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					               Highlands and Islands Airports




                            HOVERCRAFT



         Provision of Facilities and Recovery Plan




Produced by:   Chief Fire Officer
               February 2009
Contents

1.       Introduction and Background................................................................................................. 3

2.       The Regulatory Requirement ................................................................................................. 3

3.      DAL Compliance with the Regulatory Requirements and Guidance. ..................................... 4
     3.2    Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) ............................................................................ 5
     3.3    Training ........................................................................................................................... 5
     3.4    Communications............................................................................................................. 6
     3.5    Emergency Lighting ........................................................................................................ 7

4.      Stakeholder Interaction .......................................................................................................... 7
     4.1     Maritime Coastguard Agency ......................................................................................... 7
     4.2     Royal National Lifeboat Institute .................................................................................... 7
     4.3     Fire and Rescue Authorities............................................................................................ 8

5.       Rescue Equipment .................................................................................................................. 8

6.       Multiagency “Invergowrie” Response Plan Workshop .......................................................... 8

APPENDIX A - Water Rescue Craft Provision - DUNDEE ............................................................... 10
  A1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................ 10
  A2 ASSIGNED SURVEY & ASSESSMENT TEAM ....................................................................... 10
  A3 TERMS OF REFERENCE ...................................................................................................... 10
  A4 GUIDANCE ........................................................................................................................ 10
  A5 FINDINGS .......................................................................................................................... 11
  A6 OBSERVATIONS................................................................................................................. 11
  A7 RECOMMENDED ACTIONS................................................................................................ 13
  HAZARD LOG – DND Hovercraft Operations............................................................................. 14

APPENDIX B .................................................................................................................................. 16
  Invergowrie Bay Hazards .......................................................................................................... 16

APPEDIX C ..................................................................................................................................... 19
  A Fit for Purpose Alternative .................................................................................................... 19

APPENDIX D .................................................................................................................................. 20
  The Beaufort Wind Scale .......................................................................................................... 20
      PROVISION OF HOVERCRAFT AT DUNDEE AIRPORT


1.     Introduction and Background
1.1    In January 2009 the Airport Fire Service undertook a Safety Survey of the Hovercraft
       operation at Dundee Airport. The survey identified a number of safety issues and
       operational deficiencies. The safety survey is attached to this document at appendix A.

1.2    The purpose of this report is to describe the existing facilities available to facilitate the
       needs within the 1000 metre response area in Invergowrie Bay and sets out the
       recovery process that demonstrates the policies, equipment, and procedures are safe
       and fit for purpose.

1.3    For the past 15 years Dundee Airport limited (DAL) has made available a Griffin 375
       Hovercraft. The primary role of the craft is to deploy life saving equipment in the area
       of Invergowrie Bay to the west of the airport.

2.     The Regulatory Requirement
2.1    The regulatory requirement is such that the licensee is expected to assess the level of
       risk associated with the operation and demonstrate that reasonably practicable
       measures have been taken to minimise the risk.

2.2    Annex 14 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation provides regulatory
       guidance for the provision of rescue equipment for difficult environments. The
       guidance looks at the anticipated hazards and use of appropriate equipment along with
       its availability. An extract from the document has been provided for ease of reference.

2.3    Suitable rescue equipment and services should be available at an aerodrome where the
       area to be covered by the service includes water, swampy areas or other difficult
       environment that cannot be fully served by conventional wheeled vehicles. This is
       particularly important where a significant portion of approach/departure operations
       takes place over these areas.

2.4    The rescue equipment should be carried on boats or other vehicles such as helicopters
       and amphibious or air cushion vehicles, capable of operating in the area concerned.
       The vehicles should be so located that they can be brought into action quickly to
       respond to the areas covered by the service.

2.5    At an aerodrome bordering the water, the boats or other vehicles should preferably be
       located on the aerodrome, and convenient launching or docking sites provided. If these
       vehicles are located off the aerodrome, they should preferably be under the control of
       the aerodrome rescue and fire fighting service or, if this is not practicable, under the
       control of another competent public or private organization working in close
       coordination with the aerodrome rescue and fire fighting service (such as police,
       military services, harbour patrol or coast guard).

2.6    Boats or other vehicles should have as high a speed as practicable so as to reach an
       accident site in minimum time. To reduce the possibility of injury during rescue
       operations, water jet-driven boats are preferred to water propeller driven boats unless
       the propellers of the latter boats are ducted. Should the water areas to be covered by
        the service be frozen for a significant period of the year, the equipment should be
        selected accordingly. Vehicles used in this service should be equipped with life rafts
        and life preservers related to the requirements of the larger aircraft normally using the
        aerodrome, with two-way radio communication, and with floodlights for night
        operations. If aircraft operations during periods of low visibility are expected, it may be
        necessary to provide guidance for the responding emergency vehicles.

2.7     The personnel designated to operate the equipment should be adequately trained and
        drilled for rescue services in the appropriate environment.

2.8     The Civil Aviation Authority provides additional guidance within the publication CAP
        168.

2.9     There is a degree of familiarity between the two documents and again, for ease of
        reference the following is an extract from the document.

2.10    Where an aerodrome is located close to water/ swampy areas, or difficult terrain, and
        where a significant portion of approach or departure operations takes place over these
        areas, specialist rescue services and fire fighting equipment appropriate to the hazard
        and risk shall be available.

2.11    Emergency access roads should be provided on an aerodrome where terrain conditions
        permit their construction, so as to facilitate achieving minimum response times.
        Particular attention should be given to the provision of ready access to approach areas
        up to 1000 m from the threshold, or at least within the aerodrome boundary. Where a
        fence is provided, the need for convenient access to outside areas should be taken into
        account.

2.12    An assessment of the approach and departure areas within 1000 m of the runway
        threshold should be carried out to determine the options available for rescue.

3.      DAL Compliance with the Regulatory Requirements and
        Guidance.
3.1     Hovercraft

3.1.1   The existing provision is met with a Griffon 375 Hovercraft powered by 3.0 Litre Land
        Rover TDI engine. Due to the weight limitations associated with the carriage of life
        rafts, a maximum crew of two is provided consisting of a pilot and crewmember. The
        craft is fitted with three navigation lights, one red light on the port side, one green light
        on the starboard side and one white light on the top of the craft

3.1.2   An assessment of this equipment was undertaken in December 2008 by the Airport Fire
        Manager and published in January 2009. A number of deficiencies were recorded,
        along with safety concerns of operating the equipment during periods of reduced
        visibility and darkness. These deficiencies and safety concerns are addressed further
        within this document.

3.1.3   The Hovercraft has operational limitations due to the weather and tidal conditions
        which prevent it from being used during inclement weather. A proposal that address’s
        this anomaly is provided as an appendix to this document.
3.1.4    The Hovercraft will be fitted with GPS Plotter which contains the latest admiralty
        charts for the river Tay. The main hazards associated with Invergowrie Bay are plotted
        on the GPS and are described further in this document.

3.2     Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

3.2.1   Each crew member is provided with a Typhoon Dry Suit fitted with boots and complies
        with the appropriate CE approvals.

3.2.2   In addition, each crew member is provided with protective gloves and a helmet
        (including internal head communications). There is currently no EN standard for water
        rescue helmets however; BS EN1385 is the European Standard for helmets to be used
        for Canoeing and White Water sports.

3.2.3   Before launching the hovercraft, each member of the crew must be wearing a life
        jacket. The type used is automatically deployed when a person is immersed in water.
        The life jacket conforms to EN 396-1993 (ISO 12402 Part 3 150 Newton Lifejacket) and
        provides a buoyancy of 150 Newton’s. This provides reasonable assurance of safety
        from drowning to a person not fully capable of helping themselves.

3.2.4   I have recommended to the Airport Fire Manager to replace the 150 Newton Life
        Jackets at the end of their serviceable life with life jackets meeting the ISO 12402 Part 2
        275 Newton standard. The advantages of this type of life jacket are

           Designed for severe conditions, when maximum protection is required or when
            heavy clothing (firefighting PPE) is worn.

           They give improved assurance or safety from drowning, to people who are not
            able to help themselves.

           While they cannot be guaranteed to self-right an unconscious user wearing heavy
            waterproof clothing, the buoyancy they provide should ensure they will in the
            great majority of cases.

        This Life Jacket is considered the most suitable for Fire and Rescue Service operations
        where the wearer is not expected to enter the water intentionally.

3.2.5   A test and inspection procedure for PPE is published in the AFS procedures volume 4 –
        Test and Inspections.

3.3     Training
3.3.1   Each crew member assigned to pilot the Hovercraft has previously received basic
        training from the equipment manufacturer. There are, however, limitations in their
        piloting skills and following the assessment described in 3.1.2 it was identified the
        pilots are deficient in operating the hovercraft during reduced visibility and periods of
        darkness since their initial acquisition training. A training plan has been developed to
        bring the competence of the pilots to a more acceptable level and arrangements with
        the Royal National Lifeboat Institute (RNLI) are in place to deliver a certificated course
        with final assessment. This training includes a combined exercise with the RNLI team
        from Broughty Ferry.
The training plan consists of

               Pre Flight Checks
               Modes of Operation
               Limitations of use
               Launch and Recovery Techniques
               Emergency Procedures, Man Overboard
               Water and Land Operations
               Transition from Water to Land to water
               Casualty Approach, first response
               SAR techniques

3.3.2   All crew members require a minimum Water First Responder qualification course held
        at Dundee Airport. This is facilitated by a specialist training company who have been
        contracted to fulfill the water training needs of the Scottish Fire and Rescue Services.

