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Launch of the Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle Demonstration in Strasbourg


  • pg 1
									Launch of the
Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle
Demonstration in Strasbourg
26-28 April 2010

                              by ADEME
Table of contents
— Introduction       5

— Toyota            15

— EDF               33

— Partners          49

— Image Bank        59
— Foreword                                                                                       7

— A project for tomorrow’s mobility                                                             8

— A new type of cleaner vehicle for sustainable mobility                                        10

— Superb versatility adaptable to the needs of the whole family                                 11

— Available and smart charging                                                                  12

                                                                  Launch of PHV demonstration    5
Working together in building low-carbon mobility, Toyota     Thanks:
and EDF have been developing since 2007 a pilot project
for conducting tests on plug-in hybrid vehicles combined     Toyota and the EDF Group express their thanks to ADEME,
with communicating charging technologies.                    the City and Urban Community of Strasbourg, as well as
                                                             all the public and private partners in the Alsace region,
Today, we are launching the second phase of this project.    who accepted to take up this challenge in innovation.
It comprises a demonstration, in real-life conditions
in Strasbourg and its region, concerning about one
hundred plug-in hybrid vehicles and a network of
dedicated charging infrastructures. This ambitious
and pioneer programme is backed by ADEME (the
French Energy Efficiency Office) within the framework
of its “Demonstrators Fund” research programme for
vehicles with zero-emission of greenhouse gases, and
benefits from the valuable support of the City and Urban
Community of Strasbourg.
For three years, this project will be the subject of top-
level scientific and technical monitoring. In a few months
we will be drawing the first conclusions which we will
then share with you.
During this two-day introduction programme, you will be
able to meet and talk with our partners and many car-
users in order to understand their motivation concerning
the project, and more clearly identify their personal or
professional transport needs. You, also, can become a
player in electric mobility for a few hours by testing the
Prius Plug-in Hybrid and its charging system.

                                                                     Launch of PHV demonstration                    7
    A project for tomorrow’s mobility
    About one hundred plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHVs) in a
    demonstration in Strasbourg and the surrounding region
    EDF and Toyota have teamed up for a large-scale real-life testing of the newest generation of clean and
    economic vehicles in Strasbourg.
    This demonstration, supported by the City and the Urban Community of Strasbourg, will enable verification,
    under real-life conditions, of the applicability of a new solution to individual mobility. Its objective is to record
    actual savings achieved by the users during their day-to-day trips, the whole year long.
    Furthermore, the project has received funding through the «demonstration fund for low-greenhouse gas
    emission vehicles» created within the framework of the Grenelle de l’Environnement administered by ADEME.
    Starting in April 2010 and during a three-year period, around 100 Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles (PHVs) will be
    allied to a number of operational recharging solutions, designed to facilitate electric charging and billing

The EDF – Toyota partnership
Since September 2007, EDF and Toyota are partners in
an experimental programme involving the use of 3 PHV
prototypes in the fleet of EDF, and since September 2008
of 1 vehicle at EDF Energy in the United Kingdom. EDF and
Toyota also experiment a new generation of charging
points, called ‘PLC’, which are able to communicate with
the vehicle.
The demonstration programme is the logical follow-up
to this initial research and development phase, during
which around 50 participants from the EDF Group took         The scientific and technical
part as drivers of the first generation of PHVs.             contribution
Based on very encouraging results from these initial         The ensemble of these advanced mobility actions enter
tests, EDF and Toyota decided to pursue testing at the       into the body of thought centered on the «carbon-free»
next level, experimenting using one hundred or so of         vehicle, and backed by the plan presented by the French
the latest-generation PHVs with – thanks to lithium-         President in October 2008. As such, this testing project
ion batteries – increased autonomy, and within a large       benefits from assistance granted on the part of the
European metropolitan area.                                  ADEME administered «Demonstration Funds».

A network of partners serving the                            These greater-metropolitan-scale experiments will
                                                             allow for a better understanding throug experience in a
mobility of tomorrow                                         number of areas:
In Strasbourg, EDF and Toyota have forged partnerships       — for automaker Toyota, the validation of the techno-
with actors in the public and private sector (businesses,      economic feasibility of the PHV solution prior to
local authorities) eager to introduce PHVs into their          engaging in mass-market commercialization in the
vehicle fleets as service vehicles, or as company cars for     middle term
their personnel.
                                                             — for energy supplier EDF, the testing of different
The diversity use profiles will allow for a determination      operational charging solutions, and the selection of
of the ecological footprint and economic impact of these       the appropriate infrastructure as it relates to safety
clean and cost-saving vehicles, within the urban and           and cost
suburban milieu.
                                                             — for the local authorities, a study of the new ways
                                                               in which the public travels in a multi-mode context,
Strasbourg - first city to experience                          harmoniously combining public and individual
the PHV in Europe                                              transport
Strasbourg has always been an innovative city on             — for the French government, a definition of the
transportation matters. In an economy-minded and               conditions for success for electric mobility in their
dynamic institutional environment, municipal groups            adaptation of future regulatory issues
and community leaders were actively deliberating the
question of sustainable mobility.                            — for experts from the scientific community, an
                                                               enrichment of their reflection on sustainable mobility
The collaboration between the City and Urban
Community of Strasbourg and the ensemble of partners
is a guarantee of the smooth functioning of the
Electricité de Strasbourg, an EDF subsidiary, will provide
an operational contribution of paramount importance to
the project.

                                                                     Launch of PHV demonstration                        9
A new type of cleaner vehicle
for sustainable mobility
The vehicle developed for the Strasbourg demonstration       Its principal advantages are:
and offered for lease by Toyota is a rechargeable version
derived from the hybrid gasoline/electricity Toyota Prius    — a reduced ecological footprint, thanks to an electricity
III model.                                                     emitting little CO2, less atmospheric pollution, less
The plug-in hybrid powertrain                                — reduced energy consumption and reduced energy
                                                               costs (gasoline/electricity) thanks to an electricity at
Principles of operation                                        up to 5 times cheaper than fossil fuels

— over short distances of up to 20 km, the vehicle           — freedom of movement over a distance of several
  functions noiselessly and with no emissions in electric      hundred kilometers
                                                             — energy conservation and the preservation of fossil fuel
— the battery is rechargeable in one and a half hours,         resources
  for a full charge on residential/domestic wiring, at
  public parking facilities, or at a roadside terminal (on   The project objective is the realization of tangible savings
  a 230 V, 16 A nominal single phase outlet)                 for drivers on the cost of their daily travel throughout the
— for longer trips, the vehicle functions in hybrid
  gasoline/electricity mode

Superb versatility adaptable to
the needs of the whole family
This family sedan can transport 5 passengers and their     Night recharging on the domestic grid at reduced rates
luggage with ease (trunk volume: 400 liters)               possible
Modular seating: The Toyota rechargeable hybrid offers a   In-town trips:
multitude of interior seating arrangements.
                                                           — Functions in electric mode
— Lease duration: 36 months
                                                           Longer trips:
— Toyota, through its Strasbourg dealerships, will
  provide maintenance and technical follow-up for the      — Functions in hybrid mode, combining the electric
  vehicles                                                   motor and the gasoline engine

Principle vehicle characteristics:                         — Highly fuel-efficient

— Gasoline engine: 1.8 VVT-i / 4 cylinder                  — Zero emissions in electric mode

— Electric motor: 60 kW
— Vehicle can attain speeds of 100 km/h in electric
— Battery: Lithium-ion
— Continuously variable transmission

                                                                   Launch of PHV demonstration                      11
Available and smart charging
Charging points in and                                          How is the battery charged?
around Strasbourg                                               The PHV is recharged in the same manner as your other
                                                                everyday electrical devices, provided a specific, dedicated
Drivers will be able to recharge the battery of their Plug-
                                                                outlet is available. The user plugs the detachable cable of
in Hybrid Vehicle (PHV) through use of recharging points
                                                                the PHV into the socket of the charge point. The duration
located at company parking sites or at home. While
                                                                for a full recharge is around one and a half hours. During
out on the road, thirty or so recharging points will be
                                                                the demonstration, only approved and registered EDF
available to drivers along roadways and at public parking
                                                                charge points are authorized for use.
facilities within the greater Strasbourg metropolitan

Easy-to-locate charging points
Working closely with the City and Urban Community of
Strasbourg, these points are installed near municipal
nerve centers. They are easily visible and accessible to all.
The charging network has been designed to serve a wide
range of vehicle user outings.

