CARL C. SELTZER, PH.D.

   The relationship between the morphological                                      THE DISPROPORTIONS
structure of individuals and various aspects of their
total personality has been the subject of numerous                   The frequency curves of a number of indices of
studies over a long period of time.1 However, the                 body proportion were found to exhibit character-
bulk of these researches has been oriented towards                istic patterns for certain of the dominant personality
pathology, physical and mental. Comparatively                     trait groupings. There was evidence of skewness
litde is known concerning the relationship of                     in a unilateral direction for several of the body
physique and personality in normals, and more                     ratios. Figures 1A and 1B illustrate this condition.
particularly in normal adults.                                       In figures 1 and 2, the frequency curves of the
   The work of the Grant Study of Harvard Uni-                    chest depth-biacromial index for four personality
versity has been directed toward fulfilling the need              trait groupings are compared with the curve of the
in our knowledge of the normal person.2 Estab-                    total series. In the case of the less well-integrated
lished in 1938, the Grant Study has centered its                  and lac\ of purpose and values groupings (fig. la
investigation on the total personality of the normal              and lb), skewness of the frequency curves for this
young male adult. The approach has been clinical,                 index is readily apparent. By contrast, the well-
and it has been carried on cooperatively by persons               integrated and pragmatic series (fig. 2a and 2b)
trained in medicine, physiology, anthropology, psy-               show close similarity to the total series frequency
chology, psychiatry, and sociology. The work of                   curve. There appears to be a greater frequency of
the physical anthropologist has been mainly con-                  individuals with shallow chests relative to shoulder
cerned with a study of the variations in die physical             breadth in the less well-integrated and lac\ of
structure and appearance of normal young men,                     purpose and values groupings than in the series
and their relationship to other characteristics of the            as a whole.
individual. The methods of morphological de-                         The condition here illustrated was observed to
scription and classification utilized included a large            be a recurrent pattern in other body ratios for
series of measurements, proportions, morphological                certain dominant personality traits.
observations, somatotype ratings, and an estimate of                  That part of the frequency curve of each body
masculine component.                                              ratio which encompasses the element of skewness
                                                                  from the total series curve has been designated by
   The Grant Study research thus affords an un-
                                                                  the term disproportion. For the purposes of this
usual opportunity for the study of human con-
                                                                  paper, disproportions are values of an index which
stitution. The presence of a variety of data in
                                                                  are extremely divergent from the mean, usually in
addition to the anthropological makes it possible
                                                                  one direction. Thus, the possession of a head which
to relate the physique of the individual to various
                                                                  is very large relative to the chest size is considered
component parts of his personality. The present
                                                                  to be a disproportion. The combination of wide
report deals with only one aspect of this work
                                                                  shoulders and thin legs is also a disproportion.
which has yielded interesting relationships between
                                                                  Other disproportions include the combination of
physique and personality; that is, the element of
                                                                  very broad hips relative to shoulder width, a flat
                                                                  chest relative to shoulder width, very broad hips
   * From the Grant Study, Department of Hygiene, Harvard         relative to chest breadth, a broad face relative to
University.                                                       chest width, a large hand relative to total body
     For an extended review of this subject and excellent         size, etc.
bibliography, see Tucker, W. B. and Lessa, W. A. Man:
A Constitutional Investigation. Quart. Rev. Biol., 15:265-            The following list of disproportions and their
289, 411-455, 1940.                                               tentative critical levels has been found to be useful
     For a description of the work of the Grant Study see         in the Grant Study as related to personality trait
Wells, F. L.: A Research Focused upon the Normal Person-          groupings and to other characteristics:
ality: A Note. Character and Personality, vol. 12, no. 4,
pp. 299-301, 1944; Heath, Clark W. et al.: What People             1. Stature/-^weight index when above 13.4.
Arc. Introduction to the work of the Grant Study, Harvard          2. Biacromial diam. X 100/chest circ. index when above 47.
University Press, 1945; Hooton, E. A.: Young Man, You              3. Chest breadth X 100/biacromiaI diam. index when be-
Are Normal. Putnam, 1945.                                               low 71.
                        CARL C. SELTZER                                 [Vol. 8

FIG. 1A. Frequency curves of "less well-integrated" and total series.
Mar. 194rtl    BODY DISPROPORTIONS AND DOMINANT PERSONALITY TRAITS                              77



                       W^MrnmiM^'M&W} iJm\i\mi:\:iSo:i^~x
                  Mi* mmmp^^w^sm           i59i;ii;fei:

              FIG. 1B. Frequency curves of "lack of purpose and values" and total series.
78                        CARL C. SELTZER                               [Vol. 8

     FIG. 2A. Frequency curves of "well-integrated" and total series.

                  Fie. 2B. Frequency curves of "pragmatic" and total series.
                                                      CARL C. SELTZER                                              [Vol. 8

 4. Chest depth X 100/biacromial diam. index when be-             man year or whose prospects for completion of the
      low 48.                                                     total academic requirements were not promising.
 5. Hip breadth X 100/biacromial diam. index when above
      74.                                                            For the purposes of this investigation special at-
 6. Head circ. X 100/chest circ. index when above 63.             tention has been directed to the classification of
 7. Chest circ. X 100/stature index when below 49.                the subjects according to the dominant personality
 8. Calf circ. X 100/shoulder breadth when below 86.              trait groupings. A detailed account of the methods
 9. Face breadth X 100/chest breadth when above 49.               of interview, personality classification and defini-
10. Hand size (hand length X hand breadth) X 100/
      weight when above 109.                                      tions has already been published, but it should be
11. Hip breadth X 100/chest breadth when above 102.               pointed out that they were independently desig-
(All dimensions are in centimeters except face breadth,           nated by the staff psychiatrists from the mass of
hand length and hand breadth which are in millimeters.)           interview material obtained from the subjects
                                                                  studied.4 The appearance of certain personality
   These disproportions and their ranges, it should               traits with considerable frequency made it desir-
be pointed out, were empirically derived. There was               able to group those subjects who had specific out-
no fixed mathematical method of formulating them.                 standing characteristics in common. Thus, for
In fact, they are the considered result of the ex-                example, there appeared a sociable group, a vital
perience, intimate knowledge and intensive study                  affect group, a shy group, an unstable autonomic
of the material. Moreover, the list is merely a                   functions group, a self-conscious introspective group,
tentative one of significant body ratio ranges which              etc. These various dominant trait groupings were
seem to be related to personality traits and other                assigned to an individual with no consideration of
characteristics of the individual. The range of the               the other traits which might pertain to him.
disproportions is also considered tentative in nature.
As a result of further study, or eventual enlarge-                   The personality traits here described are heavily
ment of the series, it might be that these ranges                 weighted towards the aspect of life attitudes, intel-
would be shifted somewhat one way or another.                     lectual functions and motivations. This came about
In short, the disproportions now listed should not                as a natural result of dealing with college students,
be regarded in any way sacrosanct and final.                      selected "normal" individuals, and the particular
                                                                  orientation of the psychiatrists to the problems of
   As a further word of caution, it must be empha-
                                                                  "career choice" of the subjects.
sized that the term disproportion is not to be re-
garded as carrying with it the stigma of abnormal-
ity. These ratios are in no sense abnormal; they are                  DISPROPORTIONS AND DOMINANT PERSONALITY
simply normal deviates from the mean of the                                         TRAIT GROUPINGS
group as a whole.                                                   In this section the various personality trait group-
   The difference between "disproportions" and                    ings are individually analyzed for frequency of dis-
Sheldon's "dysplasias" is that Sheldon's term per-                proportions. The percental occurrence of each
tains to the somatotype components: endomorphy,                   disproportion in the trait groupings is plotted
mesomorphy and ectomorphy. "Disproportions,"                      against the frequency in the series as a whole.
on the contrary, have to do with certain restricted
variations in the relationship of gross measurements.
                                                                  Autonomic Functions
                       THE MATERIAL                                 The unstable autonomic junctions group includes
   The analysis is based upon data obtained on                    those young men "who show manifestations of
258 individuals, Harvard undergraduates, who                      instability in the functions which are generally
were first observed with few exceptions in their                  conceded to be governed by the autonomic nervous
sophomore years. They represent a selected group in               system. Included are boys who show either periodic
several respects.3 Very briefly, Grant Study sub-                 excessive anxiety or an undue amount of chronic
                                                                  anxiety as well as those subject to such symptoms
jects were selected on the basis of good medical
                                                                  as tremulousness, blushing, increased perspiration,
health, satisfactory academic status, and overtly
                                                                  palpitation and functional disturbances of the
good social adjustment. On intellectual grounds
                                                                  urinary and gastro-intestinal systems."
only those young men were eliminated whose
academic records were unsatisfactory in their fresh-                Compare the frequency of disproportions in the
                                                                  unstable autonomic junctions group with that of the
      For detailed information relative to the nature of group,
selection of subjects, methods of examination and definition           Wells, F. L., and Woods, W. L.: Outstanding Traits,
of normal, see Heath, C. W. op. cit.                              (in preparation); Heath, C. W. op. cit.
Mar. 1946]                 BODY DISPROPORTIONS AND DOMINANT PERSONALITY TRAITS                                                          81
total series (Table.I)- It can be. seen that in every                   apparent from these figures that the.well-integrated
instance the disproportions are more frequent                           group differs only slightly from the total series in
among individuals of the unstable autonomic func-                       the percental frequency of disproportions. The
tions grouping than in the series as a whole. Thus,                     direction of the differences is not consistent, being
individuals with very wide shoulders relative to                        excessive in the case of some disproportions and
chest circumference are about two and one-half                          deficient in others. In spite of the small differences,
times as frequent in the unstable autonomic func-                       statistical significance is encountered in the height-
tions group as in the whole series. Individuals who                     weight disproportion (—3.7%), chest depth-
are extremely linear are virtually twice as frequent                    biacromial disproportion (—5.8%), and in the calf
in this trait grouping. In spite of the small size of                   circumference-biacromial disproportion (—6.1%).
the unstable autonomic functions groupings, statisti-                   This would indicate that the well-integrated group
cally significant differences are present in the case of                is somewhat deficient in individuals with extreme
the height-weight, biacromial diameter-chest cir-                       linearity, with very flat chests relative to shoulder
cumference, chest circumference-stature, and bi-                        breadth, and with small calf circumferences rela-
iliac-chest breadth disproportions.                                     tive to shoulder breadth.