        The Water First Responder course will still be externally certificated by Rescue 3.

3.3.3   Further scenario-based days will be arranged at the airport. This training will also
        engage other agencies (RNLI, MCA, FRA) and will facilitate one or more rescue
        scenarios to explore the integrated use of DAL and other agencies specialized
        equipment eg Hovercraft, Inflatable pathways etc

3.3.4   In addition to the pilot training and basic water first responder, it is the intention of
        DAL AFS to establish a safety management protocol for working on and around the
        water/mud. It is envisaged there will be three key areas;

               Hot area – the water/mud incident area with specific PPE requirements.
               Warm area – the area from the water/mud edge to a distance of 10 metres
                away from the risk with reduced specific PPE requirements.
               Cold area – the area considered to be a safe haven with limited or no PPE
                requirements.
               Due to the environmental constraints and hazards of the coast line adjacent to
                Invergowrie Bay it is policy that crew members will not approach this
                hazardous area without the appropriate PPE and knowledge of what area they
                are working in. Additional supporting Crew members operating at the launch
                site must be wearing the appropriate Personal Flotation Device and secured to
                a “cows tail” attached to the releasable harness. This is a short elasticised
                length of webbing, with a steel ring on one end and a karabiner at the other
                and accords with BS EN362.

3.3.5   The delineation of these areas will be made with cordon tape.

3.4     Communications

        In order Dundee Airport Fire Service can effectively communicate with both the MCA
        and RNLI, communications on the marine band channel 16 or channel 0 are necessary.
        Currently, the Dundee AFS team has not been trained to use this channel; however, the
        St Andrews Coastguard Sector manager will provide the necessary training inputs to
        bring the crew up to a satisfactory competency level. This will be undertaken in
        parallel with the HIA/DAL MOC radio training module.
        Following this training permission will be sought from the Maritime Coastguard Agency
        to use the channel during emergency callouts.

3.5     Emergency Lighting

3.5.1   Dundee Airport Fire Service has limited portable emergency lighting. Each appliance is
        equipped with telescopic masts fitted with a halogen light cluster. The AFS also have a
        portable generator and 2 tripod lighting masts for general incident scene illumination.
        The Bird Patrol vehicle is fitted with a roof mounted spot light and there is also a high
        powered hand spot light provided for searching for bird activity at night. Both these
        lights have a good working range which will reach a considerable distance.

        In addition to these conventional lamps the AFS also carries a stock of white Parachute
        illuminating flares on the hovercraft.

3.5.2   The Coastguard response has portable flood lighting capability; however, this will take
        approximately 1 hour to deploy.

3.5.3   The Fire and Rescue authorities have floodlight capability but not necessarily on the
        initial attendance; therefore a delay may be incurred.

3.5.4   The planned multi Agency Training exercise will test the emergency floodlight
        capability of each agency.

4.      Stakeholder Interaction
4.1     Maritime Coastguard Agency

4.1.1   The primacy for any incident in the area of Invergowrie Bay rests with the Maritime
        Coastguard Agency (MCA). Whilst their primary role is one on co-ordination, from
        either the Forth control centre or the Aberdeen control centre they do have access to
        two mud rescue teams, one based in Montrose and the other at Granton. A response
        to Dundee airport by these teams, following notification, is approximately one hour.
        The teams are competent in mud rescue, shore search and rescue. Local MCA
        volunteer teams are available within the Dundee district and vary between 6 and 25 in
        strength but is very much dependant on the time of day.

4.1.2   The MCA have helicopter assets, however, in relation to Dundee airport one is based in
        Stornoway and the other in Sumburgh. Other non MCA assets which could be called
        upon are the Aeronautical Rescue Coordination Centre based at RAF Kinloss, RAF
        Bulmer, RAF Lossiemouth, and HMS Gannet. These Search and Rescue Helicopters
        (SARH) have the ability to lift approximately 20 persons and a response time of
        approximately 1 hour dependant on the weather conditions and time of day.

4.2     Royal National Lifeboat Institute

4.2.1   The RNLI is stationed at Broughty Ferry, approximately 6 miles by river to Invergowrie
        Bay, and are equipped with a Trent and “D” class life boats. The dependency of a
        response to an incident in this area is based on the height of the tide meaning at
        certain times of the day the RNLI may be restricted to the main Tay river channel. The
        use of the lighter D or Y class boats may be considered, however the resource
        allocation will be lessened.
4.2.2   Crews from the RNLI provide a water response and cannot offer any land based
        responses to Dundee airport. In addition, their training does not extend to mud rescue
        techniques. That said the Broughty Ferry Lifeboat Coxswain has conducted trials of
        putting his crew members onto the sand banks which lie to the south of the airport,
        closer to the main shipping channel, and is content that the sand in this area is stable
        enough to permit his crews to work on foot safely. This however does not include the
        areas of Invergowrie Bay or within the 1000m approach areas.

4.3     Fire and Rescue Authorities

4.3.1   The United Kingdom Fire and Rescue Authorities have no statutory right in law to
        respond to incidents in open water. More recently, the Fire and Rescue Authorities
        have equipped and trained themselves to deal with the effects of floods and there is an
        expectation that should an incident take place in the Invergowrie Bay then a response
        would be made.

4.3.2   Fife Fire and Rescue have two mud rescue facilities based at Cupar whilst Tayside Fire
        and Rescue have two units located at Perth and East Kingsway, Dundee.

4.3.3   Fife Fire & RS have all their personnel trained for water rescue and all appliances carry
        drysuits and flotation aids. Tayside F & RS only have two stations which all crew are
        trained up. The capability of mud rescue with these brigades may have limitations of
        only being able to reach an area 100m from the shoreline due to the type of equipment
        they each carry.

5.      Rescue Equipment
5.1     The rescue equipment available to deploy at the scene of incident is primarily split in to
        two categories.

               Category 1 items of equipment are associated with incidents that occur during
                a high tide. This is facilitated with two inflatable life rafts, one 46 person and a
                7 person.

               Category 2 items of equipment are associated with incidents that occur during
                low tide and where the mud flats are exposed.

        The Airport Fire Manager has procured an additional ten Throw Bags containing 15
        metres of line. The Throw Bags are self weighted which ensures optimum distance and
        accuracy.

        Careful consideration will be given during periods of transition between high and low
        tide to ensure the appropriate equipment is selected.

5.2     The use of these inflatable devices will be investigated further to determine suitability
        of being “fit for purpose”.

6.      Multiagency “Invergowrie” Response Plan Workshop
6.1     A multiagency Response Plan workshop involving DAL, MCA, RNLI, Tayside FRA, Fife
        FRA, Tayside Police, and the CAA is being developed by the HIA Chief Fire Officer. Here,
        the group will explore what resource, equipment and skill will be deployed to a
fictitious incident in the Invergowrie Bay and focus on potential pinch points where
resource, equipment, or skill deficiencies exist.
APPENDIX A - Water Rescue Craft Provision - DUNDEE


                           SAFETY SURVEY & HAZARD ASSESSMENT




                             Document reference: DND SS 01/09

A1      INTRODUCTION
This Safety Survey and associated Hazard Assessments were conducted 6th January 2009, in
accordance with the principles of HIA Safety Management Manual (SMM) procedures SMP043
– Safety Surveys, and SMP060 - Hazard Analysis.
A2      ASSIGNED SURVEY & ASSESSMENT TEAM
Andrew Lindsay AFM Station Manager                 DAL Dundee
Mark Don AFS Watch Manager                         DAL Dundee
Joint authors of the Survey Report.

A3      TERMS OF REFERENCE
The aims and scope of this Safety Survey are as follows:
           To assess the overall suitability of AFS water borne equipment at Dundee to assist
      the survivability of passengers following an accident within a distance of 1000m from the
      runway threshold or at least within the aerodrome boundary – CAP 168 Chapter 8
      paragraph 24 refers.
           The purpose of the Hovercraft is to aid survivability of passengers in the event of
      an accident in water/soft ground.
This safety survey follows as far as reasonably practicable the 7 step risk assessment process as
per CAP 760.
A4      GUIDANCE
     Wind and weather statistics for Dundee (produced by windfinder.com)
     CAP 168
     HIA Fire Service Procedures Manuals Volume 3 & 5.
     DND Airport Manual including Emergency Orders.
     DND entries in AD section of UK AIP & NOTAMS
     CAP 760
     Existing local H&S risk assessments
A5      FINDINGS
The current status of water borne equipment is as follows: The limitation on the use of the
Hovercraft continues at the time of this survey per Safety Directive 01/07. The Hovercraft is a
Griffon 320TD

Water Rescue is presently provided for RWY 10/28 1000m runway approach areas, however it
should be considered that on the one occasion when the hovercraft was used to respond to an
aircraft accident it was in the water at the side of the runway and not in the final approach
area.

Other findings are as follows:

     Water rescue is restricted to an area of 1000m currently provided in the River Tay and to
      the water running to the south side of the main runway.

     The largest aircraft presently using Dundee on Public Transport flights is the DHC 8 on an
      ad hoc basis, however the normal scheduled movements are Saab 340 or Dornier 328
      both carrying approximately 34 passengers.

     A minimum of two crew members are required to operate the Hovercraft. No crew are
      required to enter the water during launch and recovery of the craft, however a shore
      crew will be required to assist with casualty recovery and a shoreline search.

     The average wind speed at DND is 09 kts as per information provided by windfinder.com.

     Within the 1000m area there are two sewer lines which are indicated by markers.

     Within the 1000m area there are numerous deep gullies which form part of the natural
      mud flats.

     There are underwater hazards in the form of rocks and other obstructions in close
      proximity to the shore line.

     There is the potential for flotsam / jetsam obstructions floating on the water.

     The water in the River Tay is tidal and can either be in a state of incoming or outgoing
      tides as well as a faster moving river dependant on the time of day and tidal state.

     The hovercraft can only be launched from one location at the hovercraft ramp.

     No member of the crew has undergone any form of sea survival training.

     The AFS has 1000m Assessment documented in Vol.3 which includes hazards identified
      in the areas the hovercraft would operate.

A6      OBSERVATIONS
     The Hovercraft is considered by staff to be too small to operate in its designated area
      mainly due to the sea swell and wind conditions. The present craft has a limitation of
      operating in winds below 16kts and in a sea height of half a metre.
   The hovercraft provided has a limited capacity to work in windy or rough conditions. In
    the last three months (Oct – Dec 2008) the hovercraft was withdrawn from service for
    seven days due to wind / sea conditions out with its capacity, that equates to 7.7%
    downtime.

   Although the hovercraft will traverse over the mud flats successfully it has no ability to
    cross over the deep gullies that form on certain parts of the mud flats.

   The hovercraft has limited capacity to carry crew to perform a rescue. A maximum of
    two can be carried and there is a requirement to carry a large life raft which will need at
    least two people to deploy leaving the hovercraft un-controlled when this operation
    takes place.

   Lack of water can be potentially hazardous, as Hovercraft can come to an abrupt halt if
    not operated correctly. The current hovercraft has no crew cab or seatbelt provision to
    stop people being thrown overboard if this were to happen.
   The hovercraft is kept in the open with only a tarpaulin cover for protection. This is
    sometimes removed in high winds and does not provide the best protection for the
    hovercraft when it is not in use. The hovercraft would benefit from being housed in a
    permanent shelter close to the launch site which will provide cover in all weather and
    increase the life expectancy of the craft. The hovercraft was withdrawn from service for
    nine days in the last three months for maintenance (Oct – Dec 2008), that equates to
    10% downtime. Although this maintenance was not due totally to a lack of appropriate
    cover, the continued exposure to the elements will likely increase the time the craft will
    be required to be out of service for maintenance.
   It is recommended that the man overboard procedures be assessed and amended to
    show what happens if a member of the crew falls overboard whilst responding to a real
    life incident. A training package is already being developed for this however additional
    funds will be required to provide extra survival equipment.
   The survival equipment that the crew should carry does not include personal rescue
    flares / lights to attract attention or EPIRBS if a person falls overboard. It is also thought
    that if one of the two crew were to go overboard the remaining single operator would
    find it difficult to affect a rescue single handed. There is no casualty recovery equipment
    fitted to hovercraft for this scenario.
   The Life jackets issued to the crew may not be of a standard sufficient to turn an
    unconscious crew member in a face up position if they fall in the water.
   The Life Jackets issued to the shore crew may not be of a standard sufficient to keep a
    fire fighter in full fire fighting kit afloat if they were to fall into the water.

   It is noted that at all HIA Aerodromes with water crafts, personnel have been on Sea
    Survival Training Courses. DND personnel have not had training provided as yet although
    budgetary provision has been requested for the next financial year.

   There are only minimal trained people that can operate the hovercraft. With the
    introduction of the new shift system this means that there are on occasions no trained
    pilots on shift to operate the hovercraft. In the last three months (Oct – Dec 2008) this
    has happened on two occasions, that equates to 2.2% downtime.

   Night time training has never been conducted with the hovercraft. The hovercraft has
    limited navigational equipment for night time or low visibility operation.
     Life rafts provided are not of a type that could easily be climbed into if a casualty were in
      deep water. It would require the assistance of the AFS crew to get people into these
      rafts. The Hover craft crew is insufficient to assist in this scenario at present.

Current H&S Risk assessments were reviewed but some amendments will be required,

The AIP for Dundee makes no reference to water rescue craft.

The total downtime in the last three months (Oct – Dec 2008) due to a combination of weather,
maintenance and insufficient staffing resources equates to 19.9%


A7     RECOMMENDED ACTIONS
     Consideration should be given to providing a more suitable piece of equipment which
      has been thoroughly evaluated to ensure its suitability in relation to the operation at
      DND. One suggestion from the staff was a larger hovercraft which is able to carry more
      crew and a heavier payload. Although other types of equipment will need to be assessed
      for suitability as an alternative to a hovercraft, it is generally felt that a larger hovercraft
      would provide the best all round response to any incidents within the River Tay.

     Consideration should be made for a permanent housing for the craft and budgetary
      provision made accordingly.
     It is recommended that a man overboard procedures be incorporated into the risk
      assessment with a reference to AFS Volume 3 and the Vol. 5 Training Plan.

     Consideration needs to be given to providing casualty recovery equipment on the
      hovercraft and the crew numbers need to be increased accordingly.
     Consideration needs to be given to the type of life rafts provided and the number of
      crew available to effect a rescue in deeper water.

     Night time and Low Visibility Procedures for the operation of the Hovercraft need to be
      developed and authorised by the Director of Operations. At present night time operation
      of all other HIA rescue facilities has been suspended, should this apply to Dundee also?

     A full review of all the safety equipment and PPE required needs to be conducted and
      budgetary provision made to purchase and replace where necessary.

     It is recommended that an AIP entry be made stating the scope of water borne rescue
      equipment available at Dundee.

     There needs to be additional pilots trained to operate the Hovercraft.

     All AFS Personnel need to complete a Basic Sea Survival Training Course.

     A comprehensive training plan needs to be developed in line with the AFS Training Plan
      including assessment of all personnel in their designated roles and responsibilities.

     A decision should be made by Senior Management as to whether the facilities provided
      at Dundee Airport should be made available in the hours of darkness or withdrawn as is
      the case with all other HIA Airports.
HAZARD LOG – DND Hovercraft Operations
Probability or Likelihood Ranking:                    1 = Extremely Improbable            2 = Extremely Remote                                   3 = Remote                     4 = Reasonably Probable   5 = Frequent

Severity Ranking:                                     1 = No Effect Immediately           2 = Significant Incidents                              3 = Major Incidents            4 = Serious Incidents     5 = Accidents

           5
           4
           3
SEVERITY




           2
           1
               1     2         3        4         5
                     LIKELIHOOD

Zone Red (R), Amber (A), Green (G)            (based on ‘table3’ from CAP760 chapter 3 page10)

HAZARD                                                   CAUSES                                                     RISK ANALYSIS                  MITIGATION                                                               RISK ANALYSIS




                                                                                                                                   Matrix Zone




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Matrix Zone
                                                                                                       Likelihood




                                                                                                                                                                                                               Likelihood
                                                                                                                        Severity




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Severity
Hovercraft
Hitting and /or grounding on rocks close to              Rocks hidden at high tide (natural causes),   4                2          A               Lighting on Hovercraft,                                    3                 2          G
shoreline                                                Flotsam / Jetsam                                                                          Training & qualifications and local knowledge,
                                                                                                                                                   Operational Procedures and 1000m Response Procedure
                                                                                                                                                   Documentation,
High Speed Grounding of Hovercraft on Mud Flats          Poor operator technique,                      4                3          R               All pilots have been given basic induction training,       4                 3          A
                                                         Lack of training (night time ops),
                                                         Sub standard hovercraft performance
Man Overboard Scenario (Lost at sea)                     Poor operator technique,                      3                5          R               All pilots have been given basic induction training,       3                 5          R
                                                         Lack of training (night time ops),                                                        All crew provided with survival suit
                                                         Sub standard hovercraft performance
                                                         Inappropriate PPE
                                                         Lack of on board resources to effect a
                                                         rescue,
Shore Crew Member falling into water (drowning)          Inappropriate PPE (Lifejacket)                2                5          R               Training & qualifications and local knowledge,             2                 4          A
                                                                                                                                                   Operational Procedures and 1000m Response Procedure
                                                                                                                                                   Documentation,



                                                                                                                    - 14 -
HAZARD LOG – DND Hovercraft Operations

Probability or Likelihood Ranking:                   1 = Extremely Improbable                2 = Extremely Remote                                   3 = Remote            4 = Reasonably Probable   5 = Frequent

Severity Ranking:                                    1 = No Effect Immediately               2 = Significant Incidents                              3 = Major Incidents   4 = Serious Incidents     5 = Accidents

           5
           4
           3
SEVERITY




           2
           1
               1      2         3        4       5
                      LIKELIHOOD

Zone Red (R), Amber (A), Green (G)           (based on ‘table3’ from CAP760 chapter 3 page10)

HAZARD                                                  CAUSES                                                         RISK ANALYSIS                  MITIGATION                                                      RISK ANALYSIS




                                                                                                                                      Matrix Zone




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Matrix Zone
                                                                                                          Likelihood




                                                                                                                                                                                                         Likelihood
                                                                                                                           Severity




                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Severity
Survivor drowning                                       Inability to climb into life raft for self        4                5          R               None                                              4                 5          R
                                                        rescue.
Hovercraft accident at night / low vis                  Poor operator technique,                          3                4          R               None                                              3                 4          R
                                                        Lack of training (night time ops),
                                                        Sub standard hovercraft performance




                                                                                                                       - 15 -
APPENDIX B
Invergowrie Bay Hazards
There are a number of hazards associated with the Invergowrie Bay area.

