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China Case Study

   •   Likeng Waste to Energy and Fertilizer Project: Case Study
   •   Jiangqiao Waste to Energy and Fertilizer Project: Case Study
   •   Xingtai Waste to Energy and Fertilizer Project: Case Study
   •   Asuwei Waste to Energy and Fertilizer Project: Case
   •   Xiaping Waste Leachate Treatment Project: Case Study
   •   Suzhou Tonghe Electric Waste to Resources Project: Case Study
   •   Hongmiaolin Lanfill Leachate Treatment Project: Case Study
   •   Shenhang Waste Glass to Glass Grain Project: Case Study
   •   Tianziling Landfill gas to Energy Project: Case Study
   •   Lixi Waste Plastics to Resources and Production Project: Case Study
   •   Guanggang Waste Plastics to Plastic Resins Project: Case Study

India Case Study

   •   High Rate Biomethanation of Vegetable Wastes at Chennai
   •   Namakkal Municipality - A Zero Garbage City
   •   Integrated Waste Management at Educational Institutions:
   •   Case Study on Vellore Institute of Technology (VIT)
   •   Composting of Solid Wastes in Tirupur Town
   •   Dumpsite Rehabilitation by Chennai Corporation Town
   •   Private Sector Participation in Municipal Solid Waste Collection
   •   Plastics in Roads – A Potential Reuse for plastic waste
   •   Environmentally Sound Plastic Recycling at Kolkata
   •   Private-Public Management of MSW – Experience in Bangalore City
   •   Source Segregation and Door to Door Collection of Municipal Solid Wastes

Srilanka Case Study
   •   Plastic Recycling Plant at Galle District
   •   Inclined Step Grate (ISG) Composting System at Dambulla
   •   Plastic Recycling Plant at Daulagala
   •   Condition of Landfill Site at Gohagoda, Kandy (Sri Lanka)
   •   Inclined Step Grate (ISG) Composting System at Kaluthara
   •   Inclined Step Grate (ISG) Composting System at Mawanella
   •   Plastic Recycling Plant at Mawanella
   •   Biogas and Bio Fertilizer Project at Muthurajawela -A Lesson to Learn
   •   Landfill Site in Nuwara Eliya
   •   Windrow Composting At Udunuwara Local Authority

Thailand Case Study

Asian Institute of Technology

   •   Rayong Waste to Energy and Fertilizer Project
   •   GPS for Waste Collection at Nonthaburi Municipality
   •   Pobsuk Recycle Center Pilot Project
   •   Solid Waste Management at Nonthaburi Municipality
   •   Computer Second-Hand Shops
   •   Wat Suan Kaeo Philanthropic Foundation
   •   Klongtom Night Market
   •   Genco Public Co. Ltd.
   •   Wongpanit Garbage Recycling Separation Plant
   •   Second-Hand Product Exchange Network
   •   Suar Yai Utid Street
   •   Ta-Rang Solid Waste Transfer Station

Kasetsart University

   •   Development of Compost Bin for Reducing Organic Wastes at Sources
   •   Private Waste Recycling Factory in Asian Countries: Case Study of Thailand
   •   Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator at Phuket Municipality, Thailand
   •   Waste Separation and Baling Plant of Small Communities in Thailand
   •   Application of Aerated Static Pile Composting System for Market Wastes in Thailand
   •   Hospital Waste Management in Bangkok Metropolitan, Thailand
   •   Management of Demolition Wastes Arise from Natural Disaster in Thailand
   •   Rehabilitation of Dumpsite to Integrated Waste Management
   •   Utilization of Landfill Gas for Electricity Generation Facilities


  •   Likeng Waste to Energy and Fertilizer Project: Case Study
  •   Jiangqiao Waste to Energy and Fertilizer Project: Case Study
  •   Xingtai Waste to Energy and Fertilizer Project: Case Study
  •   Asuwei Waste to Energy and Fertilizer Project: Case
  •   Xiaping Waste Leachate Treatment Project: Case Study
  •   Suzhou Tonghe Electric Waste to Resources Project: Case Study
  •   Hongmiaolin Lanfill Leachate Treatment Project: Case Study
  •   Shenhang Waste Glass to Glass Grain Project: Case Study
  •   Tianziling Landfill gas to Energy Project: Case Study
  •   Lixi Waste Plastics to Resources and Production Project: Case Study
  •   Guanggang Waste Plastics to Plastic Resins Project: Case Study

                            Likeng Waste to Energy and Fertilizer Project: Case Study

The first Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) incineration power plant in Guangzhou is Likeng. The MSW incineration plant started
operation on 23 Oct 2005. Likeng MSW incineration plant is located in Longgui Town of Baiyun district in Guangzhou. The
total investment is 725 million Yuan RMB (around 90 million USD). The plant has a capacity to treat 1040 tons of waste per
day and may produce 130 million kilowatt-hour (KWh) of electricity for 100,000 families to use. The planned Phase II project is to
be completed in 2010 when the treatment capacity of the plant will reach 6,000 tons per day and become the biggest MSW
incineration power plant in the world

  Waste Materials:            Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Fruit-Vegetable & Fruit Waste (FVFW) and Night
                              Soil Waste (NSW)
  Capacity:                   1040 tons/day
  Process:                    Incineration with stoker-fired boiler (provided by DBA) and flue gas cleaning system
  Operational condition: Mesophilic combustion temperature (600-850℃) and high pressure boiler
  By products (full design): About 130 million kwh/year of electricity generation and 200 t/d of slag

  Process Description:

                     Jiangqiao Waste to Energy and Fertilizer Project: Case Study

Jiangqiao domestic solid waste incineration plant is the present biggest solid waste incineration
plant in China. It started regular operation on 19 Nov 2003. The modern domestic solid waste
incineration plant has a capacity to treat 330,000 tons of domestic waste annually (2 lines)
Jiangqiao is the second solid waste incineration plant built in Shanghai. It is mainly used to treat
the entire domestic solid waste of Huangpu and Jingan districts and part of the domestic solid
waste of Putuo, Zhabei, Changning, Jiading districs, etc

  Waste Materials:           Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Fruit-Vegetable & Fruit Waste (FVFW), and
                             Night Soil Waste (NSW)
  The capacity:             1,500 tons/day (3×500 tons/day)
  Process:                  Incineration with stocker-fired boiler (provided by DBA) and flue gas cleaning
  By products (full design): Produce about 160,875,000 KWh/yr of electricity

  Process Description
     •   The collected MSW are weighed and then deposited in solid waste pit for 2-5 days.
     •   The mixed wastes are fed into the incinerator for incineration. The combustion process includes
         dryness, gasification, ignition, and burning up.
     •   The flue gas from the top of the incinerator comes into the heat boiler and then the steam is carried
         to the steam turbo generator system for the production of electricity.
     •   The flue gas is treated by a flue gas cleaning system.

  Economic Indicator
     •  Domestic waste treatment capacity: 547,500 tons/year (3 lines)
     •  Annual revenue: Electricity sales revenue 48,000,000 Yuan RMB/year

  Concluding Remarks:
  Jiangqiao domestic solid waste incineration plant has ended up in a successful project. It not only solves the
  problem on domestic solid waste but also generates useful resources such as electricity

                          Xingtai Waste to Energy and Fertilizer Project: Case Study

Xingtai domestic waste comprehensive treatment plant is one of the eleven urban construction major projects in Xingtai city. The
project’s objective is the production of fertilizer while the residual is to be incinerated to produce electricity. The plant has a
capacity of treating 182,500 tons of domestic waste annually and may produce 36,700 tons of soil conditioner and 16,380,000
KWh of electricity

  Waste Materials        : Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Fruit-Vegetable & Fruit Waste (FVFW), and
                            Night Soil Waste (NSW)
  The capacity           : 500 tons/day
  Process                : Mechanical separation, hydrothermal degradation, circulated fluidized bed
  Feed substrates        : MSW segregated
  By products (full design): Produce electricity of about 16,380,000 kWh/yr and organic fertilizer of
                            36,700 tons/year

  Process Description
       •    The collected MSW is weighed and segregated to remove bulky, inert, and recyclable materials.
       •    Part of the waste is fed into a wet oxidation reactor, which after high temperature and pressure
            processing specially produces the byproduct organic fertilizer
       •    The remaining waste is treated by the circulating fluidized bed incinerator, and the steam is carried
            to the steam turbo generator system for the production of electricity

  Economic indicators:
      •  Domestic waste treatment capacity : 182,500 tons/yr
      •  Annual revenue:
                  Electricity sales revenue 1,200,000 yuan/yr

                  Fertilizer sales revenue 12,845,000 yuan/yr

      •  Profits (including tax): 3,691,400 yuan/yr
  Concluding Remarks:
  The increasing problem in domestic solid waste management in Xingtai was ended by this successful
  project. The contributing factors for this achievement are the community willingness to solve the problem
  along with the support and cooperation from government agencies. This project not only solves the local
  problem on solid waste but also generates useful resources such as fertilizer and electricity

                          Asuwei Waste to Energy and Fertilizer Project: Case Study

Asuwei domestic waste landfill is the first big landfill, built according to international standards, in
the Xiaotangshan town of Changping district in Beijing ten years ago. In 2005, this landfill was
changed into a waste comprehensive treatment plant. It synthesizes the dynamic aerobic fermentation
technology, incineration and landfill to achieve the aim to recover useful material from waste through
environment friendly process. The capacity of the plant is1600 tons/day

  Waste Materials         : Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Fruit-Vegetable & Fruit Waste (FVFW), and Night
                           Soil Waste (NSW)
  The capacity            : 1600 tons/day
  Process                 : Mechanical separation, incineration; landfill; roller-dynamic fermentation; second
  By products (full design): Produce electricity and organic fertilizer

  Process Description

    •   The collected MSW is discharged to garbage pits and segregated to collect bulky, inert, and
        recyclable materials.
    •   The segregated materials are fed into the feed hopper and rolling sieve to achieve the separation of
        the organics and inorganics.
    •   After recycling the useful materials, the remaining matter is sent to landfills and the separated
        combustible matter including lumber, plastics etc. are sent to the incinerator for disposal.
    •   The organic matter is fed into the rolling fermentation reactor. The retention time is usually 1-3
        days. The screenings are sent to the sublevel fermentation reactor for further degradation and
        fermentation. After 28 days of bio-degradation, the organic fertilizers are produced. The residual
        impurities are disposed to landfills.

Concluding Remarks:
The comprehensive treatment not only reduces the operational cost but also increases the economic benefits
through recycling useful materials

                          Xiaping Waste Leachate Treatment Project: Case Study

Xiaping domestic waste landfill is the first big landfill in China, in accordance with international
standards. It is located in Xiaping, in Shenzhen. It covers 149 hectare and has a capacity of
46930 thousand m3.The waste leachate treatment with a capacity of 1000 tons per day, started
operation in May 2002. It is designed for the final discharged wastewater to be used for plant
 virescence and road cleaning, after the further treatment of the treated leachate through combining
 treatment of municipal sewage by using biofilm processes.
                                                                                                       Anaerobic Filter

  Waste Materials: Leachate
  Capacity: 1000 tons/day
  Process: Ammonia-free tower -Anaerobic biological filter-SBR

Process Description:

                                                  Ammonia- Free

                                                                               CO2, CH4 etc.
                                                  Biological Filter

                            Aeration                    SBR


The project is one of the biggest and the most stable facilities in China. However, it is still needed that
the value of the ammonia stripping tower for those high buffers of wastewater including leachate shall
be evaluated strictly based on its benefit-cost analysis. On the other hand, which kind of post
treatment technology suitable for those developing countries shall be also considered if the combined
treatment with municipal sewage is impossible.

                      Suzhou Tonghe Electric Waste to Resources Project: Case Study

Suzhou Tonghe resource utilization limited company which is located in Suzhou Gaoxin District is one
of the biggest electric waste disposal plants in Jiangsu Province. Since the company started operation in 18
December, 2004, it has refined 840 kilogram gold and 1800 tons of copper per year by using the wet-
disposal process. Phase II of the project, using dry-disposal process, was completed in December 2005,
with a treatment capacity of 250 tons of copper and 78 kg of gold per month. The electric wastes were
collected from the waste from companies in Jiangsu, Shanghai, and Beijing etc.

Waste Materials: Printing circuit board, circuit board of abandoned appliances, electroplating
Capacity:               250 tons/month
Process:                        Wet-disposal process and dry-disposal process
By Products: 78 kilogram /month of refined gold
Process Description:

Wet-disposal processes
First, the electric waste and the electroplating wastewater are treated with cyanide. The others are
dissolved with aqua regia.Then, the solution is used to refine gold by a series of process including
electrolytic treatment, refining and deoxygenation.The dissolved residue is provided to extractive
industries to produce the raw material for copper purification. The wastewater and flue gas is
discharged after suitable treatment processes.

Dry-disposal processes
The waste is taken to the incinerator. After being broken into shivers, the residue is used as raw
material for copper separation. The high temperature flue gas is treated by a flue gas cleaning

The plant refines precious metals from electric waste, helping to mitigate environmental problems.

                      Hongmiaolin Lanfill Leachate Treatment Project: Case Study

Hongmiaolin landfill is located in Hongmiaolin of Fuzhou City. It was established in 1995, with a total capacity of 7150
thousand m3. The leachate treatment plant has a capacity of 1000 tons per day. The capacity of the plant is being increased,
with the treated leachate to be discharged into Yangli municipal sewage treatment plant for further treatment.

  Waste Materials: Leachate
  Capacity:            1000 tons/day
  Process:             A combination of aerobic and anaerobic processes
  By products: Biogas for the boiler, used to increase the raw leachate temperature in winter

Process Description:

The effluent CODCr and BOD5 could meet the requirements of the State Standard Grade II.
However, the effluent ammonia nitrogen concentration is relatively unstable, especially in winter. The
4 stages of oxidation ponds plays an important role in the reduction of organic and ammonia
nitrogen. Two problems still facing the plant are: low efficiency of ammonia nitrogen stripping tower;
and the adverse effect of nitrite on the effluent COD concentration and its potential toxicity to the
environment. The application of ammonia anaerobic oxidation shall be seriously considered because
the process could achieve significant reduction of both ammonia nitrogen and nitrite nitrogen. To
achieve this, UASB reactors could be modified into ammonia anaerobic oxidation reactors.

                         Shenhang Waste Glass to Glass Grain Project: Case Study

Shanghai Shenhang Glass Limited Company is the only enterprise which specializes in waste glass recycling
and processing in Shanghai and East China. The company was established in 1991 and is located in
Minhang district in Shanghai. It has three assembly lines with an annual production capacity of 100,000
tons. Shanghai generates 150,000 tons of waste beer bottles, milk bottles and other beverage bottles, every
year. To meet this demand, the company set up a computerised sorting glass grain assembly line recently,
which can completely recycle the waste glass and thus save 192 million Yuan every year for Shanghai.

    Waste Materials: Waste beer bottles, milk bottles and other beverage bottles
    Capacity: 150,000 tons/ yr
    Process: Cleaning, coarse grinding, sorting, fine grinding
    By products (full design): High quality waste glass grains 150,000 ton/yr

Process Description:

Economic indicators:
•     Waste glass treatment capacity: 150,000 tons/year
•     High quality waste glass grain production: 150,000 tons/year

Waste glass recycling protects our environment and saves national resources. Because of waste glass recovery,
the environmental sanitation department can save 300 Yuan of waste glass per ton to landfill, and bottle
production companies can reduce raw material and energy cost. The total benefits for the society amounts to
192,000,000 Yuan every year.