                                                               TABLE I
                                                                                   Unstable automatic
                                                         Total series               functions group
                                                            (258)                         (36)
         Disproportions                           'NO.              %            ' No.            %     '          Diff.            rati'o^

Heigh t / v 7 weight 13.5-x                       36              14.2             10            27.8             +13.6              2.52
Biac. diam./chest circ. 48-x                      22               8.7              8            22.2             +13.5              3.10
Chest br./biac. diam. x-70                        89              35.2             17            47.2             +12.0              1.62
Chest depth/biac. diam. x-47                      73              28.8             15            41.7             +12.9              1.84
Bi-iliac diam./biac. diam. 75-x                   42              16.6              8            22.2             +5.6               0.97
Head circ./chest circ. 64-x                      116              45.8             21            58.3             +12.5              1.62
Chest circ./stature x-48                       • 54               21.3             13            36.1             +14.8              2.34
Calf circ./biac. diam. x-85f                      62              24.5             12            33.3             +8.8               1.32
Face br./chest br. 50-x                           77              30.4             15            41.7             +11.3              1.59
Hand size/weight 110-x                            46              18.2              9            25.0             +6.8               1.14
Bi-iliac diam./chest br. 103-x                    68              26.9             16            44.4             +17.5              2.55
     * Critical ratio is in terms of standard errors and computed according to formula 19.6 of Yule. G. Udney and Kendall. M. G.: "An
Introduction to the Theory of Statistics. Griffin and Co. 1937. Statistical significance in this report is based on a minimum critical ratio
level of 2.0 standard errors.
     t The number of individuals in the total series for this disproportion is 257.

Basic Personality                                                             In contrast to the well-integrated group, the less
                                                                         well-integrated group shows substantial differences
   Under basic personality the psychiatrists have                       f r o m t h e t o t a l s e r i e s £ reque ncies. With one excep-
differentiated two trait groupings, well-integrated                     d o n a l l disproportions are more frequent in the
and less well-integrated. The well-integrated basic                     l e s s weil-integrated             group than in the total series.
personality grouping is defined as "A group com-                        T h e a m o u n t o f differentiation is substantial in the
posed of young men who are steady, stable, depend-                      c a s e o f t h e height-weight, chest breadth-biacromial,
able, thorough, sincere, and trustworthy. They                          chest          depth-biacromial, head circumference-chest
have a steadiness and integrity of personality which                    c i r c u m f e r e n c e , chest circumference-stature, and calf
is not dependent upon autonomic or even emotional                       c i r c u m f e r e n c e .bi a C romial disproportions. However,
stability. . . ." The less well-integrated basic per-                   o w i n g t 0 t h e s m a l l s i z e o f t h e less weil-integrated
sonality group is composed of "young men who,                           g r o u p ; differences o f statistical significance are en-
in contrast to those of the well-integrated person-                     c o u n t e r e d in only the height-weight and calf cir-
ality, tend towards the erratic, unreliable, sporadic,                  Cumference-biacromial disproportions, and for all
or undependable. Frequently their activities are ill-                   p r a c t ; c a i purposes for the chest depth-biacromial
directed, little organized, and not carried through                      disproportion. In summary then, the less well-
with the perseverance of those young men who                            integrated group are distinguished by their signifi-
possess a better-integrated basic personality. . . ."                   c a n t excesses of individuals with extremely linear
   Observe the percental frequency of the dispro-                       body builds, with flat chests relative to their
portions for these two basic groups and their dif-                       shoulder breadths, and with small calf circumfer-
ferentiation from the total series (Table II). It is                     ences relative to their shoulder breadths.
82                                                CARL C. SELTZER                                                                [Vol. 8

Mood Dominance                                       and those who show a continuous and prominent
   At the mood level, the psychiatrists have charac- degree of some quality or phase of mood. . . ."
terized a group of individuals under the heading       The important differences shown by the mood
of mood fluctuations. By definition the mood fluctuations grouping from the total series is evident

                                                      TABLE II
                                                       Total series                    Well-integrated              Less well-int(igrated
                                                          (258)                            (152)                           (38)
         Disproportions                             No.          %                     No.         %                   No.            ry

Heigh t/^weight 13.5-x                              36             14.2                16       10.5                    10          26.3
Biac. diam./chest circ. 48-x                        22              8.7                12        7.9                     4          10.5
Chest br./biac. diam. x-70                          89             35.2                51       33.6                    18          47.3
Chest depth/biac. diam. x-47                        73             28.8                35       23.0                    16          42.1
Bi-iliac diam./biac. diam. 75-x                     42             16.6                27       17.8                     4          10.5
Head circ./chest circ. 64-x                        116             45.8                74       48.7                    21          55.3
Chest circ./stature x-48                            54             21.3                30       19.7                    12          31.6
Calf circ./biac. diam. x-85                         62             24.5                28       18.4                    16          42.1
Face br./chest br. 50-x                             77             30.4                48       31.6                    13          34.2
Hand size/weight 110-x                              46             18.2                27       17.8                    10          26.3
Bi-iliac diam./chest br. 103-x                      68             26.9                41       27.0                    11          28.9

                                  COMPARISON WITH TOTAL SERIES PERCENTAGES
                                                      Total series vs. well-integrated              Total series vs . less well-integrated
                                                        Diff.             Critical ratio                  Diff.             Critical ratio
Heigh t/\/weight 13.5-x                                -    3.7                 2.03                     +   12.1                2.31
Biac. diam./chest circ. 48-x                           -    0.8                 0.54                     +    1.8                0.43-
Chest br./biac. diam. x-70                             -    1.6                 0.64                     +   12.1                1.69
Chest depth/biac. diam. x-47                           -    5.8                 2.46                     +   13.3                1.96
Bi-iliac diam./biac. diam. 75-x                        +    1.2                 0.62                     - 6.1                   1.09
Head circ./chest circ. 64-x                            +    2.9                 1.12                     +   9.5                 1.27
Chest circ./stature x-48                               -    1.6                 0.75                     +   10.3                1.68
Calf circ./biac. diam. x-85                            -    6.1                 2.74                     +   17.6                2.73
Face br./chest br. 50-x                                +    1.2                 0.50                     +   3.8                 0.55
Hand size/weight 110-x                                 - 0.4                    0.20                     +   8.1                 1.40
Bi-iliac diam./chest br. 103-x                         + 0.1                    0.04                     +   2.0                 0.30

                                                     TABLE III
                                                Total series                           ations
                                                                            Mood fluctu;
                                                   (258)                         (39)                                            Critical
       Disproportions                     No.                  %           No.            %                     Diff.
Height/-^weight 13.5-x                    36               14.2             6                15.4              + 1-2               0.23
Biac. diam./chest circ. 48-x              22                8.7             4                10.2              + 1.5               0.36
Chest br./biac. diam. x-70.               89               35.2            20                51.3              + 16.1              2.28
Chest depth/biac. diam. x-47              73               28.8            11                28.2              - 0.6               0.09
Bi-iliac diam./biac. diam. 75-x           42               16.6             5                12.8              - 3.8               0.69
Head circ./chest circ. 64-x              116
                                         116               45.8            19                48.7              + 2.9               0.39
Chest circ./stature x-48                  54               21.3             8                20.5              - 0.8               0.13
Calf circ./biac. diam. x-85               62               24.5            14                35.8              + 11.3              1.78
Face br./chest br. 50-x                   77               30.4            16                41.0              + 10.6              1.56
Hand size/weight 110-x                    46               18.2            12                30.8              + 12.6              2.21
Bi-iliac diam./chest br. 103-x            68               26.9            11                28.2              + 1.3               0.20

fluctuations group contains "young men character-                  in the following disproportions: chest breadth-
ized either by strongly marked mood or distinct                    biacromial, calf circumference-biacromial, face
changes in mood sufficiently striking to be an out-                breadth-chest breadth, and hand size-body weight
standing feature of their personality. There are                   (Table I I I ) . In each instance the percentage of
thus two subgroups: those given to mood swings,                    these disproportions is in excess in the mood
Mar. 1946]                  BODY DISPROPORTIONS AND DOMINANT PERSONALITY TRAITS                                                                    83

fluctuations group. It is possible to say that the mood                 of the usual values and adjustment to the realities
fluctuations group compared with the total series                       of life." The bland affect group are "young men
contains a significantly greater proportion of indi-                    who show neither warm, positive mood nor rich-
viduals with narrow chests relative to their shoulder                   ness and vitality of affect. They tend to be colorless
breadths, a significantly greater proportion of large                   and neutral in their affective responses. . . . In
hands relative to their body weights, and a prob-                       general, they form a group of plain, undistin-
ably significant excess of individuals with small                       guished, and uncomplicated individuals. . . . This
leg circumferences relative to their shoulder                           very absence of positive and stimulating qualities
breadths.                                                               is fundamental. . . ."

                                                                TABLE IV
                                            DISPROPORTIONS IN THE AFFECT GROUPINGS

                                                 Total series              Vital afl :ect                 Sensitive affect            Bla ind affect
                                                    (258)                     (51)                              (44)                       (45)
         Disproportions                         No.         %            No.              %>              No.          %             No.           or

Height/v^weight 13.5-x                           36        14.2            4              7. 8              9           20.4           9        20.0
Biac. diam./chest circ. 4 8 - x . . . . . . .    22         8.7            0              0                 5           11.4           7        15.6
Chest br./biac. diam. x-70                       89        35.2           17         33. 3                 21           47.7          19        42.2
Chest depth/biac. diam. x-47                     73        28.8            6         11. 8                 14           31.8          15        33.3
Bi-iliac diam./biac. diam. 75-x. . . .           42        16.6            8         15..7                  7           15.9          10        22.2
Head circ./chest circ. 64-x                     116        45.8           16         31. 4                 24           54.5          24        53.3
Chest circ./stature x-48                         54        21.3     •      6         11..8                 11           25.0          12        26.7
Calf circ./biac. diam. x-85                      62        24.5           11         21. 6                 13           29.5           7        15.6
Face br./chest br. 50-x                          77        30.4           11         21. 6                 15           34.1          19        42.2
Hand size/weight 110-x                           46        18.2           10         19..6                 10           22.7           7        15.6
Bi-iliac diam./chest br. 103-x                   68        26.9           10         19 .6                 15           34.1          19        42.2