B1     The launch and recovery point is located at Grid Square C16 directly adjacent to the
       terminal building on the opposite side of the aerodrome. The potential hazards are
       primarily FOD brought ashore with the tide and the rough ground which can be found a
       low water. A programme is in place whereby this FOD is retrieved and disposed of
       during the daily inspection.




B2      A storm water overflow pipe , supported on concrete columns, runs across the bay
South Easterly in to the river Tay and is approximately 900 metres from the runway threshold.
This pipe is clearly visible at low water; however, at high water the pipe is beneath the water
line and presents a significant hazard to the Hovercraft operation. Access beyond the
obstruction is only achievable by navigating around the head of the pipe.

The positioning of the pipe is plotted on the Hovercraft GPS and advises the pilot when the
hovercraft comes in to close proximity.


                                            - 16 -
- 17 -
B3       A number of natural gullies formed from a stream exist along the shore line of the Bay.
The significance of these gullies is more apparent at the low water phase. Dimensionally, the
gullies are under a metre in width and in some instances upto a metre in depth and have the
dangerous potential to render the hovercraft unusable if it were to navigate over them.




                                             - 18 -
APPEDIX C
A Fit for Purpose Alternative

This hovercraft embodies the very best technologies available on the market with the latest
technology, fly by wire, highly developed reverse thrust for braking, tight turns, reversing and
360° rotation from standing, more cockpit room, increased thrust and a low weight hull. It
offers greater loading capacity.

The HTI 525 is the world’s most fully tested medium rescue Hovercraft with a 5 YEAR warranty
no excuses guarantee.




The engine can be simply serviced by a local motorcycle dealer (preferably Yamaha but not a
warranty requirement) and has been designed for easy access. The remainder of the craft
requires only simple greasing and cleaning routine.

HTI guarantee the skirt system for 500 hours on water or unstable surface and 100 hours on
asphalt

The total cost of €145,000 accounts are for the complete craft and includes the trailer, training
for twelve staff and delivery.

It is the recommendation of this recovery plan to trial this hovercraft at Dundee for a period of
one month in order to make determinations on its suitability.




                                             - 19 -
APPENDIX D
The Beaufort Wind Scale

The scale was created in 1805 by Sir Francis Beaufort, an Irish born British admiral and
hydrographer. The scale that carries Beaufort's name had a long and complex evolution, from
the previous work of others, to when Beaufort was a top administrator in the Royal Navy in the
1830s. In the early 19th Century naval officers made regular weather observations, but there
was no standard scale and so they could be very subjective - one man's "stiff breeze" might be
another's "soft breeze". Beaufort succeeded in getting things standardized.

The initial scale of thirteen classes (zero to twelve) did not reference wind speed numbers, but
related qualitative wind conditions to effects on the sails of a man of war, then the main ship of
the Royal Navy, from "just sufficient to give steerage" to "that which no canvas sails could
withstand." At zero, all his sails would be up; at six, half of his sails would have been taken
down; and at twelve, all sails would be stowed away.

The scale was made a standard for ship's log entries on Royal Navy vessels in the late 1830s,
and was adapted to non-naval use from the 1850s, with scale numbers corresponding to cup
anemometer rotations. In 1906, to accommodate the growth of steam power, the descriptions
were changed to how the sea, not the sails, behaved and extended to land observations.
Rotations to scale numbers were standardized only in 1923. George Simpson, Director of the
UK Meteorological Office, was responsible for this and for the addition of the land-based
descriptors. The measure was slightly altered some decades later to improve its utility for
meteorologists. Today, many countries have abandoned the scale and use the SI-based units
m/s or km/h instead, but the severe weather warnings given to public are still approximately
the same as when using the Beaufort scale.

The Beaufort scale was extended in 1946, when Forces 13 to 17 were added. However, Forces
13 to 17 were intended to apply only to special cases, such as tropical cyclones. Nowadays, the
extended scale is only used in Taiwan and mainland China, which are often affected by
typhoons.

Wind speed on the 1946 Beaufort scale is based on the empirical formula:

        v = 0.836 B3/2 m/s

where v is the equivalent wind speed at 10 metres above the sea surface and B is Beaufort
scale number. For example, B = 9.5 is related to 24.5 m/s which is equal to the lower limit of
"10 Beaufort". Using this formula the highest winds in hurricanes would be 23 in the scale.

Today, hurricane force winds are sometimes described as Beaufort scale 12 through 16, very
roughly related to the respective category speeds of the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale, by
which actual hurricanes are measured, where Category 1 is equivalent to Beaufort 12.
However, the extended Beaufort numbers above 13 do not match the Saffir-Simpson Scale.
Category 1 tornadoes on the Fujita and TORRO scales also begin roughly at the end of level 12
of the Beaufort scale but are indeed independent scales.

Note that wave heights in the scale are for conditions in the open ocean, not along the shore.




