BODY DISPROPORTIONS AND DOMINANT PERSONALITY TRAITS * CARL C. SELTZER, PH.D. The relationship between the morphological THE DISPROPORTIONS structure of individuals and various aspects of their total personality has been the subject of numerous The frequency curves of a number of indices of studies over a long period of time.1 However, the body proportion were found to exhibit character- bulk of these researches has been oriented towards istic patterns for certain of the dominant personality pathology, physical and mental. Comparatively trait groupings. There was evidence of skewness litde is known concerning the relationship of in a unilateral direction for several of the body physique and personality in normals, and more ratios. Figures 1A and 1B illustrate this condition. particularly in normal adults. In figures 1 and 2, the frequency curves of the The work of the Grant Study of Harvard Uni- chest depth-biacromial index for four personality versity has been directed toward fulfilling the need trait groupings are compared with the curve of the in our knowledge of the normal person.2 Estab- total series. In the case of the less well-integrated lished in 1938, the Grant Study has centered its and lac\ of purpose and values groupings (fig. la investigation on the total personality of the normal and lb), skewness of the frequency curves for this young male adult. The approach has been clinical, index is readily apparent. By contrast, the well- and it has been carried on cooperatively by persons integrated and pragmatic series (fig. 2a and 2b) trained in medicine, physiology, anthropology, psy- show close similarity to the total series frequency chology, psychiatry, and sociology. The work of curve. There appears to be a greater frequency of the physical anthropologist has been mainly con- individuals with shallow chests relative to shoulder cerned with a study of the variations in die physical breadth in the less well-integrated and lac\ of structure and appearance of normal young men, purpose and values groupings than in the series and their relationship to other characteristics of the as a whole. individual. The methods of morphological de- The condition here illustrated was observed to scription and classification utilized included a large be a recurrent pattern in other body ratios for series of measurements, proportions, morphological certain dominant personality traits. observations, somatotype ratings, and an estimate of That part of the frequency curve of each body masculine component. ratio which encompasses the element of skewness from the total series curve has been designated by The Grant Study research thus affords an un- the term disproportion. For the purposes of this usual opportunity for the study of human con- paper, disproportions are values of an index which stitution. The presence of a variety of data in are extremely divergent from the mean, usually in addition to the anthropological makes it possible one direction. Thus, the possession of a head which to relate the physique of the individual to various is very large relative to the chest size is considered component parts of his personality. The present to be a disproportion. The combination of wide report deals with only one aspect of this work shoulders and thin legs is also a disproportion. which has yielded interesting relationships between Other disproportions include the combination of physique and personality; that is, the element of very broad hips relative to shoulder width, a flat disproportions. chest relative to shoulder width, very broad hips * From the Grant Study, Department of Hygiene, Harvard relative to chest breadth, a broad face relative to University. chest width, a large hand relative to total body 1 For an extended review of this subject and excellent size, etc. bibliography, see Tucker, W. B. and Lessa, W. A. Man: A Constitutional Investigation. Quart. Rev. Biol., 15:265- The following list of disproportions and their 289, 411-455, 1940. tentative critical levels has been found to be useful 2 For a description of the work of the Grant Study see in the Grant Study as related to personality trait Wells, F. L.: A Research Focused upon the Normal Person- groupings and to other characteristics: ality: A Note. Character and Personality, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 299-301, 1944; Heath, Clark W. et al.: What People 1. Stature/-^weight index when above 13.4. Arc. Introduction to the work of the Grant Study, Harvard 2. Biacromial diam. X 100/chest circ. index when above 47. University Press, 1945; Hooton, E. A.: Young Man, You 3. Chest breadth X 100/biacromiaI diam. index when be- Are Normal. Putnam, 1945. low 71. 75 CARL C. SELTZER [Vol. 8 FIG. 1A. Frequency curves of "less well-integrated" and total series. Mar. 194rtl BODY DISPROPORTIONS AND DOMINANT PERSONALITY TRAITS 77 • m HI W^MrnmiM^'M&W} iJm\i\mi:\:iSo:i^~x mgmmmi Mi* mmmp^^w^sm i59i;ii;fei: FIG. 1B. Frequency curves of "lack of purpose and values" and total series. 78 CARL C. SELTZER [Vol. 8 FIG. 2A. Frequency curves of "well-integrated" and total series. Mar. 1916] BODY DISPROPORTIONS AND DOMINANT PERSONALITY TRAITS Fie. 2B. Frequency curves of "pragmatic" and total series. CARL C. SELTZER [Vol. 8 4. Chest depth X 100/biacromial diam. index when be- man year or whose prospects for completion of the low 48. total academic requirements were not promising. 5. Hip breadth X 100/biacromial diam. index when above 74. For the purposes of this investigation special at- 6. Head circ. X 100/chest circ. index when above 63. tention has been directed to the classification of 7. Chest circ. X 100/stature index when below 49. the subjects according to the dominant personality 8. Calf circ. X 100/shoulder breadth when below 86. trait groupings. A detailed account of the methods 9. Face breadth X 100/chest breadth when above 49. of interview, personality classification and defini- 10. Hand size (hand length X hand breadth) X 100/ weight when above 109. tions has already been published, but it should be 11. Hip breadth X 100/chest breadth when above 102. pointed out that they were independently desig- (All dimensions are in centimeters except face breadth, nated by the staff psychiatrists from the mass of hand length and hand breadth which are in millimeters.) interview material obtained from the subjects studied.4 The appearance of certain personality These disproportions and their ranges, it should traits with considerable frequency made it desir- be pointed out, were empirically derived. There was able to group those subjects who had