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Crown Center for Middle East Studies

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									                       Crown Center for Middle East Studies

  Brandeis University
brandeis.edu/crown
                                              UPDATE                                                                                          Spring 2008


    Letter from the Director
                                                      Economics of Peacemaking
                                T
                                          he most
                                          ambitious   WORKSHOP ON PALESTINIAN INDUSTRIAL PROJECTS
                                          of the
                                 goals I set for
                                 the Crown Cen-
                                 ter at its inaugu-
                                 ration three
                                 years ago was
                                 that we defy the
    common wisdom: namely, that it is impossi-
    ble to conduct balanced and dispassionate
    research on the contemporary Middle East.
    In developing the Center’s research base,
    however, we have done exactly that: as-
    sembled a small group of high-quality re-
    searchers who produce such analysis of this
    tumultuous region.
        With researchers originating in Iran,
    Turkey, Egypt, Israel, and the Palestinian Ter-
    ritories, the Center has managed to focus
    its work on all of these countries and soci-
    eties as well as on Jordan, Saudi Arabia,
    and the smaller Gulf Cooperation Council
    states. The subjects studied have ranged
    from the politics and security of all of the
    region’s states to the inner workings of their
    societies and economies.
        We attach the highest priority to basic re-   Palestinian Prime Minister Salam Fayyad addressing workshop participants
    search. Two books by Center researchers
    will be going to press this year, and a series            n December 28-29, 2007 the
                                                                                       ,              Jenin area)—is to be financed by Ger-
    of peer-reviewed monographs entitled
    Crown Papers is about to be launched. At
    the same time, we attempt to help the opin-
                                                      O       Crown Center, in cosponsor-
                                                              ship with the Economic Coop-
                                                      eration Foundation (ECF), held a
                                                                                                      many. And the third, an industrial park
                                                                                                      to be created in Tarqumia (near He-
                                                                                                      bron) is led by Turkey.
    ion and policy-making communities become          workshop in Herzliya, Israel, on “Sup-              The purpose of the workshop was
    better informed about the Middle East. To         porting Economic Development in                 to get the Israelis and Palestinians
    this end our primary vehicle is the Middle        the Palestinian Authority. The work-
                                                                               ”                      who are relevant to these projects—
    East Brief—a publication that has already         shop was convened to discuss three              as well as their foreign counter-
    received worldwide attention. In less than        major projects designed to spur                 parts—under one roof, in order to
    three years, the Crown Center has pub-            Palestinian economic development in             achieve maximum coordination. The
    lished over 25 Briefs covering a vast range       the West Bank. The first project, the           meeting was extraordinarily well at-
    of topics.                                        “Peace Corridor” agro-business park,            tended. Public and private sector par-
        Equally important is the involvement of       is to be constructed in the Jericho             ticipants included two Palestinian
    the Crown Center’s senior staff in teach-         area and is led by Japan. The infra-            Authority ministers (for Planning and
    ing—exemplified in the course team-taught         structure of the second—an industrial           Economics) and the Directors Gen-
    by myself and two of our Senior Fellows on        park to be erected in Jalameh (in the           eral of two Israeli government min-

                               continued on page 2                                                                           continued on page 3
                                  Feldman continued from page 1                    Economics of Peacemaking continued from page 1

                                  “Conflict and Peacemaking in the
                                                ”
                                  Middle East. This year, we three
                                  are adding to our teaching another
                                  challenge: to use this unique course
                                  as a basis for writing a joint text-
                                  book on the conflict.
                                      In less than three years the
                                  Crown Center has also held four
                                  major international conferences.
                                  (Two are described in some detail in
                                  this publication.) Crown researchers
                                  have also participated in numerous
                                  smaller seminars, symposiums,
                                  workshops, and brainstorming ses-
                                  sions, in locations ranging from the
                                  Berkshires to the Swiss Alps.
                                      We are particularly proud that de-
                                  spite the Center’s understandable
                                  focus on the many political and se-
                                  curity problems and challenges pre-
                                  sented by the Middle East, we have
                                  managed to devote resources to
                                  understanding the region’s evolving
U P DAT E • S P R I N G 2 0 0 8




                                  cultural sphere as well. We began
                                  by cosponsoring a number of fasci-
                                  nating programs focusing on the
                                  underground music scene in Iran.
                                      We also take pride that within a
                                  very short period of time the Crown
                                  Center has cosponsored events
                                  with some of the world’s leading in-
                                  stitutions on Middle East and global
                                  affairs. These include the Rand Cor-
                                                                                   Israeli President Shimon Peres
                                  poration, the Woodrow Wilson Cen-
                                  ter for Scholars, the Geneva Center
2
                                  for Security Policy, Harvard Univer-
                                  sity’s Center for Middle East Stud-
                                  ies, and MIT’s Center for
                                  International Studies.
                                      Three years ago it was hard to
                                  imagine that the Crown Center
                                  would develop so quickly. In the
                                  years to come, we hope to con-
                                  tribute even more to public debate
                                  about the region and to expand our
                                  ability to provide a home to young
                                  scholars eager to apply innovative
                                  approaches to the study of the Mid-
                                  dle East, while maintaining the high
                                  academic standards we have al-
                                  ready set.

                                                                           Prof. Shai Feldman in discussion
                                                                                     with Howard J. Sumka,
                                                                                   Director of USAID for the
                                                                           West Bank/Gaza, and Palestinian
                                                                              Prime Minister Salam Fayyad
                                  Professor Shai Feldman
istries (Agriculture and Finance).            ects that Peres is attempting to
Discussions focused on identify-              advance to help the Palestinian
ing and locating the various obsta-           economy and to spur regional
cles to implementation of these               economic cooperation. Peres will
projects, and on ways of overcom-             present Bush the ‘Peace Corridor’
ing these obstacles.                          project in Jericho and the planned
    An unanticipated highlight was            industrial parks near Jenin and in
the decision by the President of              Tarqumia, as well as the plan to
the State of Israel, Shimon Peres,            connect the Red Sea to the Dead
and the Prime Minister of the                 Sea” (Barak Ravid in Ha’aretz,
Palestinian Authority (PA), Salam             January 8, 2008).
Fayyad, to attend the workshop’s                  The workshop was held in the
closing dinner (which was chaired             framework of the Crown Center’s
by Brandeis University President              project on “Rebuilding the Pales-
Jehuda Reinharz) and to address                                ”
                                              tinian Economy. The project was
its participants. Both during and             initiated, conceived, and funded
after the workshop, President                 through the vision and generosity
Peres and Prime Minister Fayyad               of Guilford Glazer of Los Angeles.
were briefed in considerable detail           Its purpose is to devise ways for
on the workshop discussions. In               ensuring that the Palestinians de-
turn, these updates became part               velop a stake in moving away
of these leaders’ preparations for            from violence and toward greater
President George W. Bush’s Janu-              stability. Its immediate focus is on
ary 2008 visit to Israel and the PA.          steps that should be taken to im-
    As a result of this work,                 prove the Palestinian economy de-
Ha’aretz, Israel’s leading daily, re-         spite the present adverse political




                                                                                                                                              U P DAT E • S P R I N G 2 0 0 8
ported on the eve of the visit:               and security situation. Its longer-
“Bush will land tomorrow after-               term purpose is to suggest ways
noon.... Later, he will hold a work-          in which the Palestinian economy       Brandeis University President Jehuda Reinharz chairing
                                                                                     the closing session of the workshop
ing meeting with President Peres.             can be further improved once the
The meeting will focus on eco-                political and security environment
nomic issues, primarily the proj-             undergoes a positive change.




                                                                                                                                                      3




Brandeis student Anat Ben Nun speaking with
donor representative Elias Buchwald




                                       Shimon Peres in discussion
                                            with Jehuda Reinharz
                                  Profile

                                  Nader Habibi named first Henry J. Leir Chair in the
                                  Economics of the Middle East




                                                                                                  philanthropic endeavors, Leir devoted himself to strength-
                                                                                                  ening the global economy and wrote a 1937 novel that ad-
                                                                                                  vanced the idea that economic factors greatly influence
                                                                                                  the security of individuals and countries.
                                                                                                      Habibi, a native of Iran, most recently served as manag-
                                                                                                  ing director at Global Insight, where he headed the inter-
                                                                                                  national forecasting firm’s Middle East and North Africa
                                                                                                  Division in the Country Intelligence Group. His responsibil-
                                                                                                  ities included political and economic analyses and risk vis-
                                                                                                  à-vis oil-exporting countries in the Persian Gulf region. He
U P DAT E • S P R I N G 2 0 0 8




                                                                                                  also supervised the macroeconomic forecasting activities
                                                                                                  for the division.
                                                                                                      Habibi spent two years at Yale University, where he
                                                                                                  was a visiting scholar in the Department of Economics, a
                                                                                                  research fellow at the Council on Middle East Studies, and
                                                                                                  the Rice Family Fellow at the Center for International and
                                                                                                  Area Studies.




4




                                  N
                                            ader Habibi, a respected Middle East economist
                                            who has taught at universities in Iran, Turkey, and
                                            the United States and served as a regional econo-
                                  mist at a major international forecasting company, was ap-
                                  pointed the first Henry J. Leir Chair in the Economics of
                                  the Middle East at Brandeis University.
                                                             ,
                                      Effective July 1, 2007 Habibi joined the Department of
                                  Economics faculty and became part of Brandeis’s Crown
                                  Center for Middle East Studies. He teaches students, con-
                                  ducts research, and represents the Crown Center at con-            Habibi has vast international teaching experience. He
                                  ferences.                                                       was an assistant professor of economics at Bilkent Univer-
                                      “We are pleased to welcome Professor Habibi to Bran-        sity in Turkey; served as chair of the Department of Eco-
                                  deis and the Crown Center for Middle East Studies, said ”       nomics at the Institute for Research in Planning and
                                  Shai Feldman, the Judith and Sidney Swartz Director of          Development in Tehran; was vice president for research at
                                  the Crown Center. “He has broad knowledge and under-            the Iran Banking Institute; and was a member of the eco-
                                  standing of the economics of the countries in the Middle        nomics faculty at Bu Ali Sina University in Hamadan, Iran.
                                  East. His blend of private sector expertise and teaching           Habibi earned his bachelor’s degree in computer sci-
                                  experience will be a great asset to the Crown Center.     ”     ence and economics from Ball State University in 1982.
                                      The Leir Chair was established in 2006 by the Leir Char-    He received his master’s (system science and operations
                                  itable Foundations, which were created in 1963 by indus-        research, 1984) and doctorate (economics, 1987) from
                                  trialist Henry J. Leir and his wife, Erna. In addition to his   Michigan State University.
New Home

         n September 4, 2007 the Crown Center celebrated
                                ,                                           The move—the Center’s second in less than three

O        its move to the top floor of the recently renovated
         Heller-Brown building by hosting an open house at-
tended by Brandeis students, faculty, and staff.
                                                                         years—doubled the number of offices available to its re-
                                                                         searchers and administrative staff, reflecting both the Cen-
                                                                         ter’s rapid growth and the university’s support of its work.
   Addressing the celebration, Provost Marty Krauss noted                   Beyond the additional office space, the move provides
the university’s commitment to the Center’s success. Hav-                the Crown Center access to the excellent facilities of the
ing played a critical role in facilitating the Crown Center’s            Heller School building: a cafeteria, conference rooms, and,
move to its new space and herself a Heller School faculty                most important, the Rhonda S. and Michael J. Zinner
member, Krauss emphasized her delight at the potential                   Forum, an outstanding venue which the Crown Center inau-
synergy between the Crown Center and various research                    gurated with its two-day conference on “The Middle East
activities of the adjoining Heller School, particularly those re-        Today: New Perspectives on a Changing Landscape, held ”
lated to health economics in the Middle East.                                                    .
                                                                         on October 20-21, 2007 (See story on p. 6.)




                                                                                                                                               U P DAT E • S P R I N G 2 0 0 8
    Brandeis University Provost Marty Krauss inaugurating the Center’s
    new home
                                                                                Prof. Kanan Makiya speaking with a student                             5




                                                                                                              Crown Center conference in the
                                                                                                              Zinner Forum




                             Prof. Asher Susser
                    speaking at the Open House
                                  The Middle East Today




                                  Dr. Abdel Monem Said Aly, Prof. Roger Owen, and Prof. Asher Susser


                                           n October 20-21, 2007 the Crown
                                                                 ,                          Abdel Monem Said Aly, Senior Fellow at the

                                  O
U P DAT E • S P R I N G 2 0 0 8




                                           Center held an international confer-             Crown Center and Director of the Al-Ahram
                                           ence on “The Middle East Today: New              Center for Political and Strategic Studies in
                                  Perspectives on a Changing Landscape. The”                Cairo, assessed the regional ramifications of
                                  conference addressed some of the most im-                 the war in Iraq.
                                  portant flashpoints in the region and identi-                Prof. Stacy Philbrick Yadav of the Hobart
                                  fied the motivations propelling the principal             and Smith Colleges and Prof. Marc Lynch of
                                  players involved.                                         George Washington University then ad-
                                     The first session provided a general por-              dressed the question: What do Islamists
                                  trait of the Middle East today, with particular           want? Prof. Yadav elaborated on her conclu-
                                  emphasis on the regional ramifications of the             sions from the extensive field research she
                                  Iraq war. Prof. Asher Susser, Senior Fellow on            has conducted in Lebanon and Yemen. Prof.
6                                 the Myra and Robert Kraft Chair in Arab Poli-             Lynch did the same with respect to his re-
                                  tics at the Crown Center and former Director              cent trips to Egypt, launching a debate as to
                                  of the Moshe Dayan Center for Middle East-                whether the Muslim Brothers in that country
                                  ern and African Studies at Tel Aviv University,           are becoming more pragmatic.
                                  emphasized the current weakness of the                       The third session addressed the challenge
                                  Arab states and of Arab state institutions. Dr.           of understanding Iran—one of the most im-

                                                                                                                                            Prof. Marc Lynch




                                  Dr. Khalil Shikaki
                                                                                             Prof. Stacy Philbrick Yadav
                                                                                         Prof. Farideh Farhi
 Prof. Itamar Rabinovich and Prof. Joshua Landis


                                                                                                spoke on the incentives and constraints
                                                                                                that explain the behavior of the GCC
                                                                                                states; Dr. Habibi discussed the grow-




                                                                                                                                             U P DAT E • S P R I N G 2 0 0 8
                                                                                                ing economic capacity of these states.
                                                                                                    Dr. Khalil Shikaki, Senior Fellow at
                                                                                                the Crown Center and Director of the
                                                                                                Palestinian Center for Policy and Survey
                                                                                                Research in Ramallah, and Dr. Yehuda
                                                                                                Ben-Meir, Senior Research Associate at
                                                                                                the Institute for National Security Stud-
                                                                                                ies in Tel Aviv, addressed the current
                                                                                                prospects for Palestinian-Israeli accom-
                                                                                                modation. Both emphasized the domes-
                                                                                                tic obstacles facing attempts to resolve
                                                                                                the conflict, focusing on public opinion             7
                                                                                                in Israel and among Palestinians.
                                                                                                    The final session of the conference
Crown Center benefactor Lester Crown (center) in conversation with senior fellows               addressed the prospects for renewing
Dr. Khalil Shikaki and Dr. Abdel Monem Said Aly
                                                                                                Israeli-Syrian negotiations. Prof. Joshua
                                                                                                Landis of the University of Oklahoma
                                                    portant players in today’s Middle           shared with participants his conclusions
                                                    East. Dr. Naghmeh Sohrabi, Assistant        from his recent discussions in Syria as
                                                    Director for Research at the Crown          well as with Syrian diplomats in the
                                                    Center, and Prof. Farideh Farhi of the      United States. Prof. Itamar Rabinovich,
                                                    University of Hawaii attempted to de-       former President of Tel Aviv University
                                                    cipher Iran. While Dr. Sohrabi focused      and former head of the Israeli delega-
                                                    on the implications of Iran’s domestic      tion to the Israeli-Syrian talks, examined
                                                    scene, Prof. Farhi analyzed Iran’s se-      the history of such negotiations and
                                                    curity concept: its threat perceptions      shared the lessons that should be
                                                    and resulting defense policy.               learned from them.
                                                       The Gulf Cooperation Council was             The October conference was at-
                                                    the subject of the fourth session,          tended by Mr. Lester Crown, whose
                                                    which featured Dr. Jon Alterman of          generous contribution enabled the cre-
                                                    the Center for Strategic and Interna-       ation of the Crown Center and whose
                                                    tional Studies in Washington and Dr.        continuous support is the key to its suc-
                                                    Nader Habibi, Henry J. Leir Chair in        cess. The conference was held thanks
                                                    the Economics of the Middle East at         to a generous gift provided by Jacque-
                                                    the Crown Center. Dr. Alterman              line and Martin Green of London.
Dr. Jon Alterman
                                  Crown Rocks!

                                  to the tunes of Iran’s underground music
U P DAT E • S P R I N G 2 0 0 8




                                  Kiosk playing at Johnny D’s in Somerville, Massachusetts


                                                                                          n 2007 the Crown Center for
                                                                                                ,                                in Iran. The sold-out screening, which

                                                                                      I   Middle East Studies and Harvard
                                                                                          University’s Center for Middle
                                                                                      Eastern Studies cohosted a series of
                                                                                                                                 was attended by Brandeis and Harvard
                                                                                                                                 students as well as members of the
                                                                                                                                 community, became the launching pad
                                                                                      three events on the Iranian under-         for a November panel discussion and a
                                                                                      ground music scene. In March, the two      concert featuring the band Kiosk.
8                                                                                     centers hosted a screening of the doc-         Kiosk is a Persian blues/rock/jazz
                                                                                      umentary film Sounds of Silence, di-       band established by a group of friends
                                                                                      rected by Amir Hamz and Mark Lazarz.       some years ago in basements in Isfa-
                                                                                      Through interviews with various under-     han and Tehran. The band’s first album,
                                                                                      ground musicians, music producers,         Adame Mamooli (Ordinary Person),
                                                                                      and journalists, the film presents a nu-   grew out of the band’s jam sessions
                                                                                      anced view of the complexity of the        and was lauded as one of the first suc-
                                                                                      burgeoning underground music scene         cessful underground albums to emerge
                                                                                          Naghmeh Sohrabi. The panel focused on the
                                                                                          meaning and significance of the under-
                                                                                          ground music scene in Iran, and the obsta-
                                                                                          cles and red lines that interfere with creating
                                                                                          music and art both there and in the diaspora.
                                                                                             The next night, on November 3, Kiosk per-
                                                                                          formed to a crowd of over 200 people at
                                                                                          Johnny D’s in Somerville, Massachusetts. In
                                                                                          their first ever East Coast performance, the
                                                                                          band rocked the intimate setting of Johnny
                                                                                          D’s with songs from both their albums.
                                                                                             Through the film screening, the panel dis-
                                                                                          cussion, and the rock concert, members of
                                                                                          the Brandeis and Harvard communities were
                                                                                          exposed to one of the lesser-known aspects
                                                                                          of Iranian society and culture today.
Film directors Mark Lazarz and Amir Hamz




                                                                                                                                            U P DAT E • S P R I N G 2 0 0 8
                                                   from Iran. It served as an alter-
                                                   native not only to Iranian
                                                    state-sanctioned music but to
                                                    the regnant “6/8” beat that
                                                     has dominated the Iranian
                                                     pop music scene, both in-
                                                      side Iran and among the
                                                      Iranian diaspora.
                                                          Over the past several
                                                       years, all of the original
                                                        band members, including
                                                        the lyricist and lead singer,
                                                                                                                                                    9
                                                        Arash Sobhani, left Iran for
                                           North America, and their second
                                           album, Esgh-e Sorat or Love of
                                           Speed, which was released in May
                                                 ,
                                           2007 was conceived of and                    Sounds of Silence
                                           recorded in the United States.
                                               What distinguishes Kiosk is both
                                           their biting lyrics—sometimes tak-
                                           ing the form of social commentary,
                                           as in the song “My Bad” on their
                                           first album—and a musical style
                                           that is new to Iranian pop music, as
                                           exemplified in the popular song and
                                           music video “Love of Speed”
                                           (which has exceeded a quarter of a
                                           million hits on You Tube), from their
                                           second album.
                                               On November 2, lead singer
Dr. Naghmeh Sohrabi, Arash Sobhani,        Arash Sobhani, along with Babak
and Babak Khiavchi                         Khiavchi, Kiosk band member and
                                           underground music producer, took
                                           part in a panel discussion moder-
                                           ated by the Crown Center’s Dr.
                                  Brandeis in the Berkshires




                                                                                                                      Program sponsor Harold Grinspoon speaking with Prof. Shai Feldman
                                                                                                                      and Dr. Abdel Monem Said Aly

                                                             ,
                                            n July 7-11, 2007 the Crown            This portion of the program was led by Lord

                                  O         Center held two programs for
                                            the Berkshires community in
                                  the framework of Brandeis University’s
                                                                                   John Alderdice, a trained psychiatrist and a
                                                                                   former political leader in Northern Ireland,
                                                                                   who played an important role in the Irish
U P DAT E • S P R I N G 2 0 0 8




                                  Brandeis in the Berkshires program.              peace process.
                                  The first was a weekend public sympo-               The symposium was followed by a more
                                  sium entitled “Middle East Briefing: An          exclusive three-day Institute devoted to the
                                                   ”
                                  Insider’s View. The symposium sur-               issue of “International Law and Disorder in
                                  veyed a number of different flashpoints                            ”
                                                                                   the Middle East. The intense discussions
                                  in the Middle East, analyzing their dy-          were moderated by Dr. Daniel Terris, Director
                                  namics and addressing their implica-             of Brandeis University’s International Center
                                  tions for U.S. policy in the region.             for Ethics, Justice and Public Life. The princi-
                                  Featured speakers included Dr. Ken-              pal intellectual resource for the Institute was
                                  neth Pollack of the Saban Center for             Cherif Bassiouni, Distinguished Research
                                  Middle East Policy at the Brookings In-          Professor of Law at DePaul University Col-
10                                stitution and Samuel Lewis, former               lege of Law in Chicago and President of the
                                  U.S. Ambassador to Israel and former             International Institute of Higher Studies in
                                  director of the State Department’s Pol-          Criminal Sciences in Siracusa, Italy.
                                  icy Planning Bureau.                                Brandeis in the Berkshires programs are
                                      There was a special focus on ascer-          the product of the visionary Harold Grin-
                                  taining what lessons could be drawn              spoon of Springfield, Massachusetts, and are
                                  from a different, and successful, peace          held thanks to the generous financial support
                                  process—that which resolved the con-             of the Harold Grinspoon Foundation.
                                  flict in Ireland—and applying them to
                                  efforts to end the Arab-Israeli dispute.




                                                                                                                                          Prof. M. Cherif Bassiouni




                                                                                     Amb. Samuel Lewis

                                  Dr. Kenneth Pollack (right) in discussion with
                                  Dr. Abdel Monem Said Aly and Dr. Nader Habibi                                  Lord John Alderdice
Q&A with Senior Fellow Mohammed Samhouri

                          tudents enrolled       shows that there is little that can be       in 2006 from a variety of sources (Arab

                    S    in last year’s
                         “The Economics
                    of the Middle East”
                                                 done under continued conflict condi-
                                                 tions. The Palestinian economy is very
                                                 small ($5 billion annual gross domestic
                                                                                              and international), direct and indirect, of-
                                                                                              ficial and unofficial, has prevented an all-
                                                                                              out collapse of the Palestinian economy.
                    (ECON 122B) got a            product), so it will not take much to re-
                    unique perspective on        build it under the right conditions. Long-   Q: What is the key to rebuilding the
                    the Palestinian econ-        term prosperity and survival of the          Palestinian economy?
                    omy from Mo-                 Palestinian economy, however, largely
                                                                                              A: Political stability is a key factor. One
                    hammed Samhouri, a           depends on having adequate physical
                                                                                              cannot emphasize this point enough.
                    Senior Research Fel-         resources, making use of the Palestin-
                                                                                              Once this is achieved as a result of a re-
                    low at the Crown             ian human capital, and commercially
                                                                                              sumption of serious attempts to reach a
                    Center. Samhouri             linking up with the rest of the world.
                                                                                              peaceful end to the conflict, other key
                    brings to the class-         Reaching a comprehensive peaceful
                                                                                              factors will follow. Only in the context of
                    room a viewpoint             settlement will greatly facilitate the de-
                                                                                              a stable, predictable, and secure envi-
                    forged through his           sign and the implementation of an eco-
                                                                                              ronment can economic activities led by
                    twin experiences as a        nomic strategy to realize such a
                                                                                              the domestic private sector and as-
veteran practitioner and widely published        potential.
                                                                                              sisted by foreign aid flows help recover
scholar. He served for 10 years as a sen-
                                                                                              the Palestinian economy from its cur-
ior economic adviser to the Palestinian          Q: What happens if there is no
                                                                                              rent recession and build the foundations
Authority and has held a variety of aca-         solution soon?
                                                                                              for long-term, outward-oriented growth.




                                                                                                                                             U P DAT E • S P R I N G 2 0 0 8
demic positions at Palestinian universi-
                                                 A: The Palestinian economy has already
ties in Gaza. During a recent interview,
                                                 reached rock-bottom due to continued         Q: What would a fully functioning
Samhouri discussed the central role the
                                                 conflict conditions and a highly re-         Palestinian economy look like?
Palestinian economy plays in the search
                                                 stricted operational environment. Since
for lasting peace in the Middle East.                                                         A: Future strategies for sustained
                                                 the fall of 2000, the Palestinian econ-
                                                                                              growth in Palestine should take full ad-
                                                 omy has been in deep recession and
Q: Can there be a long-term solution                                                          vantage of the economy’s hidden and
                                                 was not able to provide adequate in-
to regional hostilities without ad-                                                           so far largely underutilized strengths: its
                                                 come or meaningful jobs for its rapidly
dressing the economic concerns of                                                             unique location, its human capital, and
                                                 growing population. The net result was
Palestinians?                                                                                 its rich diaspora. The future of the Pales-
                                                 higher rates of poverty and unemploy-
                                                                                              tinian economy largely lies in three
A: It is hard to see how. Since the begin-       ment despite the doubling of foreign aid
                                                                                              areas: trade, tourism, and technology. In
ning of the peace process in the early           to the Palestinian areas to the tune of                                                     11
                                                                                              the future, I envision a service-oriented,
1990s, there was a shared view among             $1 billion a year between 2001 and
                                                                                              knowledge-based Palestinian economy
all the parties involved in the process          2005. The present situation is unsustain-
that a viable Palestinian economy is indis-      able, and urgent measures based on dif-
pensable for securing a lasting peace be-        ferent policies are needed.
tween Israel and the Palestinians. The
international community acted gener-             Q: What is the economic situation
ously to provide the needed financial re-        like now?
sources to help make this happen.
                                                 A: Recent reporting (March 2007) by
Unfortunately, lack of progress on the po-
                                                 both the World Bank and the Interna-
litical front resulted, among other things,
                                                 tional Monetary Fund gives a bleak as-
in a continued state of instability and un-
                                                 sessment of the economic situation in
certainty, both of which are detrimental
                                                 the West Bank and Gaza. In 2006, as a
to private investment. Conflict conditions
                                                 result of the adverse Western and Is-
also led to the relative ineffectiveness of
                                                 raeli measures following the unex-
foreign aid in reconstructing and develop-
                                                 pected change in the Palestinian
ing the Palestinian economy.
                                                 political landscape, Palestinian eco-
                                                 nomic conditions rapidly deteriorated.
Q: How quickly can the Palestinian
                                                 An already bad situation, if you will, was   fully integrated with the global econ-
economy be rebuilt?
                                                 made considerably worse. Available fig-      omy. To get from where we are now to
A: First, the political requirements for re-     ures for 2006 show a 10% decline in          where we could, and should, be, how-
construction should be all in place. With-       domestic output, with a commensurate         ever, requires peace, vision, and com-
out political stability, it is not possible to   drop in per capita income and a rise in      mitted leadership on both sides of the
rebuild the Palestinian economy. The ex-         unemployment and poverty rates. A            conflict. Give me those, and I guarantee
perience of the past decade vividly              higher than expected financial aid flow      you a different future.
                                  Featured Events