                          Tianziling Landfill gas to Energy Project: Case Study

Hangzhou Tianziling domestic waste landfill is the first large-scale mountain valley type of
landfill in China, according to the sanitary landfill technical standard issued by the State
Construction Ministry. It is located in Banshan town, Hangzhou city and started regular
operation in April, 1991. The total investment was 85 millions Yuan RMB. It occupies a
land area of 46 hectares and has a capacity of 6 millions cubic meters. The design service life
is 13 years. It is mainly used to treat the domestic solid wastes from Hangzhou old city.
In May 1994, the landfill cooperated with the American Huimin Group to build a landfill
gas power plant. On 27th October 1998, the power plant started operation officially, the
first of its kind in China. According to the hydro-geological conditions, the landfill used the
curtain grouting anti-seepage technology to contain the leachate. The Phase II of the project
is now under construction. The total investment is over 600 millions Yuan RMB and service life is 24.5 years.

    Waste Materials: Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), Fruit-Vegetable & Fruit Waste (FVFW),
            and Night Soil Waste (NSW)
    Capacity: 1288 tons/day
    Process: Landfill gas dehydration, filtering, active sludge sublevel biochemistry
           processing technology
    By products: 11659598 kWh/yr of electricity

Process Description:

Economic indicators:
•  Domestic waste treatment capacity: 470,000 tons/year
•  Annual revenue: electricity sales revenue 5,106,900 Yuan RMB/year

Using landfill gas for electricity generation is advantageous for reducing air pollution and to reduce the waste
quantity by converting it to resource and energy.

                   Lixi Waste Plastics to Resources and Production Project: Case Study

      The largest waste plastic recycling plant in China -Lixi waste plastic regenerative plastic industrial base, was
      commissioned in January,2006. The plant is an integrated facility for the recovery, reuse and production of
      waste plastic product.The park has a sewage disposal plant, biochemistry disposal center and an environment
      monitoring center. The total investment is 800 million Yuan RMB. Phase I of the project has been completed
      with an investment of 300 million Yuan. The full project would have around 1000 employees.

      Waste Materials: Waste plastic, waste agricultural plastic film, plastic bottle etc.
      Process: Recycling and production system and waste disposal system
      By Products (full design): Regenerative pellet, plastic raw material, oil

Process Description:
A variety of plastic wastes are collected, weighed, and separated in the industrial base.The separated
wastes are assigned to different process workshops and produced into different materials. The waste
flue gas and solid waste are carried to three types wastes disposal district and the wastewater is
disposed by the sewage disposal plant.

Economic indicators:
•  Wastewater treatment capacity: 10000 tons/day
•  Annual revenue: 5,000,000,000 Yuan RMB/year
•  Annual profit: 360,000,000 Yuan RMB/year

The project has proved to be a success. It is the biggest waste plastic recycling park in China. It has
helped to save raw material, and to produce energy. However, two problems remain: the first one
relates to improving the efficiency of the system, including the reduction of secondary pollution
effects and increasing the output of plastic pellets. The second issue is to identify products with a
market potential.

                  Guanggang Waste Plastics to Plastic Resins Project: Case Study

      Guangzhou Iron & Steel Enterprises GISE-MBA New Plastics Technology Company (“GMP”), is a Sino-
      US Joint Venture founded in January 2004, with a total investment of over US$12 million,
      encompassing nearly 20,000 m2 with an annual processing capacity of 40,000 tons. The two partners
      are the Guangzhou Iron & Steel Enterprises Group Company (“GISE”) and the MBA Polymers (“MBA”).
      GMP is located in the Nansha Economic Development Zone of Guangzhou and produces high quality of
      ABS, HIPS, and PP plastic resins from end-of-life consumer products for reuse in a multitude of 14
      applications, including those that require UL recognized plastics.

        Waste Materials: Various kinds of waste plastics
        Capacity: 110 tons/day
        Process: Plastics separation, processing
        Feed substrates: Mixed plastics
        Merit: No chemical material in production
        By products (full design): Regenerate plastics such as ABS, HIPS, and PP plastic resins

Process Description:
The collected wastes plastics are segregated and selected. The requirement of this working procedure is
very strict. After being pretreated, the purified plastics are melted into pellets and then they are made
into the final products.

Economic indicators:
•  Waste plastics capacity: 40000 tons/yr
•  Products capacity: 26000 tons/yr
•  Annual revenue: 6,000,000 US$/yr
•   Regenerated ABS plastic resins: 8500 Yuan RMB/ton

                                                                         Examples of products

Environment protection:
The whole production does not use chemical processes and requires less than 10% of the energy
used to produce virgin plastic. For every kilogram of recycled plastic from GMP that replaces virgin
plastic, two-to-three fewer kilograms of greenhouse gas is released into the environment. This results
in saving significant amounts of hydrocarbons for other uses, as well as reducing the amount of
plastic that is disposed by incineration and landfills.

This project solves the problem of waste plastics in Guangzhou, by using them to make regenerated
plastic resins. It promotes economic recycling, energy savings and environmental protection.


  •   High Rate Biomethanation of Vegetable Wastes at Chennai
  •   Namakkal Municipality - A Zero Garbage City
  •   Integrated Waste Management at Educational Institutions:
  •   Case Study on Vellore Institute of Technology (VIT)
  •   Composting of Solid Wastes in Tirupur Town
  •   Dumpsite Rehabilitation by Chennai Corporation Town
  •   Private Sector Participation in Municipal Solid Waste Collection
  •   Plastics in Roads – A Potential Reuse for plastic waste
  •   Environmentally Sound Plastic Recycling at Kolkata
  •   Private-Public Management of MSW – Experience in Bangalore City
  •   Source Segregation and Door to Door Collection of Municipal Solid Wastes

                    High Rate Biomethanation of Vegetable Wastes at Chennai – A Case Study

      The Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority (CMDA) and the Ministry of Non-conventional
      Energy Sources (MNES), Government of India, have established a high rate biomethanation plant for
      power generation from vegetable wastes at Koyembedu, Chennai at a cost of about Rs.50 millions.

      Udunuwara LA is responsible for the collection, treatment and disposal of solid waste
      generated at Gelioya town and surrounding villages. About 3MT of solid waste is
      collected per day. Nearly 2MT goes for composting and 1MT of non-biodegradable
      materials like polythene are dumped. The production of bio-fertilizer is the main aim of
      the LA. The operation is still at an experimental stage, although the system was
      established in December 2003, under the supervision of an eminent MSW specialist.
     Salient Features of the Digester

     Type of digester           : Biogas Induced Mixing Arrangement Digester (BIMA).
     Solid handling capacity             : 2-12% dry solids                                               Shredder
     Loading rate               : 3-4 kg dry VS/m3/day
     Hydraulic retention time: 25 days
     Special features          : The digestion is in two chambers and the mixing
     arrangement is well designed to prevent scum formation as the top layer is forced
     down every few hours. This arrangement prevents scum formation at the top of the
     digester. Can remove hydrogen sulfide if the range of 1000 ppm in the same digester with
     an additional compressor to send air. The quantity of air depends on hydrogen sulfide
Process Description
 •      Vegetable waste is loaded on to a moving conveyor using a hydraulic grab.                       BIMA Digester
 •      Plastics and other non-biodegradable constituents are manually removed. Iron particles are removed using
        a magnetic separator.
 •      The waste is shredded to obtain particles in the range of 7mm – 12mm. Shredded waste is fed into a feed
        preparation tank where water/recycled water is added to prepare feed slurry.
 •      Waste is further macerated to reduce the size of the particles (less than 4mm).
 •      The feed slurry is pumped through a macerator into a high rate anaerobic BIMA digester.
 •      The biogas generated is used in biogas engines to generate power.
 •      Part of the power produced is used to meet the plant requirement (30 kW)
 •      The excess power is sold to Tamil Nadu Electricity Board for in-house consumption (200 kW).
 •      The substrate leaving the digester is mechanically dewatered in a screw press and used as fertilizer after
 •      The water is taken back to feed preparation tanks.

                       Namakkal Municipality - A Zero Garbage City - A Case Study

Namakkal is the first municipality in India to attain zero garbage status through privatization of all
components of Solid Waste Management (SWM). Infact, the Supreme Court of India has applauded this
town for having complied with Municipal Solid Waste Management Rules with no financial input from
State or Centre. This has been possible due to cooperative efforts from the district administration, the
municipality, NGOs, women self-help groups, schools, residential and industrial associations and rag
   Namakkal is known for two major industries, viz., body-building of 60% of CNG tankers in the country and
   poultry farms. The town sprawls over an area of 10.54 with a population of 50,000-60,000. It comprises
   of 30 wards, 223 streets and 53.78 km of roadways. The public health staff in the municipality includes 3
   sanitary inspectors, 8 sanitary supervisors and 141 sanitary workers. The vehicles used for SWM consist of 3
   mini lorries, 2 tipper lorries, 2 mop up vans, 1 sullage tanker, 90 door to door private push carts, 342 door to
   door private containers and 90 municipal sweeping push carts. The waste generation rate of the town is 400
   gpcd. The municipality handles 21MT of garbage daily. Garbage consists of 8 MT organic, 10 MT inorganic
   and 3 MT recyclables.
The Program:
The highlight of the SWM program is the vermi culture unit extended over an area of
8.53 acres located 2 kms outside the town. The activities include the following:
•   Segregation and collection:
    Door to door collection, no storage depots or collection spots. Colour coding for
    collection of segregated waste
    At Source: Two Bin system at each household                                       Collection and segregation
    - Blue bin for dry (inorganic) waste
    - Green bin for wet (organic) waste
    Door to door collection: Five Bin system
    - Green colour for organic waste
    - Blue colour for inorganic waste
    - Orange colour for recyclable waste
    - Red colour for hazardous waste
- Brown tray for metallic waste                                                             Organic waste
                                                                                  Mop-up van composting
•   Vermi-composting of organic waste:

      Production of 2 MT of vermi-compost from organic waste daily. Income generation
      of Rs. 0.4 million per annum (operated on B.O.T basis). Sale of recyclables at the
      rate of Rs.50/- per MT.
•     Levying service charges to commercial establishments generating an income of
      Rs 2,76,300/- p.a.
      Cleaning activities:
      Regular day and night sweeping even on Sundays and holidays.
      Mechanisation of street sweeping and transport of MSW.                                        Awareness posters on
      Two mop-up vans with public address systems                                                   truck (in vernacular)
      Removal of encroachments, stray animals from streets and preventing

•     Up gradation of dumpsite at Kosuvampatti:
      Closure of existing dump with passive gas vent systems and
      cover layers. Restriction of dumping to 40% of existing dumpsite.
      20 % of dump yard developed into a garden and for vermi-composting.                               Street sweeping
•     Ban on littering, burning of waste, use of plastics                                                   machine

    For more details contact: P. Kandhaswamy, Commissioner, Namakkal Municipality, Namakkal-637001, Tamil Nadu, India. Ph: +91-
                        4286-230002 Email: Website:
    Prepared by: Swati. M <>

                        Integrated Waste Management at Educational Institutions:
                           Case Study on Vellore Institute of Technology (VIT)

Vellore Institute of Technology (VIT) practises an integrated waste management approach integrating recycling, biomethanation and
composting to manage the waste generated from the entire campus and showcases the institute as a successful and simple model for
management of institutional solid waste.

 VIT, founded in 1984, stretches over 250 acres of land and encompasses five constituent colleges with 9,300
 students, 440 faculty members and 600 administrative and supporting staff. Apart from the seven schools
 offering graduate and research programmes, the institute has a biomass based thermal power plant that
 supplies electricity to a medical facility, canteens, and men’s and women’s hostels that accommodates two-
 third of the student population. VIT, on an average, generates 500 kg of MSW per day. Earlier, all the solid
 waste generated in VIT was burnt in large pits periodically and the liquid waste discharged into open drains
 and eventually into a local water body, polluting air, soil and ground water. The institute has resolved to
 implement appropriate waste management practices since 2003 and has then on become the first educational
 institution in India to achieve an integrated waste management plan.

The solid waste generated at VIT includes 250 kg/d of vegetable and food waste from the canteens and mess
and a monthly generation of 7000 kg paper and hardboards, 1000 kg plastic, 10 kg thermacole (expanded
polyestyrene) and 100-150 kg glass and tin. The waste is segregated and managed in a sequential manner as
1. Recycling and reuse:
Paper, hardboards and a portion of plastics are recycled as such. Thermacoul
(polystyrene) and non-recyclable plastics are pyrolysed to styrene and recycled.
The eggshells collected at the mess and canteen are pulverized and used as
calcium rich supplement for flowering plants around the campus. Fruit peels
that are not amenable to composting due to their acidic nature are dried and
pulverized to yield a powder that is used for cleaning purposes at the canteens
and mess.                                                                             Segregation of waste
2. Biomethanation:
Vegetable and food wastes are used as feed for male calves. The excretions of
these calves are used as substrate in 2 cu.m biogas plants (2 nos.) built below
ground. The biogas generated from the plants is used to light up the calve-
shed and boil water. The digested slurry is used as a seed in compost pits.
3. Composting:
Major part of organic waste from the campus are composted in a row of pits
(16 nos.) in the bioprocessing plant of 4t capacity each for a period of 40 days Petromas light at the calve-shed
to produce both ordinary compost and vermicompost which is used as manure
for maintaining the greenery at the campus.

                                     The institute efficiently manages its
                                     solid waste, produces useful packaged
                                     products from waste and proposes to
                                     upgrade its existing waste management
 Useful packaged products from waste practices.

                                                                                    Bioprocessing plant and the row of
                                                                                              compost pits

The appropriate waste management strategy followed at VIT has earned it the green campus award from the Exnora
International, a NGO based in Chennai, India.

For more details contact: Prof. R. Natarajan, Socio Economic Research and Energy Systems, VIT, Vellore-632014, Tamil Nadu, India.
                          Email: rnatarajan1@, Ph: +91-416-2202309
Prepared by: Swati. M <>

                                   Composting of Solid Wastes in Tirupur Town

Tirupur is well known for its hosiery and textile industries. The town is spread over an area of nearly 30 with a population of
4 lakhs. Around 100 tons of solid waste is generated in the town per day. Tirupur Municipal Corporation (TMC), in agreement with
IVR Enviro Pvt Ltd, Hyderabad, has implemented a Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) composting project on Build, Own, Operate
and Transfer (BOOT) basis. A site covering 7 acres at Muthannampalayam villages at a distance of 5 km from the town has been
allotted to IVR Enviro project on a lease rental basis for a period of 20 years. Windrow composting involving physical and biological
processes is carried out on daily basis

  Quantity of MSW composted              : 50 - 60 t/day
  Compost yield                          : 33 - 43 t/day
  Process Duration                       : 35 – 45 Days
  Man power                              : 20
  Plant and machinery                    : Rotating drums; Bob cut; Conveyor; Vehicles.