                                                      Vital vs. total series         Sen siti v e v s.   total series          Bland vs. total series
                                                       Diff.           C. R.                ]DiSf.            C. R.              Diff.          C. R.
Heigh t/vAveight 13.5-x                           -6.4             1.46               +       6.2            1.29              +   5..8         1.26
Biac. diam./chest circ. 48-x                      — 8.7            2.46               -|-     2..7           0.70              +   6.9          1.81
Chest br./biac. diam. x-70                        -1.9             0.33               + 12..5                1.91              +   7.0          1.08
Chest depth/biac. diam. x-47                      -17.0            2.99               + 3..0                 0.48              +   4 .5         0.73
Bi-iliac diam./biac. diam. 75-x                   -0.9             0.19               _ 0 .7                 0.14              +   5 .6         1.11
Head circ./chest circ. 64-x                       -14.4            2.30               -)- 8 .7               1.27              +   7 .5         1.11
Chest circ./stature x-48                          -9.5             1.85               4- 3 .7                0.66              + s .4           0.97
Calf circ./biac. diam. x-85                       -2.9             0.54                   5 .0               0.85              - 8 .9           1.53
Face br./chest br. 50-x
Hand size/weight 110-x
                                                                                      + 3 .7                 0.59              + 11 .8
                                                                                                                                - 2 .6
Bi-iliac diam./chest br. 103-x                    -7.3             1.31
                                                                                      + 4 .5                 0.85                               0.50
                                                                                      -1- 7 .2               1.18               + 1S .3         2.55

Affect                                                                     In comparison to the total series, the vital affect
   Another category of traits is labelled "affect."                      group is deficient in all but one disproportion, the
It refers to the basic "expressions of feeling, emo-                     hand size-weight disproportion where the excess is
tion, and desire" of the individuals. The subcate-                       negligible (Table IV). The largest differences
gories are vital, sensitive and bland. The vital                         occur in connection with the chest depth-biacromial,
affect grouping consists of "young men character-                        head circumference-chest circumference, chest cir-
ized by vitality and richness of affect. They show                       cumference-stature, face breadth-chest breadth, and
a spontaneous force and energy which springs                             biacromial-chest circumference disproportions. Of
from strong affect rather than from an energy                            these, statistical significance is attained by the chest
which depends upon voluntary effort of the                               depth-biacromial, head circumference-chest cir-
higher ego functions. Such boys show richer                              cumference and biacromial-chest circumference
verbal expression, greater animation in facial                           disproportions, and approached by the chest cir-
expression, and a more arresting tone of voice.                          cumference-stature ratio. In other words, the in-
. . ." The sensitive affect grouping includes                            dividuals with vital affect have less frequently the
young men "who create the impression of being                            combinations of chests very shallow for shoulder
sensitive, subtle in their thinking, inclined to aes-                    breadth, heads large for chest size, shoulders large
theticism which makes difficult their acceptance                         for chest size, and chests small for stature.
84                                             CARL C. SELTZER                                              [Vol. 8

. In. contrast to the vital affect group, we find            chest circumference-stature ratios, and in a defi-
that the sensitive affect shows excesses of dispropor-       ciency of the chest breadth-biacromial dispropor-
tions over the total series in every instance except         tion. The level of statistical significance is reached
for the bi-iliac-biacromial ratio. The chest breadth-        only in the case of the bi-iliac-biacromial index.
biacromial disproportion shows an excess of 12.5%            It may be said that the just-so group is distinguished
of individuals in the sensitive affect group, a figure       from the total series in its excesses of individuals
which approaches statistical significance (C. R.             with broad hips relative to shoulder breadth, large
 1.91). All the other excesses, however, are small.          head circumferences relative to chest circumference,
   The bland affect group is characterized by ex-            small chest circumferences relative to stature, and
cesses in all disproportions with the exception of           in the deficiency of narrow chests" relative to the
the calf circumference-biacromial diameter and               breadth of the shoulders.
hand size-weight ratios. The deficiency in small
calf circumference relative to shoulder breadth              Voluntary Functions
is particularly significant in. view of the con-
sistent picture it presents relative to the fre-               Under this classification the psychiatrists have
quency of the other disproportions. Further study            distinguished three trait groupings, inhibited, self-
of proportions in this group shows that the lower            conscious and introspective, and self-driving. The

                                                   TABLE V
                                             Total series                  Just-so
                                                (258)                        (35)
       Disproportions                    No.             %           No.              %        Did.          ratio
Height/vAveight 13.5-x                    36          14.2             6             17.1     +   2.9         0.53
Biac. diam./chest circ. 48-x              22           8.7            5              14.3     +   5.6         1.26
Chest br./biac. diam. x-70                89          35.2            9              25.7     -   9.5         1.27
Chest depth/biac. diam. x-47              73          28.8            9              25.7     -   3.1         0.44
Bi-iliac diam./biac. diam. 75-x           42          16.6           11              31.4     + 14.8          2.52
Head circ./chest circ. 64-x              116          45.8           20              57.1     + 11.3          1.44
Chest circ./stature x-48                  54          21.3           11              31.4     + 10.1          1.57
Calf circ./biac. x-85                     62          24.5           10              28.6     + 4.1           0.61
Face br./chest br. 50-x                   77          30.4           10              28.6     - 1.8           0.25
Hand size/weight 110-x                    46          18.2            8              22.8     + 4.6           0.76
Bi-iliac diam./chest br. 103-x            68          26.9           11              31.4     + 4.5           0.64

part of the body of those individuals with dominant          inhibited group contains "young men who have
bland affect is relatively heavier than the upper            a strong degree of conscientiousness and who fre-
part of the torso. These individuals have larger             quently have doubts about doing things which they
leg circumferences relative to the breadth of the            condone intellectually. They frequently describe
shoulders, broader hips relative to the width of             a strong sense of responsibility, have difficulty in
the chest, and broader hips relative to the breadth          freeing themselves from their early moral attitudes.
of the shoulders.                                            . . . A lack of spontaneity and freedom and a
                                                             degree of stiffness in manner are character-
Just-So Behavior                                             istic. . . ." The self-conscious and introspective
   The just-so group includes those "men who are             grouping consists of "individuals who are highly
strongly systematic, neat, meticulous, and who de-           aware of their own thoughts and subjective feelings.
pend on orderly routine and regularity. They are             They tend to pay more attention to what is going
rigid and are apt to be upset if their established           on within themselves than do more natural and out-
habits and way of living are interrupted. Some               going boys. They also have a heightened sense of
have conceived the trait as so deeply ingrained and          being observed by other people, even though they
beyond voluntary control that it should be grouped           know this to be untrue. In consequence, they are
under Basic Personality."                                    self-conscious and cannot behave with directness
   The largest divergencies in frequency of dispro-          and ease in social situations." The self-driving
portions of the just-so group from the series as a           group are those "who show a high amount of self-
whole are apparent in the excesses of the bi-iliac-          control, will power and an ability to force them-
biacromial, head circumference-chest circumference,          selves to do things. The energy and accomplish-
Mar. 1946]               BODY DISPROPORTIONS AND DOMINANT PERSONALITY TRAITS                                                               85

ments which result from strength in this aspect of                the total series. There is a 9.4 per cent deficiency
higher ego function are distinguished from the                    of very shallow-chested individuals relative to the
spontaneous activity which springs from strong                    width of their shoulders, and a 9.8 per cent excess
affect or mood. Many times they are aware of                      of men with large head circumferences relative to
forcing themselves to work against inertia or                     their chest circumferences. Neither of these diver-
resistance. . . ."                                                gencies, however, attains the level of statistical
   The inhibited group shows excesses of dispro-                  significance.

                                                          TABLE VI
                                           Total series                                        introspective                Self-drivi
                                              (258)                                                  (64)                       (36)
        Disproportions                    No.        %                No.                      No.            %            No.            %
Height/v / weight 13.5-x                   36      14.2                8      16.3             10         15.6              4            11.1
Biac. diam./chest circ. 48-x               22       8.7                7      14.3              7         10.9              3             8.3
Chest br./biac. diam. x-70                 89      35.2               19      38.8             25         39.1             11            30.6
Chest depth/biac. diam. x-47               73      28.8               16      32.6             22         34.4              7            19.4
Bi-iliac diam./biac. diam. 75-x . . . .    42      16.6               12      24.5              9         14.1              7            19.4
Head circ./chest circ. 64-x               116      45.8               28      57.1             38         59.4             20            55.6
Chest circ./stature x-48                   54      21.3               12      24.5             16         25.0               8           22.2
Calf circ./biac. diam. x-85                62      24.5                9      18.4             20         31.2              6            16.7
Face br./chest br. 50-x                    77      30.4               19      38.8             21         32.8             11            30.6
Hand size/weight 110-x                     46      18.2                8      16.3             15         23.4              8            22.2
Bi-iliac diam./chest br. 103-x             68      26.9               19      38.8             16         25.0             10            27.8
                                                   Inhibited                 Self-conscious iintrospecti ve            Self-driv ing vs.
                                                    total ser                       vs. total series                    total sc:ries
                                                DifL          C. R.               Diff.           C. R.               Diff.           C.    R.
Height/vAveight 13.5-x                       +2.1           0.47               +    1.4          0.37             - 3.1                  0.57
Biac. diam./chest circ. 48-x               +5.6             1.55               +    2.2          0.72             - 0.4                  0.09
Chest br./biac. diam. x-70                 +3.6             0.59               +    3.9          0.75             -      4.6             0.62
Chest depth/biac. diam. x-47               +3.8             0.65               +    5.6          1.14             -      9.4             1.34
Bi-iliac diam./biac. diam. 75-x            +7.9             1.65               -    2.5          0.62             +      2.8             0.49
Head circ./chest circ. 64-x                +11.3            1.76               +   13.6          2.51             +      9.8             1.27
Chest circ./stature x-48                   +3.2             0.61               +    3.7          0.83             +      0.9             0.14
Calf circ./biac. diam. x-85                —6.1             1.10               +    6.7          1.44             -      7.8             1.17
Face br./chest br. 50-x                    +8.4             1.42               +    2.4          0.48             +      0.2             0.03
Hand size/weight 110-x                     - 1.9            0.38               +    5.2          1.24             +      4.0             0.67
Bi-iliac diam./chest br. 103-x             +11.9            2.08               -    1.9          0.40             +      0.9             0.13

portions over the total series frequencies in all but                 Cognitive     Functions-Motivational
two instances, the calf-biacromial and hand size-
weight ratios. The largest discrepancies occur in                    This classification encompasses those trait group-
the bi-iliac-chest breadth and head circumference-                ings which describe certain dominant motivational
chest circumference disproportions. The excess of                 aspects of the subjects. They include motivations
very broad hips relative to chest width is statistically          towards physical science, motivations towards prac-
significant while that of large head size relative                tical organizing, the ideational, and the creative
to chest size is possibly significant.                            and intuitive.
   Like the inhibited group the self-conscious and                   The physical science grouping consists of those
introspective category presents excesses of dispro-               persons "who have exhibited a predominant interest
portion in all but two instances. However, the                    in physical phenomena. They frequently describe
only large divergency exists in the greater frequency             early mechanical interests and aptitudes, preference
in this latter trait group of individuals with large              for scientific subjects in secondary school, and a
head circumference relative to chest circumferences.              liking for manipulations of laboratory work. . . ."
The difference is beyond the level of statistical                 The practical organizing group "lack deep interest
significance.                                                     in any subject matter. They are not theoretical,
   The self-driving group shows no consistent trend               speculative, or scholarly. Their interests are more
with regard to the direction of its differences from              practical, and in their course work they are better
                                                           CARL C. SELTZER                                                      [Vol.8

in organization than in analytical or creative work.                  of these show considerable deviation. Statistical
They describe an interest in managing or organiz-                     significance is attained for the height-weight, bi-
ing and find their satisfaction in the sense of                       acromial-chest circumference, and chest circumfer-
accomplishment, of 'getting things done.' They do                     ence stature ratios, in spite of the small size of
not strive after 'higher values' and are essentially                  the series. The individuals in the physical science
pragmatic in their outlook." The ideational group-                    grouping have an excess of their members with
ing contains young men "who like to deal with                         extreme linearity of body build, shoulders large
ideas and tend to shy away from routine work                          for chest circumference, and chests small for stature.

