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                  akzente                                working with
akzente special




                                              Chile
                                              Air polluters on the retreat
                                              Malaysia
                                  Focus on:
                                              A full range of measures
                   Clean air in the cities    to prevent air pollution
                                              Syria
                                              Measuring labs on patrol,
                                              and alarming waste studies
Traffic jams, polluted roads, funding crises;
an absence of parks, walkways and public
spaces; spiralling car and motorcycle use,
ever-greater burdens on the poor, and
less liveable cities. All this is increasingly
familiar to people living in developing
cities. Moreover, these problems are getting
worse rather than better with economic
development.


The Sourcebook contains 20 printed
modules in the form of booklets around 20
to 30 pages long. Each module draws upon
the experience of GTZ and others in devel-
oping cities and is a collaborative exercise
with generous input from contributors who
are leading experts in their field.


The Sourcebook is intended for policy-
 makers and their advisors and those
  involved in transport planning and regula-
  tion in developing cities. This audience
   is reflected in the contents. As well as
    capacity development for policy-makers
    and regulators, the Sourcebook can
     form the basis of a sustainable trans-
      port training curriculum in developing
    cities and will be a valuable resouce to
educators, civil society groups and other
stakeholders.



How can I get a copy?
Please visit www.gtz.de/transport
or contact transport@gtz.de
to order a copy.
The Sourcebook is not sold for profit,
with charges imposed only to cover
the cost of printing aud distribution.




Deutsche Gesellschaft für
Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ ) GmbH
                                                                                                       EDITORIAL


                          Tilman C. Herberg,
                          GTZ Director of Environment
                          and Infrastructure Division




Dear readers,


A problem that is regarded as solved in the industrialised nations is claiming more and more lives
in the developing countries. Every day, more than 1.4 billion city-dwellers worldwide are breathing
air with pollution levels that exceed the limit values of the World Health Organization (WHO).
Many cities frequently exceed these values three or even fourfold: Beijing, Delhi, Dhaka and
Mexico City are good examples. The main causes are the growth of settlements with an increasing
use of fires for domestic heating and cooking, the exponential increase in traffic flows, and rising
levels of emissions from industry.


The consequences are inestimable. According to the WHO, nearly three million people prematurely
die as a result of air pollution each year. More and more people are suffering from respiratory
diseases, especially the elderly and children. The risk of cancer and heart attacks is on the increase.
The poor, who usually live in the intensively polluted inner-city areas, in the immediate proximity
of industrial plants, along roads with large volumes of traffic and next to airports, are particularly
severely affected by air pollution.


Getting the air clean again and maintaining air quality is a key task in achieving sustainable urban
development. The problem affects not only the megacities but also most of the fast-growing,
so-called medium development cities with one million to five million inhabitants. The United Nations
reckons that as early as 2050, more than half of the world’s population will be living in cities.
So promoting sustainable development in the cities before it is too late is all the more important.
And that means action has to be taken today!


Many local initiatives, bilateral projects and development co-operation programmes as well as
international activities such as the World Bank’s Clean Air Initiatives have now focused their
attention on this issue. And it is also GTZ’s mission to support our partners to result in cities
that are worth living in and viable urban development.


This issue of Akzente focuses on selected practical examples demonstrating GTZ’s effort to address
urban air pollution. Independent journalists take a look at the work of international development
cooperation and describe various concepts supporting the preparation, introduction and implemen-
tation of appropriate air pollution control strategies in selected cities.


Yours,
CONTENTS

                             3 Editorial


                             5 A modern infrastructure to stop emissions
                                Interview with BMZ Head of Department Manfred Konukiewitz.


                             6 Air polluters on the retreat
                                Chile: Guidelines on air pollution control have yielded
                                measurable results in Santiago.


                            10 A full range of measures to prevent air pollution
                                Malaysia. Preventive environmental protection
                                acting as a regional model.


                            14 Measuring labs on patrol
                                Syria.Teams of experts are tracking down the polluters.


                            17 Alarming waste studies
                                Syria. A GTZ survey reveals high pollution levels.



                            18 Breathing in the smog
                                Mexico. Integrated air pollution control programmes have taken
                                the sting out of alarming pollutant levels.


                            22 The mantra of energy saving
                                India. Rapid industrialisation is turning better and cleaner power
                                supply into an increasingly urgent issue.



                            28 Clean air in cities
                                In order to prevent emissions on a lasting basis, GTZ takes technical,
                                political and societal factors into consideration.




                            32 Twins for better air quality
                                Old and new EU Member States have joined forces to combat
                                air pollution.




Santiago. A pedestrian
wearing a breathing mask.
Photo: Pablo Martínez




                                IMPRINT

                                Publishers: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH, D-65726 Eschborn,
                                 Postfach 5180, Germany.Tel: +49 6196 790. Fax: +49 6196 796169. Responsible: Volker Franzen, Johannes Seifen.
                                Editors: Jens Heine/jens.heine@gtz.de (responsible).Translations: Mike Gardner, Bonn.
                                Layout: Sylvia Handschuh, Frankfurt. Printers: Wetzlardruck GmbH,Wetzlar.
                                Lithography: Spiecker Design & Produktion GmbH, Frankfurt. Views expressed by authors in the journal are
                                not necessarily those of the publishers. Date of publication of this special issue: April 2004.
                                Paper: recycled paper without lighteners. ISSN 0945-4497.
                            Interview


                            A modern infrastructure
Manfred Konukiewitz
                            to stop emissions
        How can the gulf between the enormous levels of air
        pollution in the conurbations and the growing energy
        demand of the developing countries be bridged?
        Questions answered by Manfred Konukiewitz, Head of
        the Department for Water, Settlements and Infrastructure
        Issues at the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation
        and Development.
        Akzente: How should air pollution control policy in the developing countries be improved
        to ensure a transition to sustainable urban development?
        Manfred Konukiewitz: The causes of air pollution are rather similar in most countries. The transport
        sector heads the list, i.e. the combustion engines of the vehicles. Industry and domestic households vie
        for the second place. Politically, four things count. Dirty fuels have to be replaced with clean fuels,
        for example charcoal with gas or leaded petrol with unleaded petrol. The second demand has to be that
        of enhancing the efficiency of combustion processes so that less fuel is needed for the desired energy
        output. Third, the combustion processes have to be optimised in a manner that will ensure that fewer
        pollutants develop. This is accomplished by fine-tuning diesel motors or power stations. And fourth, it is
        important to keep an optimum share of the remaining pollutants away from the air, for example by using
        filtering plants. Then, at community level, there are important elements of sustainable urban development
        that have nothing to do with energy conversion by combustion: environmentally friendly urban planning
        and transport policy. So there is no lack of proposals and concepts for effective air pollution control.
        What is usually missing is the political will or the financial possibilities to apply solutions that are
        already there in principle.
        Is lowering energy input also an option?
        As a rule, lowering energy input is out of the question as far as the developing countries are concerned
        because they will require more energy for their development in future, not less.
        How does effective air pollution control relate to poverty alleviation?
        If you are forced to breathe polluted air all day, that is a bad, frequently deadly effect of poverty.
        Better-off people are also affected, but they can often protect themselves more effectively in everyday life.
        The depressing question remains how expensive it will be to switch to clean energy forms and whether the
        poor can afford clean air.
        Can an air pollution control policy pave the way for greater involvement of the developing
        countries in combating global warming?
        One problem in developing measures to combat global warming is that many developing countries regard
        this issue to be solely a responsibility of the industrialised countries. But the fact is that, measured in
        absolute volumes, China is already the second largest greenhouse gas emitter. This is why more environ-
        mental awareness is urgently required in the developing countries. An air pollution control policy will
        reinforce this process. The chemical composition of the greenhouse gases differs from the harmful
        substances polluting the air close to the ground. But if we apply energy more efficiently in order to prevent
        pollution in urban areas, the discharge of greenhouse gases will also be reduced in parallel.
        What role can Technical Cooperation play in this context?
        Consultation in Technical Cooperation is an important way of enabling the governments and political
        institutions of our partner countries to benefit from experience gained in the industrialised countries.
        For example, in Berlin or in the Ruhr Region, air quality has improved considerably over the last ten to twen-
        ty years. This did not require any major public-funded subsidy programmes. The costs were ultimately finan-
        ced by the consumers themselves, for example via better vehicle motors and catalytic converters.
        Advising the cities plays a particularly important role, for it is here that the course will be set in the long run.
        The communal infrastructure being built today determines tomorrow’s levels of emissions.

        Jens Heine asked the questions.

                                                                                                                               5   akzente special
Air polluters
                             A     pungent odour is wafting
                                   through the laboratory of San-
                              tiago’s Centro de Control y Certi-
                                                                       in force that stipulates the policy
                                                                       guidelines for air pollution control.
                                                                       GTZ consultants commissioned by
                              ficación Vehicular, 3CV for short.       the Federal Ministry for Economic
                              A blackish brown sludge is slosh-        Cooperation and Development
                              ing around in the glass vessel the       (BMZ) have been supporting this
                              lab technician is holding in her         process for more than a decade.
                              hand at the centre for vehicle              3CV is a building brick in the
                              inspection and certification. “This      effort to establish a set of guide-
                              is the pride of our activities,” she     lines for environmental policy
                              grins ironically. It is claimed to       and put institutions for environ-
                              be diesel that was detected when         mental protection in place. A net-
                              inspecting a tank.                       work of monitoring stations sup-
                                 A filthy concoction of fuels can      plies data on the concentration
                              hardly contribute to better air          of various pollutants, such as




on the retreat
Things have got going in Chilean environmental policy. Guidelines on
air pollution control in the Santiago region have yielded measurable
results. GTZ has been supporting this process for more than a decade and
is contributing to more preventive measures and better air.
Ulrich Goedeking, text | Pablo Martínez, photos