specific out- no fixed mathematical method of formulating them. standing characteristics in common. Thus, for In fact, they are the considered result of the ex- example, there appeared a sociable group, a vital perience, intimate knowledge and intensive study affect group, a shy group, an unstable autonomic of the material. Moreover, the list is merely a functions group, a self-conscious introspective group, tentative one of significant body ratio ranges which etc. These various dominant trait groupings were seem to be related to personality traits and other assigned to an individual with no consideration of characteristics of the individual. The range of the the other traits which might pertain to him. disproportions is also considered tentative in nature. As a result of further study, or eventual enlarge- The personality traits here described are heavily ment of the series, it might be that these ranges weighted towards the aspect of life attitudes, intel- would be shifted somewhat one way or another. lectual functions and motivations. This came about In short, the disproportions now listed should not as a natural result of dealing with college students, be regarded in any way sacrosanct and final. selected "normal" individuals, and the particular orientation of the psychiatrists to the problems of As a further word of caution, it must be empha- "career choice" of the subjects. sized that the term disproportion is not to be re- garded as carrying with it the stigma of abnormal- ity. These ratios are in no sense abnormal; they are DISPROPORTIONS AND DOMINANT PERSONALITY simply normal deviates from the mean of the TRAIT GROUPINGS group as a whole. In this section the various personality trait group- The difference between "disproportions" and ings are individually analyzed for frequency of dis- Sheldon's "dysplasias" is that Sheldon's term per- proportions. The percental occurrence of each tains to the somatotype components: endomorphy, disproportion in the trait groupings is plotted mesomorphy and ectomorphy. "Disproportions," against the frequency in the series as a whole. on the contrary, have to do with certain restricted variations in the relationship of gross measurements. Autonomic Functions THE MATERIAL The unstable autonomic junctions group includes The analysis is based upon data obtained on those young men "who show manifestations of 258 individuals, Harvard undergraduates, who instability in the functions which are generally were first observed with few exceptions in their conceded to be governed by the autonomic nervous sophomore years. They represent a selected group in system. Included are boys who show either periodic several respects.3 Very briefly, Grant Study sub- excessive anxiety or an undue amount of chronic anxiety as well as those subject to such symptoms jects were selected on the basis of good medical as tremulousness, blushing, increased perspiration, health, satisfactory academic status, and overtly palpitation and functional disturbances of the good social adjustment. On intellectual grounds urinary and gastro-intestinal systems." only those young men were eliminated whose academic records were unsatisfactory in their fresh- Compare the frequency of disproportions in the unstable autonomic junctions group with that of the 8 For detailed information relative to the nature of group, 4 selection of subjects, methods of examination and definition Wells, F. L., and Woods, W. L.: Outstanding Traits, of normal, see Heath, C. W. op. cit. (in preparation); Heath, C. W. op. cit. Mar. 1946] BODY DISPROPORTIONS AND DOMINANT PERSONALITY TRAITS 81 total series (Table.I)- It can be. seen that in every apparent from these figures that the.well-integrated instance the disproportions are more frequent group differs only slightly from the total series in among individuals of the unstable autonomic func- the percental frequency of disproportions. The tions grouping than in the series as a whole. Thus, direction of the differences is not consistent, being individuals with very wide shoulders relative to excessive in the case of some disproportions and chest circumference are about two and one-half deficient in others. In spite of the small differences, times as frequent in the unstable autonomic func- statistical significance is encountered in the height- tions group as in the whole series. Individuals who weight disproportion (—3.7%), chest depth- are extremely linear are virtually twice as frequent biacromial disproportion (—5.8%), and in the calf in this trait grouping. In spite of the small size of circumference-biacromial disproportion (—6.1%). the unstable autonomic functions groupings, statisti- This would indicate that the well-integrated group cally significant differences are present in the case of is somewhat deficient in individuals with extreme the height-weight, biacromial diameter-chest cir- linearity, with very flat chests relative to shoulder cumference, chest circumference-stature, and bi- breadth, and with small calf circumferences rela- iliac-chest breadth disproportions. tive to shoulder breadth. TABLE I DISPROPORTIONS IN THE UNSTABLE AUTONOMIC FUNCTIONS GROUP AND TOTAL SERIES Unstable automatic Total series functions group (258) (36) Disproportions 'NO. % ' No. % ' Diff. rati'o^ Heigh t / v 7 weight 13.5-x 36 14.2 10 27.8 +13.6 2.52 Biac. diam./chest circ. 48-x 22 8.7 8 22.2 +13.5 3.10 Chest br./biac. diam. x-70 89 35.2 17 47.2 +12.0 1.62 Chest depth/biac. diam. x-47 73 28.8 15 41.7 +12.9 1.84 Bi-iliac diam./biac. diam. 75-x 42 16.6 8 22.2 +5.6 0.97 Head circ./chest circ. 64-x 116 45.8 21 58.3 +12.5 1.62 Chest circ./stature x-48 • 54 21.3 13 36.1 +14.8 2.34 Calf circ./biac. diam. x-85f 62 24.5 12 33.3 +8.8 1.32 Face br./chest br. 50-x 77 30.4 15 41.7 +11.3 1.59 Hand size/weight 110-x 46 18.2 9 25.0 +6.8 1.14 Bi-iliac diam./chest br. 103-x 68 26.9 16 44.4 +17.5 2.55 * Critical ratio is in terms of standard errors and computed according to formula 19.6 of Yule. G. Udney and Kendall. M. G.: "An Introduction to the Theory of Statistics. Griffin and Co. 1937. Statistical significance in this report is based on a minimum critical ratio level of 2.0 standard errors. t The number of individuals in the total series for this disproportion is 257. Basic Personality In contrast to the well-integrated group, the less well-integrated group shows substantial differences Under basic personality the psychiatrists have f r o m t h e t o t a l s e r i e s £ reque ncies. With one excep- differentiated two trait groupings, well-integrated d o n a l l disproportions are more frequent in the