                                                             TABLE VII

                                                             towards phys                                                Creative and
                                        Total seri                                                    Ideation              intuitive
                                           (258)                                                         (54)                  (16)
        Disproportions               No.           %
Height/S/weight 13.5-x                36       14.2                  29.0                  5.3       10        18.5               25.0
Biac. diam./chest circ. 48-x... 22              8.7                  22.6                  7.4        5         9.2                6.2
Chest br./biac. diam. x - 7 0 . . . . 89       35.2                  41.9                 32.6       19        35.2               37.5
Chest depth/biac. diam. x-47 . 73              28.8                  32.2                 23.1       16        29.6               25.0
Bi-iliac diam./biac. diam. 75-x 42             16.6                  22.6                 12.6       12        22.2               18.8
Head circ./chest circ. 64-x.... 116            45.8                  54.8                 36.8       35        64.8               37.5
Chest circ./stature x-48              54       21.3                  38.7                 14.7       14        25.9               18.8
Calf circ./biac. diam. x-85. . . . 62          24.5                  25.8                 25.3       16        29.6               25.0
Face br./chest br. 50-x               77       30.4                  41.9                 26.3       17        31.5               25.0
Hand size/weight 110-x                46       18.2                  25.8                 15.7        9        16.7               18.8
Bi-iliac diam./chest br. 103-x. 68             26.9                  38.7                 25.2       14'       25.9               31.2

                                               total sei                                                                 total series
                                           Diff.       C. R.          Diff.       C. R.      Diff.         C. R.      Diff.      C. R.
HeightA/weight 13.5-x                      +14.8           2.52      -      8.9    3.13      + 4.3         1.04       + 10.8      1.28
Biac. diam./chest circ. 48-x               +13.9           2.93      -      1.3    0.57      + 0.5         0.15       - 2.5       0.37
Chest br./biac. diam. x-70                 +6.7            0.83      -      2.6    0.67         0            0        + 2.3       0.20
Chest depth/biac. diam. x-47               +3.4            0.44      -      5.7    1.54      + 0.8         0.15       - 3.8       0.35
Bi-iliac diam./biac. diam. 75-x. ..        +6.0            0.96      -      4.0    1.32      + 5.6         1.27       + 2.2       0.24
Head circ./chest circ. 64-x                +9.0            1.07      -      9.0    2.21      + 19.0        3.15       - 8.3       0.68
Chest circ./stature x-48                   +17.4           2.52      -      6.6    1.98      + 4.6         0.93       - 2.5       0.25
Calf circ./biac. diam. x-85                +1.3            0.18      +      0.8    0.23      + 5.1         0.98       + 0.5       0.05
Face br./chest br. 50-x                    +11.5           1.48      -      4.1    1.09      + 1.1         0.20       - 5.4       0.48
Hand size/weight 110-x                     +7.6            1.17      -      2.5    0.79      - 1.5         0.32       + 0.6       0.06
Bi-iliac diam./chest br. 103-x. . . .      +11.8           1.57      -      1.7    0.47      - 1.0         0.19       + 4.3       0.40

and problems of practical life. They tend to be                          The opposite condition prevails in the case of the
theoretical or analytical. . . ." The creative and                    practical organizing group. In this trait classifica-
intuitive group is "characterized by high ability                     tion the deviations from the total series values are
for self-expression or who are original and creative                  deficiencies in all but one insignificant instance.
in their thought. Included are those who are                          In the practical organizing group there is a statisti-
strongly intuitive and spurn logical, objective, and                  cally significant deficiency of individuals with ex-
analytical forms of thought. This group is largely                    treme relation of height to weight, of large head
composed of those contemplating artistic or literary                  circumferences relative to chest circumference, and
careers."                                                             of small chest circumference relative to stature.
   Table-VII compares the frequency of dispropor-                        The ideational group is distinguished by its very
tions in these cognitive function-motivational group-                 large excess of individuals with large head circum-
ings with those of the total series. With regard                      ference relative to their chest circumference.
to the physical science grouping it is important to                      No reliable deductions can be drawn from the
note diat every one of the disproportions are here                    disproportion frequencies of the creative and in-
in excess over the total series frequency. Several                    tuitive grouping. This is in part due to the very
Mar. 1946]            BODY DISPROPORTIONS AND DOMINANT PERSONALITY TRAITS                                      87

small number of individuals (16) in this trait            VIII. The political grouping exhibits no consistent
classification. There is, however, a suggestion that      configuration of differences from the total series
this group contains an excess of individuals with         values. None of the differences attain the level of
extremely linear physiques.                               statistical significance.
                                                             The humanistic group shows deficiencies in
Cognitive Functions-Life    Attitudes                     frequency of disproportions from the total series
                                                          values in all but the height-weight and chest
    Included under this heading are the following
                                                          breadth-biacromial ratios. For all practical purposes
trait groupings: pragmatic, humanistic, political,
                                                          the level of statistical significance is reached in the
cultural, and lack of purpose and values. The prag-
                                                          case of the calf circumference-biacromial dispro-
matic group "are essentially practical in outlook,
                                                          portion, which signifies a deficiency of individuals
and are not concerned with an ultimate purpose
                                                          with small leg circumferences relative to the breadth
and value of life. They are apt to be conforming
                                                          of the shoulders.
and conventional, and accept the mores of the times.
They are interested in establishing a family and             Similarly, the pragmatic group exhibits defi-
supporting it comfortably. The practical considera-       ciencies from the total series values in all but the bi-
tions of getting ahead in life outweigh intrinsic         iliac-biacromial ratio. This trait grouping possesses
interest in work, cultural values, philosophical specu-   a statistically significant deficiency of individuals
lations, or special reform." The humanistic grouping      with large head circumferences relative to their
contains those individuals "who have a dominant           chest circumferences, and a probably significant
interest in people, and for whom a knowledge of           deficiency of individuals with very broad faces
people and a desire to do work which will bring           relative to their chest breadths, with small chest
them into contact with people is not only an out-         circumferences relative to their statures, and with
standing feature of their personality, but also the       extreme linearity as represented by the heights
strongest driving force in determining their choice        ^weight ratio.
of life work." The political category is "a group            In contrast to the humanistic and pragmatic
who show a strong interest in social problems,            groups, the cultural and lac\ of purpose and
social movements, government, and foreign affairs.        values groupings show overall larger frequencies of
They are motivated by a desire to participate in          these disproportions than the series as a whole. In
work which will lead to improvement of social             the case of the cultural group, significant excesses
conditions. They are distinguished from the               of disproportions occur for the height-weight ratio,
humanistic group inasmuch as they are primarily           the head circumference-chest circumference ratio,
interested in the broader and more abstract prob-         and the calf circumference-biacromial diameter
lems of social reform rather than in individual and       ratio. The lac^ of purpose and values group, on the
 personal relationships." The cultural category is        other hand, have significant excesses of dispropor-
 "a group for whom participation in literature or the     tions in the relationship of chest breadth to biacro-
arts is predominant. This interest may be so highly       mial diameter, and in the relationship of bi-iliac
developed that it leads them either to follow an          diameter to chest breadth. These individuals, then,
artistic career or to consider any form of life work      have an excessive frequency of chests which are
as a means of existence in order that they may            narrow for shoulder breadth and hips wide for
satisfy their cultural needs." The lac\ of purpose        chest breadth.
and values grouping consists of those "young men
 who lack direction or purpose in life, in whom           Expressionistic Traits
normal incentives and drives are feebly developed.           In this category the psychiatrists have defined
A certain number complain that they have not              two groupings of individuals, the inarticulate and
 found any values which make striving in the world        the verbalistic. The inarticulate consists of a group
 worthwhile. Many of them are drifting and un-            of young men who are characterized by "an ina-
 enthusiastic, and give the impression of being de-       bility to express themselves in language. Their de-
scendants of a family in whom the original vitality       scriptions are apt to be meagre and matter-of-fact,
 is wearing out. A few describe a sincere search for      particularly concerning their own personal feelings
 values or higher life purpose which will create the      and experiences. The poverty of verbal content
 motivating force to make life real and meaningful."      seems not to be due to inhibition or unwillingness,
  The figures giving the frequency deviations from        but rather to a certain lack of richness in inner ex-
the total series values of the disproportions for the     perience and in associated thought." The verbalistic
above dominant trait groups are contained in Table        group are the converse, containing those "who have
                                                     CARL C. SELTZER                                                                   [Vol. 8

a facility with language or an ability to verbalize               Social activities may be their outstanding interest.
their thoughts in rich or well-formulated language."              They make friends easily, like to meet new people,
   In the matter of disproportions the inarticulate               and have an ease in their social relationships which
grouping shows substantial and significant excesses               is unhampered by shyness or awkwardness." The
of individuals with the following disproportionate                shy grouping contains those young men who "ex-
ratios: biacromial diameter-chest circumference,                  perience a high degree of tension in social situa-
bi-iliac-biacromial, and bi-iliac-chest breadth. Other            tions, and are embarrassed, reserved, and awkward
large excesses which, however, do not attain the                  in manner. There is a fundamental liking for

                                                       TABLE VIII
                                                                                                                                   Lack of
                                     Total seri       Political                               Pragmat            Cultural          purpose
                                        (258)           (44)                (40)                 (99)              (54)              (56)
        Disproportions                                                    No.        %                           No.      %
Height/-^weight 13.5-x               36 14.2              11.4                      15.0            9.1          14    25.9              14.3
Biac. diam./chest circ. 48-x. . . . 22 8.7                 4.5                       2.5            8.1           3     5.6              12.5
Chest br./biac. diam. x-70           89 3S.2              43.2                      37.5           29.3          23    42.6              51.8
Chest depth/biac. diam. x-47. . . 73 28.8                 29.5                      22.5           23.2          18    33.3              37.5
Bi-iliac diam./biac. diam. 75-x. .   42 16.6              15.9                      15.0           19.2          10    18.5              19.6
Head circ./chest circ. 64-x         116 45.8              54.5                      37.5           32.3          32    59.2              51.8
Chest circ./stature x-48             54 21.3              18.2                      20.0           15.2          14    25.9              28.6
Calf circ./biac. diam. x-85          62 24.5              25.0                      12:5           24.2          19    35.2              28.6
Face br./chest br. 50-x              77 30.4              34.1                      30.0           23.2          17    31.5              35.7
Hand size/weight 110-x               46 18.2              18.2                      17.5           14.1          14    25.9              19.6
Bi-iliac diam./chest br. 103-x. .    68 26.9           10 22.7                      20.0        29 29.3          16    29.6              39.3

                                       Political                                      Pragmatic             Cultural
                                      Total series       total series                 total series         total series          total series
                                    Di6f.    C. R.     Diff.      C. R.             DiS.     C. R.       Diff.    C. R.        Diff.     C. R.
Height/v^ weight 13.5-x             -2.8    0.58      + 0.8       0.16          -     5.1    1.85       + 11.7 2.77           + 0.1      0.02
Biac. diam./chest circ. 48-x...     -4.2    1.09      - 6.2       1.51          -     0.6    0.27       - 3.1 0.91            + 3.8      1.14
Chest br./biac. diam. x-70....      +8.0    1.22      + 2.3       0.33          - 5.9        1.56       + 7.4 1.28            + 16.6     2.94
Chest depth/biac. diam. x-47.       +0.7    0.11      - 6.3       0.96          - 5.6        1.56       + 4.5 0.82            + 8.7      1.62
Bi-iliac diam./biac. diam. 75-x     -0.7    0.14      - 1.6       0.30          + 2.6        0.88       + 1.9 0.42            + 3.0      0.68
Head circ./chest circ. 64-x. . .    +8.7    1.27      - 8.3       1.15          -13.5        3.42       + 13.42.22            + 6.0      1.02
Chest circ./stature x-48            -3.1    0.55      - 1.3       0.22          - 6.1        1.89       + 4.6 0.93            + 7.3      1.51
Calf circ./biac. diam. x-85. . ..   +0.5    0.08      -12.0       1.92          - 0.3        0.09       + 10.72.05            + 4.1      0.81
Face br./chest br. 50-x             +3.7    0.59      - 0.4       0.06          - 7.2        1.98       + 1.1 0.20            + 5.3      0.97
Hand size/weight 110-x                0       0       - 0.7       0.12          - 4.1        1.34       + 7.7 1.65            + 1.4      0.31
Bi-iliac diam./chest br. 103-x.     -4.2    0.69      - 6.9       1.07          + 2.4        0.68       + 2.7 0.50            + 12.4     2.36

level of statistical significance are found in the head            people and a regret that shyness leads them to avoid
circumference-chest circumference, and chest cir-                  social events which they would enjoy if they could
cumference-stature ratios.                                         feel natural. A sense of social insecurity and a lack
   The important differentiations from the total                   of confidence are frequently described, which are
series values in the frequency of the disproportions               most marked in social situations." The asocial are
for the verbalistic grouping are to be seen in the                 a "group for whom social life, intimate friendships,
case of the chest breadth-biacromial diameter and                  and an interest in people are relatively unimportant.
chest depdvbiacromial diameter ratios. Both of                     Such young men are satisfied with their own com-
these are excesses and are above the level of statis-              pany and in the extreme are considered the 'lone
tical significance.                                                wolves.' Their interest in 'things' is of more impor-
                                                                  , tance to them than their personal relationships. . . .
Social Functions                                                   Unlike the shy group, they have no unexpressed
   Social traits have been categorized by the psy-                 liking for people or yearning for social life."
chiatrists into the triad of sociable, shy and asocial               The percental frequencies of these social traits
groupings. The sociable are "a group who are natur-                and the extent of their differentiation from the
ally friendly and who like to do things with people.               total series values are given in Table X. It is in-
Mar. 1946]                 BODY DISPROPORTIONS AND DOMINANT PERSONALITY TRAITS                                                                       89

                                                             TABLE IX
                                     DISPROPORTIONS IN EXPRESSIONISTIC GROUPINGS

                                                             Total series                       Inarticulate                          Verbalis tic
                                                                (258)                              (36)
          Disproportions                                    No.         %                     No.         %                       No.                %

Height/vAveight 13.5-x                                     36            14.2                      7        19.4                   8            17.4
Biac. diam./chest circ. 48-x                               22             8.7                      8        22.2                   3                 6.5
Chest br./biac. diam. x-70                                 89            35.2                     15        41.7                  23            50.0
Chest depth/biac. diam. x-47                               73            28.8                     13        36.1                  19            41.3
Bi-iliac diam./biac. diam. 75-x                            42            16.6                     11        30.6                   6            13.0
Head circ/chest circ. 64-x                                116            45.8                     21        58.3                  24            52.2
Chest, circ./stature x-48                                  54            21.3                     12        33.3                  10            21.7
Calf circ./biac. diam. x-85                                62            24.5                      6        16.7                  14            30.4
Face br./chest br. 50-x                                    77            30.4                     14        38.9                  17            37.0
Hand size/weight 110-x                                     46            18.2                      7        19.4                  10            21.7
Bi-iliac diam./chest br. 103-x                             68            26.9                     18        50.0                  16            34.8

                                                                Inarticulate vs. total series                       Verbalistic vs. total series
                                                                 Diff.                    C. R.                      Diff.                   C. R.
HeightA/weight 13.5-x                                           +5.2                      0.96                      +3.2                     0.69
Biac. diam./chest circ. 48-x                                    +13.5                     3.10                      -2.2                     0.58
Chest br./biac. diam. x-70                                      +6.5                      0.88                      +14.8                    2.32
Chest depth/biac. diam. x-47                                    +7.3                      1.04                      +12.5                    2.07
Bi-iliac diam./biac. diam. 75-x                                 +14.0                     2.43                      -3.6                     0.72
Head circ/chest circ. 64-x                                      +12.5                     1.62                      +6.4                     0.96
Chest circ./stature x-48                                        +12.0                     1.89                      +0.4                     0.07
Calf circ./biac. diam. x-85                                     -7.8                      1.17                      +5.9                     1.03
Face br./chest br. 50-x                                         +8.5                      1.20                      +6.6                     1.07
Hand size/weight 110-x                                          +1.2                      0.20                      +3.5                     0.68
Bi-iliac diam./chest br. 103-x                                  +23.1                     3.36                      +7.9                      1.33

                                                               TABLE X
                                             DISPROPORTIONS IN THE SOCIAL TRAITS
                                               Total series                    Sociable                      Shy                         Asocial
                                                  (258)                          (55)                        (46)                         (24)
         Disproportions                       No.         %               No.             %            No.           %                No.            %
Heigh t/v"weight 13.5-x                       36        14.2               7         12.7               7           15.2               5         20.8
Biac. diam./chest circ. 48-x                  22         8.7               2          3.6               7           15.2               6         25.0
Chest br./biac. diam. x-70                    89        35.2              21         38.2              18           39.1              13         54.2
Chest depth/biac. diam. x-47                  73        28.8              13         23.6              13           28.2               8         33.3
Bi-iliac diam./biac. diam. 7 5 - x . . . .    42        16.6               9         16.4               7           15.2               6         25.0
Head circ/chest circ. 64-x                   116     . 45.8               24         43.6              23           50.0              14         58.3
Chest circ./stature x-48                      54        21.3              10         18.2              12           26.1               7         29.2
Calf circ./biac. diam. x-85                   62        24.5              16         29.1              11           23.9               5         20.8
Face br./chest br. 50-x                       77      • 30.4              12         21.8 .            16           34.8              12         50.0
Hand size/weight 110-x                        46        18.2              14         25.4               8           17.4               7         29.2
Bi-iliac diam./chest br. 103-x                68        26.9              14         25.4              15           32.6              13         54.2

                                                   Sociable vs. total series              Shy vs. total series               Asocial vs. total series
                                                                     C. R.                Diff.          C. R.                Diff.
Height/vAveight 13.5-x                          -1.5               0.36               +1.0              0.21                 +6.6                  0.97
Biac. diam./chest circ. 48-x                    -5.1               1.51               +6.5.             1.72                 +16.3                 2.97
Chest br./biac. diam. x-70                      +3.0               0.52               +3.9              0.61                 +19.0                 2.05
Chest depth/biac. diam. x-47                    -5.2               0.96               -0.6              0.10                 +4.5                  0.51
Bi-iliac diam./biac. diam. 75-x                 -0.2               0.04               -1.4              0.28                 +8.4                  1.16
Head circ/chest circ. 64-x                      -2.2               0.37               +4.2              0.63                 +12.5                 1.29
Chest circ./stature x-48                        -3.1               0.63               +4.8              0.88                 +7.9                  0.99
Calf circ./biac. diam. x-85                     +4.6               0.89               -0.6              0.10                 -3.7                  0.44
Face br./chest br. 50-x                         -8.6               1.56               +4.4              0.72                 +19.6                 2.19
Hand size/weight 110-x                          +7.2               1.56               -0.8              0.16                 +11.0                 1.47
Bi-iliac diam./chest br. 103-x                  -1.5               0.28               +5.7              0.96                 +27.3                 3.17
90                                                CARL C. SELTZER                                                  [Vol. 8