                              quality in Santiago.Together with        particulate matter and gases like
                              Mexico City, the Chilean capital,        nitrogen oxides or sulphur diox-
                              with its five to six million in-         ide. According to CONAMA, half
                              habitants, is top of the list when       of the pollutants in the air come
                              it comes to Latin American smog          from road traffic.
                              ranking. On a clear day, the city            Consultant Frank Dursbeck,
                              affords spectacular views of the         who has been working for GTZ
                              snow-capped Andes chain. But             in Chile since the measures were
                              the mountains also prevent the           started, points to what has been
                              air from escaping, which is why a        achieved so far. Now, various
                              thick pall of smoke hangs over           standards provide the founda-
                              the metropolis in the winter. José       tions for emissions control. Petrol
                              Concha of the Sub-department             is lead-free, and most cars are
                              for Air Quality describes the con-       fitted with catalytic converters.
                              sequences: “Since the seventies,         3CV examines all new car models
                              more and more people have been           to see if they meet a wide range
                              dying of respiratory diseases,           of technical criteria before any
                              above all the elderly and childr-        import permit is granted. Second-
                              en.”                                     hand cars may no longer be
                                  Since the early nineties,Chile has   imported.The Revisión Técnica,
                              been pursuing an environmental           Chile’s Ministry of Transport
                              policy. A commission has already         (MOT), ensures that vehicles have
                              been dealing with the issue of air       regular technical inspections.
                              pollution in Santiago for twelve
                                                                       A visit to 3CV
                              years.In 1994, the National Envi-
                              ronmental Authority CONAMA                  The MOT’s Departamento de
                              was founded, and since 1998, a           Fiscalizatión carries out on-the-
                              plan for preventive measures and         spot inspections in the streets.
                              the improvement of air quality           The device the inspectors push
                              in the Santiago region has been          into the exhaust pipe with a long

                                                                                                               7   akzente special
    Photo: Frank Dursbeck




    Well over ten percent of the public transport vehicles fail the test and have
    to visit 3CV. The Chilean government intends to reduce industrial waste-gas emissions
    with agreements on cleaner production.

    rod before the driver who has          port, also with regard to environ-        As far as the technical aspects
    been stopped puts his foot down        mental requirements. Its influence     of the policy on air pollution con-
    in neutral looks like a giant micro-   is to be overcome by 2005.             trol are concerned, appraiser Fer-
    phone. Buses are also checked.         Correa has set his sights on the       nando Allende is cautiously opti-
    “Well over ten percent of the pub-     market. He wants to invite new         mistic.He says that air quality is still
    lic transport vehicles fail the test   tenders for public transport licen-    very poor, but that there have
    and have to visit 3CV,” Mario Pa-      ces according to areas. Foreign        been improvements over the twelve
    rada of the Departamento de            providers are to be given an           years in which readings have been
    Fiscalizatión says. Inspections do     opportunity as well.This is a truly    recorded – in spite of the fact that
    not always work.The Chilean gov-       drastic change.                        the city has been growing and
    ernment awards licences to pri-           Entrepreneur Edgardo Rivera,        traffic has been on the increase.
    vate inspection firms that issue       who operates 20 buses together         Allende states that depending on
    inspection certificates. A bus insp-   with a partner and manages a           the pollutant, there has been a
    ection station in Santiago had         further 80, is not willing to join     reduction of ten to 45 percent.
    to close temporarily because of        forces with his hard-baked col-        Rodrigo Pizarro of the NGO Fun-
    irregularities. Nevertheless, the      leagues. He is nevertheless critical   dación Terram also confirms that
    inspections are having an impact.      of the new policy, holding that        reducing particle emissions has
    Cheating one’s way around the          the government is bent on im-          been particularly successful, and
    Revisión Técnica can be expen-         plementing its plans in a one-         not only in road traffic.
    sive. Offering bribes will be to no    sided and technocratic manner             With agreements on cleaner
    avail because Chile’s police are       and without seeking a consen-          production, the Chilean govern-
    known not to be corrupt.               sus. Rivera claims that it is also     ment aims to reduce industrial
       Powerful lobbies are putting        ignoring that private car traffic      waste-gas emissions – also
    up a struggle against regulations      is responsible for a greater share     with GTZ as service provider –
    and inspections. Chile’s former        of environmental pollution than        and improve working conditions.
    Transport Minister, Germán Correa,     bus transport. So public passen-       Since 1999, an agreement ad-
    who is now in charge of the            ger transport should be given clear    dressing these issues has been
    reorganisation of local public         priority in comparison to car          in force with the important foun-
    transport in Santiago, has already     transport. Edgardo Rivera calls this   dries. One of them is the family
    identified his chief opponent:         an “integrated transport policy”   .   company Fundación Las Rosas
    the bus company mafia. Eager           However, Frank Dursbeck sees a         in Malloco, on the outskirts of
    to make short-term profits, this       danger of the reform being delay-      Santiago. Presenting the newly
    organisation opposes any reor-         ed and diluted if it is not imple-     installed equipment, company
    ganisation of public local trans-      mented in a determined manner.         head Rodrigo de la Fuente Raab

8
stresses the key problem. His         for greater integration of the            AMA. Environmental policy res-
company caters for the national       handful of NGOs into the political        ponsibilities and competencies
market. But his clients are indif-    process. Another issue it regards         are not always clearly defined
ferent towards environmental          as urgent is getting the popula-          in Chile.
criteria. All they are interested     tion more involved.                          However, all actors agree that
in is the price. “As long as the                                                there are crucial steps towards
                                      GTZ: an unblased broker
same rules do not apply for all                                                 a permanent improvement of air
suppliers, I am exposed to unfair         CONAMA Metropolitana, which           quality that have yet to be made.
competition with my company,”         is responsible for the Santiago           Further standards and moni-
maintains Fuente Raab.                region, is an important GTZ part-         toring procedures must be intro-
   “The greater frequency of smog     ner. Since there is no environ-           duced and improved. After the
alarms, which also results from       ment ministry in Chile, CONAMA            many minor and major successes
a lower smog early warning            is, inevitably, the first institutional   scored on the way towards
threshold, often creates the im-      contact whenever environmental            better air, it is now up to the
pression among the population         policy is concerned. However, the         Chilean government to make the
that air quality has deteriorated,”   question remains what authority           next move.The foundations that
says Frank Dursbeck. Karin Gauer,     and what forms of political pres-         policies can be developed on
who heads the GTZ team in the         sure CONOMA can exert on the              have been set.
Chilean-German project, con-          ministries. State under-secretary
cedes that there are still phases     Guillermo Díaz maintains that             The author is a freelance journalist
of very high pollution, but that      with CONAMA, environmental                who lives in Berlin.
they have become shorter. She         policy has been established as a
stresses that the public have to      cross-sectoral task in relation to
be made more aware of the en-         the ministries. Javier García and
vironment policy decisions, the       Claudio Blanco of CONAMA
problems and the success that         point out that problems with the
has already been achieved.            distribution of responsibilities
As far as air quality is concerned,   between the individual ministries
demonstrable progress has been        and CONAMA do exist. Rodrigo
made.                                 Pizarro is critical that CONAMA
   NGOs play hardly any role in       is of hardly any importance
developing and implementing           politically because it has no right
environmental policy. Allende says    to veto. He says that all important
that there is no relevant range       decisions are made by the minis-
of organisations in this sector.      tries. And the institutions respon-
Chile also lacks any broad-based,     sible for controls and implemen-
organised ecological movement.        tation are scattered among
A 2001 survey of the UN eco-          different ministries and not im-
nomics commission CEPAL calls         mediately subordinated to CON-

                                                                                                                       9   akzente special
                                                    A    s far as Roland Haas is concerned, three argu-
                                                         ments speak against air pollution in Malaysia:

A full range of                                     the large share of the population with asthma,
                                                    the expenses arising for the national economy
                                                                         .
                                                    and “my own nose” For Haas suffers from the

measures to pre-                                    exhaust gases in the centre of Kuala Lumpur, the
                                                    capital of this Southeast Asian country. When


vent air pollution                                  his sense of smell is once again being put under
                                                    duress,“the bus operators are my enemies,” Haas
                                                    claims. Actually, he is grinning when he says this,
In comparison to Santiago de Chile and              for this man cannot afford to have any real enemies.
                                                    On the contrary, as the GTZ team leader in the
Mexico City, Malaysia’s capital Kuala Lumpur        Malaysian-German Air Pollution Control project,
is a health resort. This augurs well for pre-       the Chief Technical Adviser, which is what it says
ventive environmental protection, which takes       on his visiting card, tends to be rather more of
                                                    a moderator.
all facets of air pollution control into account.      The task he and his partners are facing over the
Long-term concepts could turn the country           next three-and-a-half years can hardly be surpass-
into an example for the entire region.              ed in terms of complexity. What is at stake is
                                                    no more and no less than air purity throughout
                                                    Malaysia.“We have excluded the haze resulting
Christoph Hein, text | Uwe Rau, photos              from the burning of forests, above all in neigh-
                                                    bouring Indonesia, as a special issue. But with the
                                                    exception of that, we are interested in every kind
                                                    of air pollution,” says the 47-year-old.
                                                       The title of the Malaysian-German develop-
                                                    ment project that GTZ has been commissioned
                                                    to support by the Federal Ministry for Economic
                                                    Cooperation and Development (BMZ) is “Air

         10
Pollution Control in Malaysian Cities: Transport      tem to control air pollution in Mexico City,” says
               .
and Industry” Its contents affect almost every        Haas. Later on, Santiago de Chile became the
aspect of modern business life. The project ad-       next project of that type. It was at this point that
dresses cars and chemical factories, buses and        he was really taken with the complex issues
palm oil manufacturers, catalytic converters and      involved. They refused to let him go.
flue gas desulphurating, fuel quality and transport      The intensity of technical cooperation is forging
planning. Not only is the list of topics long, the    links. Today, Haas has a network of specialists that
list of contacts is as well.“We have talks with the   he can consult.“They are my Air Pollution Control
government and industry, with syndicates,             Flying Circus,” he jokes, referring to the British
investors and journalists, and with students and      comedians around Monty Python. The notion
ambassadors.”The topic of air pollution has to        of him as a circus director is not entirely inappro-
be communicated at all levels. And this means         priate. For it outlines Haas’ concept of modern
that in addition to the moderator, a specialist       project work:“Normally, it is enough to have a
is also required for communication aspects for        single expert on site who can get advice and
environmental protection and urban transport          support from outside at any time while attempts
planning as well as for organisational develop-       are made in parallel to integrate local experts.”
ment. And what should not be forgotten is the         Not only does this approach, which can perhaps
technician who is familiar with motors, and the       best be described as lean, cut costs. It also ensures
diplomat who wins over ministers.                     that international top-class specialists can always
                                                      be consulted for those issues they are really
A network of experts
                                                      needed for: to describe the problem, for solution
   Roland Haas, originally a forwarding agent by      proposals and for canvassing. In Malaysia, Fer-
profession who has now been with GTZ for nearly       nando Menéndez, who used to be head of the
20 years, worked as a transport economist after       Environmental Commission for the Metropolitan
graduating in economics. In Zambia, Somalia and       Area of Mexico City, had already joined in twice
Saudi Arabia, he was involved in developing na-       when important workshops were held. Since the
tional transport plans. It was almost inevitable      successful technical cooperation on Air Pollution
that he should focus his attention on environ-        Control in Mexico City, this Mexican has been
mental protection and on becoming a specialist         “something of a specialist shadow” to Haas.
on air pollution control.“In 1989, GTZ commenced
                                                      A model for prevention
the first project to set up and implement a sys-
                                                         Anyone who is familiar with the traffic gridlock
                                                      in Manila, pollution in Jakarta and traffic jams in
                                                      Bangkok will inevitably ask why GTZ wants to help
                                                      clean the air in Malaysia, of all places. In Kuala
                                                      Lumpur, in a green city.“At first, that was exactly
                                                      what I asked myself, too,” the GTZ team leader says.
                                                      “After Mexico, I had the feeling that I was involved
                                                      in air “purification” in a health resort,” he laughs. But
                                                      then he gets serious again: “For one thing, as yet
                                                      we are not at all certain what the air here contains.
                                                      And another aspect is that Malaysia can turn into
                                                      a wonderful example of preventive environmental
                                                      protection before everything is too late, serving
                                                      as a model for other countries in the region.”
                                                         Unlike the neighbouring model state of
                                                      Singapore, which is often regarded as somewhat
                                                      patronising in the region, what Malaysia has
                                                      achieved and how it has developed is regarded
                                                      as exemplary by many countries. For Malaysia is a
                                                      typical emerging country with rapid industrial
                                                      development that training levels of people in many
                                                      areas have ultimately failed to keep pace with. “This
                                                      is where we have a role to play,” Haas maintains.
                                                      “The country has enough potential. It only needs
                                                      to be recognised, promoted and made use of.”
                                                         Since the Asian economic crisis, the country has
                                                      recovered by pursuing a rigid policy of isolation
                                                      and enhancing domestic demand. The Gross
                                                      Domestic Product is expected to grow by at least
                                                      four percent this year. What appears to be a good
                                                      prospect for people at first glance does in fact

                                                                                                                  11   akzente special
                 bear enormous and partly invisible long-term            fulfils the legal standards,” says Haas. Only the
                 risks. For instance, car sales are estimated to have    commercially used diesel vehicles are required
                 increased by at least six percent to around             to have exhaust gas inspections twice a year.
                 420,000 units in 2002. In Malaysia, a car is a status   And here, they can fiddle. In the case of cars, the
                 symbol that demonstrates power and bears                regulations only apply to new vehicles. But, for
                 a virtually limitless fun factor.“The country is car    example, even the new but technically rather
                 crazy,” says Haas. And what he means by this is                                 ,
                                                                         obsolete Proton “Saga” Malaysia’s VW Beetle, still
                 that only a loud exhaust pipe is a good one.            roars through the streets of the city without
                 The attitude the Germans had towards their              being forced to comply with the standards for
                 NSU Prinz in the sixties and to their Opel Manta        newly developed vehicles.
                 in the eighties is coming back with a vengeance            The GTZ team leader is no spoilsport. True,
                 in Malaysia. And this is creating new problems.         he doesn’t like Formula I, which runs on the new
                                                                         circuit in Sepang, the pride of the country, as South-
                 The law and reality
                                                                         East Asia’s only Grand Prix. The circuit is not far
                    However, the country is not starting from scratch    from his office. Haas calls it “a symbol of motor-
                 in environmental protection. In 1974, the Malaysian     mania” . Nevertheless he does not want to see cars
                 government passed the “Environmental Quality            banned altogether. Rather, they ought to be im-
                 Act” which represented a modern and far-reaching
                     ,                                                   proved technically. “A catalytic converter must be
                 set of regulations at the time. Only recently,          a matter of course, and we have to introduce the
                 the “National Policy on the Environment” was            standards Euro III and, in the long run, Euro IV,”
                 published. It provides for an extensive public edu-     says Haas, but adds that “it is not only the catalytic
                 cation campaign on the situation.                                                                .
                                                                         converter that makes us really happy” Far more
                    “Actually, they’re good here,” Haas says.            is at stake than an “end of the pipe” solution, filters
                 The regulations and laws are all in place. The Euro     at the end of the exhaust pipes or chimneys.
                 I exhaust gas standard was introduced in 1998,          “If we have regulations on the improvement of
                 seven years later than in Europe. Euro II followed      fuel quality by July 2003, then I have really paid
                 in 2001, five years after Europe. There are environ-    my way. And it really would be superb if we could
                 mental laws, lead-free petrol has been available        manage to develop a corresponding monitoring
                 since 1998, and the environmental authority is          and enforcement programme in addition.”
                 currently increasing its staff by 1,000 to a total
                                                                         Sustainable planning
                 of 1,500. Nevertheless,“a lot only exists on paper”.
                 For there are still problems in implementation at          In the long run, an overall concept will be
                 a practical level.                                      needed. The Malaysian-German programme has
                    For example, air quality readings are taken,         a very broad approach. Swift improvements are
                 but they have not been published since 1999.            one aspect. In the medium term, the GTZ team
                 Another example is cars. There are no prototype         and its counterparts are asking themselves where
                 tests in which new models are thoroughly inspec-        industrial sites should be developed, where
                 ted by an independent authority before they             residential areas would be preferable and how
                 are approved for the market.“In other words, the        traffic flows can be managed. Over the next few
                 companies operating here give themselves their          years, two or three cities will be selected as model
                 own stamp of approval that their new model              cities with a future based upon an urban devel-
                                                                         opment plan. “We want to develop an overall
Measures to prevent air pollution                                        strategy up to the level of urban development in
                                                                         advance,” Haas explains.“It could take one or two
Air Pollution Control for Malaysian Cities: Transport and Industry       decades before it has an impact.”
The goal: The objective of the project is to strengthen                     The GTZ team leader carries out his day-to-day
the effort of Malaysian authorities to improve the air quality           work in a modern office in Putrajaya. This is the
in Malaysian cities.                                                     country’s pompous seat of government. It was
                                                                         developed on the drawing board and is situated
The concept: The project aims at all aspects of air pollution            40 kilometres away from the city gates of Kuala
control: emission standards and enforcement for vehicles and             Lumpur. Here, the trees are still young, and the
industries, fuel quality, urban development and transport                lakes are artificial. But the air is cleaner than in
planning, social participation and communication, data quality,          the capital. When Haas looks out of the window,
regional environmental management and technology transfer                he sees the Ministry of Transport. The project is
as well as cooperation with the private sector.                          based in the Department of the Environment
The Partners: The Department of Environment of the Ministry              at the Ministry of Science, Technology and the
of Science, Technology and the Environment (MOSTE),                      Environment.“We have received a warm welcome
universities, the private sector                                         here, and we are being taken very seriously,”
                                                                         the GTZ official sums up his experience during
The costs: 2.5 mill. euro for one long-term expert for up to             the first few months. The project is based on
four years and numerous short-term consultants                           government negotiations between Germany
(local, regional and international), information visits, etc.            and Malaysia in the spring of 1998. The German

           12
Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and            added to the 800 million ringgit that the haze
Development (BMZ) is supporting the project              alone produced by the forests being burnt
with 2.5 million euro for four years.                    down costs each year. But well over one-and-
    Now that the infrastructure has been establish-      a-half billion ringgit is a huge amount of money
ed, the foundations for the project’s own activities     for an emerging country like Malaysia. Moreover,
have to be created. This includes an ongoing             the data show that the asthma rate here is above
dialogue with a wide variety of groups in order to       4.2 percent. In comparison, it is 1.5 percent in
draw the attention of the public at large to the         Germany.“Now we need new data that we our-
issue of preventing air pollution. In addition, data     selves gather and then have evaluated,” Haas says.
have to be gathered and an emissions inventory           “Once we have it, and therefore also the inventory,
compiled.“In simple terms, in order to decide            we can pinpoint the shortcomings.”
whether you first of all want to deal with industry
                                                         Open-minded partners
or the vehicle owners, you must know what the
air actually contains.” There are 50 air measuring           However, collecting the data is merely the
monitoring stations throughout the country.              beginning of this Sisyphean task. In order to
Each of them has a value of around 100,000 euro.         ensure that petrol is clean, the project staff have
But only one of them stands in the city of Kuala         to talk to the Ministry for International Trade and
Lumpur, and only three in the Klang Valley, the          the Ministry for Domestic Trade, with the Ministry
metropolitan area of Kuala Lumpur. Not enough,           of Transport and the Ministry of Energy as well
since more than three million people live there          as with the fiscal authorities. And of course with
and own more than 1.8 million vehicles.                  the manufacturers themselves.
“The Malaysians are now fitting an existing air              There do not seem to be any reservations against
monitoring vehicle with new equipment,” says             advice from Germany:“Nobody over here will
Haas. A German specialist will then be flown in to       turn down help if it really is helpful,” says Jarina
assist in planning and implementing the mobile           Mohammed Jani. This assistant of the team leader
measuring programme.                                     has worked for environmental NGOs for a long
    “The data is very important. Not only does it pro-   time.“The people here must not think: first we
vide clues to the urgency of the individual stages       had the Japanese, then the Americans, and now
of activities, but it is also an argumentative aid in    it is the Germans’ turn,” Jani says.“Here, we have to
our talks with politicians,” says Haas. Here, he sees    prove daily that we are serious about things and
himself in the right position: “GTZ is free of partic-   that we are here to stay.”
ular interests. I do not have to give special consid-        What is also helpful is that the activities to prevent
eration to anyone in my arguments – this is what         air pollution have useful side-effects. Environmental
I find especially interesting.” Here, the moderator      protection is not opposed to industry.“This is al-
can become very outspoken: “We have to show the          ready a truism nowadays,” Haas says.“We also want
politician that he will poison his children and those    to open up market opportunities.” For instance, he
of his fellow countrymen if he does not change           will bring together a German medium-sized man-
his policies. We have to show the entrepreneur           ufacturer of catalytic converters with a Malaysian
that he himself is partly to blame for the expen-        producer of exhaust pipes – and is also looking
sive sick leave of his staff by polluting the air.”      forward to permanent relations at this level.
    Data is on hand to underscore this. Two older
studies show that air pollution is costing the           The author is the economics correspondent of the
government an annual 800 million ringgit, the            Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung for the region of
equivalent of 210 million euro. This has to be           South-East Asia and China. He lives in Singapore.

                                                                                                                      13   akzente special
Measuring labs on patrol
The analysis took a year. Afterwards,
an accurate stocktaking of air
pollution in Damascus was on hand.
These records are a first for Syria.
There is no Syrian city in which the
experts are harder upon the heels of
the air polluters.
Elena Kurze, text | Sébastien Hauwaert, photos




I  t’s rush-hour in Damascus.
   In the historic centre of Syria’s
capital, the cars are having a
                                       Ministry in Damascus, supervise
                                       15 air quality monitoring stations.
                                       The locations they drive to are
hard time weaving their way            part of a Syrian-German Air
along the arterial roads, which        Quality Monitoring Programme
are completely blocked even            that the BMZ commissioned to
when traffic is normal. The route      GTZ in 1997.
out of town leads through the             The initial one-year analysis
imposing city gates. At peak           phase yielded a detailed inven-
periods, air pollution is especially   tory of ambient air pollution
strong around these bottle-            in Damascus. The data is all the
necks.                                 more important since such
   The Bab Touma city gate is          high-quality material has not
the junction with the highest          been gathered in any other city
pollution levels. In none of the       in Syria yet. GTZ provided the
city’s other districts do so many      technical equipment and spe-
pollutants float around in the air     cialist advice and training of
as they do here. This is why the       the staff from the Environment
hotspot Bab Touma belongs to           Ministry and its technical envir-
the daily compulsory programme         onment authority.
of the mobile measuring lab                                                  still have to do a lot more re-        Small environmental hazards.
                                       A city map with unknowns
that GTZ is assisting with funds                                             search. What we really could do        Domestic diesel stoves are the second
provided by the German Federal            Once the mobile monitoring         with is 600 permanent sampling         biggest polluters in Syria.
                                                                                                                    The fuel they use emits hight leverls of
Ministry for Economic Coopera-         unit has completed its tour of        stations, like in Berlin, to gain      sulphur dioxide.
tion and Development (BMZ).            the everyday traffic jams, the        a detailed picture of what air
Two measuring instruments              computers at the environmental        pollution is like.”The environ-
that look like antennae trace the      authority are fed with the latest     mental experts hope that they
dangerous pollutants: sulphur          daily data. For one year, the eva-    will be able to extend their
dioxide, nitrogen monoxide,            luations have been producing          mission and their technical
nitrogen dioxide, carbon mono-         the same picture. Rawnak Jab-         capacities. Three permanent
xide and particulate matter.           bour knows the districts with a       monitoring stations are to be
After a half-hour detection            high level of combustion gases        added.
phase, the lab team withdraws          only all too well. Together with         The programme to monitor
the measuring probes again             her male colleagues, this staff       air quality is to provide those pol-
and drives on to the next traffic      member is compiling the topo-         itically responsible in Syria with
junction.                              graphic maps with a computer          meaningful data on which to
   Ahmed Kamel and Rawnak              programme. “We are only ge-           base their environmental policy
Jabbour, the two scientific assis-     tting a short glance,” Rawnak         decisions. The situation in Da-
tants from the Environment             Jabbour says, and she adds: “We       mascus is critical. In the Eastern

             14
Mediterranean region, the             the concentration of particulate      consumption is the most im-          quality of the fuel used in the city.
Syrian capital heads the list as      matter is three times the level       portant indicator in a realistic        Today, around 17,000 mini-
far as air pollution is concerned.    of the German standard,” says         comparison,” says engineer           buses are run in Damascus. Their
A disproportionately high popu-       Rawnak Jabbour. It is above           Ahmed Kamel. He is involved          numbers are rising by around
lation growth of 3.7 percent          all the diesel-powered vehicles       in an in-depth analysis of these     25 percent a year. Competition
as well as economic growth in         that contribute to air pollution.     problems in a seminar run by         among the private minibus ope-
all branches of industry have         “The poor quality of fuels            GTZ in Berlin.                       rators keeps the fares low. The
exacerbated the environmental         extracted in our country has                                               public transport network of Da-
                                                                            Small buses with a big impact
problems and, therefore, the          a considerable impact on air                                               mascus, which had been working
need to take action. Four issues      pollution“, he adds.                     The minibuses are notorious       fairly well until the beginning
are at the top of the list: a cata-      There are far fewer cars in        air polluters. Each of these buses   of the eighties, fell into decline
logue of air quality standards,       Damascus than in European             covers 400 kilometres a day,         owing to flagging investment.
an improved public transport          cities with a similar number of       running on diesel fuel from          Nowadays, convoys of mini-
system, alternatives to heating       inhabitants. Compared to Berlin,      Syria that has a particularly high   buses are a ubiquitous feature
with diesel stoves and more           there is 14 times less road traffic   level of pollutants. But emissions   of Syria. Serious consideration
stringent measures to deal with       in Damascus. But in spite of a        inspections are not compulsory,      must be given to how they can
polluters.                            significantly lower vehicle den-      and catalytic converters are         be regulated while the attrac-
   Road traffic is the worst air      sity, Damascus has the same lev-      too expensive. Moreover, they        tiveness of public transport is
polluter. “In a number of zones,      el of fuel consumption. “Petrol       have not been adapted to the         simultaneously enhanced.

                                                                                                                                    15    akzente special
                    “One minibus is operated by           A campaign to phase out               “We want to persuade people
                 three families. Day and night            diesel stoves                         to buy solar systems,” the
                 rides are dealt with in shifts,”            The diesel stoves are the sec-     engineer says. However, owing
                 says Yahia Awaidah, who is the           ond biggest polluters. They also      to the high import tax, they are
                 Syrian co-ordinator of the envi-         strongly contaminate the air          still too expensive at the mo-
                 ronmental programmes. He                 with sulphur dioxide. There is        ment. Kamel:“The solar systems
                 stresses that 51,000 families            hardly a private household in         ought to be produced domes-
                 would have a problem with                Damascus that does not use            tically so that we can achieve
                 income “if we were to consider           Mazut, which is what the fuel is      a minimum price level for the
                 withdrawing the minibuses”        .      called in Syria, for heating in the   whole of Syria.” Electric heating
                 Yahia Awaidah refers to the so-          cold months from November             is a further alternative. But at
                 cial aspect of the forthcoming           to March. The stoves, which do        present, switching to electricity
                 environmental campaigns as               not cost more than 25 euro,           only pays its way for very small
                 “a veritable challenge“. This is         can be bought everywhere in           homes with several cohabitants
                 why the programme has adop-              town. And Mazut is cheap as           or for companies with cramped
                 ted a two-track approach. Invest-        well.                                 office facilities. Finding suitable
                 ments in public transport are               Now, the Syrian Environment        solutions is difficult. And then
                 to generate new jobs. Loosen-            Ministry has planned a cam-           there are the bureaucratic
                 ing of import tariff regulations         paign to get rid of the diesel        obstacles. The more ministries
                 for minibus operators will               stoves. Ahmed Kamel intends           are involved in the decision-
                 provide incentives to invest in          to draw the population’s atten-       making process, the longer it
                 new vehicles. Soon, lead-free            tion to affordable alternatives.      takes.
                 petrol will be available at filling
                 stations in all of the major
                 cities.
                    Only around half a dozen filling
                 stations offer lead-free petrol
                 in Damascus. And as yet, some
                 places in the country have not
                 made any preparations in this
                 respect, which makes longer
                 journeys difficult. “It is still early
                 days,” says Ahmed Kamel.


Basic data for environmental
protection
The context: Environmental politicians in
Syria lack reliable data they can base decisions
on for air pollution control in the country’s
large cities and industrial areas.
The goal: An environmental programme
finances viable approaches out of a fund for
the environment.
The concept: GTZ consultants support the
government in designing project approaches,
defining areas of activity, making appraisals
and working out concepts and implementing
them as pilot projects.
The partners: The Syrian Ministry of the
Environment and its bodies, district
administrations and local communities.
The cost: GTZ is supporting Technical
Cooperation in the Environmental Protection
Programme for the urban and industrial
sector in Syria with 1.7 million euro.




           16
                                       Alarming waste studies
                                       The open landfill to the north of the Syrian city of   stances, which certainly represents a health
                                       Homs covers the nearby residential districts with      hazard,” says Al-Hussein. “When we look at the
                                       stench. The smell comes from the organic waste         location chosen in the past for fertiliser produc-
                                       that the abattoirs dispose of there,” says Moham-      tion, all we can say is that this was more than just
                                       mad Ali Al-Hussein, deputy head of the City of         a mistake,” says Yahia Awaidah at the Ministry
                                       Homs Environmental Authority. The mixture of           of the Environment in Damascus. So far, no
                                       rotting organic substances, waste containing           special criteria have been applied in selecting
                                       heavy metals and household rubbish is contami-         industrial zones. But this is going to change,Yahia
                                       nating the groundwater.                                Awaidah maintains.
                                       The local environmental directorate would like to      The population is getting increasingly angry
                                       have the problem solved as soon as possible.           about environmental pollution. It has called on
                                       A GTZ study revealed the magnitude of environ-         the government to take tougher action. Charges
                                       mental pollution in Homs as well as in the towns       pressed by residents affected have revealed
                                       of Tartous and Banias. First of all, Homs’ old open    many instances of environmental pollution.
                                       landfill is to be sealed. In addition, GTZ con-        However, Yahia Awaidah complains that environ-
                                       sultants suggested that waste be treated               mental legislation makes no provisions for any
                                       mechanically and biologically in order to keep         sentencing. Nevertheless, it has been possible
                                       the volume of waste small, and that this be achiev-    to close down two state cement factories that
                                       ed at minimum cost. Since March 2002, a staff          had been proven to have committed environ-
                                       member of the Centrrum für Internationale Mi-          mental offences. “However, this has to be done
                                                                                              very diplomatically. And in no circumstances do
                                                                                              we wish to create the impression that we are
   Now, after nine years, the                                                                 working against industry,” says Awaidah. Private
much-needed investments                                                                       enterprises appear to be more willing to com-
in public transport have been                                                                 pare the consequences of threatening downtime
made: 600 new buses upgrade                                                                   with expenditure required for more environ-
the urban bus fleet.The national                                                              mentally friendly production than the state
action plan for the environ-                                                                  enterprises are.
ment that the Syrian govern-
                                                                                              Adviser for small businesses
ment developed jointly with
the United Nations Develop-                                                                   In Syria, GTZ is promoting urban and industrial
ment Programme (UNDP)                                                                         environmental protection by providing consulta-
and the World Bank has a much                                                                 tion for small and medium-sized enterprises.
greater volume.                        gration und Entwicklung (CIM) has been in Syria        Around 5,000 workshops have established them-
   The rise in the national            to optimise waste management methods on the            selves in the industrial zone on the outskirts
budget for the environment             spot.                                                  of Homs, which is already 30 years old. On aver-
to 500 million Syrian pounds –         The waste problem is especially serious in the in-     age, each company has ten staff. Project member
six times more than in the past        dustrial location of Homs, Syria’s third largest       Mohammad Ali-Al-Hussein is giving advice to
– comes at the right moment.           town. It is the site of the country’s most impor-      several enterprises operating in the field of
Syria is making up for time            tant oil refinery, which is also held to be the re-    recycling and reuse of material. His advisory
it has lost in environmental           gion’s worst air polluter. The textiles and sugar      activities have paid their way. Next to the express-
protection.                            manufacturing companies are creating problems          way to Damascus, around 40 km south of
                                       as well. Nearly all the industrial companies           Damascus, a newly designated industrial zone
The author is a freelance journalist   discharge their water from the production pro-         has been developed since 2002.
who is based in Brussels.              cess into the Orantes River without having it
                                       filtered, or they let it seep into the surrounding     Suleiman Kalo says that incidents occur relatively
                                       fields. Engineer Suleiman Kalo and chemist             seldom in zones like these with a straightforward
                                       Al-Hussein know that the two largest fertiliser        concept. The head of the environmental author-
                                       manufacturers in Homs contribute their fair            ity in Homs is rather more concerned about
                                       share to environmental pollution as well.The two       “one and a half million tons of phosphorous that
                                       men used to work for the fertiliser industry before    has simply been left to rot four miles away from
                                       taking up responsible posts in Syrian environ-         the factory“. Or about the oil refinery’s com-
                                       mental administration in the Homs region.              bustion generator failing. For extremely highly
                                       Many substances and by-products of the                 contaminated oil sludge then escapes into the
                                       fertiliser industry are very complex and pose          environment. The storage tanks arriving weeks
                                       health risks. Temporarily, they are bunkered in        later are just a temporary solution. “We have no
                                       the desert.“Together with our German partners,         real scope of action,” says Kalo.
                                       we are presently looking for specific solutions to
                                       defuse this volatile mixture of chemical sub-          Elena Kurze

                                                                                                                                  17   akzente special
Breathing in the smog
          Mexico City more or less stands for smog
          in conurbations. Its fast-growing industry
          and rapidly increasing traffic are stifling
          the inhabitants of the metropolis.
          Following a decade of systematic analysis
          and forward-looking planning, improve-
          ments are now in sight. Integrated air
          pollution control programmes have taken
          the sting out of the alarming pollutant levels.
          Friedhelm Mensing




          T    he Mexican government’s
               emergency programme was
                            .
          called “Red Alert” This drastic
                                              almost four percent annually.
                                              And every day, more than 3.5
                                              million cars are driven around
          title was prompted by the fact      the city. The biggest problem
          that air pollution had reached      is ozone pollution, which has
          an extent in Mexico City in         reached enormous levels and
          1989 that had left the Mexican      often enough exceeds air quality
          government with no other            standards three to four fold.
          option but to pull the emergency       The Mexican authorities had
          brake. Pollution in the mega-       already started to monitor and
          city with 18 million inhabitants    analyse increasing air pollution
          was two to three times above        in the eighties. Since 1989, a
          accepted international values.      legally prescribed exhaust gas
             When the authorities sound-      test has been statutory for all
          ed the "Red Alert", every car was   powered vehicles. However,
          prescribed a one-day driving        when the anti-smog programme,
          ban each week in order to tack-     which was given wide inter-
          le air pollution with sulphur,      national support, got off the
          carbon monoxide, ozone and          ground, it once again became
          other substances that are health    apparent that neither the data
          hazards. However, the prescribed    basis of the emission register
          compulsory break was not near-      nor the efficiency of the exhaust
          ly enough. Small wonder really,     gas tests were sufficiently main-
          for more and more companies         tained. Therefore, GTZ and the
          were settling in the low-lying      TÜV (the German authority that
          valley of the mega-city. Today,     does technical vehicle inspec-
          there are over 30,000. The popu-    tions) initially helped to extend
          lation is growing at a rate of      and upgrade the measuring

                                                                19   akzente special
                           station network. State-of-the-art     extracted at the petrol pumps             More stringent checks and
                           exhaust gas measuring appara-         via modern suction nozzles.            emission limits have also been
                           tus safeguarded against manip-            The governments of Mexico          in force for industry since 1993.
                           ulation was procured, and the         City and the neighbouring              It has been estimated that around
                           testing centres were re-organ-        Federal state therefore decided        20 percent of PM-10 emissions
                           ised.                                 to introduce the modern suction        are due to the 4,000 stationary
                              Today, Mexico City has one         nozzle technology in the Mexico        sources in the region. A depart-
                           of the most modern networks           City area. Funding was secured         ment of the Mexican Environ-
                           for air pollutant monitoring with     by a special levy on petrol.           mental Ministry of Health is
                           around 40 measuring stations.             The curbs that have been           controlling firms ranging from
                           The new emissions register            imposed on road traffic range          the small and medium-sized
                           provided what first appeared          from the complete phasing out          enterprises in the residential
                           to be a surprising result. It was     of leaded petrol through driving       areas to the large-scale compa-
                           demonstrated that the hydro-          bans on one working day of             nies of the food and chemicals
                           carbon vapours emitted when           the week for all vehicles that do      branches. This authority will not
                           the cars were filled at petrol        not meet prescribed exhaust            hesitate to suspend production
                           stations represented the second-      gas standards to the compulsory        if a company fails to comply
                           largest emission source in the        fitting of catalytic converters.       with its requirements and con-
                           urban area. Owing to obsolescent          In one of the few clear days,      tinues to emit more than 117
                           equipment, huge amounts of            the inhabitants of Mexico City         milligrams of PM10 per cubic
                           these vapours, which are formed       can admire an impressive pano-         metre of air into the sky.
                           above the fuel level, are were        rama.The massive volcanoes of             Now, industrial firms have to
                           released in Mexico City from the      Popocatepetl and Iztaccihuatl          convert their industrial plant
                           tanks of cars, filling stations and   tower majestically over Mexico’s       step-by-step to environmentally
                           industrial plants.The released        capital.The 18-million-inhabitant      friendly fuel consumption and
                           vapours, dangerous precursor          metropolis is surrounded by            lower their production by 30
                           substances for the formation of       a magnificent backdrop of five         percent if a smog alarm is raised.
                           ozone, can however now be             thousand metre mountains. But             In the meantime, air quality
                                                                 only all too often, it is impossible   has improved considerably in
                                                                 for the people of Mexico City          Mexico City, where the number
                                                                 to admire this grand prospect.         of days with a smog alarm drop-
                                                                 If the weather is inclement, the       ped from 77 in 1991 to three
                                                                 mountains prevent air exchange,        in 1999. It will take a long while
                                                                 so that yellowish brown smog           before the all-clear can be sound-
                                                                 usually hovers over the city.          ed. Nevertheless, the figures
                                                                 And the longer there is no wind        speak for themselves.
                                                                 blowing, the thicker and more
                                                                 dangerous the mixture of pol-          The Cologne-based author
                                                                 lutants becomes.                       is a journalist specialising in
                                                                                                        development issues.
                                                                 A tour de force in Mexico City
                                                                   In smog, particles are invol-
                                                                 ved that are smaller than
                                                                 ten micrometres (PM10) and
                                                                 are inhaled.




     Spot checks on motorists. Policemen and technicions
     controll cars as an emission source in Mexico City.




20
21   akzente special
The mantra of energy saving
More than two-thirds of India’s electricity comes from technologically obsolescent

coal-fired power stations. The environmental hazards pollute the air, and there

is no telling when this will stop. On the contrary, industrialisation is eating up more and

more energy. Saving energy and environmental protection are an indivisible issue.

Rainer Hörig, text | Oliver Soulas, photos
E     ach winter, a ten million square kilometre
      bubble of dust, soot and poisonous gases
develops above the North of the Indian Ocean.
                                                        Huge black pits have been eaten into the ground,
                                                        and dust and soot darken the tropical sun. Most
                                                        of the inhabitants are crowded into shabby colonies
In the spring of 2001, an international team of         around vast mountain ranges of detritus. Just two
scientists came to the conclusion that,“given the       generations ago, smallholders were tending their
size of the population, the situation in Asia is be-    parcels of land here, and the original inhabitants
                                         .
coming more and more threatening” Is there still        were gathering honey and herbs in the forest. In
time to stop the collapse of the world’s climate?       the late fifties, a large-scale dam banked up the
   The World Health Organization (WHO) claims           water of the River Rihand. Later, rich coal deposits
that India’s largest metropolises, Mumbai, New          were discovered close to the artificial lake that
Delhi and Calcutta, with more than ten million          could be used to generate electricity.
inhabitants each, already rank among the cities            Today, five large-scale power stations, an alu-
with the highest levels of air pollution world-         minium smelting plant, two cement factories and
wide. The biggest environmental hazards are car         a chemical factory stand on the shores of the lake.
traffic and the energy industry. Almost two-thirds      The power stations, which have a total output
of India’s power supply is provided by tech-            of 7,000 megawatts, are supplied with fuel from
nologically obsolescent coal-fired power stations.      nine coal mines via conveyor belts, and they are
Millions of cars, lorries and scooters billowing        cooled with water out of the lake. They burn
forth fumes and several thousands of factories          27 million tons of hard coal a year, and more than
craving energy are polluting the air. Even the          20,000 tons of ash containing heavy metals
villages suffer from smog in an inversion climate       accumulate every day. It is mixed with water and
during the winter. The rural households cook their      then pumped into giant sedimentation basins
meals on countless open fires that are fuelled with     on the shores of the artificial Rihand Lake. Since
wood, dried cow-dung or harvest waste.                  the pipes sometimes leak and bursting dams
   Singrauli is India’s energy capital. Rows and rows   or flooding occasionally wash away large quanti-
of chimney-stacks reach into the sky on the edge        ties of the poisonous sludge, the groundwater
of the Ganges Plain, south of the city of Varanasi.     in Singrauli is now contaminated over wide areas.

                                                                                                               23   akzente special
In the artificial lake, a drinking-water reservoir
for a million people, experts have detected traces
of poisonous substances including cadmium,
arsenic and nickel.
   Germany is involved in developing the Indian
energy sector, a task that figures high in bilateral
development cooperation. In 1961, the German
Development Ministry started to support Indian
manufacturers of turbines, coal mines and the
construction of power stations, spending more
than a billion euro in all. Well over 87 million
euro in German taxpayers’ money flowed into
the Singrauli project. This policy secured many
a contract for German plant and equipment
makers.“Half of the output currently installed
in Indian fuelled power stations is based on
Siemens technology,” says Harminder Singh,
who is responsible for the power station sector
at Siemens India.

Focusing more on energy efficiency
   Unlike in most industrialised countries, India’s
economic growth of five to seven percent a year
is still closely linked to an increase in energy
consumption. And because the population is still
growing rapidly at around two percent a year
and the country’s industry wants to catch up with
the lead the industrialised nations enjoy and
hold its own in international competition, the
government has planned a massive expansion
of energy capacities.“We intend to increase the
generating capacity of our power stations from
a current 100,000 MW to double that amount
over the next ten years,” India’s Energy Minister
Suresh Prabhu announced, and on the occasion
of Federal Chancellor Gerhard Schröder’s visit
in October 2001, he invited German industry to
participate in the mammoth programme. This
was a tempting offer, although it did have its
pitfalls. Again and again, German energy corpora-
tions have been the target of criticism from
environmentalists and human rights campaigners
for getting involved in controversial power
station schemes in India, such as the dams on
the Narmada River and in Tehri.
   Forced expulsion because of large-scale projects,
mismanagement in inflated administrative
bodies, brazen theft of electricity by slum in-
habitants and industrial corporations or everyday
power cuts suffice to demonstrate that India’s
energy sector is in a severe crisis. The country
urgently requires better power supply. For years,
experts have demanded that the public electricity
industry be privatised, but following the energy
crisis California experienced early in 2001 and
the first and largest private power station project,
in Dhabol/Maharashtra, going bankrupt, this
mantra has lost its appeal. Although it seems
certain that India will be building several more
coal-fired power stations over the next few years,
a new idea is gaining more and more ground
that could render some of the environmentally

            24
harmful large-scale projects superfluous: saving        New Delhi set up a new department, the Energy
energy.                                                 Conservation Cell.“It is much cheaper to save
   “Energy is used very inefficiently in India,” says   a megawatt of electricity than to produce it,” says
Girish Sant, a young engineer who deals with the        its Director, Shashi Shekhar, and adds:“We have
energy industry from the consumer perspective           launched a programme to modernise existing
in the citizen’s action group Prayas-Pune.“Industry     power stations and grids. The recently approved
is working with obsolescent machinery, pumps            Law on Energy Saving obliges certain corpora-
and motors. The irrigation pumps used in agricul-       tions to conduct an energy audit and defines
ture have a ridiculously low level of efficiency,”      standards for the energy consumption of mass
he maintains.“Private households are wasting            consumer goods that will later on be reflected
electricity with conventional light-bulbs and           in labels for the consumer. The newly established
technically obsolescent household appliances.”          Office for Energy Efficiency is responsible for
With his colleagues from Prayas-Pune, Girish            developing these standards.”
Sant initiated a survey of the energy sector in the        It is two hours by car to the small town of Hapur,
Federal State of Maharashtra, and he worked out         east of New Delhi. Century Laminates Limited
the costs of expanding and improving power              are the largest local employers, with a staff of
supply using 16 different scenarios. He concludes:      800 employees.“We manufacture laminates for
“The cheapest way is to save energy, and it is also     the furniture industry,” says plant superintendent
the most environmentally friendly way. Determined       Nagendra Singh, and adds that the factory is the
saving could reduce additional energy demand            largest of its kind in India.
by 30 to 40 percent.”                                      Century Laminates are the market leaders in
   During the nineties, the World Bank established      India, and run a modern plant. The factory yard
a potential of just under a third for India’s           is spick-and-span, while the workplaces with the
industry to save energy. The Energy Ministry in         gluing and hot-pressing machines are well illumi-




                                                                                                                25   akzente special
     nated and ventilated. Daily power consumption
     is at 10,000 kilowatt hours. In order to become
     independent of the irregular and strongly
     fluctuating public power supply, the company
     operates its own diesel generator, which provides
     power for 150 electric motors as well as other
     installations. A steam boiler fired with wood chips
     provides the process heat required for pressing
     and gluing, which is a novelty.“This fuel is both
     environmentally friendly and cheap,” says Nagen-
     dra Singh.
        “The company spends an annual 25 million
     rupies on energy,” states Rajesh Jain. This is the
     equivalent of well over half a million euro.
     This young energy consultant, who has been
     examining the laminate factory for three months,
     comes up with a huge potential to save energy.
     “Our analysis shows that in the longer term,
                                                                                                                 Efficiency is
     the company could save six million rupies a year,     their energy effort and worked out proposals to
                                                                                                                 the keyword.
     mainly in heat consumption, but also in electricity   economise,” Kaupp explains.“An efficiency audit       Energy consulting
     consumption. We recommend that the machines           revealed that the respective plants implemented       is emerging as
     be modernised so that they work more efficiently.     an average 70 percent of our proposals, although      a new branch of
                                                                                                                 industry in India.
     Organisational processes could be streamlined         this did take several years in some cases.”
     in order to minimise energy wasting.” Much of this       Albrecht Kaupp usually advises large-scale
     could be achieved without costly investments,         enterprises on how to save energy, where he can
     the expert says. What would be ideal is a plant       normally reckon with appropriate technical
     for the co-production of electricity and process      expertise as well as the adequate financial scope
     steam. But this would be up to management to          for implementation.“Experience has shown that
     decide. Plant superintendent Singh welcomes           half of the saving effect can be achieved merely
     the proposals:“If they pay their way, we will of      with improved housekeeping and management,
     course introduce these improvements. That goes        so that larger investments are not required,” the
     without saying.”                                      GTZ expert says. But it is precisely this aspect
                                                           that is often more difficult than the procurement
     A project with a saving philosophy
                                                           of new machinery. Restructuring work routines
       GTZ in New Delhi is supporting the efforts the      often meets with resistance among the workforce.
     laminate factory at Hapur is making. For six years,   The prime incentive for an efficient use of energy
     the GTZ (German Technical Cooperation) has            is the financial savings it entails. Albrecht Kaupp
     been commissioned by the German Federal               and his team are co-operating with small con-
     Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Develop-        sulting agencies and are establishing a qualified
     ment to support the Indian Energy Ministry’s          staff of energy consultants.
     measures to save energy.“In the first project            S. Ramaswamy, Kaupp’s colleague at the Energy
     phase, which covered four-and-a-half years, we        Ministry, has been working for the newly estab-
     worked together with the Tata Energy Research         lished Bureau for Energy Efficiency, an expert
     Institute in Bangalore,” says Albrecht Kaupp, the     group of the Energy Ministry, since December
     GTZ project co-ordinator. The project supports        2001. The Bureau is to work out implementing
     30 to 50 large companies a year.“We examined          regulations for the new Law on Energy Saving.