Physical Processes
   Collection and Separation at source
   •    Two Bin system: Green colored for degradable & Red for
        Non degradable
   •    Transport-trucks, mini lorries, tractors are used for transport.
                                                                                                Bobcut            Magnetic Separation
      Manual Separation
     •  Recyclable and combustible materials are recovered
     •  Visible inert material is removed (e.g. plastics and glass)

     Mechanical separation
     •   MSW is conveyed into trommel screen to separate different
         sized waste (fine materials, soil, grit, and organic wastes) and                                   Windrows
         moved to magnetic belts and overhead magnetic conveyors,
         to separate ferrous metals.

               Quality of Compost              Biological Processes
     Total      organic 25-30%                     Size reduction and homogenization
     matter                                        •    Large pieces, of paper, cardboard, food and yard waste are
     Total Nitrogen         1-1.5%                      broken down slowly to size between 1.2 to 5 cm using a
     Total Phosphorus       0. 5-1%                     bobcut
     Total Potassium        1-2%                   Mixing materials, forming and shaping the Windrows
     Calcium                8-8.6%                 •  Windrows are 1.5 to 3 m height and 3 to 6 m wide.
     Magnesium,             0.5-1%                 •  During autumn the height is increased to 2.5 m and width to 5
     Sulphur                8-8.6%                    m
     Iron (ppm)             1000                   •  In winter height is further increased to 3.5m.
     Zinc (ppm)             40-50
                                                   Turning Windrows
     Manganese (ppm)        Trace
                                                   •   Windrows are turned once in every 15 days during which the
     Copper (ppm)           30-60                      Effective Microbes (Ems - mixed culture of Lactic acid,
     pH                     8-8.5                      photosynthetic bacteria and yeast) are added at a quantity of
     EC (mmole/cm           400                        1 liters/t of MSW.
     Microbial Count        3 to 4 billion         Optimal composting conditions
                            CFU / mL                   Oxygen : > 10%
                                                       Moisture           : 40 – 60%
                                                       C/N Ratio          : 30: 1
                                                       Temperature        : 32 - 43°C

Remarks: The Project is being implemented with an investment of Rs. 2850/t. The compost produced is sold to
the farmers at Rs 3000/t.

   Contact information: IVR Enviro Pvt Ltd and TMC, Tirupur,Tamil Nadu, India.
   Prepared by: S. Murugesan <>

                            Dumpsite Rehabilitation by Chennai Corporation Town

The Corporation of Chennai (CoC) is responsible for the collection, treatment, and disposal of Municipal
Solid Waste (MSW) generated at Chennai City. About 1,400-1,500 million tonnes/day (Mt/d) of
MSW is disposed at Kondungaiyur Dumping Ground (KDG). CoC is currently improving KDG in a
scientific manner. The construction of compound wall, green belt surrounding the site, shelter for
machinery and equipment, gate and road facility, weighbridge, and watch tower are some of the
achievements till now.
                   Details of KDG                                                                          Open dump at KDG
 Total area (acres)                         350                        Proposed rehabilitation plan for KDG
 Area filled (acres)                        250                   •    Construction of soil bund all around the dumpsite
 Maximum height of garbage (m)              5.0                        to prevent sliding of waste
 Average height of garbage (m)              3.0                   •    Shifting the wastes to controlled area
 Current rate of dumping (Mt/d)             1,400-1,500           •    Development of Sanitary Landfill in three phases
 Quantity dumped till date (Mt)             8.4                        (Phase I, II, and III)
 Depth of ground water table (m)            2.5                   •    Construction of compost plant and leachate
                                                                       evaporation pond
                                                                  •    Closure of controlled dump including leveling,
                                                                       compaction and placement of cover liner system
                                                                       parallel with Phase I
                                                                  •    Construction of additional leachate evaporation
                                                                       pond for Phase III
                                                                  •    Closure of Sanitary Landfill
                                                                  •    Top cover and gas venting system

 Leveling at dumpsite                 Watch tower                      Proposed infrastructure facilities at controlled
                                                                  •    Proper approach roads within the site
                                                                  •    Storm water drain
                                                                  •    Power supply and lighting arrangement
                                                                  •    Shelter for machinery and equipment
                                                                  •    Fire fighting equipment
                                                                  •    Fence and security
                                                                  •    Green belt surrounding the site
   Compound wall                 Gate & Road facility
                                                                  •    Environmental monitoring facilities
                                                                  •    Office building

                                                                     Estimated Construction Cost and Life of   the Site
   The life of Sanitary Landfill (SLF) has been
   calculated considering 2.5% as the net growth rate                 Particulars    Cost (Million Rs.)          Life
   per year for solid waste generation and disposal.                                  1 US$=44 Rs.             (years)
   Through implementation of recycling, reuse                       Phase I                716.8                1.61
   practice, segregation of inert materials and                     Phase II               322.2                3.86
   increasing awareness in community, it is expected                Phase III              424.5                4.64
   that the life of SLF can be increased up to                      Total                 1463.5                10.11
   25%.Rehabilitation of the site will be helpful for
   scientific and environmentally safe disposal of

Source: Up gradation for existing dumpsites at Perungudi and Kodungayur, Chennai, NPC, New Delhi, 2005
For details contact: Solid Waste Management Division, Corporation of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
Prepared by: S. Esakku (

                       Private Sector Participation in Municipal Solid Waste Collection

 Chennai is the fourth largest metropolitan city in India where the Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Management is primarily the
 function of the Corporation of Chennai (CoC). It is the first city in India to contract out municipal solid waste management services
 to a private agency. Tenders were called for by the CoC and a contract was made in March 2000 with the Singapore based company
 – ONYX. The scope of the project includes the activities such as sweeping, collection, storing, transporting, of MSW from 3 zones
 and creating public awareness
                                                                      Characteristic features:
                                                                      • Imported technologies for MSWM
                                                                      • Containerization of household waste before
                                                                      • Mechanization of handling tasks through lifting
                                                                         compacting and tipping devices
                                                                      • Day and night services of collection
          ONYX workers in action at Chennai                           • Professional equipment for collectors
                                                                      • Better machinery, maintenance and young workers
                ONYX Zonal Services                                   • Training program for workers
       Services   Zone 6    Zone 8                  Zone 10           • Transfer system and haulage
                                                                     Quality policy and communication
                                                                         Transfer stations
                                                                     •• Waste observation
 Auto rickshaws           38            46             79
                                                                     • Complaint resolution
                                                                     • Preventive quality management
 Bin placement           736           1984           1353
                                                                     • Management information system
                                                                     • Reports to CoC about complaints and their resolution
 Loose litter
                         284           433             312           • Annual activity report including physical, economical
                                                                        and personnel information
                       485900        489500          429800

       Comparison of ONYX and CoC Services
              Total quantity of waste collected (t/d)
Year         By Onyx from             By CoC from
                3 Zones                  7 Zones                              Waste collection and transportation
2000              953.2                   1662.7
2001             1152.5                   1829.2
2002             1205.5                   1651.3
2003             1079.8                   1897.1
2004             1089.7                   2121.9

                                                                                   A Compactor – rack in operation
ONYX has 2000 employees for its operations in Chennai city. The compactor tracks can handle garbage of
nearly 7-8 tons. The movable bins are emptied once in a day and are cleaned every 15 days by the sanitation
department. ONYX collects about 1000 tons of waste from three zones per day and disposes it at Perungudi
Dumping Ground. Overall satisfaction levels are higher in areas cleaned by ONYX than by CoC. It creates
public awareness by street plays and advertisements. Public appreciate their services. The term of contract with
CoC is initially for a period of 7 years, which is about to end by 2007. According to the officials of CoC, the cost
for collection and disposal of one ton of waste by CoC, Onyx and other private agencies is 1500, 1150 and 600
rupees, respectively.

For more details contact: Solid Waste Management Division, Corporation of Chennai
Prepared by: S. Esakku <>
                               Plastics in Roads – A Potential Reuse for plastic Waste

The Department of Chemistry at Thyagaraja College of Engineering, Madurai, India, under the leadership of Dr.R.Vasudevan,
Professor & Head has developed a dry process to produce plastic coated aggregate with bitumen as a useful option for reuse of plastic
waste. The mix acts as a good material for road construction
On heating at 100-160°C, plastics such as polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene, soften and exhibit good
binding properties. Blending of the softened plastic with bitumen results in a mix that is amenable for road
laying. The mix has been used to lay roads of length upto 1500 km in the state of Tamil Nadu. Other states like
Maharashtra, Karnataka, Pondicherry, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh have also laid test roads. These roads have
withstood loads due to heavy traffic, rain and temperature variation.
Preparation of polymer- aggregate- bitumen mix
•   Cleaned and dried plastic wastes (e.g.: disposed carry bags, films, cups and
    thermocole) with a maximum thickness of 60 μ is shredded into small
    pieces (2.36 mm - 4.75 mm size). PVC is not suitable for this process.
•   Aggregate is heated to 165°C in a mini hot mix plant
•   Shredded plastic is added to the hot mix. The plastic gets softened and
    coated over the surface of the aggregate giving an oily look in 30 – 60 sec.
•   Hot Bitumen (heated up to a maximum of 160 °C to ensure good binding) is
    added immediately and the contents are mixed well.
•   The mix, when cooled to 110 –120 °C can be used for road laying using 8-T
    capacity road roller. As the plastics are heated to a maximum temperature of Polymer-aggregate-bitumen mix
    165 °C, there is no evolution of any gas. When heated above 270 °C, the Road undamaged by heavy rain
    plastics get decomposed & above 750 °C they get burnt to produce noxious

Enhanced properties of the mix:
Coating of plastic over aggregate to the tune of 10-15 % by weight of bitumen
improves the binding properties of the mix:
•  Higher softening point and lower penetration point due to interlinking of
   polymer molecule with bitumen.
•  Lesser moisture absorptive capacity due to coating of plastics at the
•  Better ductility, higher marshall stability value.                                              Conventional bitumen road
•  Better stripping value (No stripping on soaking in water for 72 hrs)                              battered by heavy rain
•  High compressive strength (>100mpa) and high flexural strength
   (>450kg/cm) with respect to the binding property.
•  The roads are twice as strong as normal roads and resistant towards water
   stagnation and lesser bleeding during summer.

    Other salient features of the process:
    Patent is granted for the process (patent no is 198254 of n27.06.2002). Central Pollution Control Board, Ministry
    of Environment and Forests has brought out a publication under the programme objective series
    probes/101/2005-2006/December 2005 on “Indicative Operational Guidelines on Construction of Polymer –
    Bitumen Roads”.
    Cost reduction of Rs. 10,000/- (1 US$ = 44 Rs.) for 1 km x 3.75 mm road laid with 11250 kg and 1125 kg plastic,
    can be achieved while saving on 1.125 ton of bitumen and using of 11,25,000 plastic carry bags (≈1.125T) instead.
    Central mixing plant (CMP) with a special mechanical device to spray and coat the plastics uniformly and have a
    better control over temperature has also been developed.

For more details contact: Prof. R. Vasudevan, Thiagaraja College of Engineering, Madurai-625015
                          Ph: +91-452-2482240, Email: vasudesikan@
Prepared by: Swati. M <>

                                Environmentally Sound Plastic Recycling at Kolkata

Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India has developed an improved process for recycling of plastics in collaboration with the Central
Pollution Control Board, Delhi. The pilot plant is environmentally sound as it gives out far lesser noise and fugitive emissions than
the conventional plastic recycling machines
The scope for recycling plastics is growing in developing countries, as the amount of plastic being used is
increasing. The process of extrusion is a crucial step in the recycling process. It is employed to homogenise the
reclaimed polymer and produce a material that is subsequently easy to work. The Department of Mechanical
Engineering at the Jadavpur University, Kolkata has reengineered this step. A barrel and screw type extrusion
machine with band electric heater has been designed. Noise and fugitive emissions from the improved machine
has been found to be minimal. The machine is also equipped with a pollution monitoring and control device.
The recycling operation:
Phase I: The plastic is processed into a feed suitable for extrusion
          •   Plastic collected from the supplier is stored and segregated into
             high and low-density polyethylene (HDPE & LPDE).
          •   The material is cut and cleaned using detergent.
          •   The cleaned plastic waste is taken to an agglomerator with low
             Temperature heating arrangement where the plastic waste is
             made into a pulp.
Phase-II: The pulp is made into granules using the reengineered extrusion
          •   Power is supplied from a motor and screw barrel is fed through
             a gearbox.                                                            Extruder, Control Panel Hood &
          •   The machine is equipped with an electric band heater which is          Pollution Monitoring System
             heated through an electrical power source.
          •   Crushed raw material is fed through the hopper.
          •   Wire shaped plastic extrudes from the machine and is palletized
             to get plastic granules.
Reduced levels of pollutants in the emission:
The level of CO, CO2 and NOX were found be below detectable levels in
the emissions. However, sulphur dioxide, gaseous hydrochloric acid and
formaldehyde were found to be predominant in the emission.

                                                                                                           Screw and its
                                                                                                          different zones

Activities proposed towards better environmental compliance
•   Environmental Audit of the unit once a year.
•   Reconstruction of the existing machines, pollution monitoring and treatment device.
•   Training of operators on effective operation of extrusion unit and pollution control.
•   Covering of the screw barrel to avoid heating of the ambient atmosphere.
•   Controlling process temperature to help save energy and cost.
•   Involvement of NGOs for collection and transportation of post-consumer plastics.
•   Establishing plastics recycling park in metropolitan cities.
•   Developing a corpus fund by the major producers of polymers in the country.
•   Conducting national level mass awareness programmes and campaigns.

  For more details contact: Sadhan. K. Ghosh, Jadavpur University, Kolkata -700 032
                           Ph: +91-33-4832165, Fax: +91-33-483-1890
  Prepared by: Swati. M <>                                             000
                    Private-Public Management of MSW – Experience in Bangalore City

Bangalore, the garden city of India with a population of 6 million, handles 2000 tonnes of MSW per day. The city is divided into
100 administrative wards, which are further divided into 273 health wards. Of these, 147 health wards are under private contract
system and the remaining 126 health wards are managed by Bangalore Corporation. Composting is the method adapted to process
the waste by Karnataka Compost Development Corporation Limited (KCDCL).
KCDCL was established in 1975 as per the directions of the Government of India with a total area of 22 Acres
and currently treats 350 tonnes of waste per day. It is floated by Karnataka Agro Industries Corporation,
Bangalore Mahanagara Palike and Karnataka State Co-operative Marketing Federation Limited with 51%, 24.5%
and 24.5% shares, respectively. The corporation practices eco-friendly treatment of city garbage through

Composting Units
Components of the Composting Yard
Office complex, Weigh bridge, composting yards, roof shed screener, front end
loaders, auger, trucks, godown, laboratory, fencing, compound wall, green belt.

Windrow-composting yard                                                                                Windrow composting
Concrete yard of 5 acres is provided with leachate drains and leachate tank (5 m3).