                                  Crown Forum New York
                                          he Crown Forum

                                  T       New York is a series
                                          of off-the-record
                                  briefings held at Brandeis
                                  House New York with Mid-
                                  dle East scholars and insid-
                                  ers regarding regional
                                  developments. The Forum
                                  is designed to enrich the                                                                 Arthur Hoffman of the Leir Charitable
                                                                                                                            Foundations and Elias Buchwald
                                  community’s understand-
                                  ing of the Middle East. The
                                  talks are typically followed
                                                                      Rachell Gober, Prof. Shai Feldman, and Carol Becker
                                  by a lively dinner discus-
                                  sion for a select group of
                                  attendees. This program is
                                  made possible thanks to
                                  the generosity of Carol
U P DAT E • S P R I N G 2 0 0 8




                                  Becker of New York.




                                                                                                                                 Larry Greenwald and Karen Adler


                                                                 Margot Gibis of the Leir Charitable Foundations and
                                                                 Rachell Gober



12                                                                                                    War in Iraq: Regional Ramifications
                                                                                                                                                                    n November

                                                                                                                                                             O      11-12, 2006,
                                                                                                                                                                    the Crown
                                                                                                                                                            Center held a joint
                                                                                                                                                            conference with
                                                                                                                                                            the Center for In-
                                                                                                                                                            ternational Studies
                                                                                                                                                            at Massachusetts
                                                                                                                                                            Institute of Technol-
                                                                                                                                                            ogy and the Middle
                                                                                                                                                            Eastern and Is-
                                                                                                                                                            lamic Studies Pro-
                                                                                                                                                            gram at Boston
                                                                                                                                                            College.
                                                                                                                                                               The conference
                                                                                                                                                            explored the politi-
                                                                                                                                                            cal and strategic
                                                                                                                                                ramifications of the war in Iraq
                                                                                                                                                for the region and brought to-
                                                                                                                                                gether top thinkers and schol-
                                                                                                                                                ars from both the United
                                                                                                                                                States and the Middle East.
                                  Spotlight on the Middle East
                                                              n overflow crowd of

                                                      A       Brandeis students, fac-
                                                              ulty, and alumni packed
                                                      Rapaporte Treasure Hall on
                                                                           ,
                                                      September 6, 2007 to hear
                                                      Crown Center scholars discuss
                                                      challenges that the Middle
                                                      East region will pose to the
                                                      next U.S. president.
                                                        Abdel Monem Said Aly,
                                                      Senior Fellow, presented “Ten
                                                           Commandments” for a
                                                           new president who
                                                           wants to improve on the      Dr. Naghmeh Sohrabi
                                                           record of the Bush admin-
                                                           istration—including his      policy toward Iran that would deprive
                                                           advice that the next chief   the economically failing regime of the




                                                                                                                                      U P DAT E • S P R I N G 2 0 0 8
                                                           executive not throw out      ability to justify itself on national secu-
                                                           all of Bush’s policies.      rity grounds.
                                                               Dr. Naghmeh Sohrabi,         And Shai Feldman warned that no
                                                           the Center’s Assistant Di-   president will be able to enlist the help
                                                           rector for Research, ar-     of governments in the Middle East if
                                                           gued that the next           those governments feel threatened by
                                                           president should adopt a     U.S. policy in the region.




The Gstaad Dialogue                                                                                                                   13
                     ,
     n late June 2007 the

I    Crown Center teamed up
     with the Rand Corporation,
the Geneva Center for Secu-
rity Policy (GCSP), and the
Gulf Security Center in Dubai
to hold a two-day brainstorm-
ing session on the Middle
East. This was the second
time that the Crown Center                                                                     Prof. Charles Tripp, SOAS,
cosponsored the dialogue ini-                                                                  University of London
tiated a number of years ear-
                       .
lier by Rand and GCSP The
session took place in the
beautiful setting of Gstaad, in
the Swiss Alps.
    The subjects discussed in-
cluded the evolving political
and security situation in Iraq,
facing the challenge of Iran,
and the prospects for Palestin-
ian-Israeli talks.
                                   Gstaad dialogue participants
                                  Sixty Years to Partition




                                  Prof. Itzhak Galnoor and Prof. Colin Shindler
U P DAT E • S P R I N G 2 0 0 8




                                          n December 1-2, 2007 the,               stock of international experience

                                  O       Crown Center, in cospon-
                                          sorship with Brandeis
                                  University’s Schusterman Center
                                                                                  in implementing partitions as a
                                                                                  way of resolving multi-ethnic,
                                                                                  multi-national internal conflicts.
                                  for Israel Studies, held an interna-            The possible impact on the future
                                  tional symposium entitled “One                  of Jewish-Arab relations within Is-
                                  Land, Two Peoples: Sixty Years                  rael of implementing a two-state
                                  since the 1947 UN Partition Plan                solution to the Palestinian-Israeli
                                  for Palestine.”                                 conflict was then explored. Finally,
                                     The conference addressed the                 the conference addressed itself to
14                                internal debates within the Zionist             the continued relevance of the
                                  movement and among Palestini-                   issue by asking: Can partition still
                                  ans regarding Great Britain’s 1937              be implemented in the Israeli-
                                  Peel Commission and the 1947                    Palestinian context?
                                                                                                                               Prof. Muhammad Muslih and Prof. Yousef Jabareen
                                  UN Resolution 181 on the parti-                     Prof. Colin Shindler of the
                                  tion of Palestine. It then took                 School of Oriental and African




                                                                                                                  Prof. Chaim Kaufmann and Prof. Mari Fitzduff
                                  Prof. Shlomo Avineri
Studies (SOAS) in London and Prof. Itzhak Galnoor of the He-
brew University of Jerusalem addressed the debate about
partition within the Zionist ranks. Both noted that the issue
divided the movement not only between the social demo-
cratic pragmatists, headed by David Ben Gurion, who favored
partition, and the Revisionists, headed by Ze’ev Jabotinsky,
who opposed it, but also within the Labor movement itself,
where Ben Gurion’s view was rejected by some of his clos-
est associates—including his mentor, Berl Katznelson.
    Prof. Yousef Jabareen of the University of Haifa and Prof.
Muhammad Muslih of Long Island University addressed
themselves to the Arab narrative about partition. The two
speakers elaborated the political, historical, and legal grounds
on which the Arab side rejected the various proposals for par-
titioning Palestine. Prof. Muslih stressed that internal debate
on this issue among Palestinians was limited: There was a
broad consensus that given the population ratios between
Jews and Arabs in Palestine in the late 1930s and late 1940s,
proposals to establish a Jewish state by partitioning the land       Prof. As’ad Ghanem
were unjust and must be rejected.




                                                                                                                                     U P DAT E • S P R I N G 2 0 0 8
    Prof. Mari Fitzduff of Brandeis University and Prof. Chaim       Susser, Senior Fellow on the Myra and Robert Kraft Chair
Kaufmann of Lehigh University exposed several dimensions             in Arab Politics and former Director of the Moshe Dayan
of the international experience with partition as a way of re-       Center for Middle Eastern and African Studies at Tel Aviv
solving internal conflicts. Prof. Fitzduff, Director of Brandeis’s   University. The focus of their discussion was the contro-
Coexistence and Conflict program, recounted how this issue           versial report entitled “The Future Vision of the Palestinian
played out in the evolution of the Irish conflict and, ultimately,                   ”
                                                                     Arabs in Israel, published by the National Committee for
in the efforts to resolve it. Prof. Kaufmann, by contrast, took      the Heads of the Arab Local Authorities in Israel. Profes-
a multiple-case approach by surveying various efforts to re-         sors Ghanem and Susser debated whether the report
solve internal conflicts through partition. He emphasized that       should be seen as attempting to improve the relative posi-
the precise manner in which partition is implemented acts as         tion and status of Arabs in Israel or as undermining the le-
an important determinant of its success or failure.                  gitimacy of the Jewish state.
    The impact of a possible partitioning of Palestine on the            The final session of the conference was led by Prof.
                                                                                                                                     15
future of Jewish-Arab relations within Israel was addressed          Shlomo Avineri of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem
by Prof. As’ad Ghanem of Haifa University and Prof. Asher            and Dr. Khalil Shikaki, a Senior Fellow at the Crown Center
                                                                     and Director of the Palestinian Center for Policy and Sur-
                                                                     vey Research in Ramallah. Prof. Avineri and Dr. Shikaki
                                                                     provided an Israeli and a Palestinian perspective, respec-
                                                                     tively, on the continued relevance of partition as a way of
                                                                     resolving the Palestinian-Israeli conflict. While Avineri em-
                                                                     phasized both the negative consequences of avoiding par-
                                                                     tition and the obstacles to its implementation, Shikaki
                                                                     focused on the conditions that must be met in order for
                                                                     partition to be a viable solution to the conflict.




Dr. Martin Kramer, Miriam Susser, Prof. Asher Susser, and
Prof. Kenneth Stein
                                  Profile

                                  Naghmeh Sohrabi named Assistant Director for Research
U P DAT E • S P R I N G 2 0 0 8




                                                                             Dr. Sohrabi wrote numerous articles

                                  D
                                            r. Naghmeh Sohrabi is the As-
16                                          sistant Director for Research    for the popular online magazine
                                            at the Crown Center. She was     Iranian.com on topics as varied as the
                                  a postdoctoral fellow at the Crown         2001 book fair and real estate agents
                                  Center from 2005 to 2007 having re-
                                                               ,             in Tehran, and she coauthored a piece
                                  ceived her Ph.D. in History and Mid-       on the 2002 presidential elections for
                                  dle East Studies from Harvard                      .
                                                                             MERIP As a CAORC fellow, Dr.
                                  University in 2005. Her dissertation,      Sohrabi traveled to India in 2007 to re-
                                  entitled “Signs Taken for Wonder:          search her latest project: a biography
                                  Nineteenth Century Persian Travel Lit-     of Iran’s foreign minister and ambas-
                                  erature to Europe, examined the role
                                                       ”                     sador to England in the early nine-
                                  played by Persian accounts of travel to    teenth century.
                                  Europe in articulating the sources of          Dr. Sohrabi has also taught exten-
                                  reform and modernization in Qajar          sively, both during her time at Harvard
                                  Iran (1796-1925).                          University—where she received a cer-
                                     Dr. Sohrabi has lived extensively in    tificate in distinction in teaching in
                                  the region. In 1996, she received a        2004—and as a visiting lecturer at
                                  one-year fellowship from the Center        Skidmore College, where she taught a
                                  for Arabic Studies Abroad (CASA) to        variety of courses, from a survey of
                                  study Arabic in Cairo, a city that cap-    modern Middle East history to a his-
                                  tured her heart. From 2000 to 2002         tory of modern Iran.
                                  she conducted fieldwork in Iran; her           In her new role at the Crown Cen-
                                  arrival in Tehran coincided with the re-   ter, Dr. Sohrabi is involved in setting
                                  formist presidency of Mohammad             the research agenda of the Center, in-
                                  Khatami and a period of change and         cluding overseeing the publication of
                                  optimism in Iran. During this period,      Middle East Briefs and Crown Papers.
Courses From the Crown Center, 2007-2008

                                              racy in the Middle East and North           Palestinian national movement and ex-
                                              Africa.                                     amines its conflict with the Zionist
                                              “Political Islam: Introduction to Is-       movement; the war of 1948 and its con-
                                              lamist Social Movements in the Mid-         sequences; Jordanian rule of the West
                                              dle East” (POL 136A), Dr. Banu Eligür.      Bank until 1967 and the subsequent
                                              This course provides an introduction to     competition and clash between Jordan
                                              Islamist social movements. The course
                                              has three primary goals: It introduces
                                              students to the main concepts in politi-
Dr. Nader Habibi
                                              cal Islamist thought, contemporary po-
                                              litical Islam, and their relationship to
“The Economics of the Middle East”            democracy; it examines major theoreti-
(ECON 122B), Dr. Nader Habibi, Henry          cal approaches of social movement lit-
J. Leir Chair in Economics of the Mid-        erature; and, it analyzes cases of
dle East. The course presents students        Islamist mobilization in the Middle East
with an overview of the current eco-          and North Africa within the framework
nomic conditions in the region and fa-        of social movement theory.
miliarizes them with methods of
regional economic analysis by drawing                                                     Prof. Asher Susser
on theories, policy formulations, and




                                                                                                                                      U P DAT E • S P R I N G 2 0 0 8
empirical studies of economic growth,                                                     and the PLO for control over the destiny
trade, poverty, income distribution,                                                      of the Palestinians; and the impact this
labor markets, finance and banking,                                                       had on the evolution of the Palestinian-
structural reforms, globalization, and in-                                                Israeli conflict.
ternational oil markets. Students com-                                                    “Representations of the City: in Liter-
pare the Middle East with other regions                                                   ature, Art, and Architecture” (NEJS
and learn about cultural, social, and po-                                                 161B), Prof. Kanan Makiya, Sylvia K.
litical factors that have affected its eco-                                               Hassenfeld Professor of Islamic and
nomic performance after World War II.         Dr. Banu Eligür
                                                                                          Middle Eastern Studies.
“Conflict and Peacemaking in the              “Contemporary Politics in the Mid-          The city is an artifact housing a commu-
Middle East” (POL 164A), team-                dle East” (POL 133A), Prof. Asher           nity of anonymous persons, one that
taught by Professor Feldman and               Susser, Senior Fellow on the Myra and       has carried great creative and destruc-     17
Senior Fellows Dr. Khalil Shikaki and         Robert Kraft Chair in Arab Politics. The    tive potential across the ages. Works of
Dr. Abdel Monem Said Aly. Through             course discusses the formation of the       the imagination—in literature, theology,
Israeli, Arab, and Palestinian prisms,        modern Middle East against the back-        and architecture—expose unquantifiable
students learn about key developments         ground of the Western impact on the         dimensions of that potential. This
in the evolution of the Arab-Israeli          region, and the subsequent creation of      course examines ten works related to
conflict and the efforts to resolve it,       the Middle East state system. Topics        six cities of the Middle East with a view
with particular emphasis on the               analyzed include the rise and decline of    to what the Middle Eastern city has
Palestinian-Israeli dimension.                Arab nationalism; religion, minorities,     been in the past, is today, and can be-
“Civil Society in the Middle East”            and the state; the evolution of the Arab-   come in the future.
(NEJS 194B), Dr. Banu Eligür, Research        Israeli conflict; population growth and     “Describing Cruelty” (NEJS 190A),
Fellow at the Crown Center and the            economic stagnation; territorial identity   Prof. Kanan Makiya. This seminar con-
Madeleine Haas Russell Visiting Assis-        and Islamic resurgence; the weakening       siders different ways of thinking about
tant Professor in Islamic and Middle          of the Arab state order and the ascen-      and describing the phenomenon of po-
Eastern Studies, 2007-2008. This              dance of non-Arab powers (Iran, Turkey,     litical cruelty. The focus is on physical
course focuses on the extent to which         and Israel).                                cruelty, drawn largely from the Middle
civil society in the Middle East is com-      “Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians:      East. Students examine a broad range
parable to its Western counterparts and       Between War and Peace” (POL 135B),          of works that engage with political cru-
whether it can trigger democratization        Prof. Asher Susser. The course dis-         elty: human rights reports, theoretical
in the region, with three primary goals:      cusses the interrelationship between        works, literary texts, films, paintings,
It introduces students to the concept of      Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinian na-     monuments and memorials. The em-
civil society and its relation to democ-      tional movement from the Balfour Dec-       phasis is on understanding the nature of
racy; it examines civil society in the        laration and the establishment of the       cruelty, thinking about how to describe
Middle Eastern context; and, it ana-          British Mandate over Palestine until the    it, and examining one’s purpose for ex-
lyzes cases of civil society and democ-       present. It traces the emergence of the     ploring these issues in the first place.
                                  Textbook Project
U P DAT E • S P R I N G 2 0 0 8




                                  Textbook authors and research assistants



                                         rown Center director Shai Feldman and       provide a joint Israeli-Palestinian-Arab analy-

                                  C      Senior Fellows Khalil Shikaki and Abdel
                                         Monem Said Aly have recently launched
                                  an effort to transform the unique course they
                                                                                     sis of the conflict but also demonstrate the
                                                                                     possibility of producing balanced and dis-
                                                                                     passionate analyses of one of the most dif-
                                  team-teach at Brandeis, Conflict and Peace-        ficult conflicts in the Middle East.
                                  making in the Middle East, into a college text-                                ,
                                                                                        In the summer of 2007 the three coau-
                                  book. The course affords students an               thors, along with a small group of students,
18                                opportunity to explore the most important de-      spent four weeks of intense brainstorming
                                  velopments in the history of the Arab-Israeli      that resulted in a 70-page outline of the
                                  conflict from the Israeli, Palestinian, and        textbook. They are set to complete a first
                                  broader Arab perspectives simultaneously.          draft during six weeks of further collabora-
                                     The textbook will be designed to sensitize      tive work in the summer of 2008.                  Keren Fraiman, research
                                  students to the different sides’ competing nar-       This unique project was initiated, con-        assistants’ team leader
                                  ratives about the conflict. By exploring these     ceptualized, and funded by the vision and
                                  multiple narratives, the authors will not only     generosity of Marcia Riklis of New York.




                                                           “Watching Shai, Khalil, and Abdel
                                                             Monem teaching and working
                                                           together has been an enlightening
                                                            and energizing experience. This
                                                          textbook teaches more than history
                                                         and narratives—it teaches the value
                                                            of collaboration and interaction.”
                                                                             — Marcia Riklis
Crown Center in the News...

                              “Those criticizing him are no         “A combination of sound eco-
                              longer just the reformists.           nomic policies and record high oil
                               Critiques are now coming             revenues has led to an economic
                               from people who we would             boom throughout the GCC re-
                               consider to be traditional           gion since 2002. While the latest
                                conservatives.”                     statistics show that other Arab
                                                                    countries are also enjoying
                                — Naghmeh Sohrabi,
                                                                    higher economic growth rates
                                quoted in USA Today,
                                                                    in comparison to the 1990s, the
                                January 21, 2008, in
                                                                    pace of economic growth in the
                                Charles Levinson’s article
                                                                    GCC is stronger than in the
                                 “Iran’s Ayatollah Overrules
                                                                    rest of the Arab world.”
                                 Ahmadinejad”
                                                                               — Nader Habibi, “Economic Divide Among
                                                                                      ”
                                                                                 Arabs, in Gulf News, November 13, 2007
                                    “Palestinian economic
                                    prospects will not im-
                                    prove under conditions of       “If bringing Saudi Arabia into Iraq security talks is in the in-
     a continuing intrusive occupation even if the donor com-       terests of both Iran and the United States, then we should
munity is full of festive season generosity.... Another far-        ask whether the Iraqi and Saudi governments will also be in-
reaching study released by the Crown Center at Brandeis                                                          ”
                                                                    terested in this idea. I believe they will be.