Implementation sites of charge points at
public parking sites and along roadways

                                                      Background map: SIG-CUS 2009

   Charge spots in public parking

   Curbside charging spot

   Curbside charge and car sharing

   Charging spot and car sharing in
   public parking

                                                 A full charge in one
                                                    and a half hours

                                      Launch of PHV demonstration               13
Charging point
conditions of use

The electricity transferred will be charged to businesses,    Thanks to a secure 3G modem communication link,
when recharging takes place at the workplace; and to          the terminals are in contact with a supervised central
the employee when charging takes place at his/her             control system. This system, managed by Sodetrel**,
residence. At public parking sites and along roadways,        will provide real-time information on the status of the
the cost is not charged to users.                             charging point and coordinate a maintenance program.
                                                              Vehicle recharging data will be amassed by the system
A full recharge costs around 0.40 €*.                         throughout the test period

The communication-enabled
charging terminal –
the solution of the future
This project will permit EDF to test out the different         * Based on the blue rate (least expensive) as
operational recharging solutions. Automobiles are                 of 31 March 2010
offering more and more services to drivers and                 ** SoDEtrEL
passengers (screens, electronic controls, communication           A wholly owned EDF Subsidiary, Sodetrel provides
and navigation systems…). It is within this frame of              clients, local authorities and/or public transport
reference that EDF has developed a new system of                  authorities a complete “onboard energy” service
communication-enabled terminals. Integrated inside the            for batteries and recharging systems destined for
                                                                  electric powered vehicles: assessment, investment,
charging point and within the vehicle, the system uses            leasing, maintenance, safety guarantees, 3 to 12
onboard technology as a way to simplify to the fullest            year contracts.
the terminal infrastructure, and make vehicle recharging
as easy and as safe as possible. The visual aspect of the         the current Sodetrel market concerns electric buses
                                                                  for the most part, but also includes delivery trucks,
terminal essentially presents an electrical outlet – one          passenger shuttle-type watercraft and small tourist
specific to PHVs. To activate the system, the user plugs in       trains.
his vehicle; the terminal then begins communicating with
the vehicle. If the safety and energy credit conditions           Sodetrel will superintend operation and
                                                                  maintenance of the charging terminals for the
are confirmed, the transfer of electricity to the vehicle
                                                                  Strasbourg project throughout the 3 years of testing.

-   Introduction                                             16

-   The Prius Plug-in Hybrid                                 19

-   Limited lease programme                                  24

-   The Future                                               27

                               Launch of PHV demonstration    15
     — Toyota’s 40 year quest for sustainable mobility

     — 2.3 million Toyota hybrid vehicles already sold worldwide, accounting for 80% of global hybrid sales

     — Modular Hybrid Synergy Drive® paves the way for diverse eco cars

     — Flexible Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles – ‘best of both worlds’ extended EV range with no constraints

Heritage – a 40 year
quest for sustainable
Although the reduction of CO2 emissions did not               Today, while other manufacturers are only beginning to
become a mainstream global issue until the 1990s (the         develop hybrid technology, Toyota has already launched
1997 Kyoto Protocol outlining specific numeric goals),        the third generation of its multiple award-winning Prius.
Toyota has, in fact, been researching and developing
environmentally-friendly mobility solutions for over 40       The launch of the Auris HSD presages the introduction of
years in the quest for the ultimate eco car.                  as many as 10 new Toyota hybrid models globally by the
                                                              early 2010s, with a target of achieving worldwide annual
After addressing the possibilities of various types of        sales of one million hybrid vehicles within the same time
hybrid systems in several research and development            frame.
programmes, Toyota decided to focus its efforts on
realising mass-production hybrid vehicles that could be       Toyota has already sold 2.3 million hybrid vehicles
made available to society at large.                           worldwide (accounting for 80% of global hybrid sales),
                                                              contributing to a reduction in automotive CO2 emissions
This early vision has since been entirely vindicated. The     of about 12 million tons and giving the company an
world’s first mass-produced full hybrid vehicle, the Prius,   unquestionable lead in the drive towards sustainable
was launched in Japan in 1997 and in Europe in 2000.          mobility.
Its unique Hybrid Synergy Drive® (HSD) powertrain
established a major industry milestone in sustainable
mobility and its name, meaning ‘to go before’ in Latin,
quickly became symbolic of a car that was launched
even before environmental awareness had become a
mainstream social issue.

                                                                      Launch of PHV demonstration                     17
Modular Hybrid
Synergy Drive® –
the core technology                                         Plug-in hybrid
platform                                                    technology –
                                                            extended EV range
Though convinced that Hybrid Synergy Drive® is the core
technology platform for the future, Toyota believes it is
important to follow more than one path in the quest for
                                                            with no constraints
environmentally-friendly mobility solutions.                70% of Europeans are expected to live in urban areas
                                                            by 2015. As a result, the demand for environmentally-
Hybrid Synergy Drive® has been specifically designed to
                                                            friendly, short distance commuter vehicles is expected
be modular and, adaptable to diverse energy sources,
                                                            to increase, and industry attention is now focused on
may be readily used in Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles (PHV),
Electric Vehicles (EV) and Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicles
(FCHV).                                                     Electricity has high potential as an alternative to oil, may
                                                            be produced from renewable sources such as solar, wind,
                                                            tidal and hydro-electric power, can be readily supplied,
                                                            and is carbon neutral at the point of consumption.
                                                            In this context, the environmental merits of EVs as urban
                                                            commuters are well proven, and their future in providing
                                                            sustainable mobility is assured.
                                                            However, the further development of such vehicles is
                                                            currently handicapped by the weight, size and cost of
                                                            the large capacity batteries required to offer satisfactory
                                                            range, and the lack of an adequate recharging
                                                            In focusing on PHV technology, Toyota has addressed
                                                            both of these issues. The Prius Plug-in Hybrid is a full
                                                            hybrid vehicle in which both the electric motor and petrol
                                                            engine can drive the wheels. A fully electric, EV mode is
                                                            employed for city driving, while the hybrid powertrain’s
                                                            petrol engine awards the car true long range capability.

The Prius Plug-in Hybrid
— Plug-in Hybrid technology – a significant expansion of Hybrid Synergy Drive®

— Expanded, 20km EV driving range with zero CO2, NOX and particulate emissions

— First Toyota full hybrid vehicle application of lithium-ion batteries

— 136 DIN hp delivers 0-100 km/h in 11.4 seconds and 180 km/h top speed – performance to match any
  conventional hatchback

— Combined fuel consumption of only 2.6 l/100 km – a reduction of 30% over that of the Prius

— Extraordinarily low CO2 emissions of just 59 g/km

                                                                      Launch of PHV demonstration    19
PHV technology – a significant expansion of
Hybrid Synergy Drive®
Setting a new benchmark in environmentally-friendly           The Prius Plug-in Hybrid delivers impressive, seamless
mobility, the new Prius Plug-in Hybrid represents a           acceleration and remarkably quiet operation, while
significant expansion of the Hybrid Synergy Drive®            returning unparalleled fuel efficiency and the lowest
system’s capabilities.                                        possible emissions.
Building on the core technology of Toyota’s renowned
full hybrid powertrain, the Prius Plug-in Hybrid addresses
the specific needs of urban-based customers with a
significantly extended, fully-electric EV driving range for
shorter journeys, while the hybrid powertrain’s petrol
engine awards the Prius Plug-in Hybrid true long range

Performance – unparalleled fuel efficiency
and emissions
The Hybrid Synergy Drive’s® powertrain generates              European homologation combined cycle – a reduction of
a total system power output of 136 DIN hp, offering           30% over that of the Prius.
performance to match any conventional 2.0 litre diesel or
petrol hatchback. The Prius Plug-in Hybrid will accelerate    In addition, the new PHV generates significantly lower
seamlessly from 0-100 km/h in 11.4 seconds, and on to a       NOx emissions than diesel engined cars of comparable
top speed of 180 km/h.                                        performance, and zero particulates.

Thanks to its extended EV range, the Prius Plug-in Hybrid     When operating in its extended EV mode, the Prius Plug-
returns a remarkably low fuel consumption figure of           in Hybrid generates zero CO2 and NOx emissions, driving
only 2.6 l/100 km and CO2 emissions of just 59 g in the       for up to 20 kilometres at speeds of up to 100 km/h,
                                                              dependant on battery charge and driving conditions.

Hybrid Synergy Drive® – PHV system
The Prius Plug-in Hybrid adopts the same full hybrid          charge has been consumed, the Prius Plug-in Hybrid
system architecture as the normal Prius, with the             automatically operates as a full hybrid until recharged
additional benefit of a larger battery that can be plugged-   from an external power supply, thus eradicating the
in and recharged from an external power source.               limited range constraints of a conventional electric
Hence, the Prius Plug-in Hybrid features a 1.8 litre VVT-i
petrol engine, a powerful electric motor, a generator,        Maximising the Hybrid Synergy Drive® system’s efficiency,
a high performance lithium-ion battery and a power            the electric motor also acts as a high-output generator
control unit. A power split device employs a planetary        during deceleration and under braking, to effect
gear set to combine and re-allocate power from the            regenerative braking. Normally wasted as heat, kinetic
engine, electric motor and generator according to             energy is recovered as electrical energy for storage in the
operational requirements. The full hybrid drive system’s      high performance lithium-ion battery.
seamless, E-CVT continuously variable transmission is
controlled by Shift-by-Wire technology.
Powered by the lithium-ion battery, the electric motor
works in tandem with the petrol engine to boost
acceleration during normal driving. Power allocation is
constantly adjusted between engine and electric motor
to combine optimum performance with maximum fuel
The electric motor alone powers the driven wheels when
the Prius Plug-in Hybrid is operating in EV mode. An
EV range of up to 20 km is dictated by battery charge
and driving conditions. However, once the EV battery

                                                                      Launch of PHV demonstration                       21
Lithium-ion batteries                                         Enhanced Eco driving
– a Toyota full hybrid                                        experience
first                                                         From start up and at speeds of less than 100 km/h,
                                                              the new Prius Plug-in Hybrid automatically operates in
                                                              EV mode, driving under electric motor power to offer
The Prius Plug-in Hybrid marks the introduction of            an extraordinarily smooth and quite ride. Requiring
lithium-ion batteries in a Toyota hybrid vehicle for two      full hybrid technology, this unique driving mode is not
key reasons: firstly, having superior volume energy           available to drivers of mild hybrid vehicles.
density, they are more compact than their nickel-metal
                                                              With vehicle range dictated by battery charge, the EV
hydride counterparts, offering a significant increase in EV
                                                              drive mode allows for urban driving with minimal noise
driving range with minimal adverse weight or packaging
                                                              and zero CO2 and NOX emissions for up to 20 kilometres,
issues. Secondly, they may be recharged far more quickly
                                                              contributing to a significant reduction in the new Prius
than nickel-metal hydride alternatives.
                                                              Plug-in Hybrid’s overall fuel consumption.
Two thirds of the battery pack must be recharged
                                                              Two alternative, ‘on-demand’ drive modes - ECO and
through connection to an external, plug-in electricity
                                                              POWER - may be selected to further increase driving
supply. The remaining third is integrated within the
                                                              efficiency, performance and fuel economy.
Prius Plug-in Hybrid’s full hybrid drive system in the
conventional manner, and is constantly recharged during       In ECO mode, throttle response to aggressive accelerator
normal system operation.                                      pedal inputs is reduced and air-conditioning control
                                                              optimized for improved fuel economy. Depending
The complete battery pack of a Prius Plug-in Hybrid can
                                                              on driving conditions, the ECO mode can help drivers
be fully recharged in 1.5 hours from a standard, 230V
                                                              achieve a perceptible reduction in fuel consumption.
household outlet.
                                                              The POWER mode also modifies the response of the Prius
                                                              Plug-in Hybrid to throttle inputs, here boosting power to
                                                              improve acceleration and enhance driving pleasure. The
                                                              POWER mode provides a 25% higher throttle response to
                                                              accelerator pedal input.

Extensive driving support monitors
The Prius Plug-in Hybrid features comprehensive Eco
driving support for those who wish to adopt even more
environmentally-friendly driving techniques. Various
new functions have been incorporated in the Eco Drive
Monitor from the normal Prius, allowing customers to
maximise the benefits of the PHV’s extended EV driving
                                                              Hybrid System Indicator
The Hybrid System Indicator dial shows the point at
which the engine will start under acceleration, allowing
the driver to moderate throttle inputs and maximise the
use of the EV mode.
The Energy Monitor - which displays the current
operating conditions of the engine and the flow of
electric power in real time - incorporates an EV driving
range display, showing how far the Prius Plug-in Hybrid
can travel under electric motor power alone with the          Energy Monitor
remaining battery charge.
In addition, an EV Driving Ratio indicator shows how
much of the total distance driven so far has been under
electric motor power alone.
In combination, these functions help drivers to develop
relaxed, fuel efficient driving techniques and maximise
both EV driving and overall hybrid system efficiency.
                                                              EV Driving Ratio

Unique plug-in features exclusive to PHV
Making full use of a PHV design that accesses electricity     in CO2 emissions effected by the use of an external power
from an external power source, the Prius Plug-in Hybrid       source, determines the equivalent number of trees, and
features a unique, Remote Climate Control System.             gradually grows them one at a time in the display. As
                                                              more trees are grown, a forest is formed to show the
This is a pre-air conditioning system, capable of both        driver’s contribution to environmental preservation.
heating and cooling the vehicle interior when the
car is plugged in, offering occupants a comfortable
cabin temperature from the moment they get into the
vehicle. It also improves the overall efficiency of HSD, by
minimising air conditioner energy consumption during
vehicle start up, further lowering fuel consumption.
An innovative graphic display of a growing forest lets
customers see in real terms the benefits of battery
charging for CO2 emissions reduction.
The computer graphic image is based on how much CO2
is absorbed by a tree in a one year period. Whilst the
vehicle is plugged in, the system calculates the reduction

                                                                      Launch of PHV demonstration                   23
     Limited lease programme
     — Ongoing since 2007 – Toyota PHV evaluation in partnership with EDF

     — Worldwide limited lease of 600 Prius Plug-in Hybrids in 2010, of which 200 will be distributed throughout

     — European programme begins with about one hundred PHVs in Strasbourg, France – key partnership and
       highest concentration of Prius Plug-in Hybrids

     — Simultaneous creation of European recharging infrastructure by EDF and subsidiaries in office and public
       car parks, public roads and users’ homes

Background – ongoing PHV evaluation in
partnership with EDF, since 2007
At a ceremony in Tokyo on 14th December 2009, Toyota         start of Toyota’s ongoing partnership with French energy
handed the Mayor of Strasbourg, Roland Ries, the key         company EDF, was dedicated to intensive research and
to the first new generation Prius Plug-in Hybrid. This       development through real life road trials in France and
event marked the start of a worldwide limited lease          the UK, with a specific focus:
project involving some 600 vehicles, of which 200 will be    — on the relationship between the new technology
distributed throughout Europe.                               involved and its users;
                                                             — and on research into the development of a public,
This is the second phase of Toyota’s global PHV viability    private and company recharging infrastructure.
verification project. The first phase was announced by the
company in July 2007, and involved about 20 vehicles,
of which four in Europe. This first phase, marking the

The limited lease programme
Toyota’s European Prius Plug-in Hybrid limited lease         Toyota also has plans to introduce the Prius Plug-in
project starts in Strasbourg, France, at the end of April    Hybrid on a global scale, with participants including
2010, with the three year leasing about 100 Prius Plug-in    Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Japan and the United
Hybrids by private companies and other organisations,        States of America.
including government bodies, local authorities, energy
providers and a car sharing company.                         The ultimate goal of the limited lease project is to bring
                                                             the Prius-Plug-in Hybrid to the market in a few years.
Some 20 vehicles will be introduced in the UK, and
another 20 in Germany. The remaining vehicles will
be dispatched to other European countries including
Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Belgium,
Netherlands, Italy, Portugal and Spain.

                                                                     Launch of PHV demonstration                      25
Real world driver
behaviour analysis
Both in Europe and around the world, the limited lease
programme will allow Toyota to fine tune its ongoing
PHV research and development. The gathering of real
world vehicle-use feedback will enable the company
to better understand customer expectations of plug-in
technology, while spurring the development of a public
access charging station infrastructure.
All Prius Plug-in Hybrids will be equipped with data
retrieval devices which will monitor everyday user
activities such as when, and how often, the vehicle is
charged, the extent of battery depletion at the time of
charging, trip duration, percentage of EV use and EV
range, and fuel efficiency.

Strasbourg – chosen by Toyota and EDF as a
key viability project partner
The city of Strasbourg, France, has been chosen as the       The project has received financial support via the
key viability project partner by Toyota and EDF in the       Research Fund for Low Carbon Vehicles managed by the
investigation of market acceptability of PHV technology.     French Environment and Energy Management Agency,
The city of Strasbourg has had a notably advanced
mobility strategy in place for a long time, making it the    EDF will create a complimentary recharging
ideal location for a large-scale demonstration of the        infrastructure. It will install charging points at the
urban-friendly practicalities of the Prius Plug-in Hybrid.   facilities of project partners, in public parking lots, on
                                                             public roads and reinforced plugs at users’ homes.
« This project is an international recognition of our
initiatives towards sustainable mobility, which started
more than 20 years ago » said Roland Ries, Mayor of
Strasbourg. « The arrival of these plug-in hybrid vehicles
in our urban landscape will open a new chapter in our
transport policy. »

The Future
— Prius Plug-in Hybrid paves the way for diverse Hybrid Synergy Drive® applications and co-existing eco car

— Advances in battery technology, and charging and fuelling infrastructures fundamental to Electric Vehicle
  (EV) and Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle (FCHV) development

— Electric Vehicle technology – providing short- to mid-term sustainable mobility

— Hydrogen fuel cell technology – the potential to change the face of motoring forever

                                                                   Launch of PHV demonstration                27
Prius Plug-in Hybrid – paving the way for
diverse applications of Hybrid Synergy Drive®
Prius Plug-in Hybrid represents just one further              Hybrid Synergy Drive® is readily adaptable to use in
application of Hybrid Synergy Drive®, the core                Electric Vehicles (EV) and Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicles
technology in Toyota’s quest for sustainable mobility.        (FCHV). However, the mass production of EVs and FCHVs
                                                              remains dependent on two key factors: a significant
Rather than the former replacing the latter, both             advance in battery technology, and the provision of
standard and Plug-in versions of the Prius full hybrid will   comprehensive recharging and refuelling infrastructures
co-exist on the market for the foreseeable future.            for both electric and hydrogen fuel cell powered vehicles.
With the new Prius Plug-in Hybrid targeting the most
environmentally conscientious, urban-based customers,
it is expected to be some time before its sales outstrip
those of the Prius itself.

Electric Vehicle Technology – providing short-
to mid-term sustainable mobility
Toyota has already accumulated an unprecedented depth         Nonetheless, through further advances in battery
of knowledge and engineering capability in the field of       technology, and cooperation with governments,
electric vehicles (EVs). Ten years ago, some 1,900 RAV4       related organisations and other companies in charging
EV battery-electric vehicles were either sold or leased       infrastructure development, Toyota believes these
over the course of a three year test programme. Nearly        obstacles will be overcome.
half of these 160 km-driving range, large battery vehicles
are still on the road.                                        To that end, Toyota has continued with the development
                                                              of short range EVs for commercialisation. At the 2009
However, even with a 160 km range, EVs as a primary           Tokyo Motorshow, the company unveiled its FT-EV II
mode of transportation do not offer what most                 concept, a small commuter EV with a top-speed of
customers see as true mobility- and the absence of a          100km/h and a driving range of over 90km. Toyota plans
comprehensive recharging infrastructure continues to          to launch a lithium-ion battery equipped EV by 2012 in
hinder market acceptance of the battery electric concept.     the US.

 Battery Technology – the key to true EV
 The battery is a key element in hybrid technology. There        Fully committed to the most rapid possible advances in
 is no doubt that battery technology has progressed              battery technology, Toyota established its own Battery
 significantly in the 13 years since the introduction of         Research Department in June 2008 and has been
 the first Prius. Each successive generation has seen            developing in-house battery technology since the early
 a reduction in battery pack size, weight and cost, yet          1990s.
 improved efficiency.
                                                                 By September 2010, Toyota’s successful joint-venture
 However, challenges still remain. For instance, the cost of     partnership with Panasonic EV Energy (PEVE) will have a
 lithium-ion batteries needs to be reduced significantly, or     production capacity of 1.1 million battery packs per year.
 a more affordable alternative found.

HSD technology readily adaptable to use in PHV, EV and FCHV

                                                               Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle

                                                                                    Fuel tank

              Motor/Generator                                  Electric Vehicle

                       Fuel tank                                                    Battery

                                                               Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle

                                                                         FC Stack

                                                                          Launch of PHV demonstration                     29
Fuel Cell Technology – the potential to
change the face of motoring forever
With the potential to offer lasting solutions to              on how to produce hydrogen, how to deliver it and
environmental and energy source problems, Fuel Cell           how to implement a fuelling infrastructure depends on
Hybrid Vehicles are considered by many to represent the       the combined efforts of all sectors of society, including
closest thing yet to the ultimate eco-car.                    governments.
Fuel cells produces electricity through a chemical reaction   To that end - and in anticipation of the imminent
between hydrogen (stored in the vehicle) and oxygen           commercialisation of a number of FCHVs - Toyota, Ford,
(from the air), with no other emissions but water vapour.     Daimler, General Motors, Honda, Hyundai/Kia and
                                                              Renault/Nissan signed a Letter of Understanding in
A fuel cell can convert as much as 80% of hydrogen’s          September 2009 calling for oil and energy companies
energy into usable power - about twice the efficiency         and government organisations to cooperate in the
possible with current generation petrol engines.              creation of hydrogen infrastructure networks of sufficient
Toyota began work on FCHVs in 1992. The company               density in Europe, Japan, Korea and the United States by
applies its own HSD technology to FCHV development,           2015.
replacing petrol engines with fuel cells, and conventional    In 2010, Toyota started a three-year Fuel Cell hybrid
fuel tanks with high pressure hydrogen counterparts.          vehicle programme, involving 120 advanced FCHVs
Toyota’s latest fuel cell hybrid, the FCHV-adv, received      around the world, including Europe, to demonstrate
vehicle-type certification from Japan’s Ministry of Land,     the technology’s performance, reliability and everyday
Infrastructure and Transport on June 3rd 2008. This           practicality.
vehicle can travel 830 kms on a single tank of hydrogen,      In 2010, Toyota joined the Clean Energy Partnership,
emitting only water vapour.                                   an organisation supporting the development of fuel
Though a fuel cell vehicle emits no CO2, the emissions        cell technology and hydrogen supply infrastructure in
resulting from various hydrogen production methods            Germany. Toyota will contribute five FCHV-adv to the
must be considered for an accurate, well-to-wheel             programme in Germany by 2011.
appraisal of FCHV energy efficiency and environmental         Our goal is to introduce this technology on the market in
impact.                                                       2015.
Moreover, a smooth shift to a hydrogen-based society
will be a significant undertaking. Reaching a consensus

A Fuel Cell produces electricity through a chemical reaction between hydrogen
and oxygen, with water vapour the only emission


                              e-     e-                  e-    e-

                   H2        H+ H+          H+ H+        H+ H+

                            Catalyst       Polymer      Catalyst
                              negative    electrolyte    positive
                              electrode   membrane       electrode

                                                        Launch of PHV demonstration            31
Prius Plug-in Hybrid - main specifications
    Displacement (cm3)                                                                                       1798
    Max. output (kW (hp) / rpm)                                                                        73 (98) / 5200
    Max. torque (Nm / rpm)                                                                               142 / 4000
    Emission level                                                                                          Euro 5
    Motor type                                                                         Permanent magnet synchronous motor
    Max. output (hp / kW)                                                                                   80 / 60
    Max. torque (Nm)                                                                                          207
    HV battery
    Battery type                                                                                         Lithium-ion
    Max. EV cruising range (km)                                                                                20
    Recharging time (min)                     100V                                                            180
                                              200V                                                            100
    Transmission type                                                             Electric continuously variable transmission (CVT)
    Max. speed (km/h)                                                                                         180
    Max. speed in EV (km/h)                                                                                   100
    Total max. output* (kW (hp))                                                                          100 (136)
    Acceleration: 0 to 100 km/h (s)                                                                           11.4
    Exhaust emissions
    CO2 (g/km)                                                                                                 59
    Fuel consumption
    Combined New European Driving Cycle (l/100km)                                                             2.6
    Overall length (mm)                                                                                      4460
    Overall width (mm)                                                                                        1745
    Overall height (mm)                                                                                      1490
    Vehicle weight (kg)                                                                                      1500
*     the combined total power of the engine and electric motor (using the battery) exhibited as a hybrid system
      (toyota in-house measured figures).

toyota Motor Europe reserves the right to alter any details of specifications and equipment without notice. Details of specifications and equipment are
also subject to change to suit local conditions and requirements. Please enquire at your national toyota Pr department of any such changes that might
be required for your area.

Vehicles pictured and specifications detailed in this publication may vary from models and equipment available in your area. Vehicle body colours might
differ slightly from the printed photos in this publication.

— EDF, an actor in innovation in the field of “Low-Carbon Mobility”                                    34

— EDF, leading the energy change                                                                       36

— EDF is preparing the electric mobility of tomorrow with its partners                                 40

— EDF in the Service of Innovation in Electric Transportation                                          43

                                                                         Launch of PHV demonstration   33
     an actor in innovation in the field of
     “Low-Carbon Mobility”

EDF and “Low-Carbon Mobility”
Transportation accounts for 27% of world energy consumption and 61% of petroleum consumption planet-
wide. It remains one of main causes of atmospheric pollution in the world and is responsible for 23% of CO2

The EDF Group is strongly committed to promoting             Active partnerships
electric vehicles to accompany its customers in moving
towards modes of sustainable mobility in line with goals     The Group has initiated a policy of active and open
for reducing CO2 emissions and fighting pollution.           partnerships in the various technological solutions
                                                             developed by automakers (both “pure” electric vehicles
The emergence of electric mobility requires the              and Plug-in-Hybrid vehicles) ith major players like
development of batteries with greater and greater            Renault, PSA and Toyota.
security and performance and the deployment of an
appropriate charging infrastructure.
                                                             A strong commitment
EDF possesses solid experience in operating electric
                                                             The EDF Group has committed to acquiring 5,000
vehicles and charging stations, recognized scientific
                                                             electric vehicles in France over the period 2011-2015. This
and technological expertise with both batteries and
                                                             commitment represents 100% of the vehicles slated to
infrastructures, and a capacity for production of low-
                                                             be replaced over a period of 5 years and capable of being
carbon energy that is unique in Western Europe.
                                                             substituted for with electric vehicles.

  Que pouvons-nous attendre du développement
  What can we expect from the development of
  de l’électricité dans les transports ?
  electricity in transportation?
  — less dependency on petroleum fuels;

  — per-kilometer fuel costs up to five times lower;

  — 8 to 10 times less CO2 emissions in France;

  — an end to local pollutants, and thus considerable health benefits;

  — a strong reduction in noise pollution;

  — a new mode of mobility.

                                                                     Launch of PHV demonstration                     35
     leading the energy change
     Today’s world is faced with a major energy challenge: How to respond to growing needs in a context
     of climatic constraints and disappearing resources?

     With its R&D capabilities, its expertise and experience in nuclear production as well as renewable
     energies, and its efficient-energy offerings, EDF offers competitive solutions for sustainably
     reconciling economic development and climate protection.

Who are we?
— An integrated energy group (production, transport, distribution, trading and sale of energy);

— The leading operator of nuclear generating stations in the world;

— Europe’s leading electricity producer;

— France’s leading electricity supplier;

— 95% of our production in France emits no CO2;

— 38 million customers worldwide, including nearly 28 million in France;

— 161,000 employees around the world.
: EDF Media library

Hydro electric dam: Sainte Croix de Verdon

                                                                      Launch of PHV demonstration   37
The issues facing us

 Securing energy supplies in France and in Europe.              Contributing to the fight against greenhouse gases.
  Faced with the increase in energy demand, and in                We are already emitting five times less greenhouse
  particular for electrical energy (an expected rise of           gases than the average for European electricity
  +1.6 per year in Europe through 2030), EDF, thanks              producers.
  to its installed base of nuclear and hydroelectric
  stations and its production from other renewable
  energy sources, enjoys a very low dependency on
  imported fuels.

Nuclear, hydroelectric, fossil-fueled generation:
each energy source has its place
The diversity of our installed base of electricity production facilities enables us to respond to the many constraints
imposed – managing fluctuations in demand, securing energy supplies, producing energy without greenhouse-gas
emissions, and anticipating tomorrow’s energy sources.
 : EDF Media library / BEAUCARDET

Nuclear Power Station: Saint Laurent des Eaux

EDF, benchmark supplier of
competitive and low-carbon fuels
An electric vehicle powered by the French production         etc.), which is even more harmful to the environment
base emits between 10 and 20 grams of CO2 per km*. On        than conventional petroleum.
a European scale (taking in Germany, Poland, Portugal,
and Greece, who still use coal extensively), the balance     With its ability to supply very-low-CO2 fuel to Plug-in-
remains very favorable to electric, at 105 grams of CO2(3)   Hybrid vehicles, EDF is contributing to the emergence of
per km, or 34% less than vehicles powered by internal-       clean solutions for transportation.
combustion engines(1).
In France, an internal-combustion vehicle emits an           *     Source: French Environment and Energy Management
average of 160 grams of CO2 per km(1). Even if the goal is         Agency (ADEME)
to reduce CO2 emissions from cars powered by petroleum       (1)
                                                                   French automotive market average for 2008. Emissions
fuels to 110 grams of CO2 per km in 2020(2), those                 from “well to wheel” (source ADEME), or the equivalent
emissions will remain an estimated six times higher than           of 140 g Co2/km “tank to wheel.”
emissions from electric vehicles. That would still be an     (2)
                                                                   or 90 g Co2/km tank to wheel
enormous difference, especially since with conventional
petroleum running out, gasoline and diesel fuel              (3)
                                                                   Well-to-wheel emissions
production will very probably be relying more and more
frequently on non-conventional petroleum (tar sands
 : EDF Media library / Didiet Marc

Wind farm: Chemin d’Ablis

                                                                       Launch of PHV demonstration                    39
     EDF is preparing the electric mobility
     of tomorrow with its partners
     The EDF Group has initiated a policy of active and open partnerships in the various technological
     solutions developed by automakers.

Experiments to prepare
for tomorrow’s solutions
In a context of increasing oil prices and increased              The economic model of tomorrow’s individual electrical-
environmental awareness on the part of the general               propulsion vehicle remains to be validated. The cost of
public, the move towards electric mobility now seems             production, excluding the battery, of the vehicles will
irreversible.                                                    remain significantly higher – for an uncertain period –
                                                                 than that of internal-combustion vehicles. This additional
Standards for vehicles and infrastructure are now                cost will only be able to be compensated for, during
being defined. EDF has chosen to associate with vehicle          the period of commercial launch, by tax or financial
manufacturers to conduct experiments in order to                 incentives. The high unit price of batteries will probably
validate hypotheses, test, and compare and evaluate              result in the emergence of a specific business model
the economic models and technical solutions proposed             (leasing rather than purchase) before electricity can
by vehicle manufacturers and the various other actors            hope to compete with traditional fuels. The economic
and operators involved – be they local governments,              model and the modalities for deployment of charging
electricity distributors, managers of public spaces, etc.        infrastructures are also in the process of being defined.
Many questions remain as to the technologies                     These models will have to take into account the life
tomorrow’s electric vehicles will use. The industrial            expectancy of batteries and of vehicles.
transition needs to be made between pre-series and
mass production of Li-ion batteries, whose safety
remains a delicate subject in the eyes of most experts.

Strasbourg chosen by EDF and Toyota for
experiment with about
100 Plug-in-Hybrid vehicles
This operation constitutes a threefold world first due to:

— its size, with some one hundred pre-series vehicles

— the battery technology used (Lithium-ion)

— the infrastructure deployed
It is the concrete result of a partnership agreement signed in
March 2009 between EDF and Toyota for an experiment, to
extend for three years, in businesses and publics entities in
the Strasbourg region.

                                                                         Launch of PHV demonstration                     41
Future experiments to be
conducted by the EDF Group
The Strasbourg experiment with Toyota is the first in a series of experiments the EDF Group will conduct with other
With other vehicle manufacturers, EDF will experiment with solutions for electric mobility that are complementary to
— electric vehicles associated with charging infrastructures including, in addition to normal charging, fast charging
  spots and mechanical battery exchange
— electric vehicles associated with charging infrastructures supplied by renewable energy sources in an insular context
— predominantly electric PHVs
but also:
— electric and plug-in hybrid buses .
These projects are all candidates for the ADEME’S Call for Expression of Interest to qualify for financial support from the
“Demonstrator Fund.”

EDF in the Service of Innovation
in Electric Transportation
Recharging stations and batteries are two essential dimensions of electric mobility development: EDF is
mobilising its know-how for research and innovations.

                                                                     Launch of PHV demonstration          43
Recharging stations: an EDF expertise
Recharging stations play a crucial role in the              It is in this capacity that EDF has been designated by
development of electric vehicles. Thanks to years of        the French government as the French industry leader
investment in Research and Development and long-term        in the French-German working group given the task of
cooperation with manufacturers of electric vehicles, then   proposing what tomorrow’s European connectors will
Plug-in-Hybrid vehicles, EDF is today an unchallenged       look like.
expert when it comes to high-technology recharging

Tomorrow’s recharging stations                                 Available

will need to be:                                               — They will have to correspond to users’ use patterns
                                                                 and travel needs;
                                                               — Their geographical distribution will have to take into
— Dedicated equipment will prevent any risk of
                                                                 account the fact that recharging is done at home or
  involuntary connection to a non-conforming
                                                                 at the workplace 90% of the time.
— Equipment will be specifically designed to stand up
  to intensive use;                                            — Thanks to standardization at the European level, to
                                                                 which EDF is actively contributing, all drivers in the
— Equipment will have to avoid any danger of electric
                                                                 Union will be able to recharge using the same cable,
  shock to users and guarantee battery integrity.
                                                                 regardless of the country they are in.

— They will have to provide optimal charging of
  batteries and preserve their full life-expectancy

— They will also have to optimize the charging period
  to avoid consumption peaks;

— They will have to enable detailed per-user billing,
  and thus comply with requirements for openness to
  competition between energy providers.

— They will have to be capable of communicating
  with vehicles of all types thanks to standardized

— Among other capabilities, they will enable secure
  exchange of data having to do, for example, with
  identification of the vehicle, transfer of billing
  information, and the location of the nearest station
  as a function of remaining battery life.

                      opposite: real time energy monitoring
                                             of charge spots

                                                                       Launch of PHV demonstration                   45
Batteries that go further
Through its Research and Development laboratories,            Quantity of energy stored per unit of weight or
EDF is an internationally recognized, historical expert in     volume (specific energy) measured in Watt-hours/
battery technologies.                                          kilogram (Wh/kg) or Watt-hours per liter (Wh/l),
Our development effort focuses on high-energy-density          which affects battery life;
batteries. Our work and our collaborations concern
Lithium-type batteries – which today appear to be the         The Instantaneous power it can provide for
most promising technology –, nickel-electrode alkaline         acceleration or absorb during braking with energy
batteries, and sodium batteries. In the longer term,           recovery, which determines driving comfort;
in partnership with major research centers, we are
working on the energy-storage solutions of the future, in     Its price per kilowatt-hour (kWh), which underpins
particular for electric-transportation applications.           the economic model for electric vehicles and Plug-
                                                               in-Hybrids using these batteries; the level of this
Recognizing a good battery                                     price is currently still too high and constitutes
                                                               an impediment to the development of electric
Five criteria for evaluating a battery:
 Safety of use, an essential factor for the user and
                                                              The number of charge-discharge cycles it is capable
  indispensable for guaranteeing the development of
                                                               of supporting, synonymous with life expectancy
  the market for electric vehicles;
                                                               and an important factor in the economic model for
                                                               electric vehicles and Plug-in-Hybrids.
 ®: EDF Mediatheque/ERANIAN

EDF R&D - Lithium battery research

A major industrial challenge
                                                   The batteries used in electric vehicles and Plug-in-Hybrids
                                                   have made major progress in the past few years. The
                                                   “race” to produce them in large quantities is now on;
                                                   only the economies of scale that will result from it will
                                                   enable the price of electric vehicles and Plug-in Hybrids to
                                                   become truly competitive.
                                                   In the major industrialized countries, large investments
                                                   are being made in this area in order to ensure the
                               Batteries Lithium

                                                   development of production facilities that can meet these
                                                   technological and economic challenges over the long
                                                   term. The French government’s National Plan for the
                                                   development of electric vehicles and Plug-in Hybrids
                                                   09-Lancement-du-plan.html] calls for intensification of
                                                   France’s efforts in this field.

                                                           Launch of PHV demonstration                      47
— City and Urban Community of Strasbourg                                             50

— ADEME                                                                              55

— Center for Energy and Processes of MINES ParisTech                                 56

                                                       Launch of PHV demonstration   49
The City and the Urban Community of Strasbourg, which       France’s historical electricity supplier and designer of the
have long been committed to sustainable mobility, are       necessary charging infrastructure. The project, supported
seeking to encourage the development of less polluting      by the French ecology, industry and research ministries,
vehicles. The two authorities, which cover a population     is supported by the Demonstrator Fund of the French
of 475,000, have therefore decided to participate in        environment and energy agency (ADEME). Numerous
a large-scale experimentation of new plug-in hybrid         public and private players from the Strasbourg region are
vehicles (PHVs) developed by Japanese carmaker              involved in the project.
Toyota, in partnership with Electricité de France (EDF),

«Chosen by Toyota and EDF to host this unprecedented experiment, Strasbourg confirms its position as a pioneer in
the field of sustainable mobility, respectful of the environment», emphasises Roland Ries, the Mayor of Strasbourg.
«The initiatives begun over 20 years ago in favour of sustainable mobility are now gaining international
recognition. The appearance of this new generation of plug-in hybrid vehicles in the urban landscape opens a
new chapter in our transport policy and represents a pertinent extension to the other innovative steps already
taken in the European capital, such as the introduction of trams in 1994, the pedestrianisation of the city centre,
the development of car pooling and the promotion of cycling; so many initiatives that contribute to reducing
greenhouse gas emissions and improving quality of life for the conurbation’s inhabitants», adds a proud Roland
Ries, going on to conclude:
«This type of technology has not been tested in real conditions on such a large scale and over such a long period
until now. This experiment, which is being carried out for the first time in Europe, is a long-term commitment for

                                                                                                                      : Yves Noto-Campanella/OTS

Strasbourg’s historic centre and cathedral

Strasbourg’s                                                         Reasons for choosing
involvement in the                                                   Strasbourg
project                                                              If this territory was first chosen by the project’s two
                                                                     sponsors, Toyota and EDF, it is certainly because the
                                                                     City and the Urban Community of Strasbourg have
Strasbourg is not only acting as the location for the                been heavily involved for several decades in promoting
deployment of these hundred or so new-generation vehicles.           sustainable transport solutions and are already
Together the City and the Urban Community are both playing           prioritising a variety of innovative and multi-modal
an essential role, alongside EDF, in the installation of a           experiments.
network of special charging infrastructures, which will enable
users of this new type of plug-in hybrid vehicle to charge them      The tram solution was adopted
at home, in the partner companies, but also in public places,        there 20 years ago
public car parks or by the roadside in the city centre.
                                                                     If pollution and other problems due to congestion were
The City and the Urban Community of Strasbourg are                   to be limited, an alternative to the car had to be found
involved at different levels in this flagship project, with a firm   in 1989. And it would be the tram. Its appearance on
investment of over €200,000:                                         the streets in 1994 would profoundly change the urban
— Along with several other private and public                        landscape of the Strasbourg conurbation; and this
  establishments based in the urban area, Strasbourg                 change was enthusiastically approved by a majority of
  is a user-tester of these prototypes, as it is hiring 5 of         local people, well aware that these transformations
  these new plug-in hybrid vehicles;                                 would make their city a more pleasant and human place.