Vermicomposting yard
208 vermpits (size 1.5m length, 0.5m width and 0.8m height) are established in around
10 acres with roofing.

pH, temperature, moisture, aeration and C:N ratio.                                                        Vermi composting

Process                                        Reception

                 Composting Yard                                                                      Verms

                                                                  Scheduled Turnings



                                                                                                Vermicomposting pits

                                             Windrow compost                                        Vermicompost
                                                                        Compost distribution

                                                           Process flow diagram

Around 350 tons of solid waste is received by trucks and                                       Nitrogen   1 to 1.2%
unloaded into the concrete yard. The waste is then transferred                                 Phosphorus 1.25 to 1.5%
to the windrow composting yard and piles of 3-5m height and                                    Potash              1 to 2%
1.5 to 3m width are formed. The initial characteristic (pH,
Moisture, Temperature and C:N ratio) of waste is analyzed by                                   Boron               0.16%
composite sampling. The piles are turned once in a week, for                                   Calcium             0.44%
atleast 5 to 6 weeks using front end loaders and augers to                                     Magnesi             0.56%
enhance the aeration. Moisture content of solid waste is
                                                                                               Zinc                440 ppm
maintained by sprinkling cow dung slurry and leachate. After 35
to 45 days, the piles are discarded and new piles are formed.                                  Iron                27.3 ppm
The compost samples from the old piles are transferred to                                      C:N                 26:1
screening shed. The degraded wastes are screened using
rotatory screener for different particle size (50mm, 25mm,                                     Table 1. Windrow compost
12mm and 4mm). The fine product is packed and marketed
(Rs.1000/t) as compost with some nutrient additives. Nutrient
content in the compost is given in Table 1

                                       The rejects are collected and transported to the
                                       landfills. Around 20 tonnes of degraded waste
                                       from windrow composting is distributed into
                                       the verm pits for vermi-composting. Three
      Nitrogen            1.6 %
                                       different species of earthworms namely
      Phosphorus          1.34 %       Eisenia fetida, Eudrilus eugenie and
      Potash              0.8 %        Perionix excavatus are imported and used for
      Calcium             0.44 %       composting purpose. After 30 days of
      Magnesium           0.15 %       composting, the verms are separated from the
                                       waste and maintained. The degraded waste is
      Manganese           16.4 ppm
                                       segregated and packed for marketing
      Zinc                18 ppm       (Rs.1500/t). Nutrient content in vermi
      Iron                27.3 ppm     compost is given in Table 2.
      Copper              7.6 ppm
               Table 2. Vermicompost

Contact Information:
Prepared by:                                                                     000
                Source Segregation and Door to Door Collection of Municipal Solid Wastes

The management of solid wastes as stated in schedule II of the Municipal Solid Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 2000
has listed collection of municipal solid wastes with emphasis on segregation at source and door-to-door collection. In compliance with
the above rules, Corporation of Chennai (CoC) conducted the public awareness campaign on source segregation of municipal solid
wastes (MSW) with main focus on door – to – door collection. The awareness campaign was officially started on 26th May 2003.
Initially the campaign was introduced in one zone and by September 2003, the facility was further extended to all the 7 zones. The
total quantity of garbage removed was 3000 tonnes per day and the number of corporation workers involved in municipal solid waste
collection for all the 7 zones were around 10,000. Source segregation was made mandatory by October 2004. December 4th 2004
was fixed as the deadline for accepting source-segregated wastes. The awareness program comprised of public rallies, meetings,
distribution of pamphlets, street plays, and advertisements

Characteristic features:
•  Colour - coded bins were distributed in every household for
   collecting non–recyclable in red bins and organic waste in green
•  Concrete brick bins were removed from the streets.
•  Tricycles were used for door-to-door collection.

        Vehicles Used for Removal of Solid Waste
            Type of Vehicle                     Numbers                                 Old and New system of collection
      Heavy Motor Vehicles
      (5 Tonnes)
      Bulldozers                                     8
      Front End Loaders                             17
      Light Motor Vehicles
      (3 Tonnes)
      Tricycles / ward                              18
                                                                                         Source segregation of organic and
                                                                                              non - recyclable wastes

                  Awareness through public rallies
                                                                                         Awareness through advertisements

Corporation workers, zonal officers, revenue officers, technical staff, teachers and school children were
involved in this program. NGO’s (Civic Exnora) and members of local welfare associations started their own
campaign and helped in distributing the pamphlets prepared by Corporation of Chennai (CoC). Public
awareness campaign was well received by the general public. The segregated waste was collected and organic
fraction subjected to composting in the decentralized units constructed at each zone, whereas the non-
recyclable fraction was collected and dumped at a site earmarked in the dumpyard. Corporation workers were
employed to collect plastic and metal items of the recyclable fraction and utilize the money which they get by
selling them for Rs. 30 – 50 per day (1 US$ = 44 Rs.). Thus source segregation will be a cost effective
method of municipal solid waste management.


  •   Plastic Recycling Plant at Galle District
  •   Inclined Step Grate (ISG) Composting System at Dambulla
  •   Plastic Recycling Plant at Daulagala
  •   Condition of Landfill Site at Gohagoda, Kandy (Sri Lanka)
  •   Inclined Step Grate (ISG) Composting System at Kaluthara
  •   Inclined Step Grate (ISG) Composting System at Mawanella
  •   Plastic Recycling Plant at Mawanella
  •   Biogas and Bio Fertilizer Project at Muthurajawela -A Lesson to Learn
  •   Landfill Site in Nuwara Eliya
  •   Windrow Composting At Udunuwara Local Authority

                                 Plastic Recycling Plant at Galle District

Arthacharya is a non-Government organization which is located in the Galle District of the
Southern Province in Sri Lanka. It is funded by the World Bank and the Asian
Foundation. The recycling plant was established in 1992. The management of the
Arthacharya recycling plant operates through the Community Based Organizations (CBO).
Its operation helps to manage the sorted non-biodegradable while providing loan facilities and
job opportunities to the communities.

  45 CBO’s have joined with the Arthacharya and they are operating in the areas of Akmeemana,
  Habaraduwa and Bopepothara. More than 1500 families have been involved in this recycling
  programme through CBO’s. They are producing fine particles and pellets by recycling polythene. Glass
  materials, paper and plastics are sold to other companies. Four bins namely; Plastics (polythene),
  Bottles, Glass, Paper, were given to each and every family registered with the CBO’s. Although the
  production capacity of the plant is 10 Metric tons/month, available raw-materials from the CBO’s and
  other sources are less than 5 Metric tons/month.

    Process Description
    The process of recycling starts from the raw material collected from CBO’s.
    •  The collected raw materials are segregated into categories like large pieces and small strips.
    •  The small strips are compacted before feeding into the extruder (machinery for producing
       continuous lengths of plastic sections, usually electrically heated.)
    •  The large pieces are introduced directly to the extruder.
    •  The lumps from the extruder are converted into two different products, Pellets and Crushers by
       two different process
       - Pellets: Lumps are put into the Pelletizer, cooled and sent to the market.
       - Crushers: Lumps are put into the Crusher and the fine particles are sent to the market.

Raw Materials   Extruder & cooler       Controller

 Feeding         Preparation                Products

                Manufacturing Process

There is hardly any involvement of the high income families who are the main waste generators at household
level. Attitudes and institutional arrangement are reasons for this situation. Low density polythene is not
collected for recycling. During recycling process the collected polythene is not washed due to lack of washing
plants. There are no technical staffs to operate, maintain and repair the machines. There is no storage space
within the factory premises .The processing capacity of the machines are insufficient to meet the market
demand. Plastic bottles, glass and paper are not processed due to unavailability of technology and

Future Plans
They had planned to expand their operation to include a wider range of plastic wastes, under this
programme. 10 more CBO’s will be formed by clustering the fishing villages in the coastal belt. The
organization is looking for financial assistance and discussions are underway with local authorities to get
recyclable materials from their dumpsites. A washing plant and stores will be built in the near future. The
foundation will be restructured to involve all the families in the project area.

Source: Arthacharya Foundation
Contact information: 4/4, Ginganga Mawatha, Gintota. Sri Lanka
  Prepared by: Solid Waste Management Research Unit, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

                            Inclined Step Grate (ISG) Composting System at Dambulla

The ISG system is designed to promote aerobic composting. Simple techniques such as its dark structure and microbial activities
heats-up the gases inside the reactor and the chimneys expel the heated air/gases while its unique design of step grates allows air into
the vessel. The inclination of the vessel permits decomposing wastes to gradually come down to the outlet where stabilized wastes are
removed daily after a retention period of 30 days. The removed materials are matured in heaps for another 30 days. After
composting, sorting and screening of compost is done manually, although a front end sorting machine has been given for bag breaking
and sorting. A maximum payload of 8MT/day can be processed if sorted biodegradable wastes are size reduced before being fed. The
present value of the vessel is approximately Rs 5 million

 Dambulla is a city with a population of 70,000 and handles 12 MT of MSW per day. Majority of waste is
 generated from the Dedicated Economic Centre. It consists of vegetable garbage which can be composted.
 The plant was constructed in 1999 by the Urban Development Authority with the technical assistance of the
 University of Peradeniya. It was handed over to the Dambulla Local Authority. The capacity of the ISG
 composting system was 6 MTPD. The ISG was abandoned from September 2005.

      Side view of unit                   Sorting Shed

                                                                   Operation and Maintenance (O&M)
         Back End                           Back end               In the beginning, the O & M of the unit was done
                                                                   jointly with the Local Authority (LA) and a private
                                                                   company, Sunworld Agro Systems. In 2003 a contract
                                                                   was awarded to Kandalama Hotel. In the absence of a
                                                                   tipping fee, they have been operating the unit as a
                                                                   voluntary service. However, they earned some money
                                                                   from the sale of compost to pay wages to the workers
                                                                   and the security staff.
     Sorting Machine                         Compost
Reason for terminating the Operation
According to some of the officials, the LA land where the plant had been established was promised to be given
to families relocated from lands taken over by the Dambulla LA.

Source: Dambulla Pradeshiya Sabha(Local Authority)
Contact Information: Dambulla Pradeshiya Sabha, Dambulla, Sri Lanka. Telephone: 0094662284775 Fax: 0094662284775

                                    Plastic Recycling Plant at Daulagala

Today in the world very small proportion of the plastic wastes generated are recycled by the manufactures or
contracted to recycling companies. The recycled materials can either be used to produce the same as the original
product i.e. primary product or else produce materials that are secondary through mechanical and thermal
recycling. In chemical recycling the plastics are broken down to gases or intermediate products and used as
energy source. Only mechanical and thermal recycling is practiced in Sri Lanka.

  At Daullagala village within Udunuwara Local Authorities (LA), plastic is
  recycled in a plant belonging to a private entrepreneur. This venture
  launched in 1988, occupies two buildings that houses ten machines with 40
  workers working around the clock. The raw materials are purchased from
  factories in Kandy. The technology is mainly imported. The wastewaters or
  any other by-products are not allowed to be emitted to the environment.
  This plant can recycle 2000kg/day of both High and Low density plastics,
  and the amount is only 10% of the market demand.                                             Plant
                                                                              Manufacturing Process
 Raw Materials                                                  Polythene
 They recycle mainly low density polyethylene (LDPE),         (LDPE/ HDPE /
 high density polyethylene (HDPE) Polycarbonate,
 Polyester, PVC (Poly Vinyl Chloride), HIP (High                                            Products
 Impact Polystyrene), Polypropylene (PP) and some                                            (Bags)

 nylon. They approximately recycle 10-15MT of clean
 sorted plastic (buying price=12-15kg), 5MT of clean            Washing
                                                                               Extrude      Pelletize
                                                                 Plant                                    Cooling
 unsorted polythene (10Rs/kg), 10MT of unwashed
 unsorted polythene (6-8Rs/kg) and some poly sacs per
 month.         Steps in Manufacturing Process.                  Benefits of plastics
                                                                 The considerable growth in plastic use is due to the
                                                                 beneficial properties of plastics. These include:
                                                                 •  Extreme versatility and ability to be tailored to
                                                                    meet very specific technical needs.
                                                                 •  Lighter weight than competing materials,
           Extruder                 Cooling System
                                                                    reducing        fuel      consumption        during
                                                                 •  Extreme durability.
                                                                 •  Resistance to chemicals, water and impact.
                                                                 •  Good safety and hygiene properties for food

             Pellets                  Air Bubbling                                                           000

Future Plans
The entrepreneur is planning to buy new
machines to produce grocery bags.
Planning is done to improve the washing plant
to get more raw materials from various other
sources like MSW.
                                                                   Raw Material                   End Product

  Source: : Sri-Star Plastic Industries
  Contact Information: Sri-Star Plastic Industries, Manufacturers of LDPE, HDPE, PP & Printing, No 2, Hapugahayatathenne,
                        Handessa, Kandy, Sri Lanka. Telephone: 0094812315453 Fax: 0094812236912
  Prepared by:

                             Condition of Landfill Site at Gohagoda, Kandy (Sri Lanka)

Kandy is one of the major cities in Sri Lanka. It is one of the tourist attractions especially during the Kandy Dalanda Perehera
(Procession of Temple Tooth) season in August. During this event, the amount of waste generated is doubled compared to normal
days. Even during the year, the transient population is very high and it surpassed the regular residents because the Temple of Tooth
relic of Lord Buddha is worshiped and adored by many locals. The solid wastes in Kandy are managed by the Municipal Council of
Kandy. The Council handles 100 million tons of MSW per day. In 1999 with financial and technical assistance from JICA a
semi-engineered landfill called Gahagoda landfill was constructed.
  What are Landfills?
  Landfills are physical facilities used for disposal of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in the surface soils of the
  earth. Sanitary landfills refer to an engineered facility for disposal of MSW designed and operated to minimize
  public health and environmental impacts.
 Population       of      150,000
 the area
 Area                     28
 Land ownership           Harispattuwa        Pradeshiya
 of the landfill          sabha, LA
 Landfill site area       1.5 Acre
 Cost (Rs)                5 million (1US$=100Rs)
 Equipments               1Bulldozer- works 1.5-2                                   Scattered waste and animals feed on it
                          1Backhoe loader - works
                          1-2 days
                          per month for excavation
                          of soil
 Workers                   Supervisor        -1
                           Assistant         -1
                           Labors            -7
                                                                  Bulldozers moving wastes           Leachate spread all over place.
                           Bulldozer         -1                         inside the site.

Problems in Gohagoda
•  Landfill settlement is less due to large quantities of polythene and plastic in collected waste.
•  Leachate treatment system failed and foul liquids are spread all over the place.
•  Excessive amount of dumping of garbage on the site.
•  Since the boundary fence is broken, animals and birds feed on the garbage scattering the waste.
•  The path to the site is muddy during rainy season and the vehicles can’t enter the site.
•  The assured life span of the landfill is almost over, still it is being used.
•  Rainfall infiltration is high in the deposited waste due to lack of soil cover, producing large volumes of
   leachate which flows directly into Mahawelli River without any treatment.

Contact Information:
Prepared by:                                                                                      000
                            Inclined Step Grate (ISG) Composting System at Kaluthara

Kaluthura is a coastal city in the Western Province of Sir Lanka. The area of the city is 19.5km2 supporting a population of
37,081.There are a number of Local Authorities (LA) adjoining it, namely: Panadura in the North, Nagoda in the East and
Beruwalla in the South. The waste generation of the city is estimated to be 12MTPD and only 10MT are collected daily by the
LA. The amount generated may be higher since considerable numbers of commercial and industrial establishments are located in the
LA. The solid waste was planned to be managed in a different way by employing the ISG technology developed by the University of
Peradeniya. The project was implemented in 1999 at Pohorawatta and stopped functioning from Dec.2003. Unfortunately the LA
was not prepared to pay at least a nominal tipping fee to the private company operating and maintaining the plant

                                                                         Fig 1. Side view of ISG                    Fig 2. Side view of ISG

                                                                              Fig 3. Front view                       Fig 4.Waste dumped
                                                                                      of ISG                                around ISG
                       The Composting Process

Shortcomings of Kaluthara ISG.                                                                        System


The ISG plant is incomplete without adequate sheds                                                                           (Inlet)

(maturing, storage), administrative rooms and
machinery (shredder, loader, and screener).
After the private company stopped operating the plant,                                                 Roof

the attempt by the LA failed due to poor management,
inadequate skilled work force, poor knowledge of                                          Top-Grill

composting process and not securing the available
market opportunities.

                                                                                                       ISG COMPOSTING UNIT

Comments for Future Improvement
•  The waste generated is to be quantified
•  A tipping fee should be given for managing the plant either by the LA or a private company.
•  Upgrade the ISG unit.
•  Additional ISG unit or another method of SWM should be implemented. Lacking of a landfill is a major
   drawback; hence construction of landfill is very essential.
•  Around 18000liters per day of sewage sludge is discharged into the marshy lands, adjoining the compost
   plant. It should be treated in an appropriate way.
•  Among the collected waste the recyclable wastes also go into the ISG unit. To avoid this recycle plant is

  Contact Information:
  Prepared by:                                                                                       000
                              Inclined Step Grate (ISG) Composting System at Mawanella

The Inclined Step Grate (ISG) system is designed for aerobic composting. Simple methods, such
as its dark structure and stainless steel body attracts heat into the vessel ,Its unique design of step
grates sucks air into the vessel, the chimneys send out the heated air, thus controlling the
temperature inside the vessel. Inside it’s a controlled environment for increase microbial reactions in
order to accelerate the composting process. The inclination of the vessel helps the waste to pass
down to the outlet where the composted material/fertilizer is collected and distributed to farmers.
After the completion of 30 days of the process the compost/fertilizer formed, is of great demand by
many fertilizer companies around the country. The total cost of the vessel is approximately Rs. 5
million                                                                                                        Front View

  The vessel at Mawanella Local Authority (LA) of an area of 114 situated in the Sabaragamuwa Province
  is the home to approximately 95,823 people of different ethnicity. Mawanella ISG unit was established in 2002
  in a total area of 3.5 acres and currently treats 8 MT of waste per day. ISG unit was founded by Urban
  Development Authority and guidelines had been given by the Peradeniya University. The project objective is
  the production of compost while the polythenes and other non-biodegradable is to be put in to the landfill
  which is now under constructions. 40 MT of composting is production per month and half of the MT is
  giving to the Baurs and half is selling by the LA.

       Back End                      Shredder                 Composting Shed

       Compost                 Scattered Polythene            New Landfill Site
                                                                                                          IGS Composting Process

Future Plans                                                                                          Chimney

•  During rainy season large population of house flies are found                                                             Hopper

   in the ISG unit; this is planned to be controlled by spraying
   some chemicals.
•  The MSW collected from the area consist of large quantities of                                      Roof

   polythene and plastics. The local authority is now constructing
   a landfill. The non biodegradable wastes will be dumped into it                        Top-Grill

   in the future.                                                                Outlet

•  One of the problem the ISG unit faces is the poor road                                              ISG COMPOSTING UNIT

   network to the site.
                                                                                                 IGS Composting Process

   Source: Mawanella Pradeshiya Sabha
   Contact information: Mawanella Sri Lanka
   Prepared by: Solid Waste Management Research Unit, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.                                                        000
                                             Plastic Recycling Plant at Mawanella

The world’s annual consumption of plastic has increased from 5 million MT to 1000 million MT between 1950 and 2000. There
are about fifty different types of plastics and mostly all can be recycled. The production and use of plastic has a range of environmental
impact. Plastic production requires significant quantities of resources primarily fossil fuel both as a raw material and to deliver energy
for the manufacturing process. Hence recycling of plastic is more economical and eco friendly. Plastic recycling is still a relatively new
and developing field

  At Hingula a village belonging to Mawanella Local Authority (LA), plastic is recycled in a plant owned by a
  private entrepreneur. This venture was started in 1996. This plant consists of two buildings and five machines
  with 12-15 workers working round the clock. The raw materials are purchased from factories in Kandy,
  Mawanella, and Kegalle districts. The technology is mainly imported. Waste water or other byproducts are not
  discharged to the environment. This plant can recycle 850kg of both High and Low density plastics, and the
  amount is only 10% of the market demand.

  Benefits of Plastics
  The considerable growth in plastic use is
  due to the       beneficial properties of
  plastics. These include:
  •   Extreme versatility and ability to be
      tailored to meet very specific
      technical needs.
  •   Lighter weight than competing                          Raw materials                 Compactor                        Extruder
      materials,        reducing        fuel
      consumption during transportation.
  •   Extreme durability.
  •   Resistance to chemicals, water and
  •   Good safety and hygiene properties
      for food packaging.

                                                             Cooling System                 Pellets                        Molder

                                                                        Type of Plastics Recycled.
                                                                        •  Polycarbonate
                                                                        •  Polyester
                                                                        •  PVC (Poly Vinyl Chloride)
                                                                        •  HIP (High Impact Polystyrene)
                                                                        •  LDPE (Low Density Polyethylene)
                                                                        •  HDPE(High Density Polyethylene)

            Process of Recycling

This plant lacks a washing plant. This minimizes the number of raw material sources. Some plastic which cannot
be recycled are just disposed to the environment. Entrepreneur is looking for a technology where waste plastic
can be used to heat the extruder.

Source: Mr.A.H..M.Azad
Contact information: 851, Kandy Road, Gannethanne, Hingula Sri Lanka
Prepared by: Solid Waste Management Research Unit, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

                      Biogas and Bio Fertilizer Project at Muthurajawela -A Lesson to Learn

In 2002 National Engineering Research & Development Center (NERD) of Sri Lanka established this project to treat and
dispose the vegetable market garbage of Wattala Local Authority (LA) and Salvinia molesta of inland waterways in the area. The
project was funded by the government of Sri Lanka at a cost of 40 million SLR. This plant located in 2.5 acre of land belongs to
the Muthurajawela LA

  Project Outputs
  •   Method of disposing market garbage(40 MT/week) in an
      environmentally friendly manner
  •   Method for cleaning and maintaining inland waterways free of water
      bone plants such as Salvinia molesta (2.5 MT/week)
  •   Production of organic fertilizer.(4MT/week)
  •   Biogas as an alternative fuel (750 m3/day)
  •   Employment opportunities
Method of Operation
It was planned to collect and transport market garbage to the processing plant.
Unfortunately, it was not to be, and mixed MSW was the only alternative for
the Centre to operate the plant. The incoming loads were fed into the
digesters constructed below ground level. Soon after the garbage was loaded,
the digester was covered by a fiberglass lid which includes gas outlets. Mobile
gantries were used to unload the digested solids. One digester at a time was
charged throughout a week. Thus the retention time for digestion is 16 weeks
since there are 16 digesters. The biogas produced was supplied through
pipelines to bakery ovens, diesel engines and an incinerator. The digested
material was unloaded and sieved as bio-fertilizer. Indigestible material which
comes with raw materials is burnt in the incinerator                                              Inside View of digester

Why Salvinia molesta should be treated?
Salvinia molesta is one of the world’s worst aquatic pests. Excessive growth of salvinia forms mats of floating
plants preventing atmospheric oxygen from entering the water while the decaying salvinia drops to the
bottom, greatly consuming dissolved oxygen needed by fish and other aquatic life. The floating mats provide
excellent habitat for disease carrying mosquitoes.

             MSW and Salvinia molesta
                                                       •  Although the plant was designed to treat vegetable
                 Anaerobic Digester
                  (Capacity 40 MT)                        wastes it was fed with mixed MSW. Therefore expected
                                                          output could not be achieved.
                                                       •  There seems to be a misunderstanding between the
   Bio-gas Production
                                        Process           Centre and the Local Authority and perhaps also with
                                                          the Western Provincial Council.
          Electricity                                  •  Although the project envisaged baking of bread in the
                                 Bio- Fetilizer
          Generation                                      premises of the biogas plant, the community did not
                                                          patronize it.
                                  Non Bio
         Bakery Oven


          Process Flow Diagram

  Future Plan
  The NERD Centre is negotiating with the Colombo Municipal Council to obtain the market wastes from the city
  of Colombo.

Source: NERD Center
Contact information: Ekala- Ja-Ella Sri Lanka
Prepared by: Solid Waste Management Research Unit, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
                                                 Landfill Site in Nuwara Eliya

Nuwara Eliya (NE) attracts many tourists as the city is built on the high mountains of central Sri Lanka where the temperature
ranges from 40C to 200C. It is inhabited with a population of 49162 which excludes the floating population which is many folds
higher than the residents. The solid and sewage wastes of the city are disposed by the Municipality of Nuwara Eliya. It is believed
that composting of degradable waste is unfeasible under cold conditions. Thus the solid waste of this city is disposed in a Semi-
Engineered Landfill in the nearby forest area avoiding subsequent problems of protests. It is a donation by JICA (Japan
International Cooperation Agencies) in 2002
                                                Leachate Managing System in NE Landfill Site.
       Details of the Landfill Site             The leachate that moves down through the solid waste in the landfill
 Place              Moon Plains                 site is first filtered as it passes through the sand layer. This leachate is
 Total area         2.5 ha                      collected by perforated leachate collection pipes and gravity. It is
 Owners        of Forest Department             conveyed to the leachate treatment facility consisting of 11 ditches
 the site land                                  interconnected in a ZIG ZAG’ manner with coconut coir as the bio-
 Total amount 15MT                              filter media. The effluent from the treatment facility is released to the
 of waste per                                   environment. Apparently the quality satisfies Central Environmental
 day                                            Authority (CEA) standards. However, there is no provision to check
 Former mode Dumping site                       the quality of the leachate emissions in the landfill and before being
 of disposal                                    treated, so as to determine leakages, particularly in clay lined landfill.
 Year the land 2002
 filling started
 Life        span 25 years
  Managing the Landfill Site
  1. Manpower                                                        Fig1.Landfill Site           Fig 2 Hospital Waste
      •  Helper          :1
      •  Operator        :1
      •  Security guards : 2
      •  Supervisor      :1

  2. Equipments * Bull dozer: 1
  3.Road network for 5 tractors/day/                              Fig 3.Gully Suck             Fig4.Leachate Treatment
     two trips.                                                         Treatment                      Facilities
  4. Cover soil stocks for 2 to 3 days.

                                            Construction and Process of Land Filling
                                               •   Excavation of soil
                                               •   Lined with clay and piping for leachate collection
                                               •   Back filling with sand above the pipes
                                               •   Vertical tar barrels filled with stone (with time, tar barrels corrode
                                                   leaving vertical porous media) to facilitate methane gas emissions.
                                               •   Daily cells are used with cover soil or saw dust.
                                               •   The first lift (layer) has been completed and the side slopes are

   •  Lack of proper monitoring of leachate and gas emissions.
   •  Frequent breakdown of bulldozer and therefore it is best to purchase a landfill compactor to replace
      track type prime mover.
   •  The sharps and objects from the hospital are disposed in a fenced concrete pit.

  Source & Contact information: Nuwara Eliya Municipal Council, Nuwara Eliya, Sri Lanka
  Prepared by :                Solid Waste Management Research Unit- University of Peradeniya

                                 Windrow Composting At Udunuwara Local Authority

The readily biodegradable components of MSW under aerobic decomposition are transformed and converted to microbial cellular
materials and emissions of gases and liquids, chiefly CO2 and water are formed as end products. The remaining resistant lignified
materials as well as respired cells are the major components of aerobic compost. The simplest and the oldest method of stabilizing and
maturing wastes are to turn heaped up windrows. Such a simple windrowing system has been introduced to Udunuwara Local
Authority (LA) at a cost of Rs 1.2 million. The size of the approximate windrow is 8-10 feet high and 20-25 feet wide at the base.
Before forming windrows, the raw MSW is screened manually. The windrows are turned for the first time on the10th day and then
every 3 days

  Udunuwara LA is responsible for the collection, treatment and disposal of solid waste generated at Gelioya
  town and surrounding villages. About 3MT of solid waste is collected per day. Nearly 2MT goes for
  composting and 1MT of non-biodegradable materials like polythene are dumped. The production of bio-
  fertilizer is the main aim of the LA. The operation is still at an experimental stage, although the system was
  established in December 2003, under the supervision of an eminent MSW specialist.

                                                                                  LA Area               66.8 km2
                                                                                  Population            1,08,053
                                                                                  Collecting            Mampitiya, Lankatilaka,
                                                                                  Areas                 Naranwala, Daulagala,
                                                                                                        Weligalla, Penideniya
                                                                                  Composting            Manellanga-
                                                                                  unit location         Rankiriwaulla
                                                                                  Extent of the
                                                                                  Composting            2 acres
                                                                                  Labours               Permanent- 5
                                                                                                        Temporary- 4
                                                                                  Equipment             Tractors- 2
                                                                                                        Shredder- 1

•  There is a shortage of workers.This could be due to their unwillingness to work under unhygienic
   conditions, since it is likely that the temperatures of the windrows are too low and does not comply to
   WHO standards.
•  The populace of the LA is not supporting the project, notably because in rainy days, uncontrollable fly
   infestations occur and odour emissions are unbearable even on very dry periods.
•  It seems that composting process is incomplete.

 Future Plans
 In order to reduce the environmental impact of the present system, it has been decided by the LA to introduce
 domestic composting methods and conduct awareness programmes.
 The LA prefers to eliminate flies with chemical application of insecticides.
 It has been recommended to extract the compost from already decomposed wastes.

 Source: Udunuwara Pradeshiya Sabha
 Contact information: Gelioya- Sri Lanka
 Prepared by: Solid Waste Management Research Unit, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

Asian Institute of Technology

   •   Rayong Waste to Energy and Fertilizer Project
   •   GPS for Waste Collection at Nonthaburi Municipality
   •   Pobsuk Recycle Center Pilot Project
   •   Solid Waste Management at Nonthaburi Municipality
   •   Computer Second-Hand Shops
   •   Wat Suan Kaeo Philanthropic Foundation
   •   Klongtom Night Market
   •   Genco Public Co. Ltd.
   •   Wongpanit Garbage Recycling Separation Plant
   •   Second-Hand Product Exchange Network
   •   Suar Yai Utid Street
   •   Ta-Rang Solid Waste Transfer Station

                                     Rayong Waste to Energy and Fertilizer Project

In 2002, the Rayong Municipality, Thailand established the pilot Municipal Solid Waste
(MSW) treatment plant using Anaerobic Digestion (AD). The project’s objective is to produce
electricity while the by-product (digestate) is to be used as soil conditioner or fertilizer. The waste
is treated immediately as it is received in the plant. The plant has a capacity to treat 25,500
tons of bio-waste annually and may produce 5,800 tons of soil conditioner and 3,826 MWh
surplus of electricity from 21,900 tons of bio-waste.

Waste Materials:            MSW, Fruit-Vegetable & Fruit Waste (FVFW), and Night Soil Waste (NSW)
AD design and capacity: 74 tons/day (60 tons of sorted MSW and FVFW, and 14 tons of NSW)
Process:                   Wet continuous, single-stage, completely-mixed digestion
Reaction temperature:      Mesophilic condition
Feed substrates:            Slurry form (15% TS)
By products (full design): Biogas (65% CH4) yields 2.2 million m3/yr; produce electricity of about
                           5,062 and 3,172 MWh/yr at 38.6% and 22.7 % efficiency, respectively
Process Description:
          •    The collected MSW is weighed and segregated to remove bulky, inert, and recyclable materials.
          •    The waste is conveyed to the bag opener and then to the drum screen. The conveyor is equipped
               with magnetic separator to remove ferrous materials.
                                                                    •     The separated organic fraction of MSW and FVFW
                                                                          are fed into the feed hopper and fragmentizer to
                                                                          achieve a very fine suspension.
                                                                    •     The mixed wastes together with NSW are pumped
                                                                          into the feed preparation tank where the solid
                                                                          content and temperature are adjusted.
                                                                    •     The feed substrate is kept homogenous with the
                                                                          agitator and is semi-continuously pumped into the
                                                                          bioreactor. The minimum retention time is 18 days
                                                                          to ensure the conversion of organic material to
                                                                          biogas. The biogas flows through the biogas holder.
                                                                    •     The digestate is led to the buffer storage tank and
                                                                          dewatered by a mechanical dryer, belt press. The
                                                                          rejected water from dewatering is led into the
                                                                          wastewater treatment plant.
                                                                    •     The mechanically dewatered humus mass is
                                                                          transferred to the thermal dryer chamber for
                                                                          pathogen killing. The dried humus is conveyed to
                                                                          the fertilizer handling and packing area.    000
Concluding Remarks: The increasing problem in solid waste management in Rayong has ended up in a
successful project. Among the contributing factors for this achievement is the community willingness to solve the
problem along with the support and cooperation from NGOs and government agencies. The said project not only
solves the problem on solid waste but also generates useful resources such as fertilizer and biogas.

  Contact Information:
  Prepared by:
                              GPS for Waste Collection at Nonthaburi Municipality

Global Positioning System (GPS) is a promising technology for solid waste management at Nonthaburi municipality in Thailand.
The GPS system was found to be very effective in managing the increasing solid waste quantities (Fig. 1).

                                               Solid waste generation (tons/day)
In Nonthaburi municipality, 45 waste
collecting trucks serve 93,539
households that carry 290 tons/day of                                              250

waste into landfill disposal sites. The                                            200
waste is collected twice a week. The                                               150
landfill location is 38 km. away from                                              100
Nonthaburi. A strategy is necessary to                                              50
reduce      left-over    waste     from
households and to monitor waste
                                                                                         1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
handling during its transport including
the truck driver’s actions.                             Fig. 1: Solid waste generation at Nonthaburi Municipality
GPS system can be reported in two formats (Real time and History). The Real time report format provides
information such as position, truck status (parking/speed), driver’s behavior, and distance between trucks in
digital map including the nearest truck in case of emergency. History report format provides a summary report
on the route, parking point, frequency/time/position, speed, distance, fuel, etc. The data of each truck is sent
and recorded in the computer at the control room and can be used to increase the efficiency of solid waste
collection and management, reduce overlapping of work to save time and resources, and provide evidences in
solving complains. Nowadays, people are satisfied with the solid waste collection system of Nonthaburi

                                                                                                                             Fig. 2: GPS system

One officer is needed to control/monitor the collecting trucks and report these data, including the
expenditure of solid waste collection services such as fuel, maintenance, etc to the administrator of solid waste
management planning. The GPS system is presented in Fig. 2. Data logger and GPS receiver including data
sender (GSM module) are installed in each truck to connect with satellites. It converts data into digital form
and sends information to the server computer at the control room in digital map format.

The problem on solid waste collection can be optimized by GPS system by promoting public participation and
proper waste segregation for reuse/recycle prior to disposal

Contact: Pornsri Kictham, Director of Bureau of Environment and Health, Nonthaburi Municipality

                                     Pobsuk Recycle Center Pilot Project: Case Study

The Pobsuk Village in Pakkret Municipality in Thailand has established an environmental
policy to promote the participation of villagers to solve the solid waste problem. The policy has
led to the establishment of a pilot scale recycling center for the production of bio-fertilizer from
household waste by composting; the operation is under experimental stage. The participation of
villagers is very important. The success of this operation will foster additional benefits to the
villagers and the expansion of this project to other neighborhood will promote resource recovery
while protecting our environment.

  The Pobsuk Recycle Center is located in the general public area of Pobsuk Village. This recycling center
  consists of composting plant, recyclable waste separation area and office building. There are 240 households in
  Pobsuk village. The bio-waste separated by villagers was the primary component in bio-fertilizer production.
  This pilot project has been implemented with the technical and financial support from the Japan Government
  while the municipality allotted a supplementary budget.
Operation and Management
The management system of this project is divided into two: the committee and staff of the center. The
committee officers are representatives from village and municipality while the staffs are officers and employees
of the local government unit. They work collectively for the betterment of the project. The following describes
the operations involved in the project.                          • The bio-waste separated by villagers are
                                                                   collected and delivered to the center for
                                                                   pulverization (Fig. 1).
                                                                 • The pulverized bio-waste (65%), sawdust
                                                                   (10%), and bio-fertilizer (25%) are mixed
                                                                   together prior to loading into the Rotary
                                                                   Drum (Fig. 2). Sawdust is added to reduce
                                                                   the moisture content of the bio-waste while
                                                                   the bio-fertilizer serves as compost seed to
    Fig. 1. Collected separated    Fig. 2. Mixing bio-fertilizer   improve the quality of the compost product.
            waste in bins                  components            • The Rotary Drum makes 3 turns 2-3 times a
                                                                   day for proper mixing and aeration (Fig. 3).
                                                                   A special vent at the loading end is used as a
                                                                   gas exhaust that helps to reduce the moisture
                                                                   of the bio-waste. The composting
                                                                   temperature is thermophilic reaching up to
                                                                 • The compost is removed after 1-4 weeks of
                                                                   fermentation and transferred into the
        Fig. 3. Rotary drum          Fig. 4. Bio-fertilizer in     secondary fermentation for 2-3 weeks in
                                    secondary fermentation         order to complete the bio-fertilizer
                                                                   production (Fig. 4).
Future Opportunity
This recycling center will continue to operate, treat more bio-waste, and market the bio-fertilizer. The option of
expansion is possible upon the success of the operation. Moreover, liquid composting process can be tested in
the future as the required equipment is available in the center. Also, the Pakkret Municipality will allocate a
budget to improve the recycling operation. Buying of recycled waste will provide additional benefits for the
villagers. Villagers are expected to be more enthusiastic and cooperative after the positive result of bio-fertilizer
production and buying of recycled waste. With the success of this bio-waste recycling center, this concept will
be expanded to other villagers.

  Contact Information:
  Prepared by:

                         Solid Waste Management at Nonthaburi Municipality

Nonthaburi municipality located in the central part of Thailand has a population of 269,669 with 93,539 households. The
increasing rate of population and consumption has led to the increase of solid waste generation. The National Solid Waste
Management Plan by Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment was established in 2003. It aims to control/reduce solid
waste generation and promote 4R (reduce, reuse, recycle, and recover.
According to Municipal Act 1953, solid waste management is the responsibility of Nonthaburi municipality
including solid waste collection, transportation, recycle, and disposal. Nonthaburi municipality manages both
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) and infectious waste (Figure 1). Infectious waste was primarily handled by
incineration. In 2004, almost 82.5% of the MSW is directly disposed into landfills. There is an increasing trend of
waste recycling from 1993 to 2004 in which 16% of the total waste was recycled in 2004 compared to only 6% in
1993 (Figure 2). Moreover, 1.5% of the total was sent to composting facility (Figure 3).

                                                            Waste Recycling (%)
                                                                                       1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
                                                                                              Fig. 2: Waste recycling in Nonthaburi

    Fig. 1: Solid waste management in Nonthaburi
Currently, solid waste generation of 290 tons/day
will be transferred to landfill disposal site owned
by Provincial Administrative Organization. The                                                                                                68
viewed strategies that could promote efficient solid
waste management are: strengthening education
and institution program, capacity building and
public participation, and promoting community-                                                           Source:??
base program.                                                                                            Contact Information:??
                                                                                                         Prepared by: ??
                                                                                            Fig. 3: Organic solid waste composting plant
  Contact Information:
  Prepared by:
                                 Computer Second-Hand Shops: Case Study

Pantip Plaza, Fortune Town, and Zero Rangsit are the known big department stores for computer related items.
In these stores, there are many shops selling computers, laptops, printers, scanners, and computer accessories.
Many new computer products, which are coming to the market everyday, can be easily found here. Besides,
these stores are well known among second-hand buyers. Various imported second-hand computers are sold in
some parts of these stores. Pantip and Fortune Town, located in the inner town of Bangkok, have approximately
40 shops and 20 shops respectively selling second-hand computers primarily imported used products. Zeer
Rangsit, located in the outskirts of Bangkok, have approximately 15 shops. Most of the second-hand shops sell
imported used products from Japan. The major types of second-hand products are computers, monitors, and

             Japanese notebook              Computer second-hand shop              Fixing/Refurbishing

Process description
•  The second-hand products are imported from developed countries such as Japan.
•  The used products and parts are also bought from users and scrap dealers.
•  Manual segregation and testing is done to identify usable and unusable products.
•  The unusable products are dismantled, fixed and refurbished.
•  The usable items are cleaned and installed with new software before selling.
Environmental issue
•  Reuse and refurbish extend the life-time of second-hand products.
•  Reduce generation of hazardous wastes immediately, but soon these second-hand products will be
   discarded as E-waste.
•  Low quality second-hand products can damage and harm users by electric shock and explosion.
•  Toxic materials can be released to the environment because only a simple process of dismantling and fixing
   is used.
•  Workers who are in contact with the hazardous materials during fixing and refurbishing can have health
   problems because they do not use protective tools.
•  Pantip Plaza, Phetchaburi Rd. Phetchaburi Rachatavee Bangkok 10400
•  Fortune Town Building, Rachadapisek Road, Dindaeng, Bangkok 10320
•  Zeer Rangsit, Phaholyothin Road, Lamlukka12130, Bangkok, Thailand

Contact Information:
Prepared by:
                        Wat Suan Kaeo Philanthropic Foundation: Case Study

In 1986, Wat Suan Kaeo philanthropic foundation in Nonthaburi province was established by a monk, Pra-Payom
Kallayano. This foundation aims to help the poor by providing jobs and places to stay. The foundation has generated
many programs to improve the quality of life and decrease the poverty in the province. In 1994, a program to donate used
products was introduced to help reduce waste and provide jobs to the poor. The foundation received a large number of used
and unwanted products, such as construction materials, books, electronic devices, and household utilities. These used
products are then reused, resold, or refurbished inside Wat Suan Kaeo.

Process description:
•  People donate used products at the collection point.
•  Some donated products are sent for auction that happens
    every Monday and Friday inside Wat Suan Kaeo.
•  Used electronic devices are mainly separated into two groups. The first group consists of
   computers, monitors, laptops, and peripherals. The other group consists of televisions,
   audio/video players, and electrical household products.
•  Usable products are collected for reselling while unusable products are refurbished. Unusable
   products, which can not be fixed, are dismantled to be used as spare parts. During dismantling
   process, scraps and unusable parts are generated.
•  Usable and refurbished products are sent to a shop for sale.
•  Scraps are separated into plastics, metals etc. These scraps are sold to the informal collector.

  Second-hand shops around Wat Suan Kaeo

There are many second-hand shops around Wat Suan Kaeo. These shops auction the donated used
products from Wat Suan Kaeo every Monday and Friday. The products are resold and refurbished in
these shops. Refurbishing and separating processes are done by using simple equipments. Unusable
scraps are sold to the informal collector.

  Amount of E-waste

                           Number of products donation at Wat Suan Kaeo (unit/day)
             Range                           Washing         Air
                    Television Refrigerator                           Computer Monitor
                                             machine      conditioner
            Min.         2           1           0             0          2         2
            Max.        20          21          17            20         154       153
            Average      8           9           6             3          41        52
                                                                            Source: JETRO (2004).

                            Table 1 Amount of products donation at Wat Suan Kaeo

                                                 Number of products (unit/year)
          E-waste from                                Washing       Air
                            Television   Refrigerator                         Computer        Monitor
                                                      machine conditioner
       Wat Suan Kaeo          2,920         3,285      2,190       1,095        14,965        18,980
       Thailand              950,000      650,000     261,000     187,000       262,500       110,000
       Percentage (%)          0.3           0.5        0.8          0.6          5.7           17.3
                                                                                 Source: JETRO (2004).
           Table 2 Amount of products donation at Wat Suan Kaeo compared to amount of E-waste in 2004

From the Table 2, E-waste collected percentage is relatively low for television, refrigerator, washing
machine, and air conditioner. However, the percentage collected of computer and computer monitor are
quite high around 6% and 17% respectively. The collection, separation, fixing, and refurbishing of
computer and computer monitor are improving because the life-time of computer and monitor is reduced
and users keep changing their products even the products still in good condition.

Environmental issue
•  Reuse and Refurbish extend the life-time of second-hand products.
•  Reduce generation of hazardous wastes recently, but sooner these second-hand products will be
   discarded as E-waste.
•  Low quality second-hand products can damage and harm users by electric shock and explosive.
•  Toxic materials release to the environmental surrounding because only simple process of dismantling
   and fixing has been used.
•  Workers, who contact with the hazardous materials during fixing and refurbishing, can have health
   problems because they do not use protective tools.

Wat Suan Kaeo, Banglane, Bang Yai, Nonthaburi 11140, Thailand
Tel: 0-2595-1444, 0-2595-1945-7, Fax: 0-2595-1222

Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) Bangkok, 2004. The field survey on the discharged of WEEE.

Contact Information:
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                                   Klongtom Night Market: Case Study

Klongtom market is located in the China Town area inside Bangkok. Klongtom market is always known as a local market where
the cheap products are sold. Various types of new products such as electrical and electronic appliances, construction machinery,
watches, computer games, CDs, VCD etc are sold here.. Normally, Klongtom market opens everyday from 10.00 a.m. to 5.00
p.m. Klongtom has a night market on every weekend. The night market is open from Saturday 5.00 p.m. to Sunday 5.00 p.m.
Klongtom night market is a market for second-hand shops selling their used products. The second-hand shops, which are located
around Bangkok, buy the used or defective products to fix, refurbish, and resell them. The used products are mainly construction
equipments, clothes, shoes, car parts, and electronic and electrical appliances.

 Mobile phone Batteries
                      Luang Road

                                                                                          Construction Tools


Electrical and Electronic Products
The major categories of electrical and electronic products can be divided into two parts: first are the electrical
construction equipments such as motors, circuit breakers, drills, and pumps; and another part consists of
household electrical and electronic equipments such as telephones, mobile phones, mobile phone batteries,
computers, notebooks, audio players, air conditioners, mixers, iron and hair-dryers.

Inside Klongtom Night Market        Household Products                        Computer and Accessories

Amount of second-hand products
A survey at Klongtom Night Market showed that there are 51 shops and nearly 13 tonnes of second-hand
products sold in this market every weekend.

                        Table 1: Amount of second-hand products
               Types       of    second-hand Number Amount of second-
               products                         of shops hand products (unit)*
               Mobile phone                     3           85
               Mobile phone batteries           1           400
               Electronic products              24          220
               Electrical household products    15          150
               Electrical construction tools    6           78
               Car audio                        2           44
               Total                            51          977
                    Note: The results based on 2 surveys (7th January and 18th March 2006).