teresting to note that in nine out of the eleven dis-     Mood Fluctuations
proportions, the percental frequencies of the shy            Mood Fluctuations Group
                                                                  Excess-chest breadth/biacromial diam. x-70
grouping falls between that of the sociable and the
                                                                  Excess-hand size/weight 110-x
asocial groups. This follows the status of the shy                Excess-calf circ./biacromial diam. x-85*
group with respect to the other social traits. The
                                                           Affect Groupings
shy group in a sense is intermediate between the
                                                                Vital Affect Group
sociable and asocial, possessing the desire for social               Deficiency-biacromial diam./chest circ. 48-x
contact but unable to express this feeling freely                    Deficiency-chest depth/biacromial diam. x-47
without shyness or awkwardness.                                      Deficiency-head circ./chest circ. 64-x
                                                                     Deficiency-chest circ./stature x-48*
   Considered individually with respect to their
                                                                Sensitive Affect Group
deviations from the total series, we find that the                   Excess-chest breadth/biacromial diam. x-70*
sociable group presents a series of small deviations,           Bland Affect Group
none statistically significant, but for the most part                Excess-bi-iliac/chest breadth 103-x
the frequencies of the disproportions are less than                  Excess-face breadth/chest breadth 50-x*
                                                                     Excess-biacromial diam./chest circ. 48-x*
those of the total series. The shy group also shows
small deviations (not statistically significant) but       Just-So Behavior
the majority of the disproportions are in excess of             Just-So Group
                                                                     Excess-bi-iliac/biacromial diam. 75-x
the total series frequencies. The asocial group, how-
ever, exhibits strong deviations from the total series,    Voluntary Functions Groupings
and in this instance all but one of the disproportions         Inhibited Group
                                                                    Excess-bi-iliac/chest breadth diam. 103-x
are in excess of the total series. Statistically sig-               Excess-head circ./chest circ. 64-x*
nificant deviations in this trait group occur for              Self-Conscious and Introspective Group
the biacromial diameter-chest circumference, chest                  Excess-head circ./chest circ. 64-x
breadth-biacromial diameter, face breadth-chest                Self-Driving Group
breadth, and bi-iliac-chest breadth disproportions. In     Cognitive Functions-Motivational Groupings
other words, the asocial individuals tend to have a            Physical Science Group
larger frequency of shoulders wide for chest size,                  Excess-height/"^weight 13.5-x
chests narrow for shoulder breadth, faces broad for                 Excess-biacromial diam./chest circ. 48-x
                                                                    Excess-chest circ./stature x-48
chest width, and hips broad for chest width.                  Practical Organizing Group
                                                                    Deficiency-height/ ^ w e i g h t 13.5-x
Summary of Significant Divergencies in Dispro-                      Deficiency-head circ./chest circ. 64-x
                                                                    Deficiency-chest circ./stature x-48*
   portions for the Individual Personality Trait
                                                               Ideational Group
   Groupings                                                        Excess-head circ./chest circ. 64-x
                                                               Creative and Intuitive Group
   The statistically significant divergencies over the
total series frequencies of the disproportions for         Cognitive Functions-Life Attitudes Groupings
each of the trait groupings are summarized in                  Political Croup
                                                               Humanistic Group
Table XI. It is striking to note that without excep-
                                                                    Deficiency-calf circ./biacromial diam. x-85*
                                                               Pragmatic Group
                                                                    Deficiency-head circ./chest circ. 64-x
                                                                    Deficiency-face breadth/chest breadth 50-x*
                                                                    Deficiency-height/ -^weight 13.5 -x*
                                                                    Deficiency-chest circ./stature x-48*
Unstable Autonomic Functions                                   Cultural Group
    Unstable Autonomic Functions Group                              Excess-height/-^weight 13.5-x
         Excess-height/^weight 13.5-x                               Excess-head circ./chest circ. 64-x
         Excess-biacromial diam./chest circ. 48-x                    Excess-calf circ./biacromial diam. x-85
         Excess-chest circ./stature x-48                       Lack, of Purpose and Values Group
         Excess-bi-iiiac/chest breadth 103-x                         Excess-chest breadth/biacromial diam. x-70
         Excess-chest depth/biacromial diam. x-47*                   Excess-bi-iliac/chest breadth 103-x
Basic Personality Trait Groupings                          Expressionistic Groupings
     Well-Integrated Group                                     Inarticulate Group
         Deficiency-height/^weight 13.5-x                           Excess-biacromial diam./chest circ. 48-x
          Deficiency-chest depth/biacromial diam. x-47              Excess-bi-iliac diam./biacromial diam. 75-x
         Deficiency-calf circ./biacromial diam. x-85                Excess-bi-iliac diam./chest breadth 103-x
     Less Well-Integrated Group                                     Excess-chest circ./stature x-48*
          Excess-height/ ^weight 13.5-x                        Verbalistic Group
          Excess-calf circ./biacromial diam. x-85                   Excess-chest breadth/biacromial diam. x-70
          Excess-chest depth/biacromial diam. x-47*                 Excess-chest depth/biacromial diam. x-47
Mar. 1946]                BODY DISPROPORTIONS AND DOMINANT PERSONALITY TRAITS                                           91
Social Functions Groupings                                         classes, A, B, and C, according to an overall judg-
     Sociable Group                                                ment of "soundness." The A group is the most
     Shy Group
     Asocial Group                                                 sound class, the B less sound, and the C the least
          Excess-biac. diarn./chest circ. 48-x                     sound. The A soundness class contains "young
          Excess-chest breadth/biacromial diam. x-70               men who were thoroughly 'sound' in Webster's
          Excess-face breadth/chest breadth 50-x                   meaning of 'free from flaws,' 'on a firm foundation.'
          Excess-bi-iliac diam./chest breaddi 103-x
                                                                   It was hard for the physician to see any particular
   * Probable significant differences-critical ratios of 1.73 to
2.00. See Peters, C. C. and VanVoorhis, W. R.: Statistical         way in which they might have serious trouble in
Procedures and Their Mathematical Bases. McGraw Hill,              handling the problems which might confront them."
1940, pp. 426-427. These authors suggest that 1.73(7 be taken
"as a standard for provisional acceptance of the findings of       The B soundness class is a group "in whom there
an experiment . . . that ratio represents odds of 23 to 1."
                                                                   was a question of a minor flaw. For instance, if
tion the direction of the significant divergencies are             a boy was lacking in warmth in his touch with
the same for the particular trait category, all ex-                people or if he was erratic, or showed degrees of
cesses or all deficiencies.                                        sensitiveness leading to minor frustrations, he
   Significant excesses of one or more of the dis-                 would be placed in this group." The C class con-
proportions over the total series frequencies occur                sists of young men "whose history revealed a
in the following trait groupings:                                  definite handicap. A good illustration would be
             Unstable Autonomic Functions                          swings of mood which interfered noticeably with
             Less Well-Integrated                                  function. Pronounced groping for purposes and
             Mood Fluctuations                                     values in life would be sufficient evidence to place
             Sensitive Affect
             Bland Affect
                                                                   a young man in this group."
             Just-So                                                  From the frequencies of the disproportions in the
             Inhibited                                             A, B, and C classes (Table XII) it can be seen that
             Self-Conscious and Introspective                      the A class has a smaller percentage of dispropor-
             Motivations Towards Physical Science
             Motivations Towards die Ideational
                                                                   tions in every instance than the B and C classes.
             Cultural                                              The percentage of disproportions for the B class
             Lack of Purpose and Values                            is intermediate between A and C in the case of
             Inarticulate                                          six of the ratios, and somewhat greater than C in
                                                                   the five remaining disproportions.
                                                                      Relative to the total series frequencies, the A
Significant deficiencies, on the other hand, of one
                                                                   class is deficient in all the disproportions, the B
or more disproportions over the total series fre-
                                                                   class shows excesses in every instance, while the C
quencies occur in these traits:
                                                                   class has excesses in eight out of the eleven dispro-
                      Well-Integrated                              portions. Where there are deficiencies in the C class
                      Vital Affect
                                                                   these are very small and statistically insignificant.
                      Practical Organizing
                      Humanistic                                      A detailed analysis reveals statistically significant
                      Pragmatic                                    deficiencies of individuals in the A class with very
It is quite apparent that the two lists of personality             wide shoulders relative to their chest circumfer-
groupings show marked contrast in the quality of                   ences, with very narrow chests relative to the
the traits. The first listing (with excesses of dis-               breadth of the shoulders, with very large head cir-
proportions), with few exceptions, contains trait                  cumferences relative to the circumferences of the
groupings indicating lesser stability, less integration,           chest, with very broad hips relative to the width of
sensitivity and complexity of the personality, and                 the chest, and very shallow chests relative to the
less capacity for making easy social adjustments.                  breadth of the shoulders. Deficiencies, of probable
The second listing (with deficiencies of dispropor-                statistical significance, are also found in individuals
tions) is diametrically opposite to the first. Here                with very broad faces relative to the width of the
the traits are suggestive of stability, good integra-              chest, with large hand size relative to the body
tion and ease of making adjustments.                               weight, and with small chest circumferences relative
                                                                   to their statures.
Disproportions and A, B, C, Soundness Classification                  The B class has statistically significant excesses
  In addition to describing the subjects by domi-                  of individuals with large head circumferences rel-
nant personality traits, the psychiatrists of the Grant            ative to their chest circumferences, with large
Study have separated the participants into three                   hands relative to their body weights, and probably
92                                               CARL C. SELTZER                                                                    [Vol. 8

with very narrow chests relative to the width of the                  A random sample of 18-20 year old Freshmen of
shoulders.                                                          the class of 1946 has been chosen for comparison.
   The excesses of statistical significance for the C               This group of 300 young men, examined in July
class indicate for this group a substantially greater               of 1942, is comparable in age to the Grant Study
proportion of individuals with very wide shoulders                  participants. Table XIII gives the frequency of dis-
relative to the circumference of the chest, very                    proportions among the freshmen as contrasted with
flat chests relative to the width of the shoulders,                 the Grant series. It is readily apparent that there
large head circumferences relative to their chest                   are striking differences between the two groups.
circumferences, and with very broad hips relative                   The undifferentiated freshmen show consistently
to the width of their chests.                                       larger frequencies of disproportions than do the

                                                       TABLE XII
                                  DISPROPORTIONS IN THE A, B, C, CLASSIFICATIONS

                                         Total Series                       A                          B                          C
                                            (258)                          (92)                      (112)                       (45)
       Disproportions                   No.         %                No.           %              No.         %
Height/vAveight 13.5-x                  36       14.2                 10          10.9            17         15.2                       20.0
Biac. diam./chest circ. 48-x            22        8.7                  2           2.2            11          9.8                       17.8
Chest br./biac. diam. x-70              89       35.2                 25          27.2            46         41.1           18          40.0
Chest depth/biac. diam. x-47            73       28.8                 19          20.6            33         29.5           19          42.2
Bi-iliac diam./biac. diam. 75-x         42       16.6                 14          15.2            22         19.6            6          13.3
Head circ./chest circ. 64-x            116       45.8                 29          31.5            61         54.5           27          60.0
Chest circ./stature x-48                54       21.3                 14          15.2            28         25.0           10          22.2
Calf circ./biac. diam. x-85             62       24.5                 18          19.6            33         29.5           10          22.2
Face br./chest br. 50-x                 77       30.4                 21          22.8            39         34.8           17          37.7
Hand size/weight 110-x                  46       18.2                 11          12.0            28         25.0            8          17.8
Bi-iliac diam./chest br. 103-x          68       26.9                 15          16.3            33         29.5           18          40.0

                                                     s. total s                        B vs. total series           C vs. total s
                                                        (92)                                (112)                          (45)
                                             Diff.                C. R.               Dilf.          C. R.          Diff.               C. R.
Height/vAveight 13.5-x                    - 3.3              1.13                 +    1.0          0.40            + 5.8               1.23
Biac. diam./chest circ. 48-x              - 6.5              2.76                 +    1.1          0.55            + 9.1               2.38
Chest br./biac. diam. x-70                - 8.0              2.01                 +    5.9          1.74            + 4.8               0.74
Chest depth/biac. diam. x-47              - 8.2              2.17                 +    0.7          0.22            + 13.4              2.18
Bi-iliac diam./biac. diam. 75-x           - 1.4              0.45                 +    3.0          1.14            - 3.3               0.65
Head circ./chest circ. 64-x               -14.3              3.43                 +    8.7          2.46            + 14.2              2.10
Chest, circ./stature x-48                 - 6.1              1.78                 +    3.7          1.28            + 0.9               0.16
Calf circ./biac. diam. x-85               - 4.9              1.36                 +    5.0          1.64            - 2.3               0.40
Face br./chest br. 50-x                   - 7.6              1.98                 +    4.4          1.35            + 7.3               1.17
Hand size/weight 110-x                    - 6.2              1.92
                                                                                  +    6.8          2.48            - 0.4               0.08
Bi-iliac diam./chest br. 103-x            -10.6              2.86
                                                                                  +    2.6          0.82            + 13.1              2.18

          DISPROPORTIONS IN OTHER CROUPS                             "normal" Grant study subjects. The only exception
Comparison Between Grant Study Series and Har-                       to this trend is in the bi-iliac-biacromial index,
   vard Freshmen                                                     where the freshmen have an insignificantly smaller
                                                                     percentage of individuals with this disproportion.
   It is pertinent to inquire, "How do these selected
                                                                     In every other instance the disproportions are in
Grant Study subjects compare with an undiffer-
                                                                     excess in the freshmen, and in most cases the dif-
entiated sample of Harvard undergraduates?"
                                                                     ferences are statistically significant.
Since the Grant group of "normal" young men was
selected on the basis of satisfactory academic status,                  The freshmen compared to the Grant Study
good health, and overtly good social adjustment,                     series have a significantly greater percentage of in-
then it may be presumed that as a group they will                    dividuals with extreme linearity or ectomorphy,
deviate significantly from the general average of                    with very broad shoulders relative to their chest
Harvard undergraduates. This should follow since                     circumferences, with narrow chests relative to their
the foregoing analysis indicates that frequency of                   shoulder breadths, with very large head circum-
disproportions is associated with those personality                  ferences relative to the size of the chest circumfer-
traits which make for less easy social adjustment.                   ences; a greater proportion of individuals with
Mar. 1946]              BODY DISPROPORTIONS AND DOMINANT PERSONALITY TRAITS                                                               93

small chest circumferences relative to their statures,          occur in the following disproportions: height-
with very broad faces relative to the width of their            weight ratio, bi-iliac-biacromial ratio, head circum-
chests, with large hands relative to their body                 ference-chest circumference ratio, chest circumfer-
weights, and with broad hips relative to their chest            ence-stature ratio, face breadth-chest breadth ratio,
widths.                                                         and bi-iliac chest breadth ratio. In every one of
   Here then, is strong confirmation of the associa-            these disproportions, the group with C and D
tion of disproportions with personality. In no wise             ratings includes a significantly larger percentage of
were the Grant Study subjects selected on the basis             its individuals than does the group with A and B
of anthropological measurements or observations,                ratings.
yet the group is significantly less disproportionate               It should be recognized that these predictive
than a random sample of undergraduates of com-                  ratings of the freshmen made by the college
parable age. The paucity of disproportions in the               physicians are not strictly comparable to the A,
Grant series must be related to its "normality,"                B, C "soundness" ratings of the Grant Study series.
since this was the basis of selection from the under-           The latter were established by the staff psychiatrists
graduate body.                                                  after considerable contact, study and interview of

                                                    TABLE XIII
                                                Grant Study                       Harvard Freshmen
                                                   (258)                                (300)
                                         •                          •         .           •        •                                  Critical
       Disproportions                     No.               %                     No.          %                   Did.                ratio
Height/-^ weight 13.5-x                   36            14.2                   73            24.3                +10.1                 3.06
Biac. diam./chest circ. 48-x              22             8.7                   69            23.0                +14.3                 4.78
Chest br./biac. diam. x-70                89            35.2                  181            60.3                +25.1                 6.12
Chest depth/biac. diam. x-47              73            28.8                  107            35.7                +6.9                  1.75
Bi-iliac diam./biac. diam. 75-x           42            16.6                   48            16.0                -0.6                  0.19
Head circ./chest circ. 64-x              116            45.8                  202            67.3                +21.5                 5.23
Chest circ./stature x-48                  54            21.3                  134            44.7                +23.4                 6.09
Calf circ./biac. x-85                     62            24.5                   80            26.7                +2.2                  0.59
Face br./chest br. 50-x                   77            30.4                  154            51.3                +20.9                 5.14
Hand area/weight 110-x                    46            18.2                  108            36.0                +17.8                 4.85
Bi-iliac diam./chest br. 103-x            68            26.9                  136            45.3                +18.4                 4.62

Disproportions in Freshmen Scries According            to       the subjects. The freshmen ratings, on the other
    "Soundness" Ratings                                         hand, were impressionistic, intuitive ratings as a
                                                                r e s u l t of a s i n
   Further evidence of the relationship between the                                    S l e a n d ™P«>tracted interview. What
disproportions and personality may be derived from                  PPears        t0
                                                                                    , b e s ' g n ' f i « n t from the point of view
                                                                of this stud
"soundness" ratings of the Freshmen series. Sub-                                    y l s t h e verification of the relationship
                                                                betw een
jective ratings for "soundness" were made for the                        ,         disproportions and "soundness of per-
freshmen by the examining college physicians at                              y - T h l s l s a11 t h e m o r e important since the
                                                                r e s u l t s a r e b a s e d o n o t h e r d a t a a a r t f r o m t h a t of
the end of the forty minute period of the entrance                                                                   P
                                                                the G r a n t Stud
medical examination. These ratings, on an ABCD                                             y s e n e s a n d o n "soundness" ratings
                                                                m a d e b other examiners
scale, were made on the basis of the judgment of                              ?                              -
of the physician as to the general all around sound-
ness and stability of the individual, as well as to             Comparison Between Grant Study and Psychia-
                                                                        tnc       Climc    Seues
his ability to adjust to the college environment.
   For the purposes of this study, the "soundness"                 The association of disproportions with person-
ratings of the freshmen were separated into two                 alities less well-organized and less capable of making
groups, those individuals with ratings of A or B                easy social adjustments is further emphasized by an
and those with ratings of C or D. These two                     analysis of a series of 51 Harvard students referred
groups are compared for their frequency of dis-                 to the Psychiatric Clinic of the Department of
proportions in Table XIV. Again we find that the                Hygiene of Harvard University. More than half
"more sound" persons (ratings of A and B) have                  of the group were diagnosed as belonging to the
in general fewer disproportions than the "less                  category of psychoneurosis of the anxiety type,
sound" individuals (ratings of C and D ) . Differ-              while the remainder consisted of a conglomerate
ences that attain the level of statistical significance         assembly of individuals classified as'having psycho-
94                                               CARL C. SELTZER                                                [Vol. 8

pathic conditions of various types, functional dis-            the Psychiatric Clinic series exceeds those of the
orders, and a few undiagnosed. This group is of                Freshmen group.
the same age as the Grant Study series.
  The Psychiatric Clinic series has been compared
with the Grant Study group for frequency of dis-                  The preceding analysis gives clear indication of
proportions (Table X V ) . The data indicate clearly           significant relationships between physique and per-
a greater incidence of the various disproportions              sonality in normal individuals. The main generali-
in the Psychiatric Clinic group. In only one ratio             zation to be derived from these data is the principle

                                                    TABLE XIV

                                                A and B                      Cand D
                                          "Sou ndness" ratings          "Soiindness" ratings
                                                  (176)                        (110)
        Disproportions                    No.              %            No.                           Diff.      ratio
Height/-^ weight 13.5-x                   38            21.6            36           32.7         + 11.1          2.04
Biac. diam./chest circ. 48-x.. . .        37            21.0            29           26.4         + 5.4           1.04
Chest br./biac. diam. x-70                00            56.8            72           65.5         + 8.7           1.48
Chest depth/biac. diam. x-47 . .          65            36.9            40           36.4         - 0.5           0.09
Bi-iliac diam./biac. diam. 75-x.          22            12.5            25           22.7         + 10.2          2.16
Head circ./chest circ. 64-x               09            61.9            84           76.4         + 14.5          2.66
Chest circ./stature x-48                  71            40.3            60           54.5         + 14.2          2.36
Calf circ./biac. diam. x-85               48            27.3            28           25.5         -       1.8     0.34
Face br./chest br. 50-x                   87            49.4            72           65.5         + 16.1          2.73
Hand area/weight 110-x                    58            33.0            42           38.2         + 5.2           0.89
Bi-iliac diam./chest br. 103-x. .         72            40.9            64           58.2         + 17.3          2.89

                                                     TABLE XV

                                                Grant Study              Psychiatric Clinic
                                                   (258)                      (51)
        Disproportions                    No.              %             No.           %              Diff.      ratio
Height/-^ weight 13.5-x                   36            14.2            12            23.5       +9.3             1.47
Biac. diam./chest circ. 48-x              22             8.7            14            27.4       +18.7            2.88
Chest br./biac. diam. x-70                89            35.2            32            62.7       +27.5            3.72
Chest depth/biac. diam. x-47              73            28.8            14            27.4       - 1.4            0.20
Bi-iliac diam./biac. diam. 75-x           42            16.6            12            23.5       +6.9             1.08
Head circ./chest circ. 64-x              116            45.8            41            80.4     . +34.6            5.43
Chest circ./stature x-48                  54            21.3            20            39.2       +17.9            2.45
Calf circ./biac. diam. x-85               62            24.5            21            41.2       +16.7            2.26
Face br./chest br. 50-x                   77            30.4            33            64.7       +34.3            4.71
Hand area/weight 110-x                    46            18.2            14            27.4       +9.2             1.37
Bi-iliac diam./chest br. 103-x            68            26.9            26            51.0       +24.1            3.20

are the disproportions fewer than in the "normal"               that unilateral disharmonic bodily proportions are
Grant Study series, and then by a very small per-               associated with less stable personalities, with traits
centage. In a number of instances the frequency of              indicating difficulty in making easy social adjust-
disproportions is about twice as marked as in the               ments, and with motivations that are less practicable
Grant Study group. T h e differences between the                 and leading to more ideational (cerebrotonic)
Psychiatric Clinic and the Grant Study series which            fields of endeavor. T h e unilateral aspect of these
are beyond the level of statistical significance are             disproportions must be stressed. Their association
indicated in the following ratios: biacromial-chest              with the Jess well-integrated personalities involves
circumference, chest breadth-biacromial diameter,                one end of the distribution curve of the bodily ratio,
head circumference-chest circumference, chest cir-               Thus the traits concerned are positively related to
cumference-stature, calf circumference-biacromial                bodily proportions which represent, for example,
diameter, face breadth-chest breadth, and bi-iliac-              head size big for the size of chest, and not head
diameter-chest breadth.                                          size small for size of chest. They are associated
   It is of some interest to note that in certain of the         with shoulders big for the size of chest, and not
bodily ratios the frequency of the disproportions of             with shoulders small for the size of chest; with
Mar. 1946]            BODY DISPROPORTIONS AND DOMINANT PERSONALITY TRAITS                                     95

hands large for the size of body, and not with hands      data have been independently gathered by dif-
small for the size of the body, et cetera. In the case    ferent observers representing different disciplines
of the extremes of the curves opposite to those de-       removes from consideration the imputation of
fined as disproportions, there is no clear-cut associa-   spurious correlation through bias, or "halo effect."
tion in every instance with the more stable, prac-           The findings in this study are perforce circum-
tical and more vital traits, such as the "well-           scribed by the nature and scope of the personality
integrated," "practical organizing," "self-driving,"      traits with which the disproportions were related.
"humanistic," "sociable," and "vital affect." Such        The trait groupings represent dominant or out-
a relationship does exist in certain cases and in         standing traits, which are to a great extent on the
others there is simply a deficiency of the more sen-      intellectual and motivational level. The extension
sitive and complex traits.                                of this concept of disproportions to traits of lesser
   The question may be raised in connection with          degrees of intensity, and on the more biological and
the ratios as to the specific nature of the dispropor-    temperamental levels, will probably yield additional
tion. Is the index the result of a very large size of     significant relationships.
one dimension or the small size of the other dimen-          The origin of the variations in the body propor-
sion? For example, in the disproportion of head           tions here studied is largely a matter of speculation.
circumference-chest circumference of 64 and higher,       But since the disproportions are derived from
is the index due to the large size of the head or         measurements which are in most instances closely
the small size of the chest? In answer to this query,     related to skeletal dimensions, it suggests that they
analyses of the disproportionate indices have been        are largely independent of physical environmental
made, and the results show that in approximately          influences and that we are dealing with character-
50 per cent of the cases the disproportionate index       istics which are principally of an inherited nature.
is attributable to the combination of the large size      The variations in such measurements as the cir-
of one of the dimensions and the small size of the        cumference of the head, the biacromial breadth of
other measurement. In approximately 40 per cent           the shoulders, the bizygomatic width of the face,
of cases, although there is a disproportionate rela-      the breadth and depth of the chest, and the bi-iliac
tionship between one dimension and the other, both        breadth of the hips, can hardly be ascribed to gross
of the absolute dimensions are smaller than the           factors of the physical environment such as climate,
corresponding means of the series. In the remain-         diet and disease. In this "normal" group, the diets,
ing cases, approximately 10 per cent, both measure-       from infancy on, may be regarded as being well-
ments are larger than their corresponding means,          standardized, at least from the point of view of
while at the same time one of the dimensions is still     divergencies of diets throughout the world. Among
disproportionately larger than the other. Thus, in        these selected young men, there was rarely evidence
51.3 per cent of head circumference-chest circum-         of any stigmata which could be attributed to rickets
ference disproportions the absolute head circum-          or other deficiency diseases, or to any specific effec-
ference is larger than the mean of the total series       tive agencies of pathology. Other conditions which
and the corresponding chest circumference smaller         might conceivably have interfered with or modified
than the mean of the total series. In 41.9 per cent       skeletal growth were not found. There is no doubt
of instances both the head circumference and the          that racial factors play some role, and it is thought
chest circumference dimensions are smaller than the       that familial influences might be identified. In
corresponding means of the entire series. And in          addition, there are scarcely any indications that the
the residual 6.8 per cent, the head and chest cir-        personality traits themselves might have been modi-
cumferences are larger than the means of the              fied appreciably by the presence of these dispropor-
entire series.                                            tions. In many cases, the disproportions are so
   The consistency of the general findings in other       subde to the eye that they cannot be identified with-
groups distinct from the Grant Study material             out the actual measurement and computation of the
makes it highly unlikely that the association of the      ratio. They are scarcely so pronounced as to inter-
disproportions with the personality trait groupings       fere with normal activities or indulgence in sports
may be the result of some artifact or peculiarity         although they may dictate to a certain extent the
of the Grant Study sample. The analysis of the            particular variety of sports in which the subject
Freshmen data and the Psychiatric Clinic series           might excel. It would seem that the disproportions
must be considered as strong evidence of the              are constitutional, and as such their relationship to
authenticity of this general psycho-physical relation-    the personality traits may indicate a genetic element
ship. The fact that the physical and personality          as a basic factor in the determination of behavior
96                                             CARL C. SELTZER                                             [Vol. 8

and personality. The proof of this supposition must        be recognized that the trait groups were compared
await further studies on other groups in varying           with the total series of which they are a part. If
cultural settings. If it is true, it becomes of course a   they were taken out of the total series so that the
matter of marked importance. On the other hand,            comparisons would be between one trait group and
the absence of any hereditary significance of the dis-     another, the differences obtained would naturally
proportions to behavior would in no way diminish           be larger than those quoted for the total series.
the potential utility of these findings. There would          Another subject which necessitates further study
still remain considerable usefulness in understand-        is the relationship of the disproportions with the
ing the individual "as is" and possible use for pre-       various somatotypes. Disproportions appear to be
diction based on further work. The application             least common in the marked endomorphs and the
of these findings in education, medicine, personnel        marked mesomorphs. They are most common in
selection, and the like is readily apparent.               the strong ectomorphs. This does not mean that
   It is noteworthy that the disproportions do not         disproportions are synonymous with, ectomorphy
appear to be of equal importance in their relation-        or that the underlying factor in the disproportions is
ship to the various personality traits. There are          the ectomorphic -element. Disproportions occur in
some disproportions which are more frequently as-          individuals in which the ectomorphic component
sociated with the traits and others less so. If we         is not marked, and not all strong ectomorphs
take as a yardstick the statistically significant ex-      are replete with disproportions. The element of
cesses over the total series frequencies, we find that     strong ectomorphy is included in one of the dis-
the bi-iliac-chest breadth and the chest breadth-          proportions in the height ^weight ratio of 13.5
biacromial disproportions are significantly differ-        and higher. Even though this height-weight ratio
entiated in more of the personality trait groupings        is correlated with almost all of the other ratios of
here studied than any of the other ratios. In con-         disproportion, and particularly so with chest cir-
trast, the hand area-weight, bi-iliac-biacromial, and      cumference-stature index, it does not show the
face breadth-chest breadth disproportions are sig-         greatest frequency of significant divergencies with
nificantly differentiated in the least number of the       the personality traits but actually less than several
personality traits. In regard to significant deficien-     other disproportions. There are instances in which
cies from the total series frequencies, the head cir-      the chest circumference-stature disproportion pre-
cumference-chest circumference disproportion leads         sents significant personality trait divergencies which
by far in number of significant differentiations, and      are not matched by the height-weight ratio. It
is followed by the chest circumference-stature ratio.      would appear therefore that the height-weight dis-
No deficiencies of statistical significance are en-        proportion (representing marked ectomorphy) is
countered in the case of the hand area-weight, bi-         not independent of other disproportions but it can-
iliac-biacromial, and bi-iliac-chest breadth dispro-       not be said that it is so highly intercorrelated as to
portions. Hence, the bi-iliac-biacromial and hand          produce spurious correlations in the case of the
area-weight disproportions are of least value in           other disproportions.
their overall relationship to these personality trait
   The impression is not meant to be conveyed that
the disproportions indicated in this study represent         Results of the analysis of the body proportions
all the amodal proportions of significance as re-          of a group of 258 "normal" young men, investi-
lated to personality. The need for pressing further        gated by the Grant Study of Harvard University,
the search for additional ratios of this order is im-      indicate an association between restricted ranges of
plicit and desirable. Added investigations may well        the body ratios called disproportions, and the fre-
disclose changes in the ranges of the disproportions       quency of certain dominant personality traits. The
which would produce more significant relationships.        disproportions here studied are:
The use of more formalized methods for establish-                   Stature tall for body weight
ing the most profitable ranges for the disproportions,              Shoulders broad for circumference of
such as the X 2 method for determining the best                       chest
"cut-off points," might increase their predictive                   Chests narrow for width of shoulders
value. Inasmuch as some of the body ratios used                     Chests shallow (front to back) for
                                                                      width of shoulders
change somewhat with age, different ranges for the                  Hips broad for width of shoulders
disproportions may be required for age groups                       Heads large for size of chest
other than that of the college level. It also should                Chests small for stature
Mar. 1946]            BODY DISPROPORTIONS AND DOMINANT PERSONALITY TRAITS                                    97
         Leg circumferences small for width of            of a large series of unselected undergraduates rated
           shoulders                                      on the basis of general "soundness" of personality,
         Faces broad for width of chest
         Hands large for body weight
                                                          and a group of students who were referred to the
         Hips broad for width of chest                    college psychiatric clinic. In both instances the dis-
                                                          proportions were more frequent in the "less sound"
   Individuals possessing these disproportions have       undergraduates and in the psychiatric clinic cases.
a greater frequency of those dominant personality            It is suggested that the disproportions are con-
traits indicating lesser stability, lesser integration,   stitutional and as such may indicate a genetic
greater sensitivity and complexity of the person-         element in the determination of personality and
ality, and lesser capacity for making easy social         behavior. However, it is pointed out that verifica-
adjustments. Some of the traits which go with the         tion of this supposition must await further study
disproportions are "unstable autonomic functions,"        with other groups, in different age levels, and in
"less well-integrated," "mood fluctuations," "bland       varying cultural settings.
affect," "inhibited," "cultural," "lack of purpose and
values," "inarticulate," and "asocial."
   Conversely, individuals with traits indicating
"soundness," stability, integration, vitality, and           I am indebted to Drs. A. V. Bock, E. A. Hooton,
strength of personality have fewer disproportions in      F. L. Wells, and C. W. Heath for criticism and
their physiques than the average of the group.            helpful suggestions; and to Eleanor B. McTernan
   These generalizations are supported by analyses        for editorial assistance.

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