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Introduction to Toddlers

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					Section 3




            Early Learning Guidelines for Toddlers
                    a. Young Toddlers (12 – 24 months)

                     b. Older Toddlers (22-33 months)




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Introduction to the Toddler Stage (12 months – 33 months)
The toddler stage of development is one characterized by a tension between the desire for independence (I CAN do it!) and the need for continued
dependence on a trusted caregiver (I NEED you!). Toddlers are unique social beings. They are maneuvering their way at becoming social beings;
however this requires lots of assistance in managing relationships with peers. The need to be self-sufficient and competent begins to emerge along
with problem-solving skills. Through their explorations toddlers understanding of the world changes from the discovery and function of things to
the purposeful manipulation and investigation. Toddlers need a secure base that supports their need for exploration and discovery. This secure
base is a consistent, loving, and affectionate relationship with a trusted adult. Then they can begin trying out their independence, returning
frequently to the adult for guidance, affection, and reassurance. Toddlers are not yet equipped with the complex expressive language skills often
relying on body language, gestures, single word phrases, and physical overtures to form the basis for their social interactions. As language skills
develop, toddlers have more success in communicating their needs to playmates. Young toddlers often enjoy playing next to or nearby a friend,
while older toddlers begin to enjoy more cooperative aspects of play.

Physically, toddlers begin to lose the unsteady side-to-sidewalk that characterizes the early months of the stage. As they grow and become more
adapt in movement toddlers begin to have better coordination and balance. This leads them to practice running, galloping, and two-footed
hopping. Throughout toddlerhood and towards the end of this stage, limbs and torso are longer and leaner causing toddlers to lose that “rounded”
baby appearance. With this toddlers gain greater control over their small motor skills increasing their ability to use their hands to manipulate small
objects. Since a toddler’s grip still involves the entire hand the wider the manipulative, the better. As they grow and their experience increases,
toddlers begin to use the forefinger and thumb to manipulate materials write, color, and paint.

Toddlerhood is also marked by a significant effort for mastery in self-help skills. The “I can do it myself” attitude permeates toileting, feeding,
dressing routines and daily routines. This self-guided mastery will build a toddler’s sense of self-competence and self-esteem. Toddlers need
opportunities where they are encouraged and successful in their quest for self-help skills. Caregivers should allow toddlers some control and
choices throughout their day to support their increasing independence. Toddlers will need encouragement to try new things and support in their
exploration of various roles and experiences.

Throughout toddlerhood language development, both expressive and receptive, takes on new importance. Mastery of language is another step on
the road to independence for a toddler. Language in all of its forms and complexity opens a critical door for a developing toddler. Whether playing
with a friend, communicating a need to an adult, or listening to a story read aloud, language is powerful and functional, creative and fun - just the
elements needed to entice a toddler into interactions. Singing, reading, chanting, and rhyming are all delightful means of exposing children to the
gift of language. Toddlers enjoy the sound of their own voice, often babbling, screaming and making noises with their mouth. Later they enjoy
announcing “mine!”, and asking “why?”. In addition to the pleasure of sound, toddlers’ ability to communicate with the world around them is
supportive of their growing independence.
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Intellectually, toddlers are actively constructing their own knowledge. Their ability to hear, see, smell, taste or touch their immediate environment
empowers toddlers to gain concepts, practice skills, and solve problems. This is primarily done during play. Toddlers practice early numeracy skills
through sorting by color or other attributes. The water table enables them to learn about basic geometric skills such as size, volume, quantity and
conservation. Toddlers also begin to develop their imaginations. This is shown by their ability to hold picture in their minds, to use scribbles and
marks to recreate an image on paper, to pretend in the housekeeping area, and to tell a story. The magic of symbolic thought opens the door to
more complex play with peers, to developing shared perspective, and to practicing human interactions. Allowing toddlers adequate time and space
to play, whether they are simply imitating a trip to the grocery store or creating a new version of a favorite story, is important for healthy growth
and intellectual development.

Caregivers should be sensitive to the range of development and individual needs that occur for children 18 to 36months of age. Activities and
materials that are appropriate for 36 month old children may not be appropriate for the 18 month olds. Learning occurs when experiences are
meaningful and individualized to the toddler and their specific needs. Toddlers need ample time to fully participate in experiences especially daily
and caregiving routines. Caregivers need to be patient and understand that learning will often look messy and disorganized during this stage of
development.

A note to caregivers:
Working with toddler can be both exhilarating and frustrating. Adults who work with young children should always take into consideration the care
of themselves as a caregiver. It is recommended that caregivers take breaks during the day to renew their energy. In addition caregivers should be
aware of their own needs and finding ways to meet those needs to reduce their stress levels.




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Social Development in Toddlers
Social Development encompasses a child’s ability to relate to and interact with people. Relationships are a foundation to children’s social
development. Toddler’s are experimenting and learning the dance of interactions that occur between themselves and the people around them.
Interactions with toddlers should be respectful and responsive to their needs and skills.

Through intentional interactions toddlers gain a sense of trust and understanding of the world around them. Adults are models of behavior and
culture (both their own and acceptance of the child’s family culture). This modeling is a constant source of information for the toddler and their
ability to respond to the world around them. Strong positive interactions are the basis and prime time for learning experiences to occur.



The Learning Guidelines for Social Development for toddlers are:

       The child-

              Forms relationships with consistent adults.

              Forms relationships with peers.




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Learning Guideline: The child forms relationships with consistent adults.
Indicator                                           Young Toddlers (12-24 months) MAY:                       Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences

SD23. The child shows a preference for certain      -smile when approached by specific adults.               - Make eye contact with children during routine times such as feeding, diaper
adults.                                                                                                      changing, and cuddling.
                                                    -cry when parents or special educators leave the room.
                                                                                                             -Provide regular and purposeful interactions that include holding and cuddling.

SD24. The child develops a bond with both family    -look for specific adults.                               -Respond to children with facial expressions, actions and words.
and non-family members.
                                                    -respond to verbal cues of familiar adult.               -Encourage children’s bonding with both family and non family members.

                                                    -want to be held by only one specific adult.

SD25. The child is responsive to familiar adults.   -walk/run to adult.                                      -Respond to children verbally when unable to provide physical comfort.

                                                    -vocalize or call for one specific adult.                -Recognize when child is with following your directions or interactions.

                                                    -follow simple directions from familiar adult.

SD26. The child seeks assistance from adults when   -insist on help from specific adult.                     -Provide assistance when child seeks it.
needed.


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                                                    -cry for help.                                                  -Allow child to take lead when interacting.

Indicator                                           Older Toddlers (22 – 33 months) MAY:                            Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences

SD27. The child shows preference for certain        -ask for familiar adult by name.                                -Care provided by a primary educator for a minimum of 8 months before any
adults.                                                                                                             transition to a new group.
                                                    -seek specific adult for interactions and comfort.
                                                                                                                    -Provide regular and purposeful interactions that include holding and cuddling.

SD28. The child develops a bond with both family    -cry for familiar adult when facing a challenging situation.    -Respond to children with facial expressions, actions and words.
and non-family members.
                                                    -seek only specific adult for comfort.                          -Encourage children’s bonding with both family and non family members.

                                                    -insist on one familiar adult over another.

SD29. The child is responsive to familiar adults.   -follow directions of familiar adults.                          -Respond to children verbally when unable to provide physical comfort.

                                                    -recognize when familiar adult is speaking to them and listen   -Provide time for one-to-one interactions where child is engaged with
                                                    when adult is talking.                                          educator.

SD30. The child seeks assistance from adults when   -follow familiar adult around.                                  -Provide assistance when child seeks it.
needed.
                                                    -lead adult to or bring things to adult to show adult.          -Allow child to lead play and interactions during day.




Learning Guideline: The child forms relationships with peers.
Indicator                                           Young Toddlers (12-24 months) MAY:                              Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences

SD31. The Child notices, relates to and             -cry or become distressed if another toddler cries.             -Group of children is consistent with little movement of children to
becomes attached to people around the                                                                               other groups.
child’s own age.                                    -watch other children.
                                                                                                                    -Provide toddlers with opportunities to be around and observe other
                                                    -seeks specific children for regular interactions.              children, including those slightly older than themselves.

SD32. The child is responsive to other              -reach out to touch peer’s face, hair, or other body            -Name and label appropriate touch while supervising peer interaction.
children.                                           part.                                                           (i.e. “Gentle touch” while gently stroking the child’s arm).

                                                                                                                    -Verbally recognize and label the children’s interaction. (i.e. “I see you
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                                                -grab for an object a peer is holding.                  looking at Sam. Say hi Sam I am Joe”).

                                                -pinch or bite other children.

SD33. The child begins to engage in play with   -smile, laugh or talk to another child.                 -Encourage peer to peer play with close supervision for toddlers.
peers.
                                                -move towards another child.                            -Model behavior for toddlers through respectful responses or what
                                                                                                        children CAN do as opposed to what they cannot do (i.e. ”You can put
                                                -play near other children.                              your feet on the floor”).




Indicator                                       Older Toddlers (22 – 33 months) MAY:                    Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences

SD 35. The Child notices, relates to and        -imitate other children’s play.                         -Group of children is consistent with little movement of children to
becomes attached to people around the                                                                   other groups.
child’s own age.                                -watch other children with interest.
                                                                                                        -Provide toddlers with opportunities to be around and observe other
                                                                                                        children, including those slightly older than themselves.


SD36. The child is responsive to other          - talk to other children.                               -Verbally support children in interactions. (i.e. “Tell Sam-- I don’t like
children.                                                                                               when you hit me. Hitting hurts me”).
                                                -hit, pinch or bite other children even when
                                                unprovoked.                                             -Verbally recognize and label the children’s interaction. (i.e. “I see you
                                                                                                        looking at Sam. Say hi Sam I am Joe”).

SD37. The child begins to engage in play with   -engage with other children on minimal level.           -Encourage peer to peer play with close supervision for toddlers.
peers.
                                                -play next to other children.                           -Model behavior for toddlers through respectful responses or what
                                                                                                        children CAN do as opposed to what they cannot do (i.e. ”You can put
                                                -begin to engage in cooperative or give and take play   your feet on the floor”).
                                                with other children.




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Emotional Development in Toddlers
Emotional development is defined as the understanding the self, feelings and regulation of behavior. (Martin and Berke 2010) Emotional
development is based on the child's secure attachment to his/her caregivers. Emotional development should be supported through consistent,
responsive and caring relationships and routine. Toddlers need to be supported in their expression of feelings, development of self-awareness and
ability to self-regulate.

The Learning Guidelines for Emotional Development for toddlers are:

       The child-

              Experiences and expresses a range of emotions.

              Develops an understanding of and an appreciation for his/her uniqueness in the world.




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Learning Guideline: The child experiences and expresses a range of emotions.
Indicator                                            Young Toddlers (12-24 months MAY)                       Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences

ED17. The child is supported in his/her              -cry intensely even when all the basic needs are met.   -Responsive care providing comfort and recognition of child’s distress or
expression of a range of emotions.                                                                           unhappiness.
                                                     -smile or laugh at others.
                                                                                                             -Recognition of distress (i.e. “You seem upset” rather than “It’s okay”).


ED18. The child recognizes his/her own feelings.     -appear distressed when approached by an unfamiliar     -Labeling expressions. (i.e. “You are laughing! You must be happy”).
                                                     person.

ED19. The child is supported in the development      -bite, pinch, or hit to express themselves.             -Provide comfort and holding when a child seeks it.
of self control.
                                                     -seek special person or adult.                          -Recognition when child is successful. (i.e. “I see you were able to help
                                                                                                             yourself!”)

ED20. The child begins to develop strategies to      -suck their thumb.                                      -Allow child to meet their own physical needs or sucking through the use of
manage his/her expression of feeling with support                                                            their thumb.
from educators.                                      -seek special object, toy, or blanket.
                                                                                                             -Supportive transitions from activity to activity with preparation of transition
                                                                                                             for children (i.e. “In five minutes it is time to clean up”).

ED21. The child begins to demonstrate                -refuse food or activity when disliked.                 -Supportive experiences where children have valid choices (i.e. “You can have
understanding of their own likes and dislikes.                                                               water or milk”).
                                                     -refuse to stop activity when liked.
                                                                                                             -Supportive experiences where children are allowed long periods of time to
                                                     -insistence of particular food that it liked.           engage in activities they enjoy.

Indicator                                            Older Toddlers (22 – 33 months) MAY:                    Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences

ED22. The child is supported in his/her expression   - laugh and express enjoyment of activities             -Recognition of child’s response to activities or situations. (i.e. “WOW- you
of a range of emotions.                                                                                      seem happy you must really enjoy playing in the water!”)
                                                     -hit or kick when frustrated or angry.
                                                                                                             -Recognition of distress. (i.e. “You seem upset” rather than “It’s okay”).
                                                     -cry, scream, or yell.

ED23. The child recognizes his/her own feelings.     -verbally tells adult they are sad.                     -Labeling expressions. (i.e. “You are laughing! You must be happy”).




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                                                    -verbalize likes and dislikes.                                     -Supportive in the child’s recognition and responsive to child’s need.

ED24. The child is supported in the development     -participate in enjoyable activities for longer periods of time.   -Supportive experiences where children are allowed long periods of time to
of self control.                                                                                                       engage in activities they enjoy.

ED25. The child begins to develop strategies to     -seek assistance or comfort when feeling challenged.               -Allow child to meet their own physical needs or sucking through the use of
manage his/her expression of feeling with support                                                                      their thumb.
from educators.                                     -ask for help from adult.
                                                                                                                       -Provide assistance when child seeks it. Allow child to be part of the process
                                                                                                                       rather than doing something for or to child.

ED26. The child begins to demonstrate               -refuse to participate in activities.                              -Supportive experiences where children have valid choices (i.e. “You can have
understanding of their own likes and dislikes.                                                                         water or milk”).
                                                    -“sulk” or “tantrum” when refused anything.
                                                                                                                       -Supportive transitions from activity to activity with preparation of transition
                                                                                                                       for children (i.e. “In five minutes it is time to clean up”).




Learning Guideline: The child develops an understanding of and an appreciation for his/her uniqueness in
the world.
Indicator                                           Young Toddlers (12-24) MAY:                                        Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences

ED27. The child recognizes her or himself as a      -express distress (cries or yells) when special people leave.      -Meets and recognizes children as people with wants and needs.
person with an identity, wants, and needs.
                                                    -recognize or identify self in mirror.                             -Provide opportunities where children are the focal point of the educator.

                                                    -insist on particular food or activity that it liked.

ED28. The child develops a sense of self            -demonstrate or show adult task or achievement.                    -Provide multiples of popular toys and equipment for all children’s use.
confidence through their abilities and
achievements.                                       -seek specific objects and toys that they have used                -Provide equipment and manipulatives where children can be success but still
                                                    successfully in the past                                           challenged (i.e. stacking blocks, linking beads, and pop beads).

                                                    -take possession over toys or special objects. (“MINE!”)

ED29. The child develops self worth through         -smile at familiar adults and children.                            -Emotional support in attempts of care and independence. (“I am here if you
respectful and responsive interactions.                                                                                want help”).


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                                                 -refuse to stop activity when liked.                           -Appreciate the child’s efforts through verbal recognition. (i.e. “I see you are
                                                                                                                trying to hang your coat!”)



Indicator                                        Older Toddlers (22-33 months) MAY:                             Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences

ED30. The child recognizes her or himself as a   -label or take possession of objects or toys (i.e. “Billy’s    -Meets and recognizes children as people with wants and needs.
person with an identity, wants, and needs.       Book!)
                                                                                                                -Provide opportunities where children are the focal point of the educator.
                                                 -ask for help to meet need or want. (i.e. “I need water”).
                                                                                                                -Allow child to guide or take control of interactions.



ED31. The child develops a sense of self         -repeatedly engage with familiar toys, books, and objects      -Provide equipment and manipulatives where children can be success and are
confidence through their abilities and           when successful                                                allowed multiple times to use.
achievements.
                                                 -smile and express pleasure (or pride) when accomplishing a    -Appreciate the child’s efforts through verbal recognition. (i.e. “I see you are
                                                 task.                                                          trying to hang your coat!”)

                                                 -insist on managing self care on his/her own (i.e. getting
                                                 dressed- “I do it!”)




ED32. The child develops self worth through      -show or demonstrate new skills to adults.                     -Encouragement with detail of what the child has done and how they may feel
respectful and responsive interactions.                                                                         about it. (i.e. “Wow- I see you climbed all the way up the ladder! You must
                                                 -look for recognition from adult. (i.e. “watch me do this…”)   happy that you could do it yourself!”)




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Enhancing Social and Emotional Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences for Toddlers
Primary Caregiving Systems

Children who are cared for by consistent caregivers are supported in their basic need for security. Primary caregiving values the relationship between toddlers
and adults. A Primary Caregiver is a system supports one specific person providing a majority of the care and interactions for a child during the day

Parents and Early Childhood Professionals can:

    •   Eliminate or minimize the amount of time a toddler watches television, or other passive media.
    •   Minimize the amount of times an adult says “no” to a toddler by creating a safe space for successful play and discovery.
    •   Maintain an environment which provides enough developmentally appropriate toys and materials for the number and ages of children in the group such
        as:

         Simple dramatic play props including real items such as phone, dolls, hats, bag, utensils, keyboards, shoes, and clothing (that are easy for children to
          take off and put on)
         Daily reading experiences with books that contain simple, repetitive and predictable language
         Music experiences that also contain simple, repetitive and predictable tunes and language
         Blocks of various sizes, as well as small manipulatives like Duplos, pop-beads, and simple puzzles
         Simple art materials – crayons, markers, playdough and washable paint
         Regular indoor and outdoor play opportunities with sand and water exploration
         Sensory-rich environment, water, sensory table, playdough, cooking


    •   Create an environment, which enhances learning, minimizes inappropriate behavior, and reinforces a toddler’s need for self-competence through:
         Appropriate spaces for specific activities. For example: an area that allows for easy cleanup for art, sand or water play, a quiet area for manipulative
            play, reading and literacy experiences. Active play such as gross motor should not be near the quiet area.
         Open and usable space for toddlers to move freely about during play
         Space both indoors and outdoors that provides for both active play such as climbing and quite play (separately)
         Spaces include both group play areas, as well as semi-private spaces where toddlers can safely play away from the large group.
         Pictures and items from the child’s home/family. This maintains a connection to family and reinforces a sense of belonging.
         Access their own materials for art and creative play by organizing recyclables, paper, and toddler-safe art media (waterproof, non-toxic tempera,
            washable markers, chunky crayons, playdough) that children can safely take out, use, and put back.



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Responding to individual differences

        Temperament
      Toddlers feel a range of emotions and often cannot regulate them. In addition Toddlers cannot regulate their expression of these emotions causing for a
     great amount of conflict in groups. Toddlers need support in their identifying the feeling and their ability to express the feeling appropriately. Educators
     need to support this expression and not to downplay what a child is feeling especially when they are distressed.

 Toddlers can then internalize the feeling of pride and satisfaction with their abilities. They are feeling independent while still seeking security. Toddlers
  have the “I can do it!” attitude which should be built upon with encouragement and supportive experiences where toddlers are successful. Toddlers need
  encouragement beyond the abstract “Good Job!” Educators should recognize the actual action of the child’s efforts and encourage the child through use of
  their voice and facial expression. An example of this would be: “Look at how hard you worked at cleaning up the block area! Everything is in its place”.
  Focusing on the child’s experiences is effective in fostering and supporting self direction and regulation. (Gonzalez-Mena and Eyer 2009)


     Remember that each child’s temperament affects everything from sleeping and eating habits, to approaches to play and activity. Understanding a
      particular child’s temperament, and adjusting the style of interaction, the daily schedule, and the environment will aid development and help the toddler
      establish a healthy sense of self. For toddlers who are slow to warm up in new situations, plan on staying with them at the beginning of a play date or
      play group, and schedule some short visits with a new caregiver before leaving them with this individual.

     Honor differences in temperament and value the things caregivers can do with toddlers of different temperaments, such as taking swimming lessons
      together, gentle rough and tumble play, or dancing to music.


Development Varies

         Watch for signs that the child’s development is progressing appropriately. Though development is influenced by a variety of factors, including
          environment, experience, interaction, and individual temperament, toddlers should progress through a predictable series of developmental
          milestones. These milestones can occur at various times and through a span of up to six months from child to child.

         Talk with a health care provider early on if there are concerns about any aspect of a child’s development. Early intervention is critical to giving
          toddlers extra support toward developing the skills they need to continue learning and growing successfully.

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Honoring Diversity

         Encourage toddlers’ growing gender identity by allowing them to take on a variety of roles during imaginative play. Avoid gender-specific toys such
          as baby dolls only for girls/ trucks only for boys, or primary colored toys for boys, pastels for girls, etc. These differences begin to socialize children
          into stereotypical gender roles and preferences which could limit their understanding of social diversity.

         It is important for parents and providers to encourage both boys and girls to play with blocks and trucks and to be physically active, and encourage
          both boys and girls to nurture and care for living things such as babies, pets and gardens.

         Support toddlers’ exploration of non-traditional gender roles during dramatic play including family roles, occupational roles, etc. Toddlers begin to
          understand traditional gender roles through socialization. Encouraging children to explore nontraditional roles like a female firefighter, a male nurse
          or a male caregiver is an important way to offer children chances to try out a variety of social roles and to develop an unbiased understanding of
          gender roles.

         Recognize and support the HOME culture and familial culture of the toddlers through recognition of the special and unique aspects they bring to the
          program. No one culture is dominant in displays or pictures. Toddlers need to see themselves and their families reflected in the environment. Work
          toward a genuine partnership with families so that care routines and family child rearing practices across home, school, and cultural environments
          reinforce each other.

Supporting English and Non-English Speakers

Ensure that language activity is individualized around the language in which the toddler is most fluent by:

       Educators should know words in a child’s native language particularly around terms of endearment, comfort seeking, objects, and needs
       Making sure that books are written in the toddler’s native language.
       Ensuring caregivers are proficient in sign language for children who are hard of hearing or deaf.
       Using sign with spoken language as an alternate means of communication for all children in the environment.




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Language and Communication Development for Toddlers
Language and literacy are essential for individuals to function in all societies. The acquisition of language and literacy is a complex process that begins at birth.
Young infants typically make sounds and “take turns” in conversations with adults. In the first few years of a child’s life, they learn the meaning and structure of
words, how to use words to communicate, and how to make meaning of printed materials. Language acquisition helps a child to articulate and share ideas and
feelings, and respond to others. Language plays a central role in children’s abilities to build relationships through various methods of communication




The Learning Guidelines for toddlers are:

The child…

                Demonstrates the meaning of language by listening.

                Develops expressive language.

                Engages in social communication.

                Demonstrates phonological awareness.

                Develops grammar and syntax.

                Engages in pre-reading activities.

                Demonstrates interest and engagement in print literacy materials.

                Develops emergent writing skills.

                Develops in multiple language acquisitions when considered a dual language learner.
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Learns control over their movements as they reach out, grasp, and release objects.




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Learning Guideline: The child demonstrates the meaning of language by listening (receptive language).
Indicator                                             Young Toddlers (12-24 months) MAY:                               Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences

LC28. Respond to action words by performing the       -attempt to skip or gallop, when you sing “Lou, Lou skip to      -Observe the child and comment on his/her body movements (e.g., “you are
action.                                               my Lou”.                                                         sitting down”, “You are stomping the floor”).

                                                      -clap “hooray,” nod “yes,” shake his/her head “no,” or           -Use hand motions and other body movements when singing or telling stories.
                                                      wave “bye-bye”.
                                                                                                                       -Talk to the toddler about what you are doing (e.g., While washing your hands
                                                                                                                       sing, “This is the way I wash my hands before I serve your meal”).

LC29. Understand educators’ simple requests and       -Respond to simple, direct, conversational sentences,            -Talk about people or objects that are meaningful to the toddler.
statements referring to the present situation.        either verbally or by actions or gestures (e.g., point to body
                                                      parts when asked, “Where is your nose?” or “Where is your        -Speak to the toddler on her/his level. Comment on what s/he is doing or
                                                      belly button?”)                                                  seeing (e.g. “you have a big smile on your face. It looks like you like that book
                                                                                                                       you are reading”).
                                                      -Put toys back on the shelf when prompted and guided by
                                                      caring educators.
                                                                                                                       -State simple requests in English and home language (e.g., “Come here please”
                                                      -Progress in listening to and understanding the English          “Venacápor favor”).
                                                      language while maintaining home language, when the two
                                                      are not the same.

Indicator                                              Older Toddlers (22-33 months) MAY:                              Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences

LC30. Continue to understand many more words          -listen to books with educators for longer periods of time.      -Offer the toddler time to repeat a new word.
than they can speak.
                                                      -listen to short stories and reacting to funny parts by          -Provide objects that toddlers can easily put into groups or “families” (e.g., blue
                                                      smiling or laughing.                                             things, wooden objects, and dinosaurs).

                                                      -sing simple songs or repeat simple finger plays and rhymes
                                                      with help.

LC31. Understand more abstract and complex            -point to a picture of a worried/nervous face when asked,        -Expand on toddler’s language in reference to time (e.g., “Now, you are eating
statements and requests that refers to positions in   “How do you feel about visiting the library tomorrow?”           your snack; later on, we will play outside”.
space, reference to time, ideas, feelings and the
                                                      -get a specific object when you ask for it (e.g., “Please pick

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future.                                        up the car between the two shelves”).                         -Name and describe positions of items in relation to others (e.g., the blocks are
                                                                                                             under the table; the mobile is over the book shelf).
                                               -determine how words relate to each other (e.g., furry dog,
                                               slimy frog, ‘doggie bark’).
                                                                                                             -Use fanciful language and playful approaches to add interest to ordinary
                                                                                                             routines (e.g., “Would you like to walk in a zig-zag, or in a straight line?”)




Learning Guideline: The child develops expressive language.
Indicator                                      Young Toddlers (12-24 months) MAY:                            Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences

LC32. Use a growing number of words and puts   -ask and answer simple questions about self and family        -Encourage imaginary play by providing lots of props and joining in play. Include
them together in short phrases and simple      using learned phrases and recall vocabulary.                  props that reflect the toddler’s cultural background.
questions.                                     -move from naming familiar objects to using words heard
                                                                                                             -Tell stories, sing songs, and recite or create rhymes and poems. Make room in
                                               in stories and from other experiences.
                                                                                                             your telling, singing, or reciting for the children’s participation.
                                               -ask, “When Daddy coming back from work?” “Go home
                                                                                                             -Provide a day-by-day description of the toddler’s activity and perception, just a
                                               afternoon?”
                                                                                                             sportscaster might comment on a player’s actions.

                                               -answer, “Mama buy food in market” when you ask,              -Expand upon children’s ideas, not only by phrasing them in complete
                                               “Where is your Mommy?”                                        sentences, but also by introducing new words and concepts and by asking
                                                                                                             questions that make children think.
                                               -learn that asking questions is one way to keep the
                                               attention of educators.
LC33. Become frustrated trying to express      -stumble on which words to use because they don’t come        -Listen patiently and carefully.
him/herself.                                   out as fast as they want.
                                                                                                             -Offer words for what s/he may be trying to say (e.g., “Are you sad you can’t
                                               -uncertain on how to express what they mean.                  find your favorite toy?”

                                                                                                             -Recognize and respect the parents’ ability to understand their own child. Allow
                                                                                                             them to explain or interpret when needed.

                                                                                                             -Promote use of nonverbal communication when language delay is present
                                                                                                             (e.g., use of movements, signs, sounds, and facial expressions).

Indicator                                      Older Toddlers (22-33 months) MAY:                            Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences

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LC34. Communicate clearly enough to be              -use two- five word sentences, “No more food for me, “This     -Create ‘happenings’ inside and outside (e.g., go on field trips that are
understood by familiar and unfamiliar listeners.    toy, no share”.                                                meaningful to the toddlers).

                                                    -alternate between using their home language and English.      -Bring in pictures, novel objects, and bits of science and nature, and carry on
                                                                                                                   with meaningful conversation with the toddlers if they express interest in such
                                                    -use negatives, (“no,” “not”) and questions to achieve more    items.
                                                    information (e.g., “why” and “what?”).
                                                                                                                   -Respond positively to toddlers when s/he communicates in his/her home
                                                                                                                   language.
                                                    -use words or phrases to express wants, seek attention,
                                                    protest, comment, or offer greetings.
                                                                                                                   -Encourage children whose home language is other than English to continue
                                                    -name objects or actions in picture books.
                                                                                                                   developing their home language.
                                                    -add descriptive words, (e.g., “Bad dog, “Pretty flowers,”
                                                    “Big ball”).                                                   -Provide materials that encourage face-to-face interactions (e.g., books,
                                                                                                                   puppets, dolls, mirrors, etc.).


                                                                                                                   -Offer sign language cards or picture cues to allow English language learners
                                                                                                                   and children with special needs to communicate wants and needs with others.




Learning Guideline: The child engages in social communication.
Indicator                                          Young Toddlers (12-24 months) MAY:                             Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences

LC35. Use sounds and words in social situations.   -create word sounds and point to a specific toy to let the     -Talk with toddlers individually and in small groups.
                                                   educator know that s/he wants to play with something.
                                                                                                                  -Provide an enriched social environment that allows opportunities for toddlers
                                                   -say “yes” and “no” to let adults know what s/he wants.        to watch and interact with others.

                                                   -talk into the play telephone as if s/he is having a           -Ask parents to provide a list of social expressions in the toddler’s primary
                                                   conversation with a relative or friend.                        language (e.g., “Can I play with you?” “Can we share this toy?”)

                                                   -make word sounds back to his/her educator, so they can
                                                   have a conversation.

LC36. Attend to and try to take part in            -understand what others are talking about, and want to         -Acknowledge the toddler’s contributions to the conversation, and then build on
conversations.                                     become involved.                                               them by adding more information or asking a related question.

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                                                     -learn that asking questions is one way to keep the            -Pay close attention when toddlers talk to you. Resist the temptation to rush or
                                                     attention of educators.                                        interrupt them. It is not unusual for young toddlers to pause frequently when
                                                                                                                    trying to think of how to say something.
                                                     -use the language they hear most frequently and repeat
                                                     these words and phrases during pretend play. Might             -Engage in language turn-taking and respond to the toddler’s questions or
                                                                                                                    statements with simple phrases or statements.
                                                     alternate using home language and English.
                                                                                                                    -Identify and respect the many different parental styles of child rearing within
                                                     -experience frustration when attempting to communicate
                                                                                                                    social contexts.
                                                     in his/her home language and not being understood by his
                                                     educator and/or peers.

Indicator                                            Older Toddlers (22-33 months) MAY:                             Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences

LC37. Participant in conversations                   -enjoy asking “why” questions to keep a conversation alive.    -Follow his/her lead; do not take over.

                                                     -able to converse with peers; these conversations become       -Talk about the past and the future as well as the present.
                                                     more focused.
                                                                                                                    -Support and encourage their thinking by offering questions, information, and
                                                     -use experiences, toys, books, or pretend play to engage       extensions of their ideas.
                                                     others in conversation.
                                                                                                                    -Use alternate ways to communicate when needed (sign language, gestures,
                                                     -recognize that a pause means it is their turn to talk.        etc.).

                                                     -use questions to get the attention of educator.               -Build on children’s interests to introduce new words and ideas during play
                                                                                                                    activities and daily routines.
                                                     -enjoy conversations at snack time or during play.
                                                                                                                    -Provide opportunities for children to engage in conversation with another peer
                                                     -talk to and for a puppet or doll.                             or within a small group.

                                                     -talk to themselves when faced with a problem, by framing
                                                     a question, stating a guess or giving themselves step-by-
                                                     step directions.




Learning Guideline: The child demonstrates phonological awareness.
Indicator                                                           Young Toddlers (22-33 months) MAY                                Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences

LC38. Use vocalization and words for a variety of reasons.         -use jargon with inflected patterns in a conversational manner.   -Read a variety of culturally diverse books, poems, and nursery

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                                                               -imitate environmental sounds during play (e.g., “ring, ring,”      rhymes with children.
                                                               “the rooster goes cock-a-doodle-doo”.
                                                                                                                                   -Play a variety of music, including multicultural and toddler’s
                                                               -imitate sounds and words.                                          songs and taped environmental sounds.

                                                               -attempt to repeat rhymes and repetitive speech sounds.             -Play games where toddlers try to guess which environmental
                                                                                                                                   sound they are hearing or whose voice is making a sound.

                                                                                                                                   -Provide a listening center with stories and songs on tape in the
                                                                                                                                   toddlers’ home language.

                                                                                                                                   -Teach toddlers a few basic words in Sign Language and use
                                                                                                                                   with familiar songs and phrases.

Indicator                                                       Older Toddlers (22-33 months) MAY                                  Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences

LC39. Develop an awareness of word sounds and rhythms of       -recite simple poems or nursery rhymes                              -Play clapping games to help children be able to hear and
language.                                                                                                                          identify separate sounds/syllables in words. Use musical
                                                               -fill in missing words in a rhyming pattern (such as “Willaby,      instruments to play individual sounds with songs.
                                                               Wallaby, Woo”).
                                                                                                                                   -Play games that focus on the beginning sounds of words,
                                                                                                                                   words that start with the same sounds, as well as words that
                                                                                                                                   rhyme.

                                                                                                                                   -Model language for English Language Learners, occasionally
                                                                                                                                   emphasizing beginning and ending sounds. Restate toddler’s
                                                                                                                                   attempt in accurate format without correcting the child.




Learning Guideline: The child develops grammar and syntax.
Indicator                                         Young Toddlers(12-24 months) MAY:                                Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences

                                                  -describe a self-made drawing.
LC40. Move from single words to two- and three-                                                                    -Speak in simple sentences using a combination of words and sign language
word combinations to telegraphic speech.          -use plural forms for nouns sometimes.                           during play and daily routines when communicating with toddlers.

                                                  -use simple questions in speech, but may not use correct         -Use language in daily routines, talk with toddlers, associate words with actions
                                                                                                                   (e.g., “First, we put your blanket on your cot/mat and then you lay down to

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                                                  grammar.                                                         rest).

Indicator                                         Older Toddlers (22-33 months) MAY:                               Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences

LC41. Move from telegraphic speech to             -use rules of grammar in their speech; using personal            -Recognize and validate conversation styles that may be different and rooted in
grammatical sentences.                            pronouns “I,”“you,”“me”; plurals; and “me” number of             the toddler’s culture or personal experience.
                                                  position words such as “up,” “under,”“on,” and “behind”.
                                                                                                                   -Speak with toddlers in complete sentences using correct grammar in home
                                                  -begin to use complete sentences in conversation with peers      language.
                                                  during play.
                                                                                                                   -Recognize that ELL may mix words from different languages in the same
                                                                                                                   sentence; repeat what toddlers say using all words in the same language.



Learning Guideline: The child engages in pre-reading activities.
Indicator                                                      Young Toddlers (12-24 months) MAY:                                   Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences

LC42. Show motivation to read.                                 -pick out a favorite book and bring it to the educator.              -Make books with your toddlers based on their interests (e.g.,
                                                                                                                                    dinosaur book, airplane book, family picture book).
                                                               - insist on reading a book repeatedly.
                                                                                                                                    -Provide opportunities to indicate and name familiar pictures in
                                                               -has a favorite book.                                                a book.

                                                               -pretend to read books.                                              -Read each book with excitement, a toddler will notice your
                                                                                                                                    excitement and transfer it to his/her own reading experiences.
                                                               -ask educator to repeat favorite rhymes, finger plays, or stories.

Indicator                                                      Older Toddlers (22-33 months) MAY:                                      Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences

LC43. Child increases knowledge about books and how they are   -Show a memory for parts of familiar stories, rhymes, and            -Place interesting books and signs/posters in all interest areas.
typically read.                                                songs.
                                                                                                                                    -Read books with rich, descriptive pictures and vocabulary.
                                                               -Use phrases to describe events in books.
                                                                                                                                    -Explore and extend children’s understanding of new words.
                                                               -Holds book right side up and turns pages from front to back.
                                                                                                                                    -Read to children daily, individually and/or with others.

                                                                                                                                    -Help children to care for and respect books.

                                                                                                                                    -Include picture books of your toddlers’ primary languages.

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Learning Guideline: The child demonstrates interest and engagement in print literacy materials.
Indicator                                       Young Toddlers (12-24 months) MAY:                              Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences

LC44. Recognize familiar environmental print.   -identify a “STOP” sign and realize it means ‘to stop’.         -Promote an environment filled with age appropriate reading materials,
                                                                                                                including both fiction and non-fiction books, as well as magazines, charts,
                                                -recognize the first letter of his/her own name and associate   poems, and other engaging print that reflects the culture of the toddlers.
                                                it with another child whose name starts with same letter
                                                (e.g., “N’ is for Naomi and ‘N’ is also for Nat”).

Indicator                                       Older Toddlers (22-33 months) MAY:                              Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences

LC45. Demonstrate knowledge that a symbol can   -recognize that a word can stand for an object, a name for a    -Involve toddlers in regular story time experiences which include exposure to
represent something else.                       person, a picture for the real object.                          books, finger-plays, poems, songs, rhymes and other engaging print that reflect
                                                                                                                the cultures of the toddlers.
                                                -recognize own first name in print.
                                                                                                                -Help English Language Learners acquire knowledge and appreciation for print
                                                -identify 5 – 10 letters of the alphabet, especially those in   awareness in the language with which they are most proficient, drawing on
                                                                                                                family and community members as resources. These skills will transfer as
                                                own name.
                                                                                                                children become proficient in other languages.




Learning Guideline: The child develops emergent writing skills.
Indicator                                       Young Toddlers (12-24 months) MAY:                              Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences

LC46. Make purposeful marks on paper.           -begin to develop eye-hand coordination.                        -Offer objects that give him/her a chance to practice using his/her fingers such
                                                                                                                as spoons, cups, and safe, but small toys.
                                                -manipulate materials with increasing precision (reaches for
                                                toys, plays with toes, shakes keys to make sound, carries       -Provide paper, pencils, markers, rubber stamps with washable ink in several
                                                blanket).                                                       areas throughout the room (e.g., dramatic play area, block area,
                                                                                                                reading/literacy corner, and music area). Closely supervise for safe use of
                                                                                                                materials.
                                                -explore with writing materials.

Indicator                                       Older Toddlers (22-33 months) MAY:                              Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences


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LC47. Understand writing is a way of                -uses scribbles and unconventional shapes to convey             -Create a wiring center/writing area with writing tools such as stamps, paper,
communicating.                                      messages.                                                       envelopes, tablets, transparency sheets, letters of the alphabet (English and
                                                                                                                    other languages), over-sized paper, crayons of various sizes and shapes, and
                                                    -able to distinguish between writing words and drawing          other writing materials.
                                                    pictures.
                                                                                                                    -Create a post office to encourage writing to parents, caregivers, educators,
                                                    -begins to purposefully use symbols and drawings to express     and other children.
                                                    their thoughts or represent experiences or objects in their
                                                    environments.                                                   -Provide centers where children can experiment with writing letters and words
                                                                                                                    in shaving cream, salt, and play-dough.
                                                    -begins to distinguish letters of the alphabet from other
                                                    types of symbols.                                               -Provide dictation opportunities (e.g., “Tell me what you liked about our
                                                                                                                    outdoor time and I will write it down to share with your family”).

                                                                                                                    -Invite children and families to write class books about their families, home
                                                                                                                    meals, pets and other aspects of their lives.

                                                                                                                    -Label common objects in the room in the toddler’s languages. Use different
                                                                                                                    colors for each language.




Learning Guideline: The child develops multiple language acquisitions when considered a dual language
learner.
Indicator                                           Young Toddlers (12-24 months) MAY:                              Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences

LC48. Demonstrate competency in home                -use their home language with educators and peers to            -Respect for the vital roles of family and community in ELL students’ education.
language while acquiring beginning proficiency in   express wants and needs as well as to initiate interaction.
English

                                                    -stop talking altogether to observe and listen what others      -Support for forming a bicultural identity that integrates the best of both
                                                    are saying in the program’s primary language. This is called,   cultures – not “either/or”.
                                                    the ‘Silent Period’.

Indicator                                           Older Toddlers (22-33 months) MAY:                              Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences

                                                    -use few content words as an entire utterance.                  -Ask the toddler, “What is this/that?” If the child does not answer, supply the
LC49. Demonstrate competency in home                                                                                noun yourself. If the child is able to answer the “What is this/that? “ Elaborate
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language while acquiring proficiency in English.                                                             or extend his/her response, adding new vocabulary to expand current
                                                                                                             vocabulary (e.g., bridge” “ a wooden bridge”).
                                                   -identify and name objects in the classroom or program.
                                                                                                             -Become aware of the differences between and commonalities among cultures.


                                                                                                             -Appreciate diverse cultural backgrounds, languages, and customs, including
                                                                                                             one’s own.


                                                                                                             -Respect for the vital roles of family and community in ELL students’ education.


                                                                                                             -Support for forming a bicultural identity that integrates the best of both
                                                                                                             cultures – not “either/or”.




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Enhancing the Language and Communication Supportive Learning Experiences for Toddlers
Organizing the Environment

The educator can…

    •   Arrange the environment so there is an opportunity for mix of active and quiet activities
    •   Lower the level of stimulation – put out just a few toys at a time, keep noise level low, keep atmosphere calming
    •   Provide opportunities for toddlers to do jobs: setting snack table, cleaning up
    •   Increase dramatic play possibilities: encourage new vocabulary use by providing many different props and pretend environments (i.e. post office,
        store, restaurant)
   • Inject humor into the environment with silly books, pictures, props
   • Increase the variety of books
   • Provide many number games
   • Provide many memory and guessing games
Research has shown that it is the richness of the communication between toddlers and educators, parents, and other children that provides the biggest
benefits for future learning. Educators need to not just talk with toddlers, but expand their vocabulary at every opportunity, adding word and thoughts to
each exchange.

Tips for talking with Toddlers:

    •   Respect the toddler’s wariness of strangers and her need to be in control.
    •   Talk to the toddler on her level.
    •   Respond to the toddler’s efforts to keep a conversation going.
    •   Respond empathically to the toddler’s excitement with your exaggerated excitement.
    •   Provide a play-by-play description of the toddler’s activities.
    •   Use language to help the toddler understand his world.
    •   Talk about an event that was special to the toddler – help him remember.
    •   Sing favorite songs frequently
    •   Respond to anything that sounds like a word.
    •   Provide many opportunities for toddlers to practice the words he knows.
    •   Accompany language with gestures that the toddler can copy – clap “hooray”, nod “yes”, wave “goodbye”
    •   TALK and LISTEN A LOT


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A print-rich environment where toddlers see numbers on signs, in books, and labels on shelves, will help them to recognize some numerals. Counting songs,
rhymes, teacher-directed activities, and normal conversation will allow them to hear the different types of math words in context. Educators should plan for
activities that will introduce the words and concepts to toddlers.

Math Literacy

    •   Number and quantity words – (0ne, two, twenty-five, half, few, several)
    •   Size words – tall, tiny, huge, wide, heavy
    •   Space and direction words – in, under, above, near, left
    •   Comparative words – more, very, worse, bigger
    •   Shape words – square, circle, round, squiggly
    •   Measurement words – inches, quart, pound
    •   Time words – when, now, today, yesterday
    •   Problem solving words – match, fit, count, why, even


Responding to Individual Differences

Because language is so important to later development, it is very important to observe infants and toddlers carefully and notice any delays as soon as possible.
Early intervention can be extremely effective in correcting early language problems. If you see any of these concerns, be sure to make several observations and
make detailed records. If you need to refer a child for further screening, your notes will be very valuable.

    •   Little use of or understanding of gestures (shaking head, waving)
    •   Little understanding of words or verbal directions
    •   Little symbolic pretend or constructive play
    •   Little use of words or signs
    •   Communicating primarily through grunts and actions
    •   Very limited vocabulary or little use of word combinations


Dual Language Learners

Research has shown benefits for the child learning two languages in childhood, including boosts in both verbal and non-verbal IQ scores. Instead of being
confusing, the toddler has the benefit of hearing rich, descriptive vocabulary in the language of his family as he learns the preferred language of his educational
setting.


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Toddlers will go through the same developmental process in each language – starting with one word, adding 2-3 word phrases, and eventually speaking in full
sentences. They will learn the grammar of each language.

In order to build on children’s strengths as literacy learners, educators can provide experiences and opportunities for children to build on prior knowledge, which
helps children explore and strengthen their sense of cultural identity, thereby building self-esteem.

    •   Actively support and value children’s home language by encouraging children to use it at home and across early learning settings.
    •   Build on children’s strengths as literacy learners by including the family and culture in daily activities as much as possible.
    •   Combine language activities with physical movement and music as much as possible; finger plays, songs and poems with hand motions, and games that
        involve movement and oral language.
    •   Provide culturally and linguistically diverse models of communication including; body language, voice, touch, gesture, and facial expressions


Information taken from Talk to Me, Baby! By Betty Bardige




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Cognitive Development for Toddlers
Cognitive development is the process of learning to think and reason. Young children are learning not only knowledge, skills, and concepts, but also acquiring
“learning to learn” skills. Jean Piaget (1896–1980), the Swiss psychologist, has had the greatest impact on the study of cognitive development in early childhood.
Piaget's theory states that the child is born with an innate curiosity to interact with and understand his/her environment. It is through interaction with others
and materials in the environment that the young child actively constructs his or her development, learns to use tools, makes things happen, and finds out about
the physical properties of things.

The Learning Guidelines for Cognitive Development for Toddlers are:

        The child…

                Refines reflexes into purposeful actions.

                Develops memory skills.

                Performs simple actions to make things happen and displays a beginning understanding of cause and effect.

                Develops problem solving skills.

                Explores materials and discover mathematical concepts.

                Explores the environment making new discoveries.

                Discovers creative expression through music, drama, dance and art experiences.




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Learning Guideline: The child discovers creative expression though music, drama, dance, and art
experiences.
Indicator                                         Younger Toddler (12-24 months) MAY:                                      Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences

CD39. The younger toddler responds to and         -sway, clap, stomp feet and vocalize to music.                -Invite parents to share music from their home cultures. Play a variety of music
participates in music, rhythm, and songs.                                                                       from soft, soothing music to music with a lively beat that encourages the
                                                  -explore and use musical instruments, especially those that   younger toddler to dance.
                                                  can be hit or shaken to make sounds.
                                                                                                                -Clap and dance to music with the younger toddler.
                                                  -observe and imitate hand movements to music and finger
                                                  plays.                                                        -Provide items that the younger toddler can experiment with to make music
                                                                                                                (i.e. pie pans, wooden spoons, chimes, metal and plastic containers with solid
                                                  -join in singing parts of favorite songs.                     items inside).

                                                                                                                -Sing simple songs and fingerplays that include hand motions (i.e. “Open, Shut
                                                                                                                Them” “If You’re Happy and You Know It”).

                                                                                                                -Play and sing the younger toddler’s favorite songs repeatedly while still
                                                                                                                introducing new simple songs.

                                                                                                                -Sing songs as part of the daily routine (i.e. Sing the “Clean Up” song or make
                                                                                                                up a tune for going outside).

                                                                                                                -Invite parents who play a musical instrument to visit and share their talent.

                                                                                                                -Encourage parents to share songs from their childhood. If they can’t visit, ask
                                                                                                                them to record the songs.
CD40. The younger toddler explores with sensory   -smear with finger paint, enjoy spreading glue, and paint     -Encourage daily exploration and creativity using a variety of materials (i.e.
art materials and uses them to create visual      strokes with a paint brush.                                   glue, sticky contact paper, paint, recycled materials, gift wrapping paper,
effects.                                                                                                        crayons, markers, textured fabrics, cotton balls, tape, and string).
                                                  -scribble on paper with crayons and markers held in a fist
                                                  grasp.                                                        -Tape large pieces of paper to a flat surface for explorations with paint, markers
                                                                                                                and crayons.
                                                  -attempt to draw self or other favorite things.
                                                                                                                -Point out the variety of colors, shapes, and textures in books and in the
                                                  -name a favorite color to use for painting or drawing.        environment (i.e. “You are wearing your soft yellow sweatshirt today”).

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                                                                                                                  -Name skills the younger toddler is doing, including color words (i.e. “You are
                                                                                                                  painting with green paint today”. “The blue scarf twirls around when you are
                                                                                                                  dancing”).
CD41. The younger toddler begins to use pretend    -use hats, bags, and clothes for dress up.                     -Provide a variety of hats, bags, purses, small size shoes and clothing for dress
and dramatic play to act out familiar scenes.                                                                     up. Add a low, unbreakable mirror near dress up clothing.
                                                   -use a toy cup to pretend to drink or talk on a play phone.
                                                                                                                  -Cut textured fabrics to the younger toddler’s size. Fold the fabric in half and
                                                   -respond playfully to self in mirror.                          cut a hole for the younger toddler’s head. This sensory “dress up” can provide
                                                                                                                  independent dressing and promote make believe play.
                                                   -imitate educator behavior such as wiping a table or feeding
                                                   a baby.                                                        -Provide items that represent real objects in the child’s life; include families by
                                                                                                                  inviting them to share items from home (i.e. empty food containers from
                                                                                                                  home, fabric or clothing items that reflect the home culture).

                                                                                                                  -Join in with the younger toddler’s pretend play (i.e. sit and have “lunch”
                                                                                                                  together; ask, “What do we need to buy at the store?”)

Indicator                                          Older toddler (22-33 months) MAY:                                         Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences

CD42. The older toddler responds to and            -move to and dance to music displaying more balance; jump      -Provide daily opportunities for music, movement and dance both indoors and
participates in music and dance with increasing    up and down to active music while clapping hands; sway         outdoors.
skill in rhythm and movement.                      back and forth from one foot to the other when listening to
                                                                                                                  -Talk with the older toddler about variations in music, such as loud, soft, fast, or
                                                   music.
                                                                                                                  slow.
                                                   -ask for favorite songs and dances by name.
                                                                                                                  -Share music and instruments from various cultures. Point out the sounds of
                                                                                                                  different instruments.
                                                   -attempt to shake musical instruments to the beat of the
                                                   music.                                                         -Encourage the older toddler to create musical instruments with recycled
                                                                                                                  items.
                                                   -join in singing all or part of favorite songs and nursery
                                                   rhymes.                                                        -Sing songs and recite nursery rhymes with repetitive refrains and rhythms that
                                                                                                                  the older toddler can easily learn, such as “Five Little Ducks” or “Wheels on the
                                                   -enjoy hopping like a bunny as part of creative movement.      Bus”.

                                                                                                                  -Share words to favorite songs with families so the older toddler can sing them
                                                                                                                  at home.


                                                                                                                  -Play simple games with music, such as “Ring Around the Rosie”.

CD43. The older toddler creatively explores and                                                                   -Encourage the older toddler to explore with art materials in creative ways.
experiments using a variety of sensory materials
                                                   -Smear with finger paint, enjoy spreading glue, and paint      -Reinforce the process of creating and recognize that the process is more

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and art mediums.                                  strokes with a paint brush.                                    important than the product.

                                                  -Scribble on paper with crayons and markers held in a fist     -Provide different items to use with paint such as bubble wrap, pastry brushes,
                                                  grasp.                                                         and golf balls in a shoe box, toy cars, leaves, sponges, plastic berry baskets, or
                                                                                                                 small pine branches.
                                                  -Attempt to draw self or other favorite things.
                                                                                                                 -Paint on different surfaces, such as large and small boxes, corrugated paper,
                                                  -Name a favorite color to use for painting or drawing          wax paper, and sandpaper.

                                                                                                                 -Add texture to paint using sand, coffee grounds, or cornstarch.

                                                                                                                 -Provide time daily for the older toddler to explore and experiment with
                                                                                                                 sensory and art materials.

                                                                                                                 -Take pictures of the older toddler doing creative activities. Display these
                                                                                                                 pictures and encourage recall and discussion of the activities (“Remember
                                                                                                                 when we tore up paper and threw it in the air like snow?”)

                                                                                                                 -Display art work reflective of different cultures and styles, such as Chinese,
                                                                                                                 Native American, Modern, and Impressionist.
CD44. The older toddler expands on pretend play   -Use hats, bags, and clothes for dress up.                     -Observe the older toddler’s interests and provide related props for pretend
and recreates familiar settings through the                                                                      play.
imaginative use of props and clothing.            -Use a toy cup to pretend to drink or talk on a play phone.
                                                                                                                 -Encourage families to share special events in the older toddler’s life, such as a
                                                  -Respond playfully to self in mirror.                          birthday party or a visit to grandparents.

                                                  -Imitate educator behavior such as wiping a table or feeding   -Provide props that encourage the older toddler to recreate a familiar event
                                                  a baby.                                                        (i.e. colorful paper party goods or tote baskets and plastic fruit.)

                                                                                                                 -Provide basic block shapes and accessories familiar to the older toddler, such
                                                                                                                 as cars, trucks, animals, and play people and dolls reflecting the cultures in the
                                                                                                                 greater community.

                                                                                                                 -Follow the older toddler’s lead in pretend play; join in, changing your voice to
                                                                                                                 match the character played.




Learning Guideline: The child begins to develop the foundations for social science.

Indicator                                          Younger toddler (12-24 months) MAY:                                     Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences


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CD 45. The younger toddler follows daily routines   -sit at the table when the educator begins to get lunch         -Follow a consistent, predictable routine.
and anticipates upcoming routine activities.        ready.
                                                                                                                    -Talk with the younger toddler about what event is coming next (i.e. “After we
                                                    -run to the door when told, “Let’s get ready to go outside”.    have snack, we go outside”).

CD46. The younger toddler recalls recent events.    -say, “I went to Nana’s house,” after a visit a day or two      -Share events of the day with families so they can talk with their younger toddler
                                                    before.                                                         about recent activities.

                                                    -ask to repeat an activity done the day before (i.e. “Bubbles   -Talk with families about special events or activities they did at home so you can
                                                    again!”)                                                        talk about them with the younger toddler (i.e. “Daddy said that you went to the
                                                                                                                    playground yesterday. What did you like at the playground?”).
CD.47. The younger toddler is able to name self,    -point to and name self, family members and significant         -Encourage families to share photos of family members, including extended
body parts and significant people.                  people in photos.                                               family, grandparents and significant friends.

                                                    -point to and name favorite friends.                            -Call the younger toddler by name frequently; play “Where is …” games.

                                                    -greet the educator by name.                                    -Point to and name body parts on yourself; use a mirror to point to and name
                                                                                                                    body parts on the younger toddler.
                                                    -point to mouth when asked, “Where’s your mouth?” Point
                                                    to eye and say, “Eye”.

CD 48. The younger toddler begins to recognize      -notice when another child is playing with a favorite toy       -Acknowledge differences (“Yes, this is someone new. Mr. Franklin is visiting us
individual preferences and differences.             and take it away, saying, “Mine!”                               today,” or “This pasta is a different shape than the pasta you like”).

                                                    -select a favorite book to look at again and again.             -Talk about changes in routine before they occur (i.e. “Today we are going

                                                    -run to the educator when a stranger enters.                    outside early because Maura is coming to sing with us”).

Indicator                                           Older toddler (22-33 months) MAY:                                           Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences

CD49. The older toddler begins to explore and       -say, “Going to the grocery store,” while playing with cars.    -Take community walks naming people or locations visited (i.e. “Let’s go see the
become aware of the immediate community.                                                                            firefighters at the fire station today”).
                                                    -name the stores or people seen on repeated community
                                                    walks (i.e. “I see the fire station”).                          -Invite community members or family in for brief visits to talk about their jobs
                                                                                                                    (i.e. a visit from the mail carrier or plumber; a visit from a mother who is a police
                                                    -make pizza in the dramatic play area.                          officer.).

                                                    -make siren sounds while pushing a police car.                  -Post pictures or make a photo book of buildings, stores or parks in the local
                                                                                                                    community or familiar to the older toddler. Name and talk about the photos
                                                                                                                    with the older toddler.

                                                                                                                    -Read stories reflective of the local community, and the older toddler’s family
                                                                                                                    members and culture.
CD50. The older toddler begins to understand        -remind others of the rules, saying, “Gentle touches,” when     -Create simple rules for the older toddler (i.e. “Hands are for helping,” “Gentle

                                                                                                                                                                                                     333
rules and routines.                                  one child is rough with another.                               touches”).

                                                     -go to hang up coat when coming in from outside.               -Keep rules and routines consistent. Communicate changes in advance.

                                                     -get down from standing on a chair when reminded that          -Remind the older toddler why the rule is in place (i.e. “Use gentle touches so
                                                     she might fall and get hurt.                                   you don’t hurt Sam”).

                                                                                                                    -Reinforce following the rules and routines (i.e. “You found the place to put the
                                                                                                                    cars”).
CD51. The older toddler engages in activities that   -pat a chair and tell the educator, “Sit next to me”.          -Use terms and gestures to reinforce directional terms, such as pointing up,
build a basic understanding of words for location                                                                   while saying, “The ball went up in the air”.
and direction.                                       -remove hands from the table when the educator says,
                                                     “Hands off the table. I need to wash it”.                      -Play Follow the Leader games doing the actions while saying the directions, (i.e.
                                                                                                                    “Put your hands on your head”. “Sit down on the floor”).
                                                     -look under the table for a toy when the educator says,
                                                     “The ball rolled under the table”.                             -Create an obstacle course and coach the older toddler through the activities
                                                                                                                    (“Crawl over the pillows” “Go under the table”).

CD52. The older toddler notices similarities and     -comment when another child is wearing a shirt like his        -Read books, such as “More, More, More, Said the Baby,” by Vera B. Williams
differences in others.                               (“Look! The same shirt!”).                                     and “A Mother for Choco,” by Keiko Kasza that show diversity in age, race,
                                                                                                                    abilities, gender roles, family structures, and culture.
                                                     -notice when a visitor has a hearing aid, asking, “What’s
                                                     that?”                                                         -Model interactions that show respect for differences.

                                                     -touch another child’s curly blonde hair with curiosity when   -Talk with families about similarities and differences in child rearing practices
                                                                                                                    that may occur within the home and out-of-home environments. Work together
                                                     her hair is black and straight.                                with families to maintain as much consistency as possible for the older toddler,
                                                                                                                    while showing respect for individual family practices.



Learning Guideline: The child explores with materials and discovers mathematical concepts.

Indicator                                            Younger toddler (12-24 months): MAY:                                        Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences

CD53. The younger toddler shows interest in          -put shapes in a shape sorter.                                 -Provide shape sorters, blocks, large pegs and pegboards and small colorful
matching and sorting according to color, shape                                                                      items of different matching shapes and sizes that the younger toddler can
and size.                                            -bring another red block when asked, “Find a red block that    manipulate.
                                                     looks like this”.
                                                                                                                    -Encourage the younger toddler to sort and match by pointing out the
                                                     -put away cars with other cars and animals with other          similarities and differences in items (i.e. “This car is yellow. Let’s find another car
                                                     animals when given two containers labeled with pictures.       that is yellow too”).

                                                                                                                    -Provide simple shape puzzles with inserts that match the puzzle piece.
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                                                 -use a smaller container to fill a larger container with sand.
                                                                                                                  -Use words that refer to size (i.e. “This block is bigger than that block”).

                                                                                                                  -Put containers of various sizes in the sand and water tables.
                                                 -complain when another child has two dolls and he has            -Point to items when counting them aloud.
                                                 one.
CD54. The younger toddler shows an awareness                                                                      -Sing songs and recite nursery rhymes and fingerplays that include numbers,
of quantity.                                     -select the preferred item when offered a choice of two          such as, “Baa Baa Black Sheep,” and “I Have Ten Fingers”.
                                                 (i.e. choose markers when offered markers or crayons).
                                                                                                                  -Read colorful board books with numbers, such as, “Toddler Two Dos Anos” by
                                                 -give one object when asked (i.e. “Give one truck to Lily”).     Anastasia Suen and “Ten, Nine, Eight” by Molly Bang.

                                                 -count, “One, two, ten”.                                         -Use words that refer to quantity (i.e. “You have one shoe on,” or “Would you
                                                                                                                  like more?” or “Look how many birds there are outside”).
CD55. The younger toddler demonstrates an        -arrange small blocks in alternating colors (red, blue, red,     -Observe and comment on patterns in the young toddler’s environment (i.e.
                                                 blue).                                                           “These beads make a pattern – big bead, little bead, big bead, little bead”).
awareness of simple patterns.
                                                 -beat a drum, imitating the simple pattern the educator          -Make a pattern using small blocks or pegs. Invite the younger toddler to make a
                                                 used.                                                            pattern that looks the same.

                                                 -say the last words to a familiar predictable story (i.e.        -Read predictable stories with repetitive phrases such as “Goodnight Moon” by
                                                 “...Looking at me!”) when the educator reads “Brown Bear,        Margaret Wise Brown and “Goodnight Gorilla” by Peggy Rathmann.
                                                 Brown Bear, What Do You See?”
                                                                                                                  -Recite fingerplays, songs and nursery rhymes with repeating patterns, such as

                                                                                                                  “Where is Thumbkin?” and “Two Little Blackbirds”.

Indicator                                        Older toddler (22-33 months) MAY:                                            Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences

CD56. The older toddler matches and sorts        -line up toys, grouping the large items and the small items      -Provide a variety of collections (plastic animals, blocks, cars, balls, jar lids,
according to color, shape and size.              separately.                                                      nature items, etc.) for the older toddler to organize, sort, and count.

                                                 -sort objects by shape, separating the circles from the          -Provide a variety of shapes for the older toddler to manipulate, fitting shapes
                                                 triangles.                                                       into the correct locations (i.e. blocks, puzzles, shape sorters).

                                                 -hand the educator the larger of two balls when asked for        -Name the shapes aloud for the older toddler.
                                                 the big ball.
                                                                                                                  -Collect matching mittens or colorful socks. Invite the older toddler to match the
                                                 -stack nesting cups in order of size.                            items.
CD57. The older toddler shows an understanding   -say, “Two,” and show two fingers when asked age.                -Use everyday activities as an opportunity to count (i.e. “Let’s count how many
of number concepts one, two, more and less.                                                                       people are here today”).
                                                 -object when another child takes one of the toys she is
                                                 playing with.                                                    -Ask families for number words in the older toddler’s home language. Count
                                                                                                                  aloud in the older toddler’s home language.

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                                                  -take two crackers from the plate when the educator say,
                                                  “You may have two crackers”.                                   -Post numerals and the matching number of figures in learning centers. Point
                                                                                                                 out the sign, saying, “The sign says ‘Two children. I see one, two children in
                                                  -ask for another piece of apple when she sees her friend       blocks”.
                                                  has one more than she does.
                                                                                                                 -Point out one-to-one correspondence (i.e. “Here’s one cup for you and one cup
                                                                                                                 for me”).

                                                                                                                 -Continue to read number books, such as Miss Spider’s Tea Party: The Counting
                                                                                                                 Book” by David Kirk or “Feast for 10” by Cathryn Falwell. Invite the older toddler
                                                                                                                 to point out the numerals in the books.
CD58. The older toddler recognizes and creates    -string beads in alternating colors to copy the educator’s     -Provide toys that the older toddler can use to create patterns, such as large
                                                  beads.                                                         stringing beads, pegs and pegboards, and colored wooden blocks.
simple patterns.
                                                  -point out patterns in the environment (i.e. After Emma’s      -Model patterns with the older toddler. Point out and name the patterns they
                                                  mother picks her up, says, “It’s time to eat”).                make (i.e. “You made a pattern. Red block, blue block, red block…”).

                                                  -walk on all of the black squares on a black and white tiled   -Create simple dance steps that have a pattern, for example, jump two steps and
                                                  floor.                                                         stop, jump two steps and stop, etc.

                                                  -claps hands and knees to imitate the educator’s pattern.      -Beat a drum in a pattern and encourage the older toddler to move to the beat.




Learning Guideline: The child develops early scientific skills through exploration and discovery.

Indicator                                         Younger toddler (12-24 months) MAY:                                        Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences

CD59. The younger toddler experiments with        -pour water into a sieve and watch it flow out.                -Provide daily opportunities to use sand and water.
various wet and dry materials to discover their
properties.                                       -pack sand into a pail.                                        -Add cups, shovels, sieves, containers of various sizes, watering cans, slotted
                                                                                                                 spoons, toy boats, etc. to sand and water play.
                                                  -push boats to the bottom of the water table and watch
                                                                                                                 -Add water to sand or dirt. Let the younger toddler experiment with the results.
                                                  them bob up repeatedly.
                                                                                                                 -Bring a container of freshly fallen snow inside and put it in the sensory table.
                                                  -stir milk into the flour while making muffins for snack.      Invite the younger toddler to play with the snow.

                                                                                                                 -Talk about changes that happen to the materials (i.e. “The snow is melting.”
                                                                                                                 “The water makes the sand wet”).

                                                                                                                 -Select simple cooking recipes to make with the younger toddler; encourage the
                                                                                                                 younger toddler to pour ingredients and mix them together.
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CD60. The younger toddler discovers living things   -point out excitedly the birds that are outside the window.     -Set up bird feeders on the windows or in a tree visible to the younger toddler
found in nature.                                                                                                    inside.
                                                    -find bugs or spiders inside and run to tell the educator.
                                                                                                                    -Talk about and name the animals or insects that are seen outside during a walk.
                                                    -collect leaves sticks and other nature items outside while
                                                                                                                    -Share picture books of birds, squirrels, bugs, spiders of other insects and
                                                    on a walk.
                                                                                                                    animals, such as “The Very Busy Spider” or the “Very Quiet Cricket” by Eric Carle.

                                                                                                                    -Provide bug catchers by punching holes in the top of a large plastic container.

                                                                                                                    -Observe bugs, spiders and other animals for a few days before letting them go
                                                                                                                    again.


                                                                                                                    -Provide small paper bags for the younger toddler to use for collecting nature
                                                                                                                    items outside. Talk about and name what was collected.
Indicator                                           Older toddler (22-33 months) MAY:                                          Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences

CD61. The older toddler asks questions and          -ask, “Where’s the snow?” after the snow brought inside         -Spend time outside looking for insects and spiders. Encourage questions and
develops inquiry skills.                            melts.                                                          discussions, (i.e. “Look at the ants. Where are they going?”).

                                                    -point to an item not seen before and ask, “What’s that?”       -Take pictures showing the exploration activities of the older toddler. Create a
                                                                                                                    documentation panel (pictures posted with descriptions of the activity and
                                                    -squat on the ground for five minutes watching ants near        quotes by the older toddler). Share with the older toddler and families.
                                                    an ant hill.
                                                                                                                    -Seek out interesting items for the older toddler that he may not have had
                                                    -hear a fire engine go by and ask, “Fireman?”                   experience with previously.

                                                                                                                    -Pay attention to the older toddler’s questions. Take time to listen to the whole
                                                                                                                    question; respond with interest and a willingness to explore further with the
                                                                                                                    older toddler.


CD62. The older toddler uses simple tools to        -look through a magnifying glass to see bugs.                   -Provide a variety of simple tools for the older toddler, such as sturdy magnifying
continue exploration.                                                                                               glasses, a variety of sand and water toys (i.e. funnels, sieves, and water wheels),
                                                    -pour water through a water wheel and watch where it            magnetic wands, plastic tools to use with playdough, short handled play brooms
                                                    goes.                                                           and small dust pans and brushes for housekeeping.

                                                    -use a magnetic wand to pick up juice can lids, then touch it
                                                    to the plastic animals.


CD63. The older toddler observes and identifies     -visit the ducks at the local park and say, “They’re            -Plant beans or herbs inside or outside with the older toddler. Together water
living things and begins to identify their basic    swimming in the water!”                                         and care for the plants.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  337
needs.
                                                     -feed the fish with educator’s help.                            -Plan walking field trips to area parks, pet stores, and flower shops. Talk about
                                                                                                                     what is needed to feed and care for the living things.
                                                     -smell the flowers growing along a fence.
                                                                                                                     -Find and visit a favorite tree on the playground or at the local park. Photograph
                                                                                                                     the children with the tree through the seasons. Look at the photos and talk
                                                                                                                     about how the tree changed.

                                                                                                                     -Dig up worms and put them in a container of potting soil for gentle exploration.
                                                                                                                     Invite the older toddler to watch the worms through a magnifying glass; show
                                                                                                                     how to gently hold a worm; talk about where the worms live. Return them to
                                                                                                                     the garden with the older toddler.




Learning Guideline: The child experiments with a variety of problem-solving strategies.
Indicator                                                           Younger toddler (12-24 months) MAY:                                  Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences

CD64. The younger toddler persists with trial and error           -try to reach a ball under the bookshelf, and then get a toy        -Observe the younger toddler working to find a solution. Wait
approaches to solve a problem.                                    broom to reach the ball.                                            until the younger toddler indicates a need for help before
                                                                                                                                      assisting.
                                                                  -try repeatedly to open a container, then hand it to an
                                                                  educator saying, “Open”.                                            -Provide just enough help so the younger toddler can finish a
                                                                                                                                      challenging problem independently (i.e. begin a zipper, and
                                                                  -try to walk up a ramp, but loses balance and falls; then crawls    then let the younger toddler pull it up to the top).
                                                                  up ramp.
                                                                                                                                      -Talk aloud about how the problem is solved (i.e. “If I turn it
                                                                                                                                      this way, it opens”).

                                                                                                                                      -Provide a variety of toys that move and can be used in many
                                                                                                                                      different ways.

                                                                                                                                      -Allow uninterrupted time for exploration and problem solving.
CD65. The younger toddler begins to understand through trial      -push the toy car across the floor and watch it hit the wall.       -Comment positively when the younger toddler figures out a
and error that certain behaviors can cause results.                                                                                   solution to a problem (i.e. “You did it!”).
                                                                  -place simple shapes in a shape sorter and turn it over to get
                                                                  them out again.                                                     -Describe aloud what the younger toddler did to solve the
                                                                                                                                      problem (i.e. “You shook it hard upside down and the piece
                                                                  -look for a button to push on a toy when a similar toy worked       came out”).


                                                                                                                                                                                                    338
                                                                  with a push button.                                                   -Provide a secure environment and support the younger
                                                                                                                                        toddler’s attempts to solve problems.

Indicator                                                         Older toddler (22-33 months) MAY:                                        Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences

CD66. The older toddler creates and carries out a plan for        -ask another child for help in carrying a large stuffed dog that      -Observe the older toddler and provide puzzles, toys and
solving simple problems.                                          was too big to lift alone.                                            activities that provide a challenge, but can be successfully
                                                                                                                                        accomplished.
                                                                  -use a block to stand on to reach a toy on an upper shelf.
                                                                                                                                        -Encourage creativity in using materials rather than imposing
                                                                  -put a simple shape puzzle together without difficulty.               limits on how materials can be used.

                                                                                                                                        -Talk about ways that you solved a problem.

                                                                                                                                        -Create activities that the older toddler can solve with a
                                                                                                                                        partner.
CD67. The older toddler can choose a solution to a problem        -go get tape to repair a torn piece of paper when another child       -Talk to the older toddler about possible ways to solve a
from more than one possibility.                                   suggested using glue.                                                 problem and seek her participation in a solution (i.e. “We can’t
                                                                                                                                        go outside today because of the rain. What kinds of things can
                                                                  -ask “Why?” questions.                                                we do instead? Dance to music inside? Talk a walk inside?”).

                                                                  -place rings on a stacking toy in the correct sequence.               -Ask “What if…” questions to encourage the older toddler to
                                                                                                                                        think of other solutions.

                                                                                                                                        -Ask open-ended questions that encourage the older toddler to
                                                                                                                                        predict what may happen or to think of other solutions (i.e.
                                                                                                                                        “What will happen if we squirt some bubble mix in the water
                                                                                                                                        table?”).



Learning Guideline: The child develops increasing memory of past events and knowledge.
Indicator                                            Younger Toddler (12-24 months) MAY:                                             Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences

CD68. The younger toddler recalls names of           -say, “Dog,” when the educator points to a dog in a picture      -Provide photos and picture books of commonly seen animals or things of
familiar people, animals and things; recalls parts   book.                                                            interest to the younger toddler. Point to and name the animals and make
of familiar songs, fingerplays and stories.                                                                           animal sounds. Name animals and ask the younger toddler, “What does the cat
                                                     -sing some of the words to “Twinkle Twinkle Little Star,” or     say?”
                                                     another favorite song.
                                                                                                                      -Encourage families to share information on people and things from their home
                                                     -tell Jill, “Your Mommy is here,” when Jill’s mother comes to    that the younger toddler enjoys. Talk with the younger toddler about these
                                                     pick her up.                                                     topics, using words from home familiar to the child.

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                                                                                                                         -Go on an “I Spy” walk with the younger toddler. Let the younger toddler point
                                                                                                                         to and name things in the environment.
CD69. The younger toddler follows routines and        -go get a blanket when the educator points and says, “The          -Continue to provide predictable routines and daily schedule. Ask the younger
recalls the location of objects with assistance.      baby is cold. Can you get his blanket?”                            toddler, “What comes next?” after putting on coats.

                                                      -anticipate and participate in the routines leading up to nap      -Maintain an organized environment with toys and materials located in
                                                      time.                                                              consistent places.

                                                      -return to his cubby to get a treasured animal that he left        -Point out or prompt the younger toddler to help him locate items in the
                                                      there earlier in the morning with reminding from educator.         classroom.

Indicator                                             Younger toddler (12-24 months)MAY:                                            Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences

CD70. The older toddler recalls past information,     -Tell Mom/Dad at pick up about painting a picture at the           -Make picture cards of favorite songs and fingerplays (i.e. drawing of the sun on
such as repetitive parts to familiar songs, stories   easel that morning.                                                a card representing the song “Mr. Sun”). Invite the older toddler to choose a
and fingerplays; and shares past events.                                                                                 card to sing a favorite song.
                                                      -Sing favorite song while stringing beads.
                                                                                                                         -Read predictable books such as, “I Went Walking” by Sue Williams or “It
                                                      -Tell child, “No hitting,” after hearing educator repeat this to   Looked Like Spilt Milk” by Charles G. Shaw. Pause to let the older toddler add
                                                      child.                                                             the repetitive verse.

                                                      -Say, “Can’t catch me,” when educator pauses while reading         -Reread favorite books and sing favorite songs repeatedly to help the older
                                                      The Gingerbread Man.                                               toddler remember the words.

                                                                                                                         -Invite families to share favorite songs and books from home. Reread them or
                                                                                                                         sing them with the older toddler.

                                                                                                                         -Share words to songs and fingerplays so families can repeat them at home.
CD71. The older toddler improves memory for           -act out cooking pasta on the stove in housekeeping after          -Read books that invite the older toddler to search and find items, such as Each
details; looks for favorite objects.                  seeing parents do this at home (i.e. fill pot with water, put      Peach Pear Plum by Janet and Allan Ahlberg, Where’s Spot? by Eric Hill or I Spy
                                                      pot on stove, say, “Hot”).                                         Little Book by Jean Marzollo.

                                                      -put puzzle back on correct shelf when it is time to clean up.     -Take pictures of favorite items in the room. Show them to the older toddler,
                                                                                                                         asking her to name them and find them in the room.
                                                      -look behind a shelf when a favorite toy that was put on top
                                                      of the shelf cannot be located.
                                                                                                                         -Play “Hide Teddy” by hiding a teddy bear in predictable places around the
                                                                                                                         room. Invite the older toddler to find the teddy bear.
                                                      -find a hat belonging to Kevin and give it to him.

                                                                                                                         -Play the Memory Game using 3 to 5 sets of matching pictures. Turn the
                                                                                                                         pictures over and encourage the older toddler to remember where the
                                                                                                                         matching pictures are located. Add more matching sets as the older toddler
                                                                                                                         becomes better at recalling matching pictures.


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Learning Guideline: The child demonstrates an awareness that predictable things happen as a result of
actions.
Indicator                                           Younger Toddler (12-24 months) MAY:                                       Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences

CD72. The younger toddler repeats actions           -push the handle on the toilet repeatedly and watch the        -Provide many opportunities for the younger toddler to observe and practice
watching for results.                               water flush away.                                              cause and effect.

                                                    -turn light switch off and on repeatedly.                      -Provide a simple incline by attaching a cardboard tube or piece of PVC tubing
                                                                                                                   to a wall or staircase. Place a basket of small items for the child to drop down
                                                    -put cars on the slide repeatedly and watch them roll to the   the tube.
                                                    bottom.
                                                                                                                   -Fill plastic bottles with baby oil and colored water or liquid dish detergent and
                                                    -drop balls in an inclined tube, watch them fall to the        colored water. Encourage the younger toddler to shake the bottles to see what
                                                    bottom, and then put them back at the top to repeat the        happens.
                                                    action.
                                                                                                                   -Point out and describe cause and effect (i.e. “When you turn the faucet on, the
                                                                                                                   water comes out”).
CD73. The younger toddler expects certain things    -sit on riding toy and push with feet to make it move          -Help the younger toddler understand the effects of actions on others (i.e.
to happen as a result of his actions.               forward.                                                       “Jasmine is sad because you pushed her”).

                                                    -push, turn, and pull the knobs correctly on a busy box to     -Continue to provide a variety of cause and effect toys (busy boxes, jack-in-the-
                                                    make the animals pop up.                                       box, spinning tops for the younger toddler to explore).

                                                    -push Jasmine away from swing when he wants it.                -Add push and pull toys that the younger toddler can use to control the action
                                                                                                                   of the toy.
Indicator                                           Older toddler (22-33 months) MAY:                                         Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences

CD74. The older toddler demonstrates an             -say, “She misses her Mom,” when a child cries after her       -Acknowledge the older toddler’s awareness of cause and effect (i.e. “Yes,
awareness of the effects of certain actions.        parent leaves.                                                 Kayla is sad when her mother leaves”).

                                                    -tell the educator, “Shhh,” when he puts his doll to bed.      -Encourage continued experiments with cause and effect (i.e. “How many
                                                                                                                   blocks can we stack before the tower falls over?”).
                                                    -say, “Don’t put more blocks on top. They will fall,” when
                                                    stacking blocks with another child.
CD75. The older toddler begins to investigate the   -examine a toy carefully, turning it over and hitting it to    -Help the older toddler understand the reasons why a toy doesn’t respond in a
reasons why something unexpected happens.           discover why it does not work when the button is pushed.       typical way (i.e. “This toy may need new batteries to work. Let’s go get some
                                                                                                                   and see if we can fix this toy”).
                                                    -look inside dress up shoes, shaking them out, when she
                                                    feels something inside.                                        -Invite the older toddler to make predictions about a favorite book, asking,
                                                                                                                   “What will happen when the mouse squeezes into the mitten?”



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Enhanced Learning Experiences for Cognitive Development for Toddlers

Enhancing the Supportive Learning Experiences for Toddlers:

Organizing the Environment

Educators can………..

   •   Provide a wide range of materials for toddlers that promote cognitive exploration and discovery, such as:

           o   Props for dancing, such as scarves or streamers.
           o   A wide variety of sensory and art materials, such as paints, brushes, chalk, paper, collage materials, glue, safety scissors, play dough, goop
               (cornstarch and water), sand, mud and wood.
           o   Food, play props, pictures, posters, and clothing reflective of the culture in the greater community and relevant to the older toddler’s family (i.e.
               farm animals, boats, city buildings, gardens, sea shells, etc.).
           o   Toddler sized water resistant smocks to prevent clothing from getting wet or soiled when toddlers explore with messy materials.
           o   Toys that facilitate the learning of cause and effect (i.e. blocks to stack and knock down, simple toys with a switch or button to turn off and on,
               toys that move by pushing on top, and pop up toys).
           o   Dramatic play props such as play stove and sink at toddler height, phones, dolls, dishes, pots and pans, wooden spoons, dress up clothing,
               including shoes, hats, and bags. Include many real items found in toddlers’ home environments.
           o   Toys and household items that pose problems for toddlers to solve, such as empty plastic spice bottles with matching lids, nesting bowls, pans,
               and measuring cups, shape sorters, busy boxes, large wooden stinging beads and aquarium tubing, and simple knobbed one piece puzzles.
           o   Items for matching, sorting and classifying, such as, simple matching pictures, plastic interlocking blocks, pegs, and pop beads in various colors
               and shapes.

   •   Provide an environment that supports cognitive exploration and discovery:

           o   Encourage the toddler to enjoy the process of creating with various materials. Don’t focus on a final product.
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           o   Provide music, art and dance outside as well as inside. Children can dance in a larger outdoor space or paint on large paper attached to the
               fence.
           o   Observe toddlers to determine their interests. Toddlers will choose activities that help them to explore a particular concept that
               interests them. Follow their lead and create activities that promote further learning. For example, a toddler who turns the water faucet
               off and on, may be interested in learning more about cause and effect or may be exploring the properties of water. Provide activities
               similar to that to continue their exploration and learning opportunities.
           o   Provide opportunities for toddlers to repeat activities that interest them. Through repetition, toddlers are better able to recall and
               learn information.
           o   Allow toddlers to access their own materials for art and exploration by organizing choices on low, accessible shelves. Use containers
               labeled with pictures and words to make clean up easier.
           o   Eliminate or minimize watching television, movies, or other passive media.
           o   Set up activity areas for toddlers that groups similar play items, such as a dramatic play area with housekeeping props and dress up,
               an area with low shelving for manipulatives, a quiet, cozy area for books, a space enclosed on three sides for blocks and
               accessories, a space for sand and water on washable flooring, and an easel and table for art creations.
           o   Boundaries for areas can include furniture, low shelves, clear plastic panels, and risers that separate the play areas without blocking
               vision into the area.
           o   Keep sufficient choices available to toddlers on low shelves in bins with pictures indicating the contents. Rotate items regularly or as
               toddlers seem to lose interest in them.

   •   Protect toddlers’ safety by…
          o Continuing the safety procedures for infants.
          o Creating a toddler proof environment that minimizes “No”. Place caps on outlets, remove items that can be swallowed or easily
             broken, and add protective padding to areas that an active toddler might bump and injure himself.
          o Creating and reinforcing consistent rules that protect toddlers.

Responding to the Individual Difference of Children

Educators can……..

   •   Identify and respond to the individual temperaments of children

       “There is goodness of fit when you handle the child and make demands in a manner that enables
       the child to meet the demands successfully. There is poorness of fit when the parent’s or caregiver’s
       expectations are beyond the child’s temperamental abilities”. Stella Chess, MD

       Temperamental traits are a toddler’s natural way to respond. These traits begin to appear in the first few months of life and remain fairly
       constant throughout life. Temperaments are not something that educators are likely to change, but rather need to identify though their
       observations of each child and to make necessary accommodations to better meet that child’s needs and continue their development.
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       o   Toddlers who appear fearful or cautious will prefer observing activities and peer interactions from a safe distance. They are often
           drawn toward a special educator who helps them establish a secure base with hugs when needed or a lap to sit on. From this safe
           base, cautious toddlers can be slowly brought into activities with their special educator by their side. As cautious toddlers become
           more comfortable, the educator can step back, but remain available and observant.

       o   Toddlers with intense and active temperaments can be easily distracted, can be very sensitive to stimuli, and can be very vocal
           when things displease them. To better support this intense temperament, educators should plan for many opportunities for active
           play that involves the child in moving and learning. Observe and discover the individual child’s sensitivities and make necessary
           changes. For example, while sensory play is an important part of cognitive development, the intense child may not want to touch
           certain materials. Finding alternatives, such as using plastic blocks instead of textured blocks or touching art media with a brush
           instead of fingers will help this child.

       o   Toddlers who are flexible are usually in a positive mood and willing to take part in all activities. They don’t often seek out educator
           attention, but instead make good activity choices and become involved independently with few problems. Because these children will
           not seek out help, it is important to check in with them regularly, set aside some time to play, become involved briefly in their
           activities and observe for subtle signs of needing assistance.

•   Work with the family to create culturally responsive practices between home and the early learning setting

    “Talking with families about their cultural practices, traditions, and beliefs provides the message that they are
    valued. However, just talking with families may not be enough. Teachers need to be open to and accepting of
    different ways of caring and teaching, and thoughtfully explore the many ways to help children and families feel
    welcome”. JaniceIm, Rebecca Pariakian, and Sylvia Sanchez

    Differences naturally occur between families and educators as issues around child rearing are approached. Differences typically occur
    around the timing and practices of toilet training, the discontinuance of nursing or bottle feeding, carrying toddlers, allowing toddlers to get
    messy, sleep practices, and independence. Many of these practices are rooting in cultural beliefs and values. A behavior that may be right in
    one cultural context may signal a problem in another. For example, a two year old who is accustomed to being feed by a family member may
    be showing their family’s approach to interdependence or mutual dependence, while the educator may view this as creating dependence.

    To create culturally responsive relationships, the educator needs to observe families interacting with their toddler and engage families in
    respectful, non-judgmental discussions about the childrearing beliefs of the family. The educator needs to value the family as the primary
    source of information about their toddler.

    In her article, “Taking a Culturally Sensitive Approach in Infant-Toddler Programs,” (Young Children, January 1992), Janet Gonzalez-Mena
    describes four possible outcomes of parent-caregiver cultural conflict:
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               1. Resolution through understanding and negotiation in which both families and educator see the others perspective and come
                  to a mutually agreeable compromise.
               2. Resolution through educator education in which the families share their perspective and the educator changes.
               3. Resolution through family education in which the educator shares her perspective and the family changes.
               4. Neither side sees the others’ perspective.

    In this last outcome, the best resolution for the toddler is to have both her family and her educator become aware of the other’s perspective,
    yet be sensitive and respectful to that perspective. In all outcomes, respect is shown to the family for their cultural beliefs.

    In the NAEYC revised book, Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Early Childhood Programs, the authors suggest avoiding the polarizing
    of “either/or choices” and moving toward “both/and thinking”. Ultimately toddlers will benefit both from developing a positive sense of their
    own self-identity, including their culture, and respect for the others who perspectives may differ. Toddlers need educators who can model an
    acceptance of differences to guide them in this development.
•   Watch for struggles and challenges toddlers are experiencing

    Record your observations of toddlers with dates noted if you see any of the following:
       o Toddlers who have difficulty with simple problem solving in comparison to peers.
       o Toddlers who do not indicate that they know the names of familiar people or body parts by pointing or looking at them when named.
       o Toddlers who do not look for familiar objects out of sight when asked.
       o Toddlers who do not do simple pretend play, such as feeding a doll or eating breakfast.
       o Toddlers who are not able to match two sets of objects.

    Share observations with the toddler’s family and encourage them to discuss the observations with their primary pediatrician. Some concerns
    may warrant a referral with parent permission to the local Early Intervention program.




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Physical Development and Well-being for Toddlers

Research has indicated that the correlation between a child’s physical well- being, health and motor development is directly connected to early development
and learning and is key to school readiness. Physical well-being and movement are major contributors to a young child’s brain development. It is central to a
child’s entire learning experience and crucial to cognitive development. Motor development (fine and gross motor) is closely linked to children’s language,
cognitive, social, and emotional development. Health and nutrition are key to a child’s physical and motor development. External supports and factors such as
the following determine the outcomes of physical well-being and motor development.

It is essential that we provide the best possible health care for all children. Physical symptoms or frequent medical appointments associated with poor health can
impact a child’s consistent participation in life and their education. A variety of social and environmental risks can have great influence on children. These could
include: firearms, pesticides, inadequate or unhealthy water supplies, violence in the environment or home, hazardous materials, air quality, sun protection,
media and neighborhoods.

When young children receive adequate nutrition and physical activity, their development is supported; lack of the experiences can delay a child’s mastery of
some skills. Comprehensive healthcare as well as adequate nutrition and physical movement is critical to a child’s learning and development.




The Learning Guidelines for Physical Development and Wellbeing for Toddlers are:

        The child…

                Develops ability to move the large muscles (gross motor).

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Develops ability to control and refine small muscles (fine motor).

Develops Sensorimotor Skills where children use their senses: sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch, to guide and integrate their interactions.

Develop skills that will develop into healthy practices for life.




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Learning Guideline: The child develops the ability to move the large muscles (gross motor).

Indicator                                        Young Toddler (12-24 months) MAY:                          Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences
PW27. The child moves body, arms and legs with   -walk without help.                                        -Provide sturdy, low objects for toddlers to pull themselves up and climb on.
coordination.
                                                 -climb low objects (chairs, steps).                        -Provide safe environments with lots of floor space for young toddlers to
                                                                                                            practice walking.

                                                                                                            -Provide toys that toddlers can push and pull i.e. Wagons, carriages, toys with
                                                                                                            strings, pretend lawnmowers, toys that make noise when pushed or pulled.
PW28. Demonstrates large muscle balance,         -push and pull toys while walking.                         -Play games with toddlers that require physical actions such as: rolling,
stability, control and coordination.                                                                        throwing, and kicking balls; games where they need to go over and under
                                                 -jumps into puddles or sandbox.                            objects; chasing games.

                                                 -kick ball forward.
PW29. Moves body with purpose to achieve a       -enjoy playing on swings, climbers, and slides.            -Place toys and objects slightly out of reach from the toddler so he has to move
goal.                                                                                                       to obtain it.
                                                 -walk greet someone across the room.
                                                                                                            -Provide safe, sturdy structures for toddlers to climb and move through like
                                                                                                            slides, toddler swings, ramps, tunnels, and age appropriate climbing structures.
W30. The child moves body, arms and legs with    -Walk up and down stairs placing both feet on each step.   -Provide space and opportunities, inside and outside, for toddlers to walk, run,
coordination.                                                                                               jump, and climb.
                                                 -Sit on a riding toy and push it with both feet.
                                                                                                            -Have a set of stairs available for the children to practice climbing.
                                                 -Climb up steps on toddler slide and slide down.
                                                                                                            -Look for opportunities for toddlers to try walking up and down different types
                                                                                                            of stairs.

                                                                                                            -Have many riding toys offering increasingly challenging ways to make them
                                                                                                            move.
PW31. Demonstrates large muscle balance,         -catch a rolled ball while sitting on the floor.           -Provide other types of climbing structures such as slides, plastic houses with
stability, control and coordination.                                                                        stairs, ramps, and natural barriers.
                                                 -walk on tiptoes.
                                                                                                            -Play games where toddlers sit and roll the ball to each other.
                                                 -push and pull toys while walking.
                                                                                                            -Provide push and pull toys.
                                                 -jumps into puddles or sandbox.
                                                                                                            -Provide different types of balls for throwing and kicking.
                                                 -kick ball forward.
PW32. Moves body with purpose to achieve a       -enjoy playing on swings, climbers, and slides.            -Provide containers for toddlers to throw or kick balls into.

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goal.
                                            -walk or run to greet someone across the room.                -Provide daily (minimum of 60 minutes) opportunities where children can run,
                                                                                                          jump, climb, push, and pull items or equipment.
                                            -climb on a chair or something to reach toys or objects out
                                            of reach.

                                            -try to pedal a tricycle.



Learning Guideline: The child develops an ability to control and refine small muscles (fine motor).
Indicator                                   Younger toddler (12-24 months) MAY:                           Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences
PW33. Coordinates eye and hand movements.   -put puzzle pieces into place.                                -Provide a variety of toys that come apart and fit together like beads, blocks,
                                                                                                          and simple puzzles.
                                            - dig in sand with spoon or shovel.
                                                                                                          -Provide toys that require hand-eye coordination such as nesting cups, fill and
                                            -tear tissue paper into small pieces.                         dump containers, stacking rings, shape sorters, large peg boards.

                                            -stack one or three blocks.                                   -Play games that require hand-eye coordination such as rolling, throwing, and
                                                                                                          kicking balls.
                                            -put shapes into shape sorter.
                                                                                                          -Teach toddlers games like throwing a ball into a basket or knocking over
                                            -put large pegs in holes.                                     plastic soda bottles (or bowling pins) with a ball.
PW34. Controls small muscles in hand.       - hold marker with thumb and finger.                          -Provide access to varied art materials like large crayons, markers, and paint
                                                                                                          brushes.
                                            - throw a ball attempting to aim.
                                                                                                          -Give toddlers large brushes to paint with water outdoors.
                                            -squeeze water out of a sponge.

                                                                                                          -Provide jobs for toddlers to use small muscles in the hand like wiping down
                                                                                                          tables, placing napkins for snacks, putting toys away.


                                                                                                          -Use playdough and clay to help toddlers develop squeezing, rolling, patting
                                                                                                          and pounding skills with their hands.
Indicator                                   Older toddler (22-33 months) MAY:                             Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences
PW35. Coordinates eye and hand movements.   -complete a puzzle.                                           -Provide a variety of puzzles with different amounts of pieces, made of
                                                                                                          different materials (wood, cardboard, foam); some with handles, some with
                                            -build a tower using 3 to 6 blocks.                           clues on the back.

                                            - put shapes into shape sorter.                               -Provide different types of blocks – unit, duplos, plastic, cardboard. Provide
                                                                                                          many opportunities for toddlers to play with blocks.
                                            -put a cap back on a big marker.

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                                                                                                                  -Provide pegs and pegboard, construction toys, beads to string, lacing cards,
                                                     -hit pegs with small hammer.                                 and shape sorters.


PW36. Controls small muscles in hand.                - hold marker with thumb and fingers, makes controlled       -Provide opportunities for practicing zipping and buttoning.
                                                     scribbles – vertical and horizontal strokes.
                                                                                                                  -Allow toddlers to explore drawing and writing materials by providing toddler
                                                     - throw a ball attempting to aim.                            size crayons, markers, and paper.

                                                     - unbutton large buttons.                                    -Provide toddlers opportunities to have sensory experiences using sand and
                                                                                                                  water, playdough, and clay.
                                                     -unzip large zippers.

                                                     - turn pages of books.

                                                     -try to cut paper with scissors.



Learning Guideline: The child develops skills that will become healthy practices for life.
Indicator                                            Younger toddlers (12-24 months) MAY:                         Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences
PW37. The child participates in physical care        -use tissue to wipe nose with help.                          -Establish routines where toddlers wash hands :
routines.                                                                                                              •    Upon arrival at childcare location
                                                     - wash and dry his hands with help.                               •    Before every meal/snack
                                                                                                                       •    After playing outside
                                                     - brush his teeth with help.                                      •    After toileting/diaper change
                                                                                                                       •    After playing with pets
                                                                                                                       •    After blowing nose
                                                                                                                       •    Whenever they are dirty

                                                                                                                  -Have tissues available at toddler’s level to help encourage development of
                                                                                                                  self-help skill of blowing and wiping nose.

                                                                                                                  -Make sure sink is accessible to toddler through use of small stepping stool.
PW38. The child begins to develop toileting and      -pull at his pants or give other signs he needs to use the   -Demonstrate and assist when needed, but avoid pressure.
dressing skills.                                     toilet.
                                                                                                                  -Give toddler opportunities to practice dressing himself. Hold out shirt and
                                                     -help caregiver when being dressed.                          wait for toddler to put arm in sleeve. Give toddler plenty of time to practice
                                                                                                                  putting on his socks.
                                                     - pull off socks.
PW39. The child follows familiar sleep routines. -   -find their toy or blanket when naptime comes.               -Establish naptime/bedtime routines. Toddlers need consistency and
                                                 -                                                                repetition. Read special naptime/bedtime stories. Place toddler’s sleeping
                                                     -ask for a bedtime story.                                    mat/cot in the same place every day. Reduce light and noise stimulation.

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PW40. The child’s lifestyle is characterized by    -   -initiate chasing games.                                        -Build physical activity into the curriculum. Provide many, varied opportunities
active, physical play.                             -                                                                   for movement i.e. moving like animals during transitions, encouraging running
                                                       -spend much of his outdoor time on riding toys.                 and jumping, playing throw and fetch games, riding toys, and climbing
                                                                                                                       structures. Take every possible chance to get toddlers moving.
                                                       -like wading pools.

                                                       -climb on everything.
PW41. The child begins to practice healthy and         -cooperate with safety instructions like holding caregiver’s    -State clear expectations for safe behavior before activities begin.
safe behaviors.                                        hand when crossing street.
                                                                                                                       -Read stories about crossing streets, staying close to caregiver, touching
                                                       -respond to “hot” or “stop” or other attempts to protect        animals, and any situation where toddlers need to learn to show caution.
                                                       toddler from dangerous situations.
                                                                                                                       -Provide opportunities for toddlers to practice safe behavior like talking walks
                                                                                                                       and being in the community.
PW42. The child demonstrates the stamina and           -take one nap during the day.                                   -Provide one regular nap at the same during the day.
energy to participate in daily activities.
                                                       -sustain physical activity for a long period of time.           -Play games such as chase.

                                                       -explore a playground with vigor and interest for at least 20   -Dig in the sandbox with child to sustain and maximize play.
                                                       minutes.
PW43. The child engages in a variety of physical       -walk, run, gallop, dance and jump.                             -Provide child with periods of unstructured movement every day (minimum of
activities.                                                                                                            60 minutes per day)
                                                       -prefers to stand at activities rather than sit.
                                                                                                                       -Allow children to stand if preferred by child.

                                                                                                                       -Model daily physical activities (walking, jumping, running, lifting).
Indicator                                              Older toddlers (24-36) MAY:                                     Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences
PW44. The child participates in physical care          -get tissue to wipe nose.                                       -Read stories with toddlers about self-help skills i.e. washing hands, blowing
routines.                                                                                                              noses, brushing teeth.
                                                       - wash and dry his hands by himself.
                                                                                                                       -Set up environment so that toddlers can begin to take care of their own
                                                       - brush his teeth by himself.                                   physical needs with low sinks and step stools when necessary.
PW45. The child develops self-help skills.             -recognize thirst and ask for drink.                            -Provide opportunities for toddlers to progress in feeding from hands to spoon
                                                                                                                       to fork.
                                                       -use words to express choice of food.
                                                                                                                       -Provide toddler size utensils that encourage self- feeding.
                                                       -try to use a fork to eat.
                                                                                                                       -Provide small pouring pitchers and small cups to establish self- serving.
                                                       -drink from an open cup.
                                                                                                                       -Allow enough time in daily schedules for toddlers to be able to practice putting
                                                       -zip and unzip his jacket.                                      on shoes and socks, jackets, hats by themselves.

                                                       -try to dress herself.


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PW46. The child follows familiar sleep routines        -ask for a bedtime story.                                       -Establish consistent sleeping or rest routines for toddlers (i.e. rest time is the
                                                                                                                       same time every-day, children read books then rest, etc.)
PW47. The child’s lifestyle is characterized by    -   -request to play chasing games.                                 -When inside, toddlers should be given opportunities to move i.e. dancing to
active, physical play.                             -                                                                   music, doing indoor obstacle courses, practicing jumping, reaching to the sky,
                                                       -spend much of his outdoor time on riding toys.                 squatting, bending, kicking (Minimum of 60 minutes per day).

                                                       -ask to go in swimming pool.                                    -When outside, provide riding toys, climbing structures, toys to push and pull.

                                                       -climb on everything.                                           -Educators should engage with toddlers to get them running, jumping, chasing,
                                                                                                                       and other aerobic activities to increase the toddler’s physical fitness.
PW48. The child begins to practice healthy and         -cooperate with safety instructions like holding caregiver’s    -Take toddlers out into the community.
safe behaviors.                                        hand when crossing street.
                                                                                                                       -Establish safety rules with toddler.
                                                       -use a bike helmet for riding a tricycle.
PW49.The child demonstrates the stamina and            -take one short nap during the day.                             -Provide one regular nap at the same during the day or a rest period where
energy to participate in daily activities.                                                                             child can wind down.
                                                       -sustain play for long period of time during day.
                                                                                                                       -Allow child plenty of free time (about 1 hour) to explore.
                                                       -explore a playground with vigor and interest for at least 20
                                                       minutes.                                                        -Dig in the sandbox with child to sustain and maximize play.
PW50. The child engages in a variety of physical       -walk, run, gallop, dance and jump.                             -Provide child with periods of unstructured movement every day (minimum of
activities.                                                                                                            60 minutes per day).

                                                       -prefers to stand at activities rather than sit.                -Allow children to stand if preferred by child.


                                                                                                                       -Model daily physical activities (walking, jumping, running, lifting).




Learning Guideline: The child develops sensorimotor skills (children use their senses: sight, hearing, smell,
taste and touch, to guide and integrate their interactions.)
Indicator                                              Young Toddlers (12-24 months) MAY:                              Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences

PW51. The child will show increased visual ability     -track moving items and catch them.                             -Play catch with a variety size of balls.
and perception.
                                                                                                                       -All children a variety of opportunities to engage in behavior that uses multiple
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                                                     -jump from high surfaces.                                      senses (i.e. smelling and tasting with their eyes covered).

                                                                                                                    -Use bubbles to encourage children to watch, tack, and catch.

PW52. The child will show increased integration      -explore the environment with mouth and hands.                 -Provide physical experiences that integrate child’s movements with all the
of sensory stimulation.                                                                                             senses.
                                                     -become excited while hearing music and dancing.
                                                                                                                    -Provide materials and objects of various textures, colors, smells and sounds.
                                                     -explore and respond to different surface textures (hard top
                                                     tables, soft cushions).                                        -Provide item toddlers can mouth such as teethers or chew toy.

Indicator                                            Older Toddlers (22-33 months) MAY:                             Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences

PW53. The child will show increased visual ability   -track moving items and catch them.                            -Play catch with a variety size of balls.
and perception.
                                                     -jump from high surfaces.                                      -Have children walk on a balance beam and uneven surfaces.

                                                     -stop themselves at of the climber.                            -Play games where children engage in a variety of movements (i.e. “Red light,
                                                                                                                    Green light”).

PW54. The child will show increased integration      -ignore sounds in the environment when engage with an          -Provide space where children can be alone or minimize their exposure to
of sensory stimulation.                              activity.                                                      sound or distractions.

                                                     -become excited while hearing music and dancing.               -Provide materials such as dough in a variety of textures and smells.

                                                     -explore and respond to different surface textures such as
                                                     rough and soft dough.