Environmental issue
•  Reuse and refurbish, extends the life-time of second-hand products.
•  Reuse and refurbish reduces generation of hazardous wastes temporarily, but soon these second-hand
   products will be dumped.
•  Low quality second-hand products can harm users by electric shock and explosion.
•  Toxic materials can be released to the environment, because only a simple process of dismantling and fixing
   is used.
•  Workers, who are in contact with the hazardous materials during fixing and refurbishing, can have health
   problems as they do not use protective tools.

Location: Klongtom Night Martket, China Town, Bangkok

Contact Information:
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                                    Genco Public Co. Ltd. : Case Study

GENCO or General Environmental Conservation Public Co., Ltd. was
established in 1994. This company is a joint venture between the Ministry of
Industry, the Industrial Estate Authority of Thailand and the private sector.
GENCO is one of the most important industrial waste treatment companies in
Thailand. The service provided is disposal of hazardous waste including secured
landfill, stabilization, fuel blending, laboratory testing, and transportation of
materials. The main waste stabilized and solidificated are: metal hydroxide
filtercake, contaminated soil, dry paint scraps, contaminated packaging, incinerator ash, used alumina gel, asbestos waste,
carbon from scrubbers, spent catalyst, chrome sludge, wastewater sludge. The E-waste from industrial sectors is also received to
manage PCB scraps, fluorescent waste, spent batteries etc. The company operates at two sites: GENCO Map Ta Phut Centre
(Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate, Rayong Province) and GENCO Sa Mae Dum Centre (Sa Mae Dum, Bangkok): The
company has also a research and development center for environmental conservation: the Ratchaburi Centre (Ratchaburi

Capital cost           : 900 million baht
Number of employees : 268
Amount of waste treated: Map Ta Phut, Rayong site: 275,000 tons/ year
                       Sa Mae Dum, Bangkok site: 300,000 tons/year

                                                                                                    Source: Genco (2005).

                                          Figure 1: Hazardous waste management process

Process description
•  Industrial wastes are transported, weighed, and tested at the laboratory.
•  The organic fractions are used as fuel in the thermal combustion in the plant (details in Figure1).
•  Inorganic parts are separated into solid and liquid.
•  The inorganic solids are identified as hazardous and non-hazardous.
•  Non-hazardous wastes are sent to secure landfill directly while hazardous wastes are transferred to
   stabilization unit before disposal to the secure landfill. The layout of the secure landfill is in the
   Figure 2.

                                                       Source: GENCO (2005).
                                     Figure 2 Hazardous waste landfill layouts

Head Office
Mr. Por Punyaratabandhu, General Manager
Address: SG Tower Building, 161/1 Lumpini, Pathum Wan, Bangkok
Website: E-mail:
Tel     : 0-3868-4096-101         Fax: 0-3868-4561

Mr. Sripop Sarasas Chief executive officer
Mr. Tanong Promma Public relations manager
Address: 5 Maptaphut Industrial Estate, Muang Mai Rd, Hauypong, Muang rayong, Rayong 21150
Tel     : 0-2651-8812-22         Fax: 0-2651-8832-33

General Environmental Conservation Public Co., Ltd., 2005. Facility and Treatment. Available on the
website: (February 2006).
                   Wongpanit Garbage Recycling Separation Plant: Case Study

 Wongpanit Garbage Recycling Separation Business was started in 1974 by Dr. Somthai Wongcharoen. With a pick-up
 truck, he went to every village in Pitsanulok province to buy the garbage. In the beginning, he bought 1,000 kg of garbage
 worth about 2,000 baht a day. Three years later, he opened a small junk shop and the garbage he bought reached 5,000
 kg a day. He continued to expand his business. In 1995, Wongpanit Garbage Recycling Separation Plant was established
 with an investment of around 50 million baht. This plant can handle around 100 tons of waste per day. Currently, the
 business has expanded to 153 branches and 10,000 employees around Thailand. This plant receives all types of solid
 wastes such as paper, plastics, metals and E-waste. The solid wastes in the Phitsanulok province has reduced by 50 %(
 from 140 tons to 70 tons) in 8 years.. However, E-waste processing section is in the researching period. Only 4-5
 unit/day of E-waste are sold, of which 95% are computers, monitors, and computer accessories.

Process description
•  All types of solid wastes are bought from informal sectors, industries, government agencies, schools,
   universities, and other places by trucks.
•  The solid wastes are separated into five categories: metals, paper, plastic, glass and E-waste.
•  Wastes are weighed on the digital weighing machine.
•  Metals, paper, plastic, and glass are sorted into minor categories, for instance, plastics are sorted into
   polypropylene (PP), polystylene (PS), polyethylene (PE), and polyvinylchloride (PVC).
•  The sorted wastes are compacted or desized, weighing 1 ton/unit.
•  The compacted wastes are sent to the storage pit waiting for sale.

              Plastics Sorting              Wongpanit Garbage Recycling Separation Plant        Paper Compaction

E-waste process description
•  E-waste separated from other wastes.
•  Manual dismantling by employees.
•  The recyclable materials such as copper wire, aluminum, and plastics are separated for sale.
•  The non-recyclable materials such as CRT tubes and PCBs are stored at the plant for further researches.
•  Now, a research on PCBs is being conducted with Khon Kaen University to use it as filler in concrete
•  The toxic parts such as printer ink cartridges are sent to hazardous waste handling company.

  In front of E-waste dismantling section       Inside E-waste dismantling section         Separated toxic wastes

Prices of waste (E-waste parts)

                                   Type of wastes        Prices (baht/kg)
                                  Iron                            7
                                  Aluminum                        50
                                  Copper                         162
                                  Brass                           97
                                  Lead                            20
                                  Stainless steel                 40
                                  PVC wire cover                   5
                                  CPU and PCBs             5-10 baht/piece
                                                    Source: Wongpanit (2006).
Public participation
•  Signs are settled in public areas to influence people to separate their wastes before disposal.
•  Leaflets which include the prices of solid wastes are sent to people to understand the value of
•  Waste banks are established in schools to give knowledge and value of wastes. Students and staffs in
   schools separate their waste and sell to Wonpanit.

Environmental issues
•  This plant is recycling the solid wastes resulting in significant reduction of solid wastes sent to
•  The employees are using protective tools such as masks, hats, gloves, etc. reducing on health hazards.
•  E-waste dismantling section is separated from other sections, due to the toxic wastes being handled
   there .
•  Currently, E-waste dismantling uses a manual process only. Toxic parts are separated and stored
   which can impact the environment if not managed properly .

Future prospect on E-waste handling
Dr. Somthai has signed a contract with Sansui Co.,Ltd. (Japan) which is one of the leading company in E-
waste recycling. The E-waste handling section will expand in the near future.

       Separated chipset from              Separated aluminum from          PCBs waiting for further research
            main boards                            hard disks

Dr. Somthai Wongcharoen, Chairman
Address: 19/9 Moo 3 Phitsanulok-Bangkrathum Rd., Thathong, Muang, Phitsanulok 65000.
Tel     :055-284494, Fax. 055-231734

Wongpanit Garbage Recycling Separation Plant, 2006. Prices of wastes. Available on the website: (March 2006).
                       Second-Hand Product Exchange Network: Case Study

The second-hand product exchange network is well-known among second-hand product buyers. This network has started
since the start of internet era. The first leading products exchange network in Thailand is Thaisecondhand
(, started in 2001. Before this exchange network had been launched, the second-hand products
were normally sold to middle traders, known as second-hand shop. The sellers could not sell their products directly to
buyers. This network has launched a new way for sellers to link directly with the buyers. The profits go to both users and
buyers, the sellers can get a higher price while buyers can get lower price than negotiating with middle traders. In
Thaisecondhand the, wide range of second-hand products consist of cars, clothes, antiques, sport equipments, real estates,
pets, including electrical and electronic items.

                                      Figure 1 Product description in Thaisecondhand

                     Post on the                            Contact between
                      website                               seller and buyer
   Seller Input                       Buyer Search
    Product                          for Product on                            Success !!!
   Description                         the website

                                        Figure 2 Activity description

Activity description
•   Sellers go to the products exchange network websites.
•   Sellers post their product’s description.
•   Second-hand buyers search and select second-hand product in the website.
•   Contact between sellers and buyers, making an agreement.

                                     Thaisecondhand      Percentage      Pantipmarket      Percentage
 Categories         Products
                                       (Unit/year)          (%)           (Unit/year)         (%)
                 PCs, Notebook,
                 PDAs, Printer,
 Computer        Scanner,                 18615               29             17520              40
                 Accessories, etc.
                 Mobile phone,
                 Telephone,               22995               36              9855              22
                 Accessories, etc.
                 Video game and
 Video game                                4745                7              4015               9
                 Digital camera,
                 Video recoder,            6205               10              8395              19
                 Accessories, etc.
                 TV,       Audio
                 VDO/VCD/D                10950               17              4380              10
                 VD player, Air
                 conditioner, etc.
 Total                                    63510               100            44165             100

              Table 1 Amount of electrical and electronic products in Thaisecondhand and Pantipmarket

Table 1 show that computers and mobile phones are in demand among second-hand buyers. About 60-70% of
these two categories are on the websites (Thaisecondhand and Pantipmarket). These computers and mobile
phones have a short life-time and the technologies of these products are released to the market everyday. Users
change their products even if the products are still in good condition because of new functions and
technologies available in the market.

Environmental issue
•  Reuse extends the life-time of second-hand products.
•  Reuse reduces generation of hazardous wastes for the time being, but soon these second-hand products will
   be discarded as E-waste.
•  Low quality second-hand products can damage and harm users by electric shock and explosion.
•  This easy selling on the website may support the users to change their old items and buy new ones. This
   can increase the number of sales and amount of E-waste also.

Second-hand products exchange network websites

Contact Information:
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                                            Suar Yai Utid Street: Case Study

Suar Yai Utid Street is located in Lad-Prao district in Bangkok. A huge community including households, small shops,
temples, restaurants, and small department stores live in this street. In this area, there are also garbage collectors, who
work in an informal sector. These people collect waste by using small trucks called “Sa-leng” in Thai. Hundreds of Sa-
Leng comes to this area to sell the collected waste at the waste transfer station. More than ten waste transfer stations are
identified. The waste which is separated and sold at the waste transfer station is mainly paper, plastic, glass, metal, and
E-waste. Many small shops around the big transfer station separate E-waste before selling to the transfer station. The
majority of E-waste is from air conditioners, refrigerators, televisions, washing machines, and computer accessories.

                                                                                         Informal Collectors (Sa-Leng)

                                                                                               Transfer Station

Process description (E-waste):
•  Informal collectors come to sell E-waste at small dismantling shops.
•  E-waste is being disassembled at the shops: the materials are separated into different categories
   such as aluminum, steel, copper, plastics, stainless steel etc. The dismantling is done with bare
   hands or simple tools, which can cause health hazards.
•  Non-valuable parts such as some kinds of plastics (foam) are discarded in the nearby junk yards.
   These junk yards are hence filled with many kinds of wastes, including toxic materials such as
   heavy metals and chemicals. These toxic materials can leach through soil and into the
•  Separated materials are sold to the waste transfer station.
•  Transfer stations transport and sell these materials to the manufacturers.

           Manual Dismantling              Materials Recovery                  Junkyard

Location: Suar Yai Utid Street, Lad-Prao district, Bangkok

Contact Information:
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                          Ta-Rang Solid Waste Transfer Station: Case Study

Ta-Rang solid waste transfer station is one of the three transfer stations of BMA that receives solid waste from
northern districts in Bangkok. It is estimated that about 2,400 tonnes per day of solid waste are delivered by waste
collecting trucks to this transfer station (DPC, 2005). Management and disposal of received waste involves proper
waste segregation into organic fraction (55%) for composting, utilizable waste materials such as paper, glass, and plastic
(8%) for reuse and recycle, and other fractions (37%) dispose to landfill. Few types of E-waste are disposed into landfill
such as batteries and fluorescent lamps. Because of the potential utilization of E-waste for reuse and recycling, E-waste
is separated by truck workers at the transfer station. An informal waste buyer who owns a second hand shop purchases
valuable waste items (including E-waste) at the transfer station.

     Ta-Rang transfer station              Solid waste collection truck                     Informal buyer

                   From municipal                    Truck

                           Informal wastes

                  To landfill                                 Ta-Rang transfer station
                                                                                                         BMA area

•   E-waste is separated by the truck workers.
•   Separated E-waste is sold to informal buyers.
•   Informal buyers refurbish the used items and sell at
   second hand shops and also at Klong Tom market.

Amount of E-waste
Normally, an informal buyer can collect 400-500 pieces/day                      E-waste
(approximately 300-450 kg/day) of E-waste. The weight depends on the type of E-waste. From
this data, the percentage of E-waste in municipal solid waste is 0.013 to 0.019%. The percentage is
very low and it shows that E-waste is not significantly coming to landfills. E-waste is separated
mainly at the source before municipal trucks can collect. E-waste at the transfer station consists of
mobile phone, calculator, remote, battery, television, fan, computer monitor, adaptor, iron, mixer,
telephone, VDO player, etc. But, in general, only small E-waste has been found, for instance,
mobile phone 7-10 pieces everyday.

Informal buyer buys E-waste at a low price,
for example,
Television      : 50-100 baht/piece (1-3 US$/piece),
Fan             : 20-30 baht/piece (0.5-1 US$/piece),
Mobile phone : 30-50 baht/piece (0.5-1 US$/piece), and
Accessories     : 40 baht/kg (1 US$/kg).
It depends on the condition of the used products.
Contact: Mr. Chalong Sutapradidh, Chief engineer officer
Address: Ta-Rang Transfer Station Office, Soi Sukapiban 5, Ramintra Road, Saimai, Bangkok
Tel     : 02-533-3133, Fax: 02-533-3132

Department of Public Cleansing (DPC), 2005. Report on Solid Waste and Nightsoil Management in
Bangkok 2004.

Contact Information:
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Kasetsart University

   •   Development of Compost Bin for Reducing Organic Wastes at Sources
   •   Private Waste Recycling Factory in Asian Countries: Case Study of Thailand
   •   Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator at Phuket Municipality, Thailand
   •   Waste Separation and Baling Plant of Small Communities in Thailand
   •   Application of Aerated Static Pile Composting System for Market Wastes in Thailand
   •   Hospital Waste Management in Bangkok Metropolitan, Thailand
   •   Management of Demolition Wastes Arise from Natural Disaster in Thailand
   •   Rehabilitation of Dumpsite to Integrated Waste Management
   •   Utilization of Landfill Gas for Electricity Generation Facilities

            Development of Compost Bin for Reducing Organic Wastes at Sources

Majority of the solid wastes in developing countries consist of food or other organic wastes. In Thailand, more than 40% of
the total solid waste comes from households and markets. In order to reduce the amount of disposed solid wastes,
composting could be used to convert the waste biologically to valuable end products which could be utilized as organic
fertilizer or soil conditioner.

The Pollution Control Department, Ministry of Natural Resources
and Environment, Thailand has established small composting units
for household and market wastes.