                                              - 20 -
The modern scale


                                                     Wave
                 Wind speed
                                                     height
Beaufort
                                     Description                 Sea conditions        Land conditions
number
           km/h mph kts m/s                          m     ft


                                                                                      Calm. Smoke rises
   0        <1    <1   <1 <0.3          Calm         0     0          Flat.
                                                                                          vertically.


                              0.3-                                   Ripples        Wind motion visible in
   1       1-5    1-3 1-2             Light air     0.1 0.33
                              1.5                                without crests.          smoke.


                                                                Small
                                                              wavelets.
                              1.5-      Light                  Crests of             Wind felt on exposed
   2       6-11 3-7 3-6                             0.2 0.66
                              3.3      breeze                   glassy                skin. Leaves rustle.
                                                             appearance,
                                                             not breaking


                                                                     Large
                                                                   wavelets.
           12-      7-        3.3-     Gentle                    Crests begin to Leaves and smaller twigs
   3           8-12                                 0.6    2
           19       10        5.5      breeze                        break;        in constant motion.
                                                                   scattered
                                                                   whitecaps


                                                                                     Dust and loose paper
           20-    13- 11- 5.5-       Moderate
   4                                                 1     3.3    Small waves.      raised. Small branches
           28     17 15 8.0           breeze
                                                                                        begin to move.


                                                               Moderate (1.2
                                                                m) longer          Branches of a moderate
           29-    18- 16- 8.0-         Fresh
   5                                                 2     6.6 waves. Some          size move. Small trees
           38     24 20 10.8           breeze
                                                                foam and                begin to sway.
                                                                  spray.


                                                                  Large waves      Large branches in motion.
           39-    25- 21- 10.8-        Strong                      with foam           Whistling heard in
   6                                                 3     9.9
           49     30 26 13.9           breeze                      crests and      overhead wires. Umbrella
                                                                  some spray.        use becomes difficult.
                                                                                     Empty plastic garbage
                                                  - 21 -
                                                                         cans tip over.


                                                    Sea heaps up Whole trees in motion.
                         High wind,                   and foam       Effort needed to walk
     50-   31- 27- 13.9- Moderate                    begins to be against the wind. Swaying
7                                       4     13.1
     61    38 33 17.2 Gale, Near                      blown in      of skyscrapers may be
                            Gale                   streaks in wind felt, especially by people
                                                      direction.         on upper floors.


                                                  Moderately
                                                   high waves
                                                 with breaking
     62-   39- 34- 17.2-                                        Twigs broken from trees.
8                        Fresh Gale 5.5       18 crests forming
     74    46 40 20.7                                              Cars veer on road.
                                                    spindrift.
                                                   Streaks of
                                                      foam.


                                                 High waves (6-
                                                                 Larger branches break off
                                                    7 m) with
                                                                   trees, and some small
                                                  dense foam.
                                                                      trees blow over.
     75-   47- 41- 20.7-                          Wave crests
9                        Strong Gale    7     23                  Construction/temporary
     88    54 47 24.5                              start to roll
                                                                 signs and barricades blow
                                                      over.
                                                                   over. Damage to circus
                                                  Considerable
                                                                    tents and canopies.
                                                      spray.


                                                       Very high
                                                    waves. Large
                                                      patches of
                                                      foam from
                                                     wave crests
                                                    give the sea a Trees are broken off or
                                                         white     uprooted, saplings bent
     89-   55- 48- 24.5- Whole                       appearance.    and deformed, poorly
10                                      9     29.5
     102   63 55 28.4 Gale/Storm                    Considerable attached asphalt shingles
                                                     tumbling of     and shingles in poor
                                                     waves with    condition peel off roofs.
                                                   heavy impact.
                                                   Large amounts
                                                      of airborne
                                                    spray reduce
                                                       visibility.


     103- 64- 56- 28.4-    Violent                  Exceptionally Widespread vegetation
11                                     11.5 37.7
     117 72 63 32.6        storm                     high waves. damage. More damage to
                                                      Very large  most roofing surfaces,

                                     - 22 -
                                                patches of     asphalt tiles that have
                                              foam, driven       curled up and/or
                                                before the   fractured due to age may
                                               wind, cover    break away completely.
                                              much of the
                                               sea surface.
                                                Very large
                                               amounts of
                                             airborne spray
                                                 severely
                                                  reduce
                                                 visibility.


                                           Huge waves.
                                                 Sea is       Considerable and
                                            completely     widespread damage to
                                            white with        vegetation, a few
                                             foam and         windows broken,
                        Hurricane-
12   ≥118 ≥73 ≥64 ≥32.6            ≥14 ≥46 spray. Air is    structural damage to
                          force
                                             filled with  mobile homes and poorly
                                           driving spray,  constructed sheds and
                                               greatly      barns. Debris may be
                                              reducing          hurled about.
                                              visibility.




                                  - 23 -

				
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