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Enhanced Learning Experiences for Physical Development and Well-being for Toddlers

Organizing the Environment

Parents and Early Childhood Professionals can…

Provide materials, toys and objects that:

            Provide opportunities to run freely, to ascend and descend stairs, to climb over and through obstacles, to jump on gym mats and from low
             boards or trestles
            Push and pull equipment such as doll strollers/ carriages, wagons, large push along toys with strong wheels and durability
            Equipment designed to assist in skills to coordinate small muscles such as play dough to “squeeze and poke” or mallets to pound it. These are
             more suitable than rolling pins or cutting utensils for this age
            Paint opportunities such as large paint brushes or rollers and thickened paint that won’t run. It is the “doing” that is important
            Baskets and bags of different sizes for toddlers to “carry, pick up and dump”
            Building blocks of various size, weight and material; foam, wood
            Balls, large, safe and ability to bounce
            Found and household objects; large cardboard boxes, laundry baskets, shoe boxes


Preventing Childhood Obesity in Toddlers

Childhood obesity is a growing problem, which has doubled in the past two decades. As children age, the percentages increase with one in five boys (ages 6-11)
being overweight. Besides social problems, childhood obesity can also be the gateway to health problems as adults. Often people who suffer from diseases such
as high blood pressure, diabetes and high cholesterol were overweight as children.

Read more at Suite101: Protect Your Child from Obesity: How to Help Babies, Toddlers, and Preschoolers Avoid Weight
Problemshttp://infantstoddlers.suite101.com/article.cfm/obesity_proof_your_baby#ixzz0sZrp2Vpw




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        Long-Term Health Risks for Overweight Children

    •   Researchers at Harvard University found that if a child is overweight in kindergarten, they are likely to stay that way;
    •   It’s estimated that 80% of overweight kids become over weight adults.
    •   For adults, being overweight to obese is a risk factor for health problems like Type 2 diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure and stroke, certain
        cancers and breathing difficulties.
    •   It’s predicted that the epidemic of childhood overweight and obesity will shorten average life expectancies for the current generation of children relative
        to their parents’ generation.

Short-Term Health Risks for Overweight Children

    •   A recent Yale University study of overweight kids (age 2 to 18) found that 1 in 4 already showed signs of pre-diabetes (insulin resistance), a condition
        that used to occur mainly in the elderly. Most children diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes are overweight.
    •   High blood pressure and heart disease have been linked to insulin resistance even in children. In the US, 60% of overweigh kids already show at least one
        risk factor for heart disease, the number one cause of death for adults.
    •   Overweight children also are at immediate risk of: liver disease, gallbladder disease, bone and joint problems and breathing problems. Overweight girls
        may experience early sexual maturation and menstrual problems. Sleep disorders, eating disorders, depression and substance abuse are a danger for
        some children.
    •   The negative impacts of obesity on children are not only physical. Kids who are overweight miss more school than slimmer classmates. Even in regions
        where being overweight is the norm, heavy youngsters rate their quality of life comparable to children undergoing chemotherapy to treat cancer.

Taken from: http://patient-health-education.suite101.com/article.cfm/health_risks_for_overweight_and_obese_children

Nutrition Tips for Toddlers

    •   Control serving sizes--How much a toddler eats is just as important as what he eats. Keep in mind that a normal-size toddler portion is only ¼ of an adult
        one, not overloading his plate.
    •   Don’t push an “empty plate”--Don’t make a toddler feel guilty that if he doesn’t finish his food by saying there’ll be more hungry children in third world
        countries. If he doesn’t polish up his plate, then he’s probably full.
    •   Doesn’t use food as rewards--If your toddler does a good job, give him a sticker--not a cookie.
    •   Surprisingly, toddlers only need about 1,300 calories each day. If you add up what they normally eat and drink each day, you can see where those
        calories can quickly come from, including:

        o   16 ounces of milk or nursing two or three times a day = about 250 to 300 calories

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           o   4 to 6 ounces of 100% fruit juice = 100 calories
           o   2 snacks = 200 to 300 calories
           o   2 to 3 meals = 700 to 900 calories

However, 1,300 calories is just an estimate, with some toddlers needing a little more and some needing a little less. Your child's height, weight and level of
activity can influence how many calories he requires, but the exact number of calories isn't usually that important to know.


Toddler Portion Sizes


One reason that parents often think that their toddlers don't eat enough is that they overestimate how much they should be eating at each meal. According
to the American Academy of Pediatrics, a good guideline is that a toddler portion size should equal about a quarter of an adult portion size. If that doesn't
seem like enough, remember that you can always give your toddler seconds, especially when it comes to veggies and other healthy foods.


Examples of toddler size portions include:


•           1/4 to 1/2 slice of bread
•           1/4 cup of dry cereal
•           one to two tablespoons of cooked vegetables
•           1/2 piece of fresh fruit
•           1/3 cup of yogurt
•           1/2 egg
•           1 tablespoon of smooth peanut butter (if no risk of food allergies) spread thinly on bread or a cracker
•           1 ounce of meat

Read more about the strategies for ensuring that toddlers get enough physical exercise. In the Best Practice sheet entitled: Physical Activity and Childhood
Obesity Prevention


Respect the culture of families

The cultural contexts in which adults interact with young children influence their motor and physical development. The parents/ caregivers in some culture are
more physically active than others. Some emphasize quiet and carrying and holding their infants and some value exuberance and physical activity and
independence. An early childhood professional should be observant and intuitive as they interact with both child and family as they plan and support physical
well being and motor development experiences in their settings. The ability to respect, recognize and support cultural differences and child rearing beliefs of
families is key to successful development of young children in care.

    Some strategies to support young children’s physical and motor development with a global perspective:


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   •   Provide opportunities for early childhood educators and families to discuss family expectations for a child’s physical and motor development and are in
       consensus on the goals for children’s physical development and health that reflect cultural beliefs and traditions.
   •   Use visual and physical cues, as well as verbal ones to communicate with child.
   •   Provide child with daily opportunities to play actively, promoting heath related fitness and movement.
   •   Be sensitive to the cultural context in regards to healthy nutrition and foods.
   •   Incorporate song, games, chants, drumming, dances or other culturally specific large motor activities into children’s daily routines.
   •   Ensure that environments are safe from cultural or other forms of bias.



Resources:

Dental Health: Center for Disease Control: http://www.cdc.gov/oralhealth/topics/child.htm;

Keep Kids Healthyhttp://www.keepkidshealthy.com/welcome/treatmentguides/dental_health.html ;

American Association of Pediatrics: www.aap.org/healthtopics/oralhealth.cfm;

For more about Kool Smiles visit: http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/kool-smiles-offers-free-toothbrushes-and-education-to-day-care-centers-
affected-by-massachusetts-initiative-supporting-childrens-oral-care-83326757.html or http://www.koolsmilespc.com; www.eec.state.ma.us

Maternal Depression:         http://www.nccp.org/publications/pub_791.html;

http://www.aboutourkids.org/files/articles/jan_feb_1.pdf

Mental Health:     Lists of mental health providers and organizations: http://mentalhealth.about.com/cs/localandregional/l/blmassachusetts.htm

Mass Department of Mental
Health:http://www.mass.gov/?pageID=eohhs2subtopic&L=4&L0=Home&L1=Consumer&L2=Behavioral+Health&L3=Mental++Health&sid=Eeohhs2

Nutrition:
www.keepkidshealthy.com/nutrition

pediatrics.about.com/od/nutrition/Nutrition_for_Children.htm
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www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/childnutrition.html




Approaches to Learning for Toddlers
The Approaches to Learning domain covers the inclinations, dispositions, attitudes, habits, and styles that reflect the diverse ways that children involve
themselves in learning. This domain is not about what skills children acquire, but how children orient themselves to learning a wide range of skills. Families,
communities, early childhood caregivers, researchers, and policy makers regard Approaches to Learning as a critical domain for children’s learning and school
readiness. The widespread acknowledgement of the importance of this domain is prompting researchers and scientists to pursue studies to gain understanding
in this dimension of development.

The Learning Guidelines for Approaches to Learning for Toddlers are:

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The child…

         Shows eagerness and curiosity as a learner

         Becomes intentional and persistent in their learning and discovery




Learning Guideline: The child shows eagerness and curiosity as a learner.
Indicator                                          Young toddlers (12-24 months) May:                     Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences
AL11. The toddler expands his exploration of the   -begin to explore the environment independently.       -Minimize the amount of times an adult says no to a toddler.
environment.
                                                   -move toward people and objects that interest him.     -Create a safe “toddler-proof” space for play and discovery.

                                                   -seek to learn new skills.                             -Provide enough developmentally appropriate toys and materials for the
                                                                                                          number and ages of children in the group so toddlers have ready access.
                                                   -start his own activities.
                                                                                                          -Expand upon the immediate environment with trips around the local
                                                                                                          community i.e. parks, fire stations, stores, post offices or libraries.

                                                                                                          -Provide varied dramatic play props including real items such as phone, dolls,
                                                                                                          hats, cooking utensils, keyboards, cash registers, etc.

                                                                                                          -Provide toddler spaces include both group play areas, as well as semi-private
                                                                                                          spaces where toddlers can safely play away from the large group.
AL12. The toddler shows curiosity in new and       -begin to use facial expressions to show excitement.   -Notice and respond to toddler’s curiosity, expanding the learning opportunity
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familiar objects.                                                                                                  with rich vocabulary and open-ended questions.
                                                   -point to unfamiliar objects and look to educators to explain
                                                   what it is.                                                     -Offer new toys that present challenges for toddlers.

                                                   -try new art materials such as play dough or finger painting.   -Offer a wide variety of sensory materials (i.e. touch and feel boxes; smell
                                                                                                                   testing; food tasting).
                                                   -start to show more intentionality in their play.

Indicator                                          Older Toddlers (22-33 months) MAY:                              Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences
AL13. The toddler expands his exploration of the   -become more confident in his ability to explore                -Continually restock and refresh the environment, offering new discoveries to
environment.                                       independently.                                                  spark toddler interest i.e. add baking pans to the kitchen area when the
                                                                                                                   toddler shows an interest in pretend cooking.
                                                   -play beside other children and imitate their play.
                                                                                                                   -Provide appropriate opportunities for toddlers to play together. Invite two to
                                                   -imitate adult activities such as reading a magazine or         work on a puzzle with you, set up side-by-side easels for painting, encourage a
                                                   helping to set the table.                                       group to build a castle out of blocks.

                                                   -enjoy doing jobs.                                              -Provide authentic tools for doing jobs i.e. child-size brooms for sweeping,
                                                                                                                   sponges for washing tables.

                                                                                                                   -Provide opportunities for toddlers to help adults i.e. setting tables, cleaning up
                                                                                                                   play area; mixing up playdough etc.
AL14. The toddler shows curiosity in new and       -seek more information about people and things around           -Toddlers need time. Provide a flexible schedule with consistent routines,
familiar objects.                                  them i.e. study an object carefully.                            allowing for adequate time for toddlers to explore and get involved in activities.

                                                   -use familiar objects in new ways i.e. may develop an           -Provide various materials that where toddlers can start with a whole and take
                                                   interest in sorting and patterns.                               it apart then put it back together again– cutting up pieces of playdough and
                                                                                                                   then smushing them back together; having a large bucket of water , putting it
                                                   -choose their own activities more consistently.                 into smaller bottles, then emptying it back into the large bucket.

                                                   -show pleasure in accomplishments.                              -Give toddlers opportunities to collect, sort, and organize objects such as
                                                                                                                   buttons, shells, and pegs. Provide self-correcting containers.
                                                   -talk about what they want to do.
                                                                                                                   -Closely observe toddlers to catch their accomplishments. Provide words for
                                                                                                                   what they have done and show enthusiasm for their progress.

                                                                                                                   -Provide intentional teacher-directed activities to introduce toddlers to new
                                                                                                                   ideas, materials, challenges. Encourage a love of learning.



Learning Guideline: The child becomes intentional and persistent in their learning and discovery.
Indicator                                          Young toddler (12-24) MAY:                                      Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences
                                                                                                                                                                                                  360
AL15. The young toddler attends for longer           -enjoy hearing the same music and making the same                 -Toddlers need time. Provide a flexible schedule with consistent routines,
periods of time and persists at preferred            movements over and over again.                                    allowing for adequate time for toddlers to explore and get involved in activities.
activities.
                                                     -insist on what clothing he wants to wear.                        -Toddlers learn best through repetition and practice. Continue to provide
                                                                                                                       familiar music, books, and materials while introducing new ones.
                                                     -request to hear the same book repeatedly.
                                                                                                                       -Support the toddler as they persist in challenging activities. Narrate for them
                                                     -persist at puzzles, shape sorters, pegboards until he finishes   what they are doing, ask open-ended questions, and acknowledge frustrations.
                                                     the task.

                                                     -keep trying even when something doesn’t work.
AL16. The young toddler begins to take risks.        -use trial and error to solve a problem.                          -Help children deal with mistakes in a positive way. Encourage “let’s try
                                                                                                                       another way!”
                                                     -begin to interact with new people.
                                                                                                                       -Introduce toddlers to new challenges i.e. “Yesterday you built a house. Today
                                                     -explore freely without an adult nearby.                          let’s build a garage for the house”.

                                                     -takes on challenges i.e. a new game with new rules; a toy        -Observe toddlers to assess their interests and replenish the environment to
                                                     that takes a new skill to operate.                                encourage the new interest.

                                                                                                                       -Provide toys and games that require new skills i.e. advanced memory games,
                                                                                                                       smaller pegboards; pattern cards; matching games.




Indicator                                            Older toddler (22-33) MAY:                                        Suggested Supportive Learning Experiences
AL17. The older toddler attends for longer periods   -work longer to fulfill a goal i.e. put on shoes, complete a      -Toddlers need time. Provide a flexible schedule with consistent routines,
of time and persists at preferred activities.        puzzle.                                                           allowing for adequate time for toddlers to explore and get involved in activities.

                                                     -spend longer periods of time working with one educator.          -Set up activities for children to work together to achieve a goal. I.e. painting a
                                                                                                                       cardboard box to be a house in the dramatic play area; seeing how high of a
                                                     -keep working on activities even if he encounters problems.       tower toddlers can build together; having one toddler place the napkins and
                                                                                                                       the other the cups for lunch.
                                                     -work on tasks in “busy” environments.
                                                                                                                       -Support the toddler as they persist in challenging activities. Narrate for them
                                                     -cooperate with other children to reach a goal.                   what they are doing, ask open-ended questions, and acknowledge frustrations.

                                                     -want to complete activities.
AL18. The older toddler begins to take risks.        -show confidence in their own abilities “me do it!”               -Encourage older toddlers to do things their own way. Give them time to solve
                                                                                                                       problems without interruptions.
                                                     -try many different ways of doing things in order to reach a
                                                     goal.                                                             -Observe older toddlers to assess their interests and replenish the environment

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                                                   to encourage the new interest.
-develop new interests.
                                                   -Provide a safe, toddler proof environment that makes taking risks part of
-seek help from others.                            learning.

-insist on feeding themselves and pouring juice.   -Minimize the amount of times an adult says no to a toddler.




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