The household compost bin (Fig.1) was adopted from ordinary
wheeled garbage bin (185 liters volume) with provision of screened
opening in front and at the top of bin to facilitate natural
ventilation. Food wastes discarded from each household needs to be
mixed with dried yard wastes at a ratio of 1:1 before loading into the                     Fig 1. Household Compost
bins. The required composting period is about 2 months after which                                    Bin
the compost can be taken out from the bin and utilized as soil

For organic waste sources with higher amount of wastes, aerated bin
of 2,000 liters size was used. The bin was equipped with 0.5 hp air
blower to supply oxygen for microbial activities. The required
composting period was 30 days. The yield of compost product was
about 0.2 kg/kg organic waste input.

                                                                                         Fig 2 Market Waste Compost

Criteria/Efficiency        Unit           185 liters       2000 liters
                                           Home            Aerated
                                        Composting         Bin
Compost material   v/v                1:1                  1:1
(food waste: dried
yard wastes)
Composting period  days               60                   30
Oxygen supply      -                  Natural              0.5 hp air
                                      ventilation          blower
Loading capacity       kg/day         2                    30
Organic          waste %              75                   60
Bin cost               USD            40                   280
          Table 1 Criteria and efficiency of compost bin

Economical analysis has shown that the application of household
compost bin in a community of 125 homes, (the saving of waste
disposal and benefit from compost product will overcome bin
investment cost with) has a B/C ratio of 1.25 and economic return
rate of 19%

Contact Information:
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       Private Waste Recycling Factory in Asian Countries: Case Study of Thailand

Wongpanich Co.Ltd. is a private solid waste recycling firm established since 1974 in Phitsanulok province, Thailand. Currently, the
factory employs about 110 workers and receives 80-100 tons per day or about 32,000 tons of recyclable materials per year.

In Phitsanulok province, Thailand, there is about 120,000 households with a total population of
275,000. Total solid waste produced is about 140 tons, in which about 45% is separated for recycling.
Major recyclable components in solid wastes are paper, glass, metals and plastic.

In 2002, the factory recycled about 30 tons of glass per day, 58% of which is crushed glass and 42%
containers. The amount of paper wastes recycled at the factory is about 40 tons/day (15% colored
paper, 24% office paper and 61% computer paper). About 30 tons of plastic wastes are processed daily
with HDPE (20%) and LDPE (20%) predominating the recycled plastic.

The factory earned about 10.5 million USD in revenue in 2002. From the economical analysis, it was
found that the recycling factory had B/C ratio of 2.39 and internal rate of return at 40%.

Contact Information:
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              Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator at Phuket Municipality, Thailand

Phuket Island, located in southern part of Thailand, is one of the most attractive tourist places in the country. In Phuket,
incineration is used as the main process for MSW disposal as the available land space is scarce. In 2004, MSW collected
from urban area of Phuket was about 360 tons/day where the maximum capacity of incinerator is 250 tons/day. Some of
the remaining waste which could not be treated in the incinerator was sent for disposal in a landfill.

The Phuket incineration plant site, located in central urban area of Phuket municipality, covers an area of
approximately 43,000 sq.m. It started the operation in 1998. A moving grate type incinerator (Mitsubishi-
Martin) operating at a combustion temperature of 800-950oC is used here. The main components of the
incinerator consist of waste storage pit, automatic feeding system (pit and crane), combustion unit (auto-
reversing type stoker), ash removal system, gas cooling and cleaning system and heat utilization system.

The pollution control system of this incinerator includes air pollution control system, wastewater
treatment unit, odor and noise control system and ash management system. The flue gas treatment
system is dry type equipped with bag filter. The emission of air pollutants is continuously monitored. The
plant wastewater is pre-treated and sent to Phuket municipality central sewage treatment plant.

                             Process flow diagram of MSW incinerator at Phuket Municipality

Heat generated from the incinerator is utilized for electricity generation. The energy recovery system consists of
steam turbine and generator producing 2,500 kW of electricity. This electricity is sufficient for in-plant use and
the remaining unused electricity can be sold out to the national grid.

The cost of incineration is 54 and 38 million THB per year when operated by private and governmental sector
respectively. The cost includes 22 million THB of materials and equipment and the rest is allocated for
personnel cost. Unit operating cost for waste incineration is therefore ranging from 420 to 590 THB per ton of

 For more details contact:
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                   Waste Separation and Baling Plant of Small Communities in Thailand

  Pakprak municipality in Nakornsithammarat province, Southern Thailand is employing
  waste separation and baling plant for managing their solid waste prior to landfill. The
  main purpose is to minimize the waste disposal in landfill and maximize its landfill
  lifetime by increasing compaction density of solid wastes. The waste separation was
  designed and constructed by Thammasorn Company with a capacity of 30 tons per day.

  The plant operation consists of manual separation of recyclables from incoming solid wastes. Typical
  separated materials include glass, metals, plastics and aluminium cans. The remaining non-separated
  wastes are then loaded into the baling machine after which the waste density is increased to 1000-1200
  kg/m3. The bale is then wrapped with plastic wire and removed from the plant by a fork lift before
  being sent to disposal in the landfill.

For more details contact:
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       Application of Aerated Static Pile Composting System for Market Wastes in Thailand

In Thailand, about 50-60% of solid waste composition is organics. Composting is one of the promising technologies for
managing these wastes. In 2004, source separated waste composting system was developed and demonstrated in fresh
markets of Suphunburi and Chainat municipalities, Thailand. The operation starts from the separation of organic waste
from other waste stream, collection in separated container, composting by aerated static pile system and marketing of
compost product.

Collected organic wastes are processed in block-type composting
unit. The composting system is designed based on static pile process
with a capacity of 1 ton/day. In the composting unit, there are 7
blocks assigned as aerated unit in which aeration is supplied by a
blower and 3 blocks assigned for compost product maturation stage
and storage. The aerated composting period was 28 days with
additional 32 days required for maturation. After the compost
product is obtained, it is filled into 1-2 kg package and distributed to
the potential users mainly the agriculturist in the community.

This self-sustaining composting program is maintained with the
cooperation of various stakeholders in the community, i.e. local
authority, waste producer, compost user and public community.
The operating cost ranged from 1500 to 2500 THB per ton of solid

                            Parameters                  Chainat Suphunburi Standard (*)
                            Moisture %                  21.63   20.17      < 35%.
                            Stones & gravels %
                                                        ND          ND                < 5%
                            Organic matter %
                                                        40.57       39.55             > 30%
                                                        7.7         7.7               5.5-8.5
                            Total N (%)
                                                        1.70        1.63              > 1.0%
                            Total P (as P2O5) %
                                                        0.93        0.89              > 0.5%
                            Total K (as K2O), %
                                                        1.83        1.76              > 0.5%
                            C/N ratio
                                                        13.9        14.1              < 20 : 1
                            EC, dS/m
                                                        1.43        3.67              <6
                            * Compost standard of Ministry of Agriculture & Cooperatives, Thailand (2005)

                                 Table 1 Qualities of compost from market wastes in Thailand

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                Hospital Waste Management in Bangkok Metropolitan, Thailand

Prior to 1988, infectious medical waste in Bangkok was not effectively separated from general wastes, causing
environmental pollution. In Bangkok Metropolitan area, the generation rate of infectious medical waste was 0.3
kg/bed/day in public hospitals and 0.33 kg/bed/day in private hospitals. The management of these medical
wastes was the responsibility of the Department of Public Cleansing, The Bangkok Metropolitan
Administration (BMA) gave a contract to Krungthep Thanakom Co.Ltd. for the management of hospital
wastes. The collection of wastes from the hospitals were done by 15 one-ton refrigerator vehicles and 5 two-ton
refrigerator vehicles once a day. The total number of hospitals and clinics served were 584 with a combined
waste of 4,530 tons in 2002.

    Figure 1 Hospital wastes collected in red bins   Figure 2 Loading of wastes into the incinerator

The collected wastes were disposed in the medical waste incinerator at On-Nuch station. The total capacity of
the incinerator is 20 tons/day. The incinerator is fixed hearth type with two combustion chambers. The exhaust
gas from the incinerator was treated by a wet scrubber. Ash remaining after incineration was collected and
disposed in a sanitary landfill in Bangkok Metropolitan.

           Item                                     Details
Capacity/number of         10 ton/day x 2 systems
Type                       Fixed hearth type; equipped with two burners in the
                           primary and secondary combustion chambers
Combustion                 Primary chamber 800oC min.;
temperature                Secondary chamber 1200oC max.
Necessary personnel        6 worker/shift x 3 shift
Fuel consumption           LPG 450 kg/ton waste
Exhaust gas treatment      Alkali cleaning; spray type caustic soda flake approx.
                           40 kg/month
   Table 1 Outline of medical waste incinerators in Bangkok Metropolitan

      Management of Demolition Wastes Arise from Natural Disaster in Thailand

The Nonthanburi dumpsite with a total area of about 19.4 ha receives more than 800 tons/day of municipal
solid wastes from Nonthaburi province, Thailand. The site has been operating since 1982 and at present the
total accumulated dumped waste is more than 1 million cubic meter. A waste characterization study conducted
in 2005 has found that the dumped wastes contains about 45% of plastic by weight in which majority of them
were plastic bags made of HDPE. The other main component was soil fraction (about 30%). A pilot-project on
plastic waste separation for Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) production was initiated by Asian Institute of
Technology and Kasetsart University, Thailand with the cooperation of the Nonthaburi provincial
administrative organization aiming to separate plastic waste from soil fraction using hand sorting and
mechanical separation (trommel screen) technique. The separated plastic wastes contain high calorific value
(about 8600 kcal/kg) which can be further utilized as supplement fuel in industrial boilers or incinerators. This
recycling activity also helps in saving more than 80% space at the waste disposal site.

     Dumped waste containing high plastic content            Pilot-scale plastic recovery plant

          Trommel screen for plastic separation              Separated plastic for RDF production

           Figure 1 Pilot-scale plastic recovery plant at Nonthaburi dumpsite, Thailand

In Thailand, the most affected areas during the December 2004 Tsunami were Phuket, Phangna and Krabi
provinces. Solid waste arising from this disaster can be classified into three categories; municipal solid waste,
construction/demolition materials, and infectious wastes. For demolition wastes, each province or local
authorities were responsible for managing these wastes with support from the central government. Final
disposal of municipal solid waste was mainly done by landfilling in private land as the available disposal facilities
at each local authority were not sufficient. It was estimated that the debris and construction materials arising
from this disaster were more than 76,250 tons on land and an additional amount of 250 tons were collected
from the sea.

The composition of demolition wastes consist of 1) construction debris (concrete, brick) 2) wood materials 3)
metals 4) mud and sand. Some municipalities hired private sector to dispose the wastes in the private land. In
some other area, the recyclable materials in the wastes were separated and reclaimed by scavengers before
disposal by responsible local authorities. In Phangna province, a private company (Waste Management Siam

Co.Ltd.) helped transporting the wastes to Chonburi province and disposed them in a non-hazardous waste
industrial landfill. About 120 million baht
(1 USD = 40 baht) has been spent on the management of these wastes. Majority of the cost are for
transportation and disposal of debris from construction sites to landfills.

                                   Tsunami Disaster

        Demolition Waste                              Waste Recovered from
         (76,250 tons)                                Sea Shore (252 tons)

                                  (scavengers, junk                    Recycled materials


           Figure 1 Flow diagram of demolition wastes management after Tsunami disaster in Thailand

               Rehabilitation of Dumpsite to Integrated Waste Management

Open dumping is still the predominant solid
waste disposal practice in Thailand. Currently,                    Item              Cost (USD)
about 70% of the total amount of municipal              Civil works:
solid wastes is being disposed in several hundred       Site preparation           2,337,500
of dumpsites spreading all over the country.            Sanitary landfill cells    3,281,500
Since 1992, environmental law was enacted and           Leachate treatment         410,000
forced local authorities to take responsibility of      system
the waste management in their territory. As a           Landfill operation         715,250
part of waste management plan of several local          Other infrastructures      1,105,500
authorities, major dumpsites owned by large             Building works:
municipalities needed to be upgraded to sanitary        Waste separation/recycle 1,030,500
landfill or integrated waste management (IWM)           plant
facilities and served as central waste disposal         Composting/biogas          641,000
center for other smaller local authorities in the       plant
same province.                                          Storage building           253,000
                                                        Other infrastructures      1,828,750
Nonthaburi dumpsite is one of the largest open          Mechanical works
dumpsite in Thailand receiving more than 800            Equipment and              26,311,500
tons of waste daily. The site occupied a total area     instrument
of 19.4 ha serving about 900,000 inhabitants in
Nonthaburi province, west of Bangkok. The               Total                      37,914,500
improvement plan of Nonthaburi dumpsite               Table 1 Nonthaburi dumpsite rehabilitation cost
includes upgrading dumpsite to sanitary landfill
                                                                                Compost plant
and construction of waste recycling and                                      162 tons/day (20.3%)
composting/biogas plants, extending its service
life time to 2019. Total project budget is
estimated to be about 38 million USD.                      MSW               Waste separation plant
                                                        800 tons/day         130 tons/day (16.3%)

                                                                               Sanitary landfill
                                                                             508 tons/day (63.4%)

Figure 1 Site plan of Nonthaburi IWM facilities   Figure 2 Current view of Nonthaburi dumpsite

                  Utilization of Landfill Gas for Electricity GenerationFacilities

The first landfill gas utilization project in Thailand was initiated by Kasetsart University (KU) and Group 79
Co.Ltd. in 1993. The project is located at Kampaengsaen landfill covering an area of
128 ha in Nakornprathom province, west of Bangkok. The landfill is owned and operated by Group 79 Co.Ltd.,
who got a contract from Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA) to dispose about 1 million metric tons
of solid wastes per year from Bangkok city. At the site, about 30 ha of closed landfill area, in which about 1.3
million tons of wastes has been buried, is covered by 0.5 to 1 m of soil. The landfill cell was constructed by
excavating original soil to clay layer at about 3 m depth, placing leachate collection system and filling the wastes
up to about 10 m height. The extraction of landfill gas was done through three 4 inches and six 2 inches well.
Initial testing by utilizing landfill gas in 15 kW engine was conducted continuously for 2.5 years with only short
interruptions for engine service. The power was provided to the landfill operator’s facility to provide lighting
and electrical power inside the landfill.

As a result of the successful test, a 650 kW electric generation plant from landfill gas was constructed. This
project aimed to demonstrate full-scale gas recovery and electric generation facility. Landfill gas is extracted and
sent to power plant located in Kampaengsean campus of Kasetsart University, 1.7 km away from the landfill.

       Component                  Value                                          Item                   Value
Food wastes (%)              30.79                                    LFG composition
Paper (%)                    21.12                                    Methane (%)                  56
Plastic (%)                  17.61                                    Carbon dioxide (%)           44
Rubber (%)                   1.14                                     LFG quantity
Leather (%)                  0.52                                     Specific production rate
Textile (%)                  7.33                                     m3/ton wet weight            56.8
Wood (%)                     3.49                                     m3/ton dry weight            605.8
Glass (%)                    1.40                                     Total production
Metal (%)                    2.83                                     quantity (ton/day)           6500
Construction waste (%)       3.01                                     volume (m3/day)              369,000
Others (%)                   13.14
Table 1 Solid waste composition in                                       Table 2 Landfill gas generated from
       Kampaengsaen landfill                                                     Kampaengsaen landfill


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