                                                                                                                                       U P DAT E • S P R I N G 2 0 0 8
University and written by Dr. Mohammed Samhouri, a Pales-
                                                                                                                               ”
                                                                               — Nader Habibi, “Saudis at the Negotiating Table,
tinian economist and former official, questions the assump-
                                                                                                               ,
                                                                                 in the Boston Globe, August 17 2007
tions behind the current donor strategy and finds them to be
hopelessly out of sync with the situation on the ground and
past experience.  ”
                                                                    “Forty years after the June war, peace and war hinge in-
          — Mohammed Samhouri, quoted in The                        creasingly not on the balance that emerged from this war,
                                         ,
            Guardian, December 18, 2007 in Daniel Levy’s            but on the internal balance among both Arabs and Israelis –
            article “The Long Road from Paris to Palestine”         between those who still live the moments of defeat and vic-
                                                                                                              ”
                                                                    tory and those who want to live the future.
                                                                               — Abdel Monem Said Aly, “Between Living De-
                                 “‘There is an irony,’ ob-                                                                             19
                                                                                                                       ”
                                                                                 feat or Victory, and Living the Future, June 12,
                                 serves Palestinian pollster
                                                                                      ,
                                                                                 2007 in the Daily Star, Lebanon
                                 Khalil Shikaki, referring to
                                  a failed effort by President
                                  Clinton in 2000 to make
                                                                    “‘I, for one, don't exclude the
                                  peace. ‘The willingness to
                                                                    possibility that the US will act,’
                                   compromise is much
                                                                    Shai Feldman, currently director
                                   greater today than at
                                                                    of the Crown Center for Middle
                                   Camp David,’ he notes.
                                                                    East Studies at Brandeis Uni-
                                    ‘On the other hand,
                                                                    versity, told an editorial meet-
                                    what was exposed in
                                                                    ing of The Jerusalem Post.
                                     the last seven years
                                                                    ‘My feeling, though, is that if
                                     was the extent to which
                                                                    it will act, it will act in the last
                                      [Palestinian] public insti-
                                                                    months of the administration,
                                      tutions were in a state
                                                                    mostly because I think that
                                       of total disrepair.’”
                                                                    they are inclined to try to
          — Khalil Shikaki, quoted in the Washington Times,         give the other options the
                                 ,
            November 28, 2007 in David R. Sands and                 fullest possible chance.’”
            Joshua Mitnick’s article “Real Test of Annapolis
                                                                               — Shai Feldman, quoted in the Jerusalem Post,
            Peace Summit Lies Ahead”
                                                                                               ,
                                                                                 May 16, 2007 in Steve Linde article “Bush May
                                                                                 Strike Iran near End of Term”



                                                                                                               continued on page 20
                                                                                           In the News... continued from page 19              Publications
                                                                                           “Shai Feldman, director of the Crown Cen-
                                                                                           ter for Middle East Studies at Brandeis Uni-
                                                                                           versity, said, however, that it was easy for
                                                                                           Mr. Olmert to be seduced by the claim that
                                                                                           ‘air power alone can do it.’
                                                                                                ‘That thesis,’ Mr. Feldman said, ‘fell on
                                                                                           very receptive ears, and for good reason—
                                                                                           because the civilian and military leadership
                                                                                           were traumatized by the 18 years in
                                                                                           Lebanon.’ The half-hearted war, he said,
                                                                                           ‘was precisely the heritage of the demons
                                                                                           of Israel’s previous experiences in
                                                                                           Lebanon.’”
                                                                                                      — Shai Feldman, quoted in the
                                                                                                        New York Times, May 6, 2007  ,
                                                                                                        in Steven Erlanger’s article
                                                                                                        “Beware the Siren Lebanon”
                                                                                                                                                     he Crown Center boasts two              cember 2007 the Crown Center has

                                                                                                                                              T      high-quality publications.
                                                                                                                                                        Middle East Briefs: In late
                                                                                                                                              December 2005, the Crown Center
                                                                                                                                                                                             published 25 such Briefs, and it looks
                                                                                                                                                                                             forward to further expanding the se-
                                                                                                                                                                                             ries in the years to come.
                                                                                                                                              launched a new publication, the Mid-              Crown Papers: These article-length
                                                                                                                                              dle East Brief. Each 8-12-page paper,          monographs provide a platform for the
                                                                                                                                              targeted at decision-makers, opinion           Crown Center’s research staff and
                                                                                                                                              leaders, the scholarly community, and          faculty to publish their long-term
                                                                                                                                              a general readership, provides a brief         research in a peer-reviewed format.
                                                                                                                                              analysis of a single issue at the top of       This publication series succeeds the
                                                                                                                                              the region’s political, social, or eco-        Center’s earlier Working Papers and
                                                                                                                                              nomic agenda. Through its Middle East          aims to showcase the scholarship of
                                                                                                                                              Briefs, the Center draws on the wide           the Center’s postdoctoral fellows,
                                                                                           “‘Once the Palestinian narrative is assured,
                                                                                                                                              interests and knowledge of its staff,          faculty, and Research Fellows. All
                                                                                           then the tactical issue of where they [Pales-
                                                                                                                                              and of some of the field’s top analysts,       Crown Center publications benefit
                                                                                           tinians] will go becomes easy to approach,’
                                                                                                                                              in order to provide timely yet thorough        from the work of Consulting Editor
                                                                                           said Khalil Shikaki, who directs the center
                                                                                                                                              analyses of current developments and           Robert L. Cohen and Program
                                                                                           [Palestinian Center for Policy and Survey Re-
                                                                                                                                              events in the Middle East. As of De-           Coordinator Benjamin Rostoker.
                                                                                           search]. ‘Everybody wants the emotional
                                                                                           question addressed; everybody is happy
                                                                                           with the likely modalities.’”
                                                                                                      — Khalil Shikaki, quoted in the                                      Ondrej Beranek, Saudi Arabia
                                                                                                        New York Times, March 26,                                          Between Traditions and Modernity
                                                                                                              ,
                                                                                                        2007 in Hassan M. Fattah’s ar-                                      Postdoctoral Fellow Ondrej Beranek published his
Printed on recycled paper using soy-based inks. Design and Production: Crocker & Company




                                                                                                        ticle “For Many Palestinians,                                                                         .
                                                                                                                                                                            first book in Czech in Fall 2007 In it, he examines
                                                                                                        ‘Return’ Is Not a Goal”                                              examines the development of Saudi Arabia’s do-
                                                                                                                                                                             mestic policy and foreign relations in the period
                                                                                                                                                                              following the Gulf War 1990-91. He places the dy-
                                                                                           “Under such circumstances, and absent                                               namics of the Saudi state in the wider political
                                                                                           any significant change in the highly con-                                           context and illuminates the various factors that
                                                                                           strained operating environment in the Pales-                                         have played a crucial role in the current shape of
                                                                                           tinian areas, a resumption of foreign aid                                            the Kingdom and its future progress.
                                                                                           alone, important as it may be for mitigating
                                                                                           Palestinian mounting suffering, is not suffi-
                                                                                           cient to arrest a further deterioration in eco-
                                                                                           nomic conditions, or to prevent a potentially
                                                                                           more pernicious recurrence of the crisis.   ”
                                                                                                      — Mohammed Samhouri,
                                                                                                        “Saving the Palestinian
                                                                                                                                                                          Brandeis University Crown Center
                                                                                                        Economy, March 7 2007 in
                                                                                                                 ”         ,    ,                                                             for Middle East Studies
                                                                                                        the Jordan Times
                                                                                                                                             Mailstop 010   Waltham, MA 02454-9110   P 781.736.5320   F 781.736.5324   W brandeis.edu/crown

								
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