— Strasbourg contributes to the installation of charging              Changing travel practices in an urban area that
  points in nine car parks in its urban area;                         prioritises soft modes of transport:
— Strasbourg is setting up roadside stations equipped                 — walking represents a mode share of 33.4%* (52%*
  with charging infrastructures dedicated specially to                  in the city centre)
  charging electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids;
                                                                      — cycle mode share is of the order of 7.6%* and
— Strasbourg contributes funding to the car pooling                     14%* (up 7 points since 1997) in the city centre
  scheme, Auto’trement, to enable it to hire a number                   (compared to 1.6% for Lille, for example)
  of experimental vehicles. For the local authority, this
  company is an important partner: not only will all the              — car use has fallen below the 50% barrier (45.9 %*,
  subscribers to the service in Strasbourg be able to use               compared to 56.1% for Lille); it is only 20%* in the
  these new PHVs, but the user-testers will have very                   city centre (down 12 points since 1997)
  different profiles.                                                 — public transport accounts for 12.5%* of total
                                                                        journeys, with peaks of 22%* to 33%* on trips
                                                                        into the city centre. Public transport use increased
                                                                        120% between 1992 and 2009.
                                                                      * Source: household travel survey 2009

                                                                             Launch of PHV demonstration                       51
With its attractive, modern, practical, environmentally-         The car in its rightful place
friendly trams, Strasbourg has forged a reputation as a
pioneer, as it was one of the first French cities to consider    As a UNESCO World Heritage site, Strasbourg’s historical
a return to this mode of transport, whilst resolutely            centre had to be protected as far as possible against
revamping its distinctly «19th century» image.                   pollution and the invasion of the private car. Starting
                                                                 from the principle that each mode of transport has
And today, the city continues to collect records: with its       its own «zone of relevance», the Strasbourg urban
53 km of commercial lines, its 5 existing lines (a sixth         authorities opted to take the car out of the city centre
is planned for 2010) and its 66 stations, its network is         and to encourage active travel modes and public
the longest in France. The low-floor tram cars facilitate        transport instead. Numerous measures (a dissuasive
accessibility for disabled passengers or parents with            traffic plan, parking charges) were then implemented to
pushchairs while their large windows keep passengers             limit the use of cars in the city centre. At the same time,
at street level. Almost 300,000 people use it every              relevant effective alternatives were proposed. The effects
day. Over the last fifteen years, the tram has become            of this policy aimed at ending the omnipresence of the
the cornerstone of a vast public transport policy that           car in the city centre were soon felt: between 1990 and
encourages alternatives to single-person car use and             2009, the number of vehicles entering the city fell by
invites road users to try the multiple travel combinations       28%.
available: tram-bike, tram-walking, tram-bus, tram-train,
tram-car pool. A symbol of this eco-mobility, the tram is
also a formidable vector of social integration, serving to
                                                                 At the crossroads of the major
improve communications with certain hitherto «cut-off»           European high speed rail routes
neighbourhoods, in particular those situated along the
Rhine. In a few years’ time, it will also cross the Rhine to     Since June 2007 Strasbourg has also been linked to Paris
reach Kehl, in Germany, in double quick time.                    in 2 hrs 20 by the TGV-Est high-speed train, which in the
                                                                 coming years should be extended into Germany and
                                                                 later as far as Budapest. The construction of this line,
The bike, king of the road                                       the «Magistrale» is receiving the active support of the
Strasbourg has long been trying to lower its levels of           European Union. A link-up with the TGV Rhine-Rhône,
pollution, reduce traffic congestion and save energy             also co-financed by the EU, is also planned, making
by encouraging soft modes of transport. This effort, a           Strasbourg a major European high-speed rail hub.
necessity in view of our close proximity with Germany,
began to take root in the 1970s with the appearance
of cycle tracks, of which the city now has almost 500
km. In this field, Strasbourg is streets ahead of other
French cities and can justifiably claim to be France’s most
cyclable city. The city’s cyclists have at their disposal some
fifty bike parks, over 1,500 bike stands in the car parks in
the City and Urban Community, not forgetting the 7,500
stands they can use to park their bikes on the street.
                                                                                                                        : Ernest Laemmel / CUS

                                                                 Strasbourg, first cycling city in France

                                                               Many other innovative projects are currently being
                                                               planned or developed in this pilot city:
                                                               — car pooling, which has existed for over 10 years
                                                                 already with the «Auto’trement» company, and
                                                                 which was launched by Roland Ries, already Mayor of
                                                                 Strasbourg at the time. This service consists of pooling
                                                                 the costs and use of a vehicle by making it available to
                                                                 a number of subscribers at stations spread across the
                                                                 different parts of the city;
 A new Urban Travel Plan                                       — a «street code», intended to re-balance the way
                                                                 the different modes of transport share the public
 to anticipate tomorrow’s needs                                  roads and thus reinforce the protection of the
 The Urban Community of Strasbourg’s first Urban                 most vulnerable users, in particular cyclists and
 Travel Plan, adopted in 2000, was innovative insofar            pedestrians;
 as it focused on the construction of a large tram
                                                               — «pedestrian priority zones», open to all road users,
 network. However, it left little room for innovation in
                                                                 but where the pedestrian has priority;
 the field of private car use.
                                                               — the tram-train: thanks to a new type of vehicle able
 Changes that have occurred since 2000 (a
                                                                 to run on both rail tracks and the tram lines, it will
 continuous increase in the number of cars and
                                                                 be possible to connect Strasbourg centre and station
 the distances covered, considerable technological
                                                                 with the foothills of the Vosges, a mountainous
 progress) now oblige us to reconsider the possible
                                                                 region situated to the west of the city;
 innovations in terms of individual mobility. The
 objective being to continue to widen the range of             — the Cristal system, a new generation electric vehicle,
 mobility services available, based on the logic of «to          designed by an Alsatian company, LOHR Industrie,
 each need, its mode of transport», whilst protecting            which represents an entirely new take on the notion
 the environment and quality of life of the inhabitants          of public transport, with a vehicle that can be used
 of the Strasbourg conurbation.                                  both for individual self-service hire and public
                                                                 transport (trains of vehicles hooked up to each other);
 The introduction of plug-in hybrid vehicles fits in
 perfectly with this vision. Other experiments of the          — the CATS European Research and Development
 same type as the one conducted with Toyota and EDF              project, subsidised by the European Commission,
 will be set up in the coming years, and Strasbourg              which will be trying out the Cristal system over a
 firmly intends to position itself at the cutting edge           period of several months and analysing the way it
 of sustainable mobility. The aim of making the                  works;
 urban area a European laboratory for innovation in
 transport represents the 4th development theme in             — a bike sharing service, which offers, on top of the
 the Urban Community’s development strategy for the              usual short-term bike hire possibilities, longer use
 10 years to come.                                               of the bike, with long-term leasing schemes for
                                                                 individuals and businesses, set up under the Business
                                                                 Travel Plan (PDE).

For the City and the Urban Community of Strasbourg, the environmental issue is, however, not limited to just promoting
the use of public transport or clean travel options: the two authorities are currently involved in implementing a «Climate
plan» which embraces globally the management of sustainable development for the whole of the urban area, including
for example the energy aspects of housing. The aim once again is to join the club of local authorities leading the way in
this field.

                                                                        Launch of PHV demonstration                    53
What perspectives does
this experiment offer Strasbourg?
The development of hybrid vehicles is now a European          at every stage, both in terms of the legal and regulatory
challenge, seen as much as a vector of economic and           framework and in its funding and the way the offer has
technological development as a means of further               been implemented. «It is high time that local authorities
protecting the environment. The current Spanish               face up to this issue - now, just as the market for hybrid
Presidency of the European ministers council has made         and electric vehicles is about to take off», continues
it one of its priorities, asking the Brussels Commission      Roland Ries, before inviting other French cities to come
to draw up a common strategy for electric cars and the        and share their experiences with the Alsatian capital.
standardisation of charging systems.
                                                              Approaching the question of the experiments from
Strasbourg, European Capital, has not hesitated to take       a wider point of view, the President of the Urban
a stance by initiating a dynamic policy in favour of the      Community of Strasbourg, Jacques Bigot, insists on
use of such hybrid and electric vehicles. The City has thus   the fact that «innovative and multi-modal forms of
chosen to join in a scheme which involves the pooling of      mobility are one of the 4 main themes of the authority’s
efforts alongside a car manufacturer and an electricity       economic strategy for 2020. By making this a priority
distributor; an attitude that brings it closer to the         in this way, the Urban Community intends to support
European model. Eventually, it hopes to see this unique       the dynamism of the economic players in its area and
experiment lead to a domino effect and other similarly        consolidate its international reputation. Projects such
innovatory initiatives be able to carry on the good work.     as the plug-in hybrid vehicle project will contribute to
                                                              making Strasbourg a ‘European laboratory’ for new
«This experiment already started over a year and half         technologies and the favoured destination of innovative
ago for us», points out the Mayor of Strasbourg. Far          companies, particularly those involved in the field of
from simply being an experiment on the technological          mobility».
characteristics of the vehicles or the charging points, the
innovative dimension of the project has been perceptible
 : Francis Gast

Passerelle des Deux Rives, linking both sides of the Rhine
                                                                           Direction régionale
                                                                           de l'Environnement,
                                                                           de l'Aménagement
                                                                           et du Logement


Grenelle Environnement*                                              The DHRT2 project proposed by TOYOTA, EDF, the
                                                                     Ecoles des Mines and INES notably helps accumulate
                                                                     knowledge concerning the battery/plug-in hybrid vehicle
Favouring the emergence of an                                        combination, the way these types of vehicles are used
offer of low-carbon vehicles                                         and the business models that can be associated with the
                                                                     charging infrastructures.
The objectives of a reduction in dependence on petrol
and the emission of greenhouse gases, determined by                  These research efforts thus prepare the emergence of
France following the “Grenelle de l’environnement”                   an offer of low-carbon vehicles and their main industrial
watchdog meetings, call for the implementation of                    components. They contribute to France’s plan for the
innovative technical solutions, achievable through                   development of electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles
ambitious R&D projects.                                              launched by Jean-Louis Borloo, Christian Estrosi and
                                                                     Chantal Jouanno in October 2009.
The Demonstrators Fund, managed by ADEME, was
set up in 2008 to finance research projects on themes
connected to new energy technologies (renewable
energy sources, vehicles with low-emission greenhouse                ADEME IN SHORT
gases, CO2 capture and storage…). The selected
demonstrators aim at validating technologies still in                The French Environment and Energy Management
development stage and their integration in a system                  Agency (ADEME) is a public agency under the joint
representative of industrial operating conditions, without           authority of the Ministry for Ecology, Energy, Sustainable
reaching industrialisation level.                                    Development and the Sea, and the Ministry of Higher
                                                                     Education and Research. The agency is active in the
Following an initial appeal for demonstrations of interest           implementation of public policy in the areas of the
on low-carbon vehicles, launched by ADEME in 2008,                   environment, energy and sustainable development.
11 innovative projects have been funded for a sum of 57
M€. These concern drivetrain technologies and vehicle                ADEME provides expertise and advisory services
package, for all types of road vehicles (lightweight                 to businesses, local authorities and communities,
four-wheel vehicles, personal cars, commercial vehicles,             government bodies and the public at large, to enable
lorries, buses).                                                     them to establish and consolidate their environmental
                                                                     action. As part of this work the agency helps finance
                                                                     projects, from research to implementation, in the
                                                                     areas of waste management, soil conservation, energy
                                                                     efficiency and renewable energy, air quality and noise
* Grenelle Environnement is a multi-party watchdog reuniting         abatement.
  representatives of national & local government and organisations
  (industry, labour, professional associations, NGOs) with the aim   www.ademe.fr
  of defining the key points of public policy on environmental and
  sustainable development issues.

                                                                              Launch of PHV demonstration                     55
Collaboration with the Center for Energy and
Processes of MINES ParisTech
The technical monitoring of this demonstration of plug-    — Is the 20km driving range sufficient for everyday
in hybrid vehicles conducted in Strasbourg by Toyota         commutes between home and work?
and EDF relies on the scientific expertise of the Center
for Energy and Processes of MINES ParisTech and its        — What infrastructures are provided for charging the
experience in the analysis of externalities.                 vehicle, at both home and workplace level?

MINES ParisTech is associated with the project through a   — From the CO2 assessment viewpoint, what are the
research programme on “the plug-in hybrid vehicle and        preferential times of day for charging the vehicle?
sustainable mobility”.                                     — What is the desirable length of time for charging and
                                                             what type of plug-in system should be favoured?
Description of the research
                                                           — How sensitive is electric consumption to the user’s
programme on the plug-in hybrid                              driving pattern?
vehicle (PHV) and sustainable                              — Once the itineraries have been determined in advance
mobility                                                     by the simulation platform, what are the energetic
                                                             stakes for integrating these characteristics into the
The PHV demonstration in Strasbourg is aimed at              vehicle’s control processing unit?
establishing optimal usage conditions of a PHV with a
20km EV driving range.
From among the group of driver-testers taking part in
the project, a panel of some twenty people was selected
in order to carry out an in-depth study and be able to
answer the key questions associated with PHVs:

The work of the Center for Energy and Processes of MINES   Presentation of the Center for
ParisTech aims to answer these questions, and will be
structured as follows:                                     Energy and Processes of MINES
1. Analysis of the usage patterns of the PHV fleet         ParisTech
— typology of the drivers and usages                       The Center for Energy and Processes (CEP) is one of
                                                           MINES ParisTech research centres, composed of 152
— environment-friendly driving conditions                  people including 70 PhDs, based either in Paris or at
                                                           Sophia-Antipolis in the South of France. The CEP located
2. CO2 assessment according to times of day and            in Paris and the suburb of Palaiseau comprises 80
   conditions for charging the vehicle                     people, including 35 PhDs.
— level of avoided CO2 emissions                           In close relationship with multidisciplinary teaching,
— preferential times of day for charging                   including Master degree programmes and continued
                                                           training, the CEP research themes focus on:
3. Control with prediction
                                                           — energy decarbonisation
— New control rules with forecast
                                                           — energy efficiency in automobile air-conditioning
— Analysis of savings using the new control algorithm        systems, buildings and industrial processes
                                                           — the creation of carbon structures with nanomaterials
                                                           — life cycles analysis
                                                           — analysis of environmental and economic impacts
 : LOHR Industrie

                                                            : Francis Gast


Simulation of the electric system Cristal                  A pratical, ecological and aesthetic tram

                                                                             Launch of PHV demonstration            57
Image Bank

             Launch of PHV demonstration   59
     The usage of this USB is strictly limited to your professional use. It shall not be used for any other purpose, nor shall it be made
       available to any third party, without the prior written consent of Toyota Motor Europe NV/SA, Avenue du Bourget 60, B-1140
                 Brussels, Belgium, and of EDF - Direction Médias Groupe, 22-30 avenue de Wagram, 75382 Paris Cedex 08, France

Exterior - dynamic

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Exterior - static

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                                                                Launch of PHV demonstration                         63

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Technical illustrations

     PHV_launch_071_10_TEC.jpg   PHV_launch_072_10_TEC.jpg   PHV_launch_073_10_TEC.jpg


        Launch of PHV demonstration   65
Leaflet to insert the USER Sheets
toyota Motor Europe                     EDF - Direction Médias Groupe
Avenue du Bourget 60 - Bourgetlaan 60   22-30 avenue de wagram
B - 1140 Brussels - Belgium             75382 Paris Cedex 08 - France

www.toyota-media.com                                                    CU-COC-809718-CK

corporatemedia.toyota.eu                www.edf.com

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