26
Here, the emphasis is mainly on standards              technical innovations for saving energy costs.
and norms for energy consumption in certain            So a new industrial branch is emerging: energy
branches of industry.“We intend to achieve this        consulting.
in close coordination with the companies                  The international debate on the protection
concerned. And we want to develop a sort of            of the climate is certainly going to boost this
eco-label that would inform the consumer about         kind of business. In the Kyoto Protocol, the
the energy consumption of mass consumer                parties agreed on what is known as the Clean
products such as televisions and refrigerators,”       Development Mechanism (CDM).This mechanism
says Ramaswamy.                                        provides for industrialised countries to credit
                                                       reductions in levels of pollution they have
Energy consulting as a business sector
                                                       achieved to their own account. Albrecht Kaupp
   Is efficiency now going to become the new           hopes that German Technical Cooperation will
mantra of Indian energy policy? Support cannot         succeed in qualifying for this in terms of energy
be reckoned with from all sides, for you can hardly    efficiency and environmental protection in
grow if all you do is save. Insiders put the illegal   the near future and win points for Germany. For
earnings of large-scale power stations and similar     greater energy efficiency means less emission
projects at around 20 percent of the investment        of harmful substances.“So we are contributing
costs. These are millions that fill the pockets of     to climate protection here. I am sure that CDM is
corrupt politicians and bureaucrats without any        going to encourage further efforts and will make
tax being paid. Industrialists have raised objec-      India more competitive,” says Kaupp.
tions to a further system of controls that could
impede their business. But there is another trend      The author is a freelance journalist who is
as well. India’s largest industrial federation, CII,   based in New Delhi.
organised a seminar on energy saving in the
Southern Indian city of Puna in December 2001.
Local firms such as Cummins India and Marshall
Forbes, who are among the country’s leading
mechanical engineering companies, presented

                                                                                                           27   akzente special
     Clean air in cities
     Effective air pollution control is the litmus test of urban

     environmental policy. It will be successful if the principles

     of integrated air quality management are observed.

     In order to prevent emissions on a sustainable basis, GTZ takes

     technical, political and social factors into consideration.




     To the inhabitants of many cities in the industrialised countries, blue skies go without saying. The fact
     that levels of pollutants in urban air are comparatively low in spite of massive industrial activity and
     heavy traffic is a result of years of tough struggles to establish air pollution control. But anyone going
     to Mexico City, Santiago de Chile, Beijing or Bangkok will suddenly once again experience what it is like
     when the sky no longer turns blue.
     In many cities in the developing countries, air pollution is an everyday concern. Across the world, 1.4 billion
     people are inhaling air with pollution levels above the standards recommended by the World Health
     Organization (WHO). Sometimes the concentration of the pollutants is three to four times as high.
     Figure 1 shows the situation in a number of megacities for three selected criteria pollutants in comparison
     to Paris. The strain on the cardiovascular system, diseases of the respiratory tract and an increased risk
     of cancer are shortening life expectancy in the cities. According to WHO estimates, around three million
     people die each year owing to the impact air pollution has on health. Air pollution also affects the water
     and the soil. It harms ecosystems and damages historic buildings.
        The pollutants are created by the combustion of fuels and fossil energy sources. So the transport sector,
     manufacturing industry and the energy sector are the biggest air polluters. Using the example of Mexico
     City, Figure 2 demonstrates the shares of some particularly harmful pollutants that result in damage to
     health and the environment to a considerable degree. The situation is similar in other cities. It is above
     all the high levels of emissions from vehicles that cause concern. The numbers of cars are enormously
     increasing in the rapidly growing cities. The OECD estimates that the global number of motor vehicles
     will be in excess of 1.3 billion by 2020. In most Asian cities, the motorised two and three-wheelers also
     make a considerable contribution to air pollution. The dynamic growth of the population, industry and
     cities aggravates the problem.

     Uncontrolled urban sprawl
        A second important factor in air pollution is urban, transport and settlement planning that is either
     lacking or misconceived in many cities. Uncontrolled urban sprawl, poor suburban public transport
     systems and sticking to the paradigm of the “car-friendly city” make many people dependent on individual
     motorisation. Not only does a policy promoting traffic generate growing air pollution levels, it also
     increasingly results in traffic jams and puts an excessive strain on an infrastructure that is usually
     insufficient anyway. Given an average growth rate of cities – especially in Asia – of up to eight percent
     annually, traffic volumes are expected to double every seven years. Prolonged transport planning taking
     up to ten years – which is usually the case in the industrialised countries – can hardly be practicable

28
here anymore. All that can help is an integrated transport, urban and settlement planning approach that
aims at avoiding traffic. However, such concepts have hardly ever been tested so far.
   The third key cause of air pollution is the insufficient environmental policy framework of many coun-
tries. Giving consideration to a sustainable environmental and health policy is deliberately postponed to
the advantage of short-term economic growth interests. And often, public awareness is lacking of the
air pollution control problem and solution options and opportunities. In spite of dramatic air pollution
levels in Mexico City and Santiago de Chile, no experience was gathered with air pollution control
until the early 1990s. Even today, important legal foundations are still not in place in many countries.
Equipment, qualifications and the ability to assert positions against the opposition of ministries of
economics and transport are lacking.
   Against this background, it is difficult to respond to the problem of air pollution in an appropriate
manner. Nevertheless, more and more countries and cities are finding suitable approaches. International
development cooperation has made a significant contribution to this trend. International platforms such
as the World Bank Clean Air Initiative (CAI), local Agenda 21 processes, the International Council for Local
Environment Initiatives (ICLEI) and several local city networks in various continents are enabling an in-


µg/m3                                                                                                     Alarming values.
                     PM          SO2           NO2                                                        Just under one-and-
  450
                                                                                                          a-half billion people are
  400                                                                                                     breathing in air with
                                                                                                          pollution levels above
  350             WHO guideline                                         WHO guideline                     the limit values
                  for NO2: 40 µg/m3                                     for SO2: 50 µg/m3
  300
                                                                                                          recommended by the
                                                                                                          WHO. Sometimes the
  250                                                                                                     concentration of the
                                                                                                          pollutants is three to
  200                      WHO guideline for
                                                                                                          four times higher.
                           particulate matter:
  150                                90 µg/m3                                                             The diagram shows
                                                                                                          the situation in a
  100                                                                                                     number of megacities
   50
                                                                                                          for three selected
                                                                                                          pollutants.Paris is shown
    0                                                                                                     in comparison.
        Beijing       Shanghai         Paris         Calcutta   Delhi       Mumbai          Mexico City   Source: The World Bank


                                                                                                                                      29   akzente special
     tensive exchange of knowledge and experience between politics, science, associations, civil society and
     industry. This paves the way for more effective steps towards an integrated air pollution control
     policy combining several aspects.

     Four aspects of integrated air quality management
         The first task of an integrated air pollution control policy is to gather better information on air quality
     and pollution sources. So one key element of air pollution control is to establish a reliable air measuring
     and inventory system enabling statements on conditions and forecasts of future developments.
     Not only is carefully ascertained information the basis of all decisions on air pollution control, it also
     raises their credibility and acceptance by the public.
         The second factor of an integrated air pollution control policy is that the most important contributions
     to air pollution control first of all have to be effected among the chief emitters. As a rule, simple
     and tried-and-tested methods are available for this purpose. In the transport sector, for instance, they
     include: lead-free petrol, improved fuel quality, cars fitted with catalytic converters, converting bus
     fleets running on diesel to compressed natural gas (CNG), improved emissions standards and technical
     inspections for motorised vehicles as well as tax differentials favouring compliance with low emissions
     standards. Many countries are already orienting themselves on the emissions standards and procedures
     of the European Union and the United States.
         Much is being achieved with filtering units in the energy and industrial sector. Ecologically efficient
     concepts are very effective as well. Here, so-called end-of-pipe solutions are simply not enough.
     Rather, the aim is to prevent emissions by applying an innovative and clever design of production
     processes and industrial plant. Our development specialists recommend that easily achievable goals
     be tackled first. In this manner, important experience in improving air quality can be gathered and
     public acceptance can be raised, which gets the processes going. Gaining speed in this way is important.
     For in view of the prolonged problem solutions, technology alone is not going to be enough – especially
     if it is getting more and more expensive and increasingly elaborate for any additional reductions.
     Moreover, if energy and fuel consumption is reduced on a lasting basis, emissions of both air pollutants
     and greenhouse gases will be reduced.Thus air quality management also makes effective contributions
     to climate policy.
         The third aspect of integrated air pollution control is that of complementing technical means with
     urban development. Here, the accent is on maintaining success in air pollution control that can, as a rule,
     be easily achieved with technical measures, on a lasting basis. For given the continuing growth of the

30
 100%                                                                        Major sources of air pollutants in
                                                                             cities include transport (mobile sources
  90%
                                                                             such as cars, trucks, buses etc.),
  80%                                                                        the energy sector, industry and housing.
                                                                             In some cities, e.g. Mexico City, volcanic
  70%                                                                        activity contributes significantly to
                                                                             pollutants such as Particulate Matter
  60%
                                                                             (PM10).
  50%

  40%

  30%

  20%
                                                                                 other sources
  10%
                                                                                 natural sources
   0%                                                                            point sources
          PM10         SO2         CO           NOx          VOC
                                                                                 mobile sourcces



cities, industries and traffic flows, there is the threat of a relapse into increasing pollution in the longer
term. Such a threat has to be countered with suitable urban, settlement and transport planning.
The most important target is to reduce traffic flows without restricting people’s mobility wherever possible.
This can only be achieved if people in the cities can switch to other, attractive means of transport in
the long run (public transport, non-motorised transport). Gentle political pressure exerted by fuel and
road taxes can accelerate this modal shift. In addition, it is important to enhance the capabilities and
capacities of environmental administrations.The authorities have to be appropriately staffed and qualified
to plan, co-ordinate, finance and effectively assume overall control of an air pollution control policy.
The key prerequisite for successful air pollution control is a clear political commitment and a medium-
term strategy that sets an obligatory course. National and urban environmental action plans, which have
already been developed and successfully implemented in some countries, are important steps in this
direction (e.g. the Third Air Pollution Control Programme in Mexico City, 2002-2010).
   Modern air quality management includes all options to avoid emissions on a lasting basis.
Short-term actionism or purely symbolic measures are not helpful. Nobody wishing to achieve sustained
improvements in the quality of life will manage this without integrated air pollution control. The
integrated philosophy also includes creating environmental awareness among the population and
involving trade and manufacturing industry, the transport industry, NGOs, science, the media and
civil society. Our partner countries have had good experience with support given by GTZ and its
integrated approach. Ultimately, the ability and readiness of the cities to initiate an integrated air pollution
control policy are the litmus tests for an effective environmental policy in developing countries. When
people experience that the sky above their cities really can get blue again, this will release energy for
sustainable development.

The author is a member of the GTZ Division for Environment and Infrastructure.

                                                                                                                          31   akzente special
     Twins for better air quality
     Old and new EU Member States are unalike twins.
     To make them swiftly adapt to each other, twinning projects
     are being run in the agricultural and health sectors, in the
     judiciary, in industry and in environmental protection.
     In the Czech Republic, everything centres on the EU stan-
     dards for better air quality.
     Matthias Supé



     R     einer Strauß travelled to Prague as assistant
           head of a government department.
     He returned to Munich as an honorary member
                                                              polluting the air with its iron foundries and steel-
                                                              works. Nowhere in what is now the Czech Repub-
                                                              lic was it dirtier than here in Kladno in 1990.
     of the Czech Chimneysweep Guild. This distinc-           Thanks to the shut-down of many factories and
     tion came as a surprise, but it was nevertheless in      major industrial plants, the situation has improved
     the nature of things. For anyone campaigning             considerably since then. Nevertheless, air pollu-
     for better air quality will find several allies.         tion levels are still high. Reiner Strauß and his
     Familiarising all of them with the EU standards for      German, Austrian and Czech colleagues had
     better air quality was the most important task           a closer look at the city. His conclusion is that
     that the head of the Department for Air Quality at       “an exemplary, simple action plan can be worked
     the Bavarian Ministry of the Environment had set         out for Kladno“.
     himself in the past two-and-a-half years.                   In the basin-shaped valley the urban district
        When it joins the European Union, the Czech           of Svermov is located in, the inhabitants are
     Republic, one of Germany’s neighbouring                  troubled by a very fine dust, so-called PM10 dust.
     countries, will have to maintain EU air quality          The wind whirls it up from the numerous unmet-
     standards and observe the limit values. By then,         alled secondary roads. The habits of the locals
     European regulations will have to be adopted             only add to the problem. Instead of using long-
     by Czech law. In order for the regulations to apply,     distance energy or gas for heating, they prefer to
     administrations will have to be in place to im-          burn cheap wood and coal.“Around 40 percent
     plement them in a competent manner. All this             of dust emissions in the Czech Republic originates
     is to be accomplished according to schedule with         from such sources,” Strauß complains. And he
     European support. The instrument it requires is          adds:“This is why we suggested a law or official
     twinning.                                                regulations requiring that private fireplaces be
        The concept of twinning incorporates accession        controlled and maintained by chimneysweeps,
     partnerships in which experts from ministries,           just like in Germany.”
     administrations and other institutions of the               The EU experts also gave important advice
     Member States cooperate to reach precisely               on how to measure the pollutants. Although the
     defined targets. Twinning projects help the future       Czech Republic already installed a modern
     EU countries of central and eastern Europe to            measuring network with computer-controlled
     adapt to forthcoming requirements. “Here, we can         measuring stations shortly after the political
     contribute valuable experience with air pollution        transition, the country does not yet meet the EU’s
     control,” says Rainer Strauß. The 160 pages of the       latest requirements. The ordinance for the
     twinning agreement determine what expertise              measurement of PM10 dust has only been in
     is required for: to develop administrative structures    force for three years. And this measurement is
     or to improve the monitoring system for air quality      complicated. Because the automatic equipment
     standards. Two classic examples demonstrate how          frequently overheats, part of the dust evaporates,
     air pollution can be reduced effectively.                which falsifies the results. Only comparative
                                                              measurements with other apparatus can guarantee
     An exemplary action plan
                                                              consistent findings and ensure that, from 2005
         Kladno, with a population of 110,000, was a          on, the stringent EU limit values of 40 millionths
     suitable initial location for a demonstration.           of a gram per cubic metre of air can be observed.
     It is Central Bohemia’s largest city, and this is also      These are the detailed references that the
     where anthracite coal was found for the first            Accession Candidates expect from their twinning
     time in 1846. Since then, heavy industry has been        partners. Germany is the leading advisor. Around

32
170 twinning projects, which amounts to every         and foreign specialists. Countless talks, workshops,
fourth scheme in the programme, have been             seminars and local inspections have been sub-
launched by Germany since it was started in 1998.     sequently arranged.
Various Federal Ministries have commissioned
                                                      The focal point of transit
GTZ to support the projects. The air pollution
control project in the Czech Republic has been           Often enough, the twinning contract also
headed by the Federal Ministry for the Environ-                                          ˇ
                                                      brought the experts to Litomér ice. In this northern
ment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety.         Bohemian town, too, there is considerable
The GTZ Twinning Office in Berlin also supports       demand for an exemplary action plan for air
the Federal Ministry of Finance with the imple-       pollution control. The focal point here is the
mentation of the twinning programme as a              through road with an extreme volume of transit
whole in Germany. Not only are there twinning         traffic. It is a typical hotspot for which the EU
schemes for the environmental sector but for          guidelines prescribe regular measurements.
all areas of the acquis communantaire. Advice         However, there are hardly any measuring stations
is required wherever European ordinances and                                                       ˇ
                                                      for dust and nitrogen dioxides in Litomér ice.
regulations have to be complied with: in the          This is why the final report of the twinning experts
agricultural and health sectors as well as in the     urgently recommends small, transportable stations
judiciary or in industry. Often, the projects form    and suggests how car exhaust fume levels can
a continuation of bilateral partnerships with the     be reduced in the short and long term: by opera-
countries of eastern Europe that have already         ting restrictions for vehicles that do not have low
been in existence since the political transition in   pollution levels, sulphur-free fuels or emissions
these regions. One favourable side-effect in          test-based road tax.
this context is that the EU is now paying for the        The Czech partners see to it that the twinning
projects.                                             results are put on the Internet and environmental
                                                      organisations such as the NGO Arnika are invited
Twinning helps
                                                      to take part in deliberations on new legislation.
   “Twinning helps the Member States to forge or      In the meantime, the society of the Czech chimney-
extend close links with the future members,”          sweeps has also been firmly integrated into
says Bettina Fellmer, who is Team Leader for the      the twinning programme. For the time being, it
Environment at the GTZ Twinning Office and            is only monitoring small, commercial firing places.
Project Manager for the Air Pollution Control         However, Reiner Strauß, the honorary member
Programme in the Czech Republic, which is being       of the Czech Chimneysweep Guild, would look
funded with 700,000 euro out of the PHARE             forward to seeing his Czech colleagues soon
programme. Twinning can also influence “how           having a say in monitoring private household
                                          .
administrative structures are developed” This is      fireplaces as well.
an important aspect for German industry, Bettina
Fellmer stresses. After all, the companies wish       The author is a freelance journalist in Munich.
to see well-established European standards in
place in the future eastern Member States.
And Germany’s direct proximity to eastern Europe
is a further reason for its involvement in twinning
schemes in the environmental sector. Bettina
Fellmer points out that “much of the environmental
pollution has a direct impact on Germany”   .
   Cross-border air pollution is not new. The
sulphurous cat-muck stench that wafted over to
Bavaria from the northern Bohemian brown coal
                         ˇ
gasification plant of Vresová in the early eighties
is legendary. Reiner Strauß was already forging
links at the time.“Good partnerships simply
take time to grow,” the qualified meteorologist
comments. Czech colleagues requested his
cooperation personally. In the application
procedure for the project, Germany ultimately
beat its rival Italy and was awarded the contract
to implement the twinning project in collabo-
ration with partners from the Czech Environ-
mental Ministry, the inspectorates, the Hydro-
meteorological Institute and many other local

                                                                                                             33   akzente special
                                             Poor air quality

                                             In many urban areas throughout the world,
                                             inhabitants should be reminded, and visitors
                                             welcomed, with warning signs.

                                             Air pollution has reached alarming levels,
                                             often causing severe damage to human health,
                                             and resulting in approimately 3 million premature
                                             deaths annually. Cancer risk increases as air
                                             quality degrades.

                                             Poor air quality in urban areas is mainly caused
                                             by combustion of fossil and other fuels, by
Contact:                                     industries, households and vehicles, and by forest
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische         fires and dust.
Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH
Environment and Infrastructure Division      Fast growing cities, inadequate urban planning,
Dag-Hammarskjöld-Weg 1-5                     strong preferences for individual motorised
P.O. Box 5180                                transport, growing industries applying outdated
65726 Eschborn                               technology, the use of poor quality fuels or coal,
Germany                                      etc., further cause urban air quality to deteriorate
or by mail to transport@gtz.de. Also visit   and pose a severe challenge to urban air quality
our website http://www.gtz.de/transport      management.




                                             Deutsche Gesellschaft für
                                             Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ ) GmbH
Our approach

GTZ´s approach to Air Quality Management
(AQM) is based on a comprehensive set of
integrated services. We support our partners by
providing advisory services aimed at:

   improving institutional and legal frameworks for
   AQM
   introducing and monitoring emission and fuel
   quality standards
   improving vehicle inspection and maintenance
   strengthening institutional capacities
   improving air quality monitoring and information
   promoting the integration of AQM in urban
   planning and transport planning
   improving social communication, public
   awareness and public participation in AQM
   promoting international cooperation in AQM
   networks and initiatives.




                                                           Our experience
                                Healthy
                                                           For more than 15 years GTZ has provided advisory
              Society                        Environment
                                    A                      services for AQM projects in more than 20 countries.
                               sustainable                 At present, more than 30 ongoing GTZ projects
                                  state
                                                           cover a wide range of air pollution issues, including:
                        Just              Efficient
                                                              integrated AQM strategies for megacieties
                                Economy
                                                              legal reforms for EU member candidates
                                                              (“twinning”)
                                                              environmental action planning
                                                              sustainable urban development in eco-cities
                                                              eco-efficient production
                                                              cleaner coal and household energy.

                                                           The highest quality of advisory services and tech-
                                                           nical assistance is constantly guaranted through
                                                              a dense network of local and regional GTZ
                                                              offices with longstanding experience in more
                                                              than 160 countries
                                                              a large network of international experts on
                                                              all aspects of AQM
                                                              close cooperation with other donors, private
                                                              sector companies and the consulting industry
                                                              constant monitoring and quality management
                                                              in all projects.
Deutsche Gesellschaft für
Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ ) GmbH

				
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