and less well-integrated. The well-integrated basic l e s s weil-integrated group than in the total series. personality grouping is defined as "A group com- T h e a m o u n t o f differentiation is substantial in the posed of young men who are steady, stable, depend- c a s e o f t h e height-weight, chest breadth-biacromial, able, thorough, sincere, and trustworthy. They chest depth-biacromial, head circumference-chest have a steadiness and integrity of personality which c i r c u m f e r e n c e , chest circumference-stature, and calf is not dependent upon autonomic or even emotional c i r c u m f e r e n c e .bi a C romial disproportions. However, stability. . . ." The less well-integrated basic per- o w i n g t 0 t h e s m a l l s i z e o f t h e less weil-integrated sonality group is composed of "young men who, g r o u p ; differences o f statistical significance are en- in contrast to those of the well-integrated person- c o u n t e r e d in only the height-weight and calf cir- ality, tend towards the erratic, unreliable, sporadic, Cumference-biacromial disproportions, and for all or undependable. Frequently their activities are ill- p r a c t ; c a i purposes for the chest depth-biacromial directed, little organized, and not carried through disproportion. In summary then, the less well- with the perseverance of those young men who integrated group are distinguished by their signifi- possess a better-integrated basic personality. . . ." c a n t excesses of individuals with extremely linear Observe the percental frequency of the dispro- body builds, with flat chests relative to their portions for these two basic groups and their dif- shoulder breadths, and with small calf circumfer- ferentiation from the total series (Table II). It is ences relative to their shoulder breadths. 82 CARL C. SELTZER [Vol. 8 Mood Dominance and those who show a continuous and prominent At the mood level, the psychiatrists have charac- degree of some quality or phase of mood. . . ." terized a group of individuals under the heading The important differences shown by the mood of mood fluctuations. By definition the mood fluctuations grouping from the total series is evident TABLE II DISPROPORTIONS IN BASIC PERSONALITY TRAIT GROUPINGS Total series Well-integrated Less well-int(igrated (258) (152) (38) Disproportions No. % No. % No. ry Heigh t/^weight 13.5-x 36 14.2 16 10.5 10 26.3 Biac. diam./chest circ. 48-x 22 8.7 12 7.9 4 10.5 Chest br./biac. diam. x-70 89 35.2 51 33.6 18 47.3 Chest depth/biac. diam. x-47 73 28.8 35 23.0 16 42.1 Bi-iliac diam./biac. diam. 75-x 42 16.6 27 17.8 4 10.5 Head circ./chest circ. 64-x 116 45.8 74 48.7 21 55.3 Chest circ./stature x-48 54 21.3 30 19.7 12 31.6 Calf circ./biac. diam. x-85 62 24.5 28 18.4 16 42.1 Face br./chest br. 50-x 77 30.4 48 31.6 13 34.2 Hand size/weight 110-x 46 18.2 27 17.8 10 26.3 Bi-iliac diam./chest br. 103-x 68 26.9 41 27.0 11 28.9 COMPARISON WITH TOTAL SERIES PERCENTAGES Total series vs. well-integrated Total series vs . less well-integrated Diff. Critical ratio Diff. Critical ratio Heigh t/\/weight 13.5-x - 3.7 2.03 + 12.1 2.31 Biac. diam./chest circ. 48-x - 0.8 0.54 + 1.8 0.43- Chest br./biac. diam. x-70 - 1.6 0.64 + 12.1 1.69 Chest depth/biac. diam. x-47 - 5.8 2.46 + 13.3 1.96 Bi-iliac diam./biac. diam. 75-x + 1.2 0.62 - 6.1 1.09 Head circ./chest circ. 64-x + 2.9 1.12 + 9.5 1.27 Chest circ./stature x-48 - 1.6 0.75 + 10.3 1.68 Calf circ./biac. diam. x-85 - 6.1 2.74 + 17.6 2.73 Face br./chest br. 50-x + 1.2 0.50 + 3.8 0.55 Hand size/weight 110-x - 0.4 0.20 + 8.1 1.40 Bi-iliac diam./chest br. 103-x + 0.1 0.04 + 2.0 0.30 TABLE III DISPROPORTIONS IN THE MOOD FLUCTUATIONS GROUP AND TOTAL SERIES Total series ations Mood fluctu; (258) (39) Critical Disproportions No. % No. % Diff. Height/-^weight 13.5-x 36 14.2 6 15.4 + 1-2 0.23 Biac. diam./chest circ. 48-x 22 8.7 4 10.2 + 1.5 0.36 Chest br./biac. diam. x-70. 89 35.2 20 51.3 + 16.1 2.28 Chest depth/biac. diam. x-47 73 28.8 11 28.2 - 0.6 0.09 Bi-iliac diam./biac. diam. 75-x 42 16.6 5 12.8 - 3.8 0.69 Head circ./chest circ. 64-x 116 116 45.8 19 48.7 + 2.9 0.39 Chest circ./stature x-48 54 21.3 8 20.5 - 0.8 0.13 Calf circ./biac. diam. x-85 62 24.5 14 35.8 + 11.3 1.78 Face br./chest br. 50-x 77 30.4 16 41.0 + 10.6 1.56 Hand size/weight 110-x 46 18.2 12 30.8 + 12.6 2.21 Bi-iliac diam./chest br. 103-x 68 26.9 11 28.2 + 1.3 0.20 fluctuations group contains "young men character- in the following disproportions: chest breadth- ized either by strongly marked mood or distinct biacromial, calf circumference-biacromial, face changes in mood sufficiently striking to be an out- breadth-chest breadth, and hand size-body weight standing feature of their personality. There are (Table I I I ) . In each instance the percentage of thus two subgroups: those given to mood swings, these disproportions is in excess in the mood Mar. 1946] BODY DISPROPORTIONS AND DOMINANT PERSONALITY TRAITS 83 fluctuations group. It is possible to say that the mood of the usual values and adjustment to the realities fluctuations group compared with the total series of life." The bland affect group are "young men contains a significantly greater proportion of indi- who show neither warm, positive mood nor rich- viduals with narrow chests relative to their shoulder ness and vitality of affect. They tend to be colorless breadths, a significantly greater proportion of large and neutral in their affective responses. . . . In hands relative to their body weights, and a prob- general, they form a group of plain, undistin- ably significant excess of individuals with small guished, and uncomplicated individuals. . . . This leg circumferences relative to their shoulder very absence of positive and stimulating qualities breadths. is fundamental. . . ." TABLE IV DISPROPORTIONS IN THE AFFECT GROUPINGS Total series Vital afl :ect Sensitive affect Bla ind affect (258) (51) (44) (45) Disproportions No. % No. %> No. % No. or Height/v^weight 13.5-x 36 14.2 4 7. 8 9 20.4 9 20.0 Biac. diam./chest circ. 4 8 - x . . . . . . . 22 8.7 0 0 5 11.4 7 15.6 Chest br./biac. diam. x-70 89 35.2 17 33. 3 21 47.7 19 42.2 Chest depth/biac. diam. x-47 73 28.8 6 11. 8 14 31.8 15 33.3 Bi-iliac diam./biac. diam. 75-x. . . . 42 16.6 8 15..7 7 15.9 10 22.2 Head circ./chest circ. 64-x 116 45.8 16 31. 4 24 54.5 24 53.3 Chest circ./stature x-48 54 21.3 • 6 11..8 11 25.0 12 26.7 Calf circ./biac. diam. x-85 62 24.5 11 21. 6 13 29.5 7 15.6 Face br./chest br. 50-x 77 30.4 11 21. 6 15 34.1 19 42.2 Hand size/weight 110-x 46 18.2 10 19..6 10 22.7 7 15.6 Bi-iliac diam./chest br. 103-x 68 26.9 10 19 .6 15 34.1 19 42.2 Vital vs. total series Sen siti v e v s. total series Bland vs. total series Diff. C. R. ]DiSf. C. R. Diff. C. R. Heigh t/vAveight 13.5-x -6.4 1.46 + 6.2 1.29 + 5..8 1.26 Biac. diam./chest circ. 48-x — 8.7 2.46 -|- 2..7 0.70 + 6.9 1.81 Chest br./biac. diam. x-70 -1.9 0.33 + 12..5 1.91 + 7.0 1.08 Chest depth/biac. diam. x-47 -17.0 2.99 + 3..0 0.48 + 4 .5 0.73 Bi-iliac diam./biac. diam. 75-x -0.9 0.19 _ 0 .7 0.14 + 5 .6 1.11 Head circ./chest circ. 64-x -14.4 2.30 -)- 8 .7 1.27 + 7 .5 1.11 Chest circ./stature x-48 -9.5 1.85 4- 3 .7 0.66 + s .4 0.97 Calf circ./biac. diam. x-85 -2.9 0.54 5 .0 0.85 - 8 .9 1.53 Face br./chest br. 50-x Hand size/weight 110-x -8.8 +1-4 1.52 0.29 + 3 .7 0.59 + 11 .8 - 2 .6 1.89 Bi-iliac diam./chest br. 103-x -7.3 1.31 + 4 .5 0.85 0.50 -1- 7 .2 1.18 + 1S .3 2.55 Affect In comparison to the total series, the vital affect Another category of traits is labelled "affect." group is deficient in all but one disproportion, the It refers to the basic "expressions of feeling, emo- hand size-weight disproportion where the excess is tion, and desire" of the individuals. The subcate- negligible (Table IV). The largest differences gories are vital, sensitive and bland. The vital occur in connection with the chest depth-biacromial, affect grouping consists of "young men character- head circumference-chest circumference, chest cir- ized by vitality and richness of affect. They show cumference-stature, face breadth-chest breadth, and a spontaneous force and energy which springs biacromial-chest circumference disproportions. Of from strong affect rather than from an energy these, statistical significance is attained by the chest which depends upon voluntary effort of the depth-biacromial, head circumference-chest cir- higher ego functions. Such boys show richer cumference and biacromial-chest circumference verbal expression, greater animation in facial disproportions, and approached by the chest cir- expression, and a more arresting tone of voice. cumference-stature ratio. In other words, the in- . . ." The sensitive affect grouping includes dividuals with vital affect have less frequently the young men "who create the impression of being combinations of chests very shallow for shoulder sensitive, subtle in their thinking, inclined to aes- breadth, heads large for chest size, shoulders large theticism which makes difficult their acceptance for chest size, and chests small for stature. 84 CARL C. SELTZER [Vol. 8 . In. contrast to the vital affect group, we find chest circumference-stature ratios, and in a defi- that the sensitive affect shows excesses of dispropor- ciency of the chest breadth-biacromial dispropor- tions over the total series in every instance except tion. The level of statistical significance is reached for the bi-iliac-biacromial ratio. The chest breadth- only in the case of the bi-iliac-biacromial index. biacromial disproportion shows an excess of 12.5% It may be said that the just-so group is distinguished of individuals in the sensitive affect group, a figure from the total series in its excesses of individuals which approaches statistical significance (C. R. with broad hips relative to shoulder breadth, large 1.91). All the other excesses, however, are small. head circumferences relative to chest circumference, The bland affect group is characterized by ex- small chest circumferences relative to stature, and cesses in all disproportions with the exception of in the deficiency of narrow chests" relative to the the calf circumference-biacromial diameter and breadth of the shoulders. hand size-weight ratios. The deficiency in small calf circumference relative to shoulder breadth Voluntary Functions is particularly significant in. view of the con- sistent picture it presents relative to the fre- Under this classification the psychiatrists have quency of the other disproportions. Further study distinguished three trait groupings, inhibited, self- of proportions in this group shows that the lower conscious and introspective, and self-driving. The TABLE V DISPROPORTIONS IN THE JUST-SO BEHAVIOR GROUP AND TOTAL SERIBS Total series Just-so (258) (35) Critical Disproportions No. % No. % Did. ratio Height/vAveight 13.5-x 36 14.2 6 17.1 + 2.9 0.53 Biac. diam./chest circ. 48-x 22 8.7 5 14.3 + 5.6 1.26 Chest br./biac. diam. x-70 89 35.2 9 25.7 - 9.5 1.27 Chest depth/biac. diam. x-47 73 28.8 9 25.7 - 3.1 0.44 Bi-iliac diam./biac. diam. 75-x 42 16.6 11 31.4 + 14.8 2.52 Head circ./chest circ. 64-x 116 45.8 20 57.1 + 11.3 1.44 Chest circ./stature x-48 54 21.3 11 31.4 + 10.1 1.57 Calf circ./biac. x-85 62 24.5 10 28.6 + 4.1 0.61 Face br./chest br. 50-x 77 30.4 10 28.6 - 1.8 0.25 Hand size/weight 110-x 46 18.2 8 22.8 + 4.6 0.76 Bi-iliac diam./chest br. 103-x 68 26.9 11 31.4 + 4.5 0.64 part of the body of those individuals with dominant inhibited group contains "young men who have bland affect is relatively heavier than the upper a strong degree of conscientiousness and who fre- part of the torso. These individuals have larger quently have doubts about doing things which they leg circumferences relative to the breadth of the condone intellectually. They frequently describe shoulders, broader hips relative to the width of a strong sense of responsibility, have difficulty in the chest, and broader hips relative to the breadth freeing themselves from their early moral attitudes. of the shoulders. . . . A lack of spontaneity and freedom and a degree of stiffness in manner are character- Just-So Behavior istic. . . ." The self-conscious and introspective The just-so group includes those "men who are grouping consists of "individuals who are highly strongly systematic, neat, meticulous, and who de- aware of their own thoughts and subjective feelings. pend on orderly routine and regularity. They are They tend to pay more attention to what is going rigid and are apt to be upset if their established on within themselves than do more natural and out- habits and way of living are interrupted. Some going boys. They also have a heightened sense of have conceived the trait as so deeply ingrained and being observed by other people, even though they beyond voluntary control that it should be grouped know this to be untrue. In consequence, they are under Basic Personality." self-conscious and cannot behave with directness The largest divergencies in frequency of dispro- and ease in social situations." The self-driving portions of the just-so group from the series as a group are those "who show a high amount of self- whole are apparent in the excesses of the bi-iliac- control, will power and an ability to force them- biacromial, head circumference-chest circumference, selves to do things. The energy and accomplish- Mar. 1946] BODY DISPROPORTIONS AND DOMINANT PERSONALITY TRAITS 85 ments which result from strength in this aspect of the total series. There is a 9.4 per cent deficiency higher ego function are distinguished from the of very shallow-chested individuals relative to the spontaneous activity which springs from strong width of their shoulders, and a 9.8 per cent excess affect or mood. Many times they are aware of of men with large head circumferences relative to forcing themselves to work against inertia or their chest circumferences. Neither of these diver- resistance. . . ." gencies, however, attains the level of statistical The inhibited group shows excesses of dispro- significance. TABLE VI DISPROPORTIONS IN THE VOLUNTARY FUNCTIONS GROUPINGS Self-conscious Total series introspective Self-drivi (258) (64) (36) Disproportions No. % No. No. % No. % Height/v / weight 13.5-x 36 14.2 8 16.3 10 15.6 4 11.1 Biac. diam./chest circ. 48-x 22 8.7 7 14.3 7 10.9 3 8.3 Chest br./biac. diam. x-70 89 35.2 19 38.8 25 39.1 11 30.6 Chest depth/biac. diam. x-47 73 28.8 16 32.6 22 34.4 7 19.4 Bi-iliac diam./biac. diam. 75-x . . . . 42 16.6 12 24.5 9 14.1 7 19.4 Head circ./chest circ. 64-x 116 45.8 28 57.1 38 59.4 20 55.6 Chest circ./stature x-48 54 21.3 12 24.5 16 25.0 8 22.2 Calf circ./biac. diam. x-85 62 24.5 9 18.4 20 31.2 6 16.7 Face br./chest br. 50-x 77 30.4 19 38.8 21 32.8 11 30.6 Hand size/weight 110-x 46 18.2 8 16.3 15 23.4 8 22.2 Bi-iliac diam./chest br. 103-x 68 26.9 19 38.8 16 25.0 10 27.8 Inhibited Self-conscious iintrospecti ve Self-driv ing vs. total ser vs. total series total sc:ries DifL C. R. Diff. C. R. Diff. C. R. Height/vAveight 13.5-x +2.1 0.47 + 1.4 0.37 - 3.1 0.57 Biac. diam./chest circ. 48-x +5.6 1.55 + 2.2 0.72 - 0.4 0.09 Chest br./biac. diam. x-70 +3.6 0.59 + 3.9 0.75 - 4.6 0.62 Chest depth/biac. diam. x-47 +3.8 0.65 + 5.6 1.14 - 9.4 1.34 Bi-iliac diam./biac. diam. 75-x +7.9 1.65 - 2.5 0.62 + 2.8 0.49 Head circ./chest circ. 64-x +11.3 1.76 + 13.6 2.51 + 9.8 1.27 Chest circ./stature x-48 +3.2 0.61 + 3.7 0.83 + 0.9 0.14 Calf circ./biac. diam. x-85 —6.1 1.10 + 6.7 1.44 - 7.8 1.17 Face br./chest br. 50-x +8.4 1.42 + 2.4 0.48 + 0.2 0.03 Hand size/weight 110-x - 1.9 0.38 + 5.2 1.24 + 4.0 0.67 Bi-iliac diam./chest br. 103-x +11.9 2.08 - 1.9 0.40 + 0.9 0.13 portions over the total series frequencies in all but Cognitive Functions-Motivational two instances, the calf-biacromial and hand size- weight ratios. The largest discrepancies occur in This classification encompasses those trait group- the bi-iliac-chest breadth and head circumference- ings which describe certain dominant motivational chest circumference disproportions. The excess of aspects of the subjects. They include motivations very broad hips relative to chest width is statistically towards physical science, motivations towards prac- significant while that of large head size relative tical organizing, the ideational, and the creative to chest size is possibly significant. and intuitive. Like the inhibited group the self-conscious and The physical science grouping consists of those introspective category presents excesses of dispro- persons "who have exhibited a predominant interest portion in all but two instances. However, the in physical phenomena. They frequently describe only large divergency exists in the greater frequency early mechanical interests and aptitudes, preference in this latter trait group of individuals with large for scientific subjects in secondary school, and a head circumference relative to chest circumferences. liking for manipulations of laboratory work. . . ." The difference is beyond the level of statistical The practical organizing group "lack deep interest significance. in any subject matter. They are not theoretical, The self-driving group shows no consistent trend speculative, or scholarly. Their interests are more with regard to the direction of its differences from practical, and in their course work they are better 2 CARL C. SELTZER [Vol.8 in organization than in analytical or creative work. of these show considerable deviation. Statistical They describe an interest in managing or organiz- significance is attained for the height-weight, bi- ing and find their satisfaction in the sense of acromial-chest circumference, and chest circumfer- accomplishment, of 'getting things done.' They do ence stature ratios, in spite of the small size of not strive after 'higher values' and are essentially the series. The individuals in the physical science pragmatic in their outlook." The ideational group- grouping have an excess of their members with ing contains young men "who like to deal with extreme linearity of body build, shoulders large ideas and tend to shy away from routine work for chest circumference, and chests small for stature. TABLE VII DISPROPORTIONS IN THE COGNITIVE FUNCTION-MOTIVATIONAL GROUPINGS towards phys Creative and Total seri Ideation intuitive (258) (54) (16) Disproportions No. % Height/S/weight 13.5-x 36 14.2 29.0 5.3 10 18.5 25.0 Biac. diam./chest circ. 48-x... 22 8.7 22.6 7.4 5 9.2 6.2 Chest br./biac. diam. x - 7 0 . . . . 89 35.2 41.9 32.6 19 35.2 37.5 Chest depth/biac. diam. x-47 . 73 28.8 32.2 23.1 16 29.6 25.0 Bi-iliac diam./biac. diam. 75-x 42 16.6 22.6 12.6 12 22.2 18.8 Head circ./chest circ. 64-x.... 116 45.8 54.8 36.8 35 64.8 37.5 Chest circ./stature x-48 54 21.3 38.7 14.7 14 25.9 18.8 Calf circ./biac. diam. x-85. . . . 62 24.5 25.8 25.3 16 29.6 25.0 Face br./chest br. 50-x 77 30.4 41.9 26.3 17 31.5 25.0 Hand size/weight 110-x 46 18.2 25.8 15.7 9 16.7 18.8 Bi-iliac diam./chest br. 103-x. 68 26.9 38.7 25.2 14' 25.9 31.2 total sei total series Diff. C. R. Diff. C. R. Diff. C. R. Diff. C. R. HeightA/weight 13.5-x +14.8 2.52 - 8.9 3.13 + 4.3 1.04 + 10.8 1.28 Biac. diam./chest circ. 48-x +13.9 2.93 - 1.3 0.57 + 0.5 0.15 - 2.5 0.37 Chest br./biac. diam. x-70 +6.7 0.83 - 2.6 0.67 0 0 + 2.3 0.20 Chest depth/biac. diam. x-47 +3.4 0.44 - 5.7 1.54 + 0.8 0.15 - 3.8 0.35 Bi-iliac diam./biac. diam. 75-x. .. +6.0 0.96 - 4.0 1.32 + 5.6 1.27 + 2.2 0.24 Head circ./chest circ. 64-x +9.0 1.07 - 9.0 2.21 + 19.0 3.15 - 8.3 0.68 Chest circ./stature x-48 +17.4 2.52 - 6.6 1.98 + 4.6 0.93 - 2.5 0.25 Calf circ./biac. diam. x-85 +1.3 0.18 + 0.8 0.23 + 5.1 0.98 + 0.5 0.05 Face br./chest br. 50-x +11.5 1.48 - 4.1 1.09 + 1.1 0.20 - 5.4 0.48 Hand size/weight 110-x +7.6 1.17 - 2.5 0.79 - 1.5 0.32 + 0.6 0.06 Bi-iliac diam./chest br. 103-x. . . . +11.8 1.57 - 1.7 0.47 - 1.0 0.19 + 4.3 0.40 and problems of practical life. They tend to be The opposite condition prevails in the case of the theoretical or analytical. . . ." The creative and practical organizing group. In this trait classifica- intuitive group is "characterized by high ability tion the deviations from the total series values are for self-expression or who are original and creative deficiencies in all but one insignificant instance. in their thought. Included are those who are In the practical organizing group there is a statisti- strongly intuitive and spurn logical, objective, and cally significant deficiency of individuals with ex- analytical forms of thought. This group is largely treme relation of height to weight, of large head composed of those contemplating artistic or literary circumferences relative to chest circumference, and careers." of small chest circumference relative to stature. Table-VII compares the frequency of dispropor- The ideational group is distinguished by its very tions in these cognitive function-motivational group- large excess of individuals with large head circum- ings with those of the total series. With regard ference relative to their chest circumference. to the physical science grouping it is important to No reliable deductions can be drawn from the note diat every one of the disproportions are here disproportion frequencies of the creative and in- in excess over the total series frequency. Several tuitive grouping. This is in part due to the very Mar. 1946] BODY DISPROPORTIONS AND DOMINANT PERSONALITY TRAITS 87 small number of individuals (16) in this trait VIII. The political grouping exhibits no consistent classification. There is, however, a suggestion that configuration of differences from the total series this group contains an excess of individuals with values. None of the differences attain the level of extremely linear physiques. statistical significance. The humanistic group shows deficiencies in Cognitive Functions-Life Attitudes frequency of disproportions from the total series values in all but the height-weight and chest Included under this heading are the following breadth-biacromial ratios. For all practical purposes trait groupings: pragmatic, humanistic, political, the level of statistical significance is reached in the cultural, and lack of purpose and values. The prag- case of the calf circumference-biacromial dispro- matic group "are essentially practical in outlook, portion, which signifies a deficiency of individuals and are not concerned with an ultimate purpose with small leg circumferences relative to the breadth and value of life. They are apt to be conforming of the shoulders. and conventional, and accept the mores of the times. They are interested in establishing a family and Similarly, the pragmatic group exhibits defi- supporting it comfortably. The practical considera- ciencies from the total series values in all but the bi- tions of getting ahead in life outweigh intrinsic iliac-biacromial ratio. This trait grouping possesses interest in work, cultural values, philosophical specu- a statistically significant deficiency of individuals lations, or special reform." The humanistic grouping with large head circumferences relative to their contains those individuals "who have a dominant chest circumferences, and a probably significant interest in people, and for whom a knowledge of deficiency of individuals with very broad faces people and a desire to do work which will bring relative to their chest breadths, with small chest them into contact with people is not only an out- circumferences relative to their statures, and with standing feature of their personality, but also the extreme linearity as represented by the heights strongest driving force in determining their choice ^weight ratio. of life work." The political category is "a group In contrast to the humanistic and pragmatic who show a strong interest in social problems, groups, the cultural and lac\ of purpose and social movements, government, and foreign affairs. values groupings show overall larger frequencies of They are motivated by a desire to participate in these disproportions than the series as a whole. In work which will lead to improvement of social the case of the cultural group, significant excesses conditions. They are distinguished from the of disproportions occur for the height-weight ratio, humanistic group inasmuch as they are primarily the head circumference-chest circumference ratio, interested in the broader and more abstract prob- and the calf circumference-biacromial diameter lems of social reform rather than in individual and ratio. The lac^ of purpose and values group, on the personal relationships." The cultural category is other hand, have significant excesses of dispropor- "a group for whom participation in literature or the tions in the relationship of chest breadth to biacro- arts is predominant. This interest may be so highly mial diameter, and in the relationship of bi-iliac developed that it leads them either to follow an diameter to chest breadth. These individuals, then, artistic career or to consider any form of life work have an excessive frequency of chests which are as a means of existence in order that they may narrow for shoulder breadth and hips wide for satisfy their cultural needs." The lac\ of purpose chest breadth. and values grouping consists of those "young men who lack direction or purpose in life, in whom Expressionistic Traits normal incentives and drives are feebly developed. In this category the psychiatrists have defined A certain number complain that they have not two groupings of individuals, the inarticulate and found any values which make striving in the world the verbalistic. The inarticulate consists of a group worthwhile. Many of them are drifting and un- of young men who are characterized by "an ina- enthusiastic, and give the impression of being de- bility to express themselves in language. Their de- scendants of a family in whom the original vitality scriptions are apt to be meagre and matter-of-fact, is wearing out. A few describe a sincere search for particularly concerning their own personal feelings values or higher life purpose which will create the and experiences. The poverty of verbal content motivating force to make life real and meaningful." seems not to be due to inhibition or unwillingness, The figures giving the frequency deviations from but rather to a certain lack of richness in inner ex- the total series values of the disproportions for the perience and in associated thought." The verbalistic above dominant trait groups are contained in Table group are the converse, containing those "who have CARL C. SELTZER [Vol. 8 a facility with language or an ability to verbalize Social activities may be their outstanding interest. their thoughts in rich or well-formulated language." They make friends easily, like to meet new people, In the matter of disproportions the inarticulate and have an ease in their social relationships which grouping shows substantial and significant excesses is unhampered by shyness or awkwardness." The of individuals with the following disproportionate shy grouping contains those young men who "ex- ratios: biacromial diameter-chest circumference, perience a high degree of tension in social situa- bi-iliac-biacromial, and bi-iliac-chest breadth. Other tions, and are embarrassed, reserved, and awkward large excesses which, however, do not attain the in manner. There is a fundamental liking for TABLE VIII DISPROPORTIONS IN THE COGNITIVE FUNCTIONS-LIFE ATTITUDES GROUPINGS Lack of Total seri Political Pragmat Cultural purpose (258) (44) (40) (99) (54) (56) Disproportions No. % No. % Height/-^weight 13.5-x 36 14.2 11.4 15.0 9.1 14 25.9 14.3 Biac. diam./chest circ. 48-x. . . . 22 8.7 4.5 2.5 8.1 3 5.6 12.5 Chest br./biac. diam. x-70 89 3S.2 43.2 37.5 29.3 23 42.6 51.8 Chest depth/biac. diam. x-47. . . 73 28.8 29.5 22.5 23.2 18 33.3 37.5 Bi-iliac diam./biac. diam. 75-x. . 42 16.6 15.9 15.0 19.2 10 18.5 19.6 Head circ./chest circ. 64-x 116 45.8 54.5 37.5 32.3 32 59.2 51.8 Chest circ./stature x-48 54 21.3 18.2 20.0 15.2 14 25.9 28.6 Calf circ./biac. diam. x-85 62 24.5 25.0 12:5 24.2 19 35.2 28.6 Face br./chest br. 50-x 77 30.4 34.1 30.0 23.2 17 31.5 35.7 Hand size/weight 110-x 46 18.2 18.2 17.5 14.1 14 25.9 19.6 Bi-iliac diam./chest br. 103-x. . 68 26.9 10 22.7 20.0 29 29.3 16 29.6 39.3 Political Pragmatic Cultural vs. Total series total series total series total series total series Di6f. C. R. Diff. C. R. DiS. C. R. Diff. C. R. Diff. C. R. Height/v^ weight 13.5-x -2.8 0.58 + 0.8 0.16 - 5.1 1.85 + 11.7 2.77 + 0.1 0.02 Biac. diam./chest circ. 48-x... -4.2 1.09 - 6.2 1.51 - 0.6 0.27 - 3.1 0.91 + 3.8 1.14 Chest br./biac. diam. x-70.... +8.0 1.22 + 2.3 0.33 - 5.9 1.56 + 7.4 1.28 + 16.6 2.94 Chest depth/biac. diam. x-47. +0.7 0.11 - 6.3 0.96 - 5.6 1.56 + 4.5 0.82 + 8.7 1.62 Bi-iliac diam./biac. diam. 75-x -0.7 0.14 - 1.6 0.30 + 2.6 0.88 + 1.9 0.42 + 3.0 0.68 Head circ./chest circ. 64-x. . . +8.7 1.27 - 8.3 1.15 -13.5 3.42 + 13.42.22 + 6.0 1.02 Chest circ./stature x-48 -3.1 0.55 - 1.3 0.22 - 6.1 1.89 + 4.6 0.93 + 7.3 1.51 Calf circ./biac. diam. x-85. . .. +0.5 0.08 -12.0 1.92 - 0.3 0.09 + 10.72.05 + 4.1 0.81 Face br./chest br. 50-x +3.7 0.59 - 0.4 0.06 - 7.2 1.98 + 1.1 0.20 + 5.3 0.97 Hand size/weight 110-x 0 0 - 0.7 0.12 - 4.1 1.34 + 7.7 1.65 + 1.4 0.31 Bi-iliac diam./chest br. 103-x. -4.2 0.69 - 6.9 1.07 + 2.4 0.68 + 2.7 0.50 + 12.4 2.36 level of statistical significance are found in the head people and a regret that shyness leads them to avoid circumference-chest circumference, and chest cir- social events which they would enjoy if they could cumference-stature ratios. feel natural. A sense of social insecurity and a lack The important differentiations from the total of confidence are frequently described, which are series values in the frequency of the disproportions most marked in social situations." The asocial are for the verbalistic grouping are to be seen in the a "group for whom social life, intimate friendships, case of the chest breadth-biacromial diameter and and an interest in people are relatively unimportant. chest depdvbiacromial diameter ratios. Both of Such young men are satisfied with their own com- these are excesses and are above the level of statis- pany and in the extreme are considered the 'lone tical significance. wolves.' Their interest in 'things' is of more impor- , tance to them than their personal relationships. . . . Social Functions Unlike the shy group, they have no unexpressed Social traits have been categorized by the psy- liking for people or yearning for social life." chiatrists into the triad of sociable, shy and asocial The percental frequencies of these social traits groupings. The sociable are "a group who are natur- and the extent of their differentiation from the ally friendly and who like to do things with people. total series values are given in Table X. It is in- Mar. 1946] BODY DISPROPORTIONS AND DOMINANT PERSONALITY TRAITS 89 TABLE IX DISPROPORTIONS IN EXPRESSIONISTIC GROUPINGS Total series Inarticulate Verbalis tic (258) (36) Disproportions No. % No. % No. % Height/vAveight 13.5-x 36 14.2 7 19.4 8 17.4 Biac. diam./chest circ. 48-x 22 8.7 8 22.2 3 6.5 Chest br./biac. diam. x-70 89 35.2 15 41.7 23 50.0 Chest depth/biac. diam. x-47 73 28.8 13 36.1 19 41.3 Bi-iliac diam./biac. diam. 75-x 42 16.6 11 30.6 6 13.0 Head circ/chest circ. 64-x 116 45.8 21 58.3 24 52.2 Chest, circ./stature x-48 54 21.3 12 33.3 10 21.7 Calf circ./biac. diam. x-85 62 24.5 6 16.7 14 30.4 Face br./chest br. 50-x 77 30.4 14 38.9 17 37.0 Hand size/weight 110-x 46 18.2 7 19.4 10 21.7 Bi-iliac diam./chest br. 103-x 68 26.9 18 50.0 16 34.8 Inarticulate vs. total series Verbalistic vs. total series Diff. C. R. Diff. C. R. HeightA/weight 13.5-x +5.2 0.96 +3.2 0.69 Biac. diam./chest circ. 48-x +13.5 3.10 -2.2 0.58 Chest br./biac. diam. x-70 +6.5 0.88 +14.8 2.32 Chest depth/biac. diam. x-47 +7.3 1.04 +12.5 2.07 Bi-iliac diam./biac. diam. 75-x +14.0 2.43 -3.6 0.72 Head circ/chest circ. 64-x +12.5 1.62 +6.4 0.96 Chest circ./stature x-48 +12.0 1.89 +0.4 0.07 Calf circ./biac. diam. x-85 -7.8 1.17 +5.9 1.03 Face br./chest br. 50-x +8.5 1.20 +6.6 1.07 Hand size/weight 110-x +1.2 0.20 +3.5 0.68 Bi-iliac diam./chest br. 103-x +23.1 3.36 +7.9 1.33 TABLE X DISPROPORTIONS IN THE SOCIAL TRAITS Total series Sociable Shy Asocial (258) (55) (46) (24) Disproportions No. % No. % No. % No. % Heigh t/v"weight 13.5-x 36 14.2 7 12.7 7 15.2 5 20.8 Biac. diam./chest circ. 48-x 22 8.7 2 3.6 7 15.2 6 25.0 Chest br./biac. diam. x-70 89 35.2 21 38.2 18 39.1 13 54.2 Chest depth/biac. diam. x-47 73 28.8 13 23.6 13 28.2 8 33.3 Bi-iliac diam./biac. diam. 7 5 - x . . . . 42 16.6 9 16.4 7 15.2 6 25.0 Head circ/chest circ. 64-x 116 . 45.8 24 43.6 23 50.0 14 58.3 Chest circ./stature x-48 54 21.3 10 18.2 12 26.1 7 29.2 Calf circ./biac. diam. x-85 62 24.5 16 29.1 11 23.9 5 20.8 Face br./chest br. 50-x 77 • 30.4 12 21.8 . 16 34.8 12 50.0 Hand size/weight 110-x 46 18.2 14 25.4 8 17.4 7 29.2 Bi-iliac diam./chest br. 103-x 68 26.9 14 25.4 15 32.6 13 54.2 Sociable vs. total series Shy vs. total series Asocial vs. total series C. R. Diff. C. R. Diff. Height/vAveight 13.5-x -1.5 0.36 +1.0 0.21 +6.6 0.97 Biac. diam./chest circ. 48-x -5.1 1.51 +6.5. 1.72 +16.3 2.97 Chest br./biac. diam. x-70 +3.0 0.52 +3.9 0.61 +19.0 2.05 Chest depth/biac. diam. x-47 -5.2 0.96 -0.6 0.10 +4.5 0.51 Bi-iliac diam./biac. diam. 75-x -0.2 0.04 -1.4 0.28 +8.4 1.16 Head circ/chest circ. 64-x -2.2 0.37 +4.2 0.63 +12.5 1.29 Chest circ./stature x-48 -3.1 0.63 +4.8 0.88 +7.9 0.99 Calf circ./biac. diam. x-85 +4.6 0.89 -0.6 0.10 -3.7 0.44 Face br./chest br. 50-x -8.6 1.56 +4.4 0.72 +19.6 2.19 Hand size/weight 110-x +7.2 1.56 -0.8 0.16 +11.0 1.47 Bi-iliac diam./chest br. 103-x -1.5 0.28 +5.7 0.96 +27.3 3.17 90 CARL C. SELTZER [Vol. 8 teresting to note that in nine out of the eleven dis- Mood Fluctuations proportions, the percental frequencies of the shy Mood Fluctuations Group Excess-chest breadth/biacromial diam. x-70 grouping falls between that of the sociable and the Excess-hand size/weight 110-x asocial groups. This follows the status of the shy Excess-calf circ./biacromial diam. x-85* group with respect to the other social traits. The Affect Groupings shy group in a sense is intermediate between the Vital Affect Group sociable and asocial, possessing the desire for social Deficiency-biacromial diam./chest circ. 48-x contact but unable to express this feeling freely Deficiency-chest depth/biacromial diam. x-47 without shyness or awkwardness. Deficiency-head circ./chest circ. 64-x Deficiency-chest circ./stature x-48* Considered individually with respect to their Sensitive Affect Group deviations from the total series, we find that the Excess-chest breadth/biacromial diam. x-70* sociable group presents a series of small deviations, Bland Affect Group none statistically significant, but for the most part Excess-bi-iliac/chest breadth 103-x the frequencies of the disproportions are less than Excess-face breadth/chest breadth 50-x* Excess-biacromial diam./chest circ. 48-x* those of the total series. The shy group also shows small deviations (not statistically significant) but Just-So Behavior the majority of the disproportions are in excess of Just-So Group Excess-bi-iliac/biacromial diam. 75-x the total series frequencies. The asocial group, how- ever, exhibits strong deviations from the total series, Voluntary Functions Groupings and in this instance all but one of the disproportions Inhibited Group Excess-bi-iliac/chest breadth diam. 103-x are in excess of the total series. Statistically sig- Excess-head circ./chest circ. 64-x* nificant deviations in this trait group occur for Self-Conscious and Introspective Group the biacromial diameter-chest circumference, chest Excess-head circ./chest circ. 64-x breadth-biacromial diameter, face breadth-chest Self-Driving Group breadth, and bi-iliac-chest breadth disproportions. In Cognitive Functions-Motivational Groupings other words, the asocial individuals tend to have a Physical Science Group larger frequency of shoulders wide for chest size, Excess-height/"^weight 13.5-x chests narrow for shoulder breadth, faces broad for Excess-biacromial diam./chest circ. 48-x Excess-chest circ./stature x-48 chest width, and hips broad for chest width. Practical Organizing Group Deficiency-height/ ^ w e i g h t 13.5-x Summary of Significant Divergencies in Dispro- Deficiency-head circ./chest circ. 64-x Deficiency-chest circ./stature x-48* portions for the Individual Personality Trait Ideational Group Groupings Excess-head circ./chest circ. 64-x Creative and Intuitive Group The statistically significant divergencies over the total series frequencies of the disproportions for Cognitive Functions-Life Attitudes Groupings each of the trait groupings are summarized in Political Croup Humanistic Group Table XI. It is striking to note that without excep- Deficiency-calf circ./biacromial diam. x-85* Pragmatic Group Deficiency-head circ./chest circ. 64-x Deficiency-face breadth/chest breadth 50-x* SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT DIVERGENCIES IN DISPROPORTIONS OF TRAIT GROUPINGS FROM TOTAL SERIES Deficiency-height/ -^weight 13.5 -x* Deficiency-chest circ./stature x-48* Unstable Autonomic Functions Cultural Group Unstable Autonomic Functions Group Excess-height/-^weight 13.5-x Excess-height/^weight 13.5-x Excess-head circ./chest circ. 64-x Excess-biacromial diam./chest circ. 48-x Excess-calf circ./biacromial diam. x-85 Excess-chest circ./stature x-48 Lack, of Purpose and Values Group Excess-bi-iiiac/chest breadth 103-x Excess-chest breadth/biacromial diam. x-70 Excess-chest depth/biacromial diam. x-47* Excess-bi-iliac/chest breadth 103-x Basic Personality Trait Groupings Expressionistic Groupings Well-Integrated Group Inarticulate Group Deficiency-height/^weight 13.5-x Excess-biacromial diam./chest circ. 48-x Deficiency-chest depth/biacromial diam. x-47 Excess-bi-iliac diam./biacromial diam. 75-x Deficiency-calf circ./biacromial diam. x-85 Excess-bi-iliac diam./chest breadth 103-x Less Well-Integrated Group Excess-chest circ./stature x-48* Excess-height/ ^weight 13.5-x Verbalistic Group Excess-calf circ./biacromial diam. x-85 Excess-chest breadth/biacromial diam. x-70 Excess-chest depth/biacromial diam. x-47* Excess-chest depth/biacromial diam. x-47 Mar. 1946] BODY DISPROPORTIONS AND DOMINANT PERSONALITY TRAITS 91 Social Functions Groupings classes, A, B, and C, according to an overall judg- Sociable Group ment of "soundness." The A group is the most Shy Group Asocial Group sound class, the B less sound, and the C the least Excess-biac. diarn./chest circ. 48-x sound. The A soundness class contains "young Excess-chest breadth/biacromial diam. x-70 men who were thoroughly 'sound' in Webster's Excess-face breadth/chest breadth 50-x meaning of 'free from flaws,' 'on a firm foundation.' Excess-bi-iliac diam./chest breaddi 103-x It was hard for the physician to see any particular * Probable significant differences-critical ratios of 1.73 to 2.00. See Peters, C. C. and VanVoorhis, W. R.: Statistical way in which they might have serious trouble in Procedures and Their Mathematical Bases. McGraw Hill, handling the problems which might confront them." 1940, pp. 426-427. These authors suggest that 1.73(7 be taken "as a standard for provisional acceptance of the findings of The B soundness class is a group "in whom there an experiment . . . that ratio represents odds of 23 to 1." was a question of a minor flaw. For instance, if tion the direction of the significant divergencies are a boy was lacking in warmth in his touch with the same for the particular trait category, all ex- people or if he was erratic, or showed degrees of cesses or all deficiencies. sensitