 140 g Co2/km “tank to wheel.” emissions from electric vehicles. That would still be an (2) or 90 g Co2/km tank to wheel enormous difference, especially since with conventional petroleum running out, gasoline and diesel fuel (3) Well-to-wheel emissions production will very probably be relying more and more frequently on non-conventional petroleum (tar sands : EDF Media library / Didiet Marc ® Wind farm: Chemin d’Ablis Launch of PHV demonstration 39 EDF is preparing the electric mobility of tomorrow with its partners The EDF Group has initiated a policy of active and open partnerships in the various technological solutions developed by automakers. 40 Experiments to prepare for tomorrow’s solutions In a context of increasing oil prices and increased The economic model of tomorrow’s individual electrical- environmental awareness on the part of the general propulsion vehicle remains to be validated. The cost of public, the move towards electric mobility now seems production, excluding the battery, of the vehicles will irreversible. remain significantly higher – for an uncertain period – than that of internal-combustion vehicles. This additional Standards for vehicles and infrastructure are now cost will only be able to be compensated for, during being defined. EDF has chosen to associate with vehicle the period of commercial launch, by tax or financial manufacturers to conduct experiments in order to incentives. The high unit price of batteries will probably validate hypotheses, test, and compare and evaluate result in the emergence of a specific business model the economic models and technical solutions proposed (leasing rather than purchase) before electricity can by vehicle manufacturers and the various other actors hope to compete with traditional fuels. The economic and operators involved – be they local governments, model and the modalities for deployment of charging electricity distributors, managers of public spaces, etc. infrastructures are also in the process of being defined. Many questions remain as to the technologies These models will have to take into account the life tomorrow’s electric vehicles will use. The industrial expectancy of batteries and of vehicles. transition needs to be made between pre-series and mass production of Li-ion batteries, whose safety remains a delicate subject in the eyes of most experts. Strasbourg chosen by EDF and Toyota for experiment with about 100 Plug-in-Hybrid vehicles This operation constitutes a threefold world first due to: — its size, with some one hundred pre-series vehicles — the battery technology used (Lithium-ion) — the infrastructure deployed It is the concrete result of a partnership agreement signed in March 2009 between EDF and Toyota for an experiment, to extend for three years, in businesses and publics entities in the Strasbourg region. Launch of PHV demonstration 41 Future experiments to be conducted by the EDF Group The Strasbourg experiment with Toyota is the first in a series of experiments the EDF Group will conduct with other partners. With other vehicle manufacturers, EDF will experiment with solutions for electric mobility that are complementary to PHVs: — electric vehicles associated with charging infrastructures including, in addition to normal charging, fast charging spots and mechanical battery exchange — electric vehicles associated with charging infrastructures supplied by renewable energy sources in an insular context — predominantly electric PHVs but also: — electric and plug-in hybrid buses . These projects are all candidates for the ADEME’S Call for Expression of Interest to qualify for financial support from the “Demonstrator Fund.” 42 EDF in the Service of Innovation in Electric Transportation Recharging stations and batteries are two essential dimensions of electric mobility development: EDF is mobilising its know-how for research and innovations. Launch of PHV demonstration 43 Recharging stations: an EDF expertise Recharging stations play a crucial role in the It is in this capacity that EDF has been designated by development of electric vehicles. Thanks to years of the French government as the French industry leader investment in Research and Development and long-term in the French-German working group given the task of cooperation with manufacturers of electric vehicles, then proposing what tomorrow’s European connectors will Plug-in-Hybrid vehicles, EDF is today an unchallenged look like. expert when it comes to high-technology recharging systems. 44 Tomorrow’s recharging stations Available will need to be: — They will have to correspond to users’ use patterns and travel needs; Safe — Their geographical distribution will have to take into — Dedicated equipment will prevent any risk of account the fact that recharging is done at home or involuntary connection to a non-conforming at the workplace 90% of the time. installation; European — Equipment will be specifically designed to stand up to intensive use; — Thanks to standardization at the European level, to which EDF is actively contributing, all drivers in the — Equipment will have to avoid any danger of electric Union will be able to recharge using the same cable, shock to users and guarantee battery integrity. regardless of the country they are in. Smart — They will have to provide optimal charging of batteries and preserve their full life-expectancy potential; — They will also have to optimize the charging period to avoid consumption peaks; — They will have to enable detailed per-user billing, and thus comply with requirements for openness to competition between energy providers. Communicative — They will have to be capable of communicating with vehicles of all types thanks to standardized protocols; — Among other capabilities, they will enable secure exchange of data having to do, for example, with identification of the vehicle, transfer of billing information, and the location of the nearest station as a function of remaining battery life. opposite: real time energy monitoring of charge spots Launch of PHV demonstration 45 Batteries that go further Through its Research and Development laboratories, Quantity of energy stored per unit of weight or EDF is an internationally recognized, historical expert in volume (specific energy) measured in Watt-hours/ battery technologies. kilogram (Wh/kg) or Watt-hours per liter (Wh/l), Our development effort focuses on high-energy-density which affects battery life; batteries. Our work and our collaborations concern Lithium-type batteries – which today appear to be the The Instantaneous power it can provide for most promising technology –, nickel-electrode alkaline acceleration or absorb during braking with energy batteries, and sodium batteries. In the longer term, recovery, which determines driving comfort; in partnership with major research centers, we are working on the energy-storage solutions of the future, in Its price per kilowatt-hour (kWh), which underpins particular for electric-transportation applications. the economic model for electric vehicles and Plug- in-Hybrids using these batteries; the level of this Recognizing a good battery price is currently still too high and constitutes an impediment to the development of electric Five criteria for evaluating a battery: transportation. Safety of use, an essential factor for the user and The number of charge-discharge cycles it is capable indispensable for guaranteeing the development of of supporting, synonymous with life expectancy the market for electric vehicles; and an important factor in the economic model for electric vehicles and Plug-in-Hybrids. ®: EDF Mediatheque/ERANIAN EDF R&D - Lithium battery research 46 A major industrial challenge The batteries used in electric vehicles and Plug-in-Hybrids have made major progress in the past few years. The “race” to produce them in large quantities is now on; only the economies of scale that will result from it will enable the price of electric vehicles and Plug-in Hybrids to become truly competitive. In the major industrialized countries, large investments are being made in this area in order to ensure the Batteries Lithium development of production facilities that can meet these technological and economic challenges over the long term. The French government’s National Plan for the development of electric vehicles and Plug-in Hybrids [http://www.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/01-10- 09-Lancement-du-plan.html] calls for intensification of France’s efforts in this field. Launch of PHV demonstration 47 48 Partners — City and Urban Community of Strasbourg 50 — ADEME 55 — Center for Energy and Processes of MINES ParisTech 56 Launch of PHV demonstration 49 The City and the Urban Community of Strasbourg, which France’s historical electricity supplier and designer of the have long been committed to sustainable mobility, are necessary charging infrastructure. The project, supported seeking to encourage the development of less polluting by the French ecology, industry and research ministries, vehicles. The two authorities, which cover a population is supported by the Demonstrator Fund of the French of 475,000, have therefore decided to participate in environment and energy agency (ADEME). Numerous a large-scale experimentation of new plug-in hybrid public and private players from the Strasbourg region are vehicles (PHVs) developed by Japanese carmaker involved in the project. Toyota, in partnership with Electricité de France (EDF), «Chosen by Toyota and EDF to host this unprecedented experiment, Strasbourg confirms its position as a pioneer in the field of sustainable mobility, respectful of the environment», emphasises Roland Ries, the Mayor of Strasbourg. «The initiatives begun over 20 years ago in favour of sustainable mobility are now gaining international recognition. The appearance of this new generation of plug-in hybrid vehicles in the urban landscape opens a new chapter in our transport policy and represents a pertinent extension to the other innovative steps already taken in the European capital, such as the introduction of trams in 1994, the pedestrianisation of the city centre, the development of car pooling and the promotion of cycling; so many initiatives that contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions and improving quality of life for the conurbation’s inhabitants», adds a proud Roland Ries, going on to conclude: «This type of technology has not been tested in real conditions on such a large scale and over such a long period until now. This experiment, which is being carried out for the first time in Europe, is a long-term commitment for Strasbourg». : Yves Noto-Campanella/OTS ® Strasbourg’s historic centre and cathedral 50 Strasbourg’s Reasons for choosing involvement in the Strasbourg project If this territory was first chosen by the project’s two sponsors, Toyota and EDF, it is certainly because the City and the Urban Community of Strasbourg have Strasbourg is not only acting as the location for the been heavily involved for several decades in promoting deployment of these hundred or so new-generation vehicles. sustainable transport solutions and are already Together the City and the Urban Community are both playing prioritising a variety of innovative and multi-modal an essential role, alongside EDF, in the installation of a experiments. network of special charging infrastructures, which will enable users of this new type of plug-in hybrid vehicle to charge them The tram solution was adopted at home, in the partner companies, but also in public places, there 20 years ago public car parks or by the roadside in the city centre. If pollution and other problems due to congestion were The City and the Urban Community of Strasbourg are to be limited, an alternative to the car had to be found involved at different levels in this flagship project, with a firm in 1989. And it would be the tram. Its appearance on investment of over €200,000: the streets in 1994 would profoundly change the urban — Along with several other private and public landscape of the Strasbourg conurbation; and this establishments based in the urban area, Strasbourg change was enthusiastically approved by a majority of is a user-tester of these prototypes, as it is hiring 5 of local people, well aware that these transformations these new plug-in hybrid vehicles; would make their city a more pleasant and human place. — Strasbourg contributes to the installation of charging Changing travel practices in an urban area that points in nine car parks in its urban area; prioritises soft modes of transport: — Strasbourg is setting up roadside stations equipped — walking represents a mode share of 33.4%* (52%* with charging infrastructures dedicated specially to in the city centre) charging electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids; — cycle mode share is of the order of 7.6%* and — Strasbourg contributes funding to the car pooling 14%* (up 7 points since 1997) in the city centre scheme, Auto’trement, to enable it to hire a number (compared to 1.6% for Lille, for example) of experimental vehicles. For the local authority, this company is an important partner: not only will all the — car use has fallen below the 50% barrier (45.9 %*, subscribers to the service in Strasbourg be able to use compared to 56.1% for Lille); it is only 20%* in the these new PHVs, but the user-testers will have very city centre (down 12 points since 1997) different profiles. — public transport accounts for 12.5%* of total journeys, with peaks of 22%* to 33%* on trips into the city centre. Public transport use increased 120% between 1992 and 2009. * Source: household travel survey 2009 Launch of PHV demonstration 51 With its attractive, modern, practical, environmentally- The car in its rightful place friendly trams, Strasbourg has forged a reputation as a pioneer, as it was one of the first French cities to consider As a UNESCO World Heritage site, Strasbourg’s historical a return to this mode of transport, whilst resolutely centre had to be protected as far as possible against revamping its distinctly «19th century» image. pollution and the invasion of the private car. Starting from the principle that each mode of transport has And today, the city continues to collect records: with its its own «zone of relevance», the Strasbourg urban 53 km of commercial lines, its 5 existing lines (a sixth authorities opted to take the car out of the city centre is planned for 2010) and its 66 stations, its network is and to encourage active travel modes and public the longest in France. The low-floor tram cars facilitate transport instead. Numerous measures (a dissuasive accessibility for disabled passengers or parents with traffic plan, parking charges) were then implemented to pushchairs while their large windows keep passengers limit the use of cars in the city centre. At the same time, at street level. Almost 300,000 people use it every relevant effective alternatives were proposed. The effects day. Over the last fifteen years, the tram has become of this policy aimed at ending the omnipresence of the the cornerstone of a vast public transport policy that car in the city centre were soon felt: between 1990 and encourages alternatives to single-person car use and 2009, the number of vehicles entering the city fell by invites road users to try the multiple travel combinations 28%. available: tram-bike, tram-walking, tram-bus, tram-train, tram-car pool. A symbol of this eco-mobility, the tram is also a formidable vector of social integration, serving to At the crossroads of the major improve communications with certain hitherto «cut-off» European high speed rail routes neighbourhoods, in particular those situated along the Rhine. In a few years’ time, it will also cross the Rhine to Since June 2007 Strasbourg has also been linked to Paris reach Kehl, in Germany, in double quick time. in 2 hrs 20 by the TGV-Est high-speed train, which in the coming years should be extended into Germany and later as far as Budapest. The construction of this line, The bike, king of the road the «Magistrale» is receiving the active support of the Strasbourg has long been trying to lower its levels of European Union. A link-up with the TGV Rhine-Rhône, pollution, reduce traffic congestion and save energy also co-financed by the EU, is also planned, making by encouraging soft modes of transport. This effort, a Strasbourg a major European high-speed rail hub. necessity in view of our close proximity with Germany, began to take root in the 1970s with the appearance of cycle tracks, of which the city now has almost 500 km. In this field, Strasbourg is streets ahead of other French cities and can justifiably claim to be France’s most cyclable city. The city’s cyclists have at their disposal some fifty bike parks, over 1,500 bike stands in the car parks in the City and Urban Community, not forgetting the 7,500 stands they can use to park their bikes on the street. : Ernest Laemmel / CUS ® Strasbourg, first cycling city in France 52 Many other innovative projects are currently being planned or developed in this pilot city: — car pooling, which has existed for over 10 years already with the «Auto’trement» company, and which was launched by Roland Ries, already Mayor of Strasbourg at the time. This service consists of pooling the costs and use of a vehicle by making it available to a number of subscribers at stations spread across the different parts of the city; A new Urban Travel Plan — a «street code», intended to re-balance the way the different modes of transport share the public to anticipate tomorrow’s needs roads and thus reinforce the protection of the The Urban Community of Strasbourg’s first Urban most vulnerable users, in particular cyclists and Travel Plan, adopted in 2000, was innovative insofar pedestrians; as it focused on the construction of a large tram — «pedestrian priority zones», open to all road users, network. However, it left little room for innovation in but where the pedestrian has priority; the field of private car use. — the tram-train: thanks to a new type of vehicle able Changes that have occurred since 2000 (a to run on both rail tracks and the tram lines, it will continuous increase in the number of cars and be possible to connect Strasbourg centre and station the distances covered, considerable technological with the foothills of the Vosges, a mountainous progress) now oblige us to reconsider the possible region situated to the west of the city; innovations in terms of individual mobility. The objective being to continue to widen the range of — the Cristal system, a new generation electric vehicle, mobility services available, based on the logic of «to designed by an Alsatian company, LOHR Industrie, each need, its mode of transport», whilst protecting which represents an entirely new take on the notion the environment and quality of life of the inhabitants of public transport, with a vehicle that can be used of the Strasbourg conurbation. both for individual self-service hire and public transport (trains of vehicles hooked up to each other); The introduction of plug-in hybrid vehicles fits in perfectly with this vision. Other experiments of the — the CATS European Research and Development same type as the one conducted with Toyota and EDF project, subsidised by the European Commission, will be set up in the coming years, and Strasbourg which will be trying out the Cristal system over a firmly intends to position itself at the cutting edge period of several months and analysing the way it of sustainable mobility. The aim of making the works; urban area a European laboratory for innovation in transport represents the 4th development theme in — a bike sharing service, which offers, on top of the the Urban Community’s development strategy for the usual short-term bike hire possibilities, longer use 10 years to come. of the bike, with long-term leasing schemes for individuals and businesses, set up under the Business Travel Plan (PDE). For the City and the Urban Community of Strasbourg, the environmental issue is, however, not limited to just promoting the use of public transport or clean travel options: the two authorities are currently involved in implementing a «Climate plan» which embraces globally the management of sustainable development for the whole of the urban area, including for example the energy aspects of housing. The aim once again is to join the club of local authorities leading the way in this field. Launch of PHV demonstration 53 What perspectives does this experiment offer Strasbourg? The development of hybrid vehicles is now a European at every stage, both in terms of the legal and regulatory challenge, seen as much as a vector of economic and framework and in its funding and the way the offer has technological development as a means of further been implemented. «It is high time that local authorities protecting the environment. The current Spanish face up to this issue - now, just as the market for hybrid Presidency of the European ministers council has made and electric vehicles is about to take off», continues it one of its priorities, asking the Brussels Commission Roland Ries, before inviting other French cities to come to draw up a common strategy for electric cars and the and share their experiences with the Alsatian capital. standardisation of charging systems. Approaching the question of the experiments from Strasbourg, European Capital, has not hesitated to take a wider point of view, the President of the Urban a stance by initiating a dynamic policy in favour of the Community of Strasbourg, Jacques Bigot, insists on use of such hybrid and electric vehicles. The City has thus the fact that «innovative and multi-modal forms of chosen to join in a scheme which involves the pooling of mobility are one of the 4 main themes of the authority’s efforts alongside a car manufacturer and an electricity economic strategy for 2020. By making this a priority distributor; an attitude that brings it closer to the in this way, the Urban Community intends to support European model. Eventually, it hopes to see this unique the dynamism of the economic players in its area and experiment lead to a domino effect and other similarly consolidate its international reputation. Projects such innovatory initiatives be able to carry on the good work. as the plug-in hybrid vehicle project will contribute to making Strasbourg a ‘European laboratory’ for new «This experiment already started over a year and half technologies and the favoured destination of innovative ago for us», points out the Mayor of Strasbourg. Far companies, particularly those involved in the field of from simply being an experiment on the technological mobility». characteristics of the vehicles or the charging points, the innovative dimension of the project has been perceptible : Francis Gast ® Passerelle des Deux Rives, linking both sides of the Rhine 54 Direction régionale de l'Environnement, de l'Aménagement et du Logement ALSACE ADEME: Grenelle Environnement* The DHRT2 project proposed by TOYOTA, EDF, the Ecoles des Mines and INES notably helps accumulate knowledge concerning the battery/plug-in hybrid vehicle Favouring the emergence of an combination, the way these types of vehicles are used offer of low-carbon vehicles and the business models that can be associated with the charging infrastructures. The objectives of a reduction in dependence on petrol and the emission of greenhouse gases, determined by These research efforts thus prepare the emergence of France following the “Grenelle de l’environnement” an offer of low-carbon vehicles and their main industrial watchdog meetings, call for the implementation of components. They contribute to France’s plan for the innovative technical solutions, achievable through development of electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles ambitious R&D projects. launched by Jean-Louis Borloo, Christian Estrosi and Chantal Jouanno in October 2009. The Demonstrators Fund, managed by ADEME, was set up in 2008 to finance research projects on themes connected to new energy technologies (renewable energy sources, vehicles with low-emission greenhouse ADEME IN SHORT gases, CO2 capture and storage…). The selected demonstrators aim at validating technologies still in The French Environment and Energy Management development stage and their integration in a system Agency (ADEME) is a public agency under the joint representative of industrial operating conditions, without authority of the Ministry for Ecology, Energy, Sustainable reaching industrialisation level. Development and the Sea, and the Ministry of Higher Education and Research. The agency is active in the Following an initial appeal for demonstrations of interest implementation of public policy in the areas of the on low-carbon vehicles, launched by ADEME in 2008, environment, energy and sustainable development. 11 innovative projects have been funded for a sum of 57 M€. These concern drivetrain technologies and vehicle ADEME provides expertise and advisory services package, for all types of road vehicles (lightweight to businesses, local authorities and communities, four-wheel vehicles, personal cars, commercial vehicles, government bodies and the public at large, to enable lorries, buses). them to establish and consolidate their environmental action. As part of this work the agency helps finance projects, from research to implementation, in the areas of waste management, soil conservation, energy efficiency and renewable energy, air quality and noise * Grenelle Environnement is a multi-party watchdog reuniting abatement. representatives of national & local government and organisations (industry, labour, professional associations, NGOs) with the aim www.ademe.fr of defining the key points of public policy on environmental and sustainable development issues. Launch of PHV demonstration 55 Collaboration with the Center for Energy and Processes of MINES ParisTech The technical monitoring of this demonstration of plug- — Is the 20km driving range sufficient for everyday in hybrid vehicles conducted in Strasbourg by Toyota commutes between home and work? and EDF relies on the scientific expertise of the Center for Energy and Processes of MINES ParisTech and its — What infrastructures are provided for charging the experience in the analysis of externalities. vehicle, at both home and workplace level? MINES ParisTech is associated with the project through a — From the CO2 assessment viewpoint, what are the research programme on “the plug-in hybrid vehicle and preferential times of day for charging the vehicle? sustainable mobility”. — What is the desirable length of time for charging and what type of plug-in system should be favoured? Description of the research — How sensitive is electric consumption to the user’s programme on the plug-in hybrid driving pattern? vehicle (PHV) and sustainable — Once the itineraries have been determined in advance mobility by the simulation platform, what are the energetic stakes for integrating these characteristics into the The PHV demonstration in Strasbourg is aimed at vehicle’s control processing unit? establishing optimal usage conditions of a PHV with a 20km EV driving range. From among the group of driver-testers taking part in the project, a panel of some twenty people was selected in order to carry out an in-depth study and be able to answer the key questions associated with PHVs: 56 The work of the Center for Energy and Processes of MINES Presentation of the Center for ParisTech aims to answer these questions, and will be structured as follows: Energy and Processes of MINES 1. Analysis of the usage patterns of the PHV fleet ParisTech — typology of the drivers and usages The Center for Energy and Processes (CEP) is one of MINES ParisTech research centres, composed of 152 — environment-friendly driving conditions people including 70 PhDs, based either in Paris or at Sophia-Antipolis in the South of France. The CEP located 2. CO2 assessment according to times of day and in Paris and the suburb of Palaiseau comprises 80 conditions for charging the vehicle people, including 35 PhDs. — level of avoided CO2 emissions In close relationship with multidisciplinary teaching, — preferential times of day for charging including Master degree programmes and continued training, the CEP research themes focus on: 3. Control with prediction — energy decarbonisation — New control rules with forecast — energy efficiency in automobile air-conditioning — Analysis of savings using the new control algorithm systems, buildings and industrial processes — the creation of carbon structures with nanomaterials — life cycles analysis — analysis of environmental and economic impacts : LOHR Industrie : Francis Gast ® ® Simulation of the electric system Cristal A pratical, ecological and aesthetic tram Launch of PHV demonstration 57 58 Image Bank Launch of PHV demonstration 59 The usage of this USB is strictly limited to your professional use. It shall not be used for any other purpose, nor shall it be made available to any third party, without the prior written consent of Toyota Motor Europe NV/SA, Avenue du Bourget 60, B-1140 Brussels, Belgium, and of EDF - Direction Médias Groupe, 22-30 avenue de Wagram, 75382 Paris Cedex 08, France 60 Exterior - dynamic PHV_launch_001_10_EXT.jpg PHV_launch_002_10_EXT.jpg PHV_launch_003_10_EXT.jpg PHV_launch_004_10_EXT.jpg PHV_launch_005_10_EXT.jpg PHV_launch_006_10_EXT.jpg PHV_launch_007_10_EXT.jpg PHV_launch_008_10_EXT.jpg Exterior - static PHV_launch_009_10_EXT.jpg PHV_launch_010_10_EXT.jpg PHV_launch_011_10_EXT.jpg PHV_launch_012_10_EXT.jpg PHV_launch_013_10_EXT.jpg PHV_launch_014_10_EXT.jpg PHV_launch_015_10_EXT.jpg PHV_launch_016_10_EXT.jpg PHV_launch_017_10_EXT.jpg PHV_launch_018_10_EXT.jpg PHV_launch_019_10_EXT.jpg PHV_launch_020_10_EXT.jpg Launch of PHV demonstration 61 PHV_launch_021_10_EXT.jpg PHV_launch_022_10_EXT.jpg PHV_launch_023_10_EXT.jpg PHV_launch_024_10_EXT.jpg PHV_launch_025_10_EXT.jpg PHV_launch_026_10_EXT.jpg PHV_launch_027_10_EXT.jpg PHV_launch_028_10_EXT.jpg PHV_launch_029_10_EXT.jpg PHV_launch_030_10_EXT.jpg PHV_launch_031_10_EXT.jpg PHV_launch_032_10_EXT.jpg PHV_launch_033_10_EXT.jpg PHV_launch_034_10_EXT.jpg PHV_launch_035_10_EXT.jpg PHV_launch_036_10_EXT.jpg PHV_launch_037_10_EXT.jpg PHV_launch_038_10_EXT.jpg PHV_launch_039_10_EXT.jpg PHV_launch_040_10_EXT.jpg PHV_launch_041_10_EXT.jpg PHV_launch_042_10_EXT.jpg PHV_launch_043_10_EXT.jpg PHV_launch_044_10_EXT.jpg 62 PHV_launch_045_10_EXT.jpg PHV_launch_046_10_EXT.jpg PHV_launch_047_10_EXT.jpg PHV_launch_048_10_EXT.jpg Interior PHV_launch_049_10_INT.jpg PHV_launch_050_10_INT.jpg PHV_launch_051_10_INT.jpg PHV_launch_052_10_INT.jpg PHV_launch_053_10_INT.jpg PHV_launch_054_10_INT.jpg PHV_launch_055_10_INT.jpg PHV_launch_056_10_INT.jpg Launch of PHV demonstration 63 Details PHV_launch_057_10_DET.jpg PHV_launch_058_10_DET.jpg PHV_launch_059_10_DET.jpg PHV_launch_060_10_DET.jpg PHV_launch_061_10_DET.jpg PHV_launch_062_10_DET.jpg PHV_launch_063_10_DET.jpg PHV_launch_064_10_DET.jpg PHV_launch_065_10_DET.jpg PHV_launch_066_10_DET.jpg PHV_launch_067_10_DET.jpg PHV_launch_068_10_DET.jpg PHV_launch_069_10_DET.jpg PHV_launch_070_10_DET.jpg Technical illustrations PHV_launch_071_10_TEC.jpg PHV_launch_072_10_TEC.jpg PHV_launch_073_10_TEC.jpg 64 Notes Launch of PHV demonstration 65 Leaflet to insert the USER Sheets toyota Motor Europe EDF - Direction Médias Groupe Avenue du Bourget 60 - Bourgetlaan 60 22-30 avenue de wagram B - 1140 Brussels - Belgium 75382 Paris Cedex 08 - France www.toyota-media.com CU-COC-809718-CK corporatemedia.toyota.eu www.edf.com
"Launch of the Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle Demonstration in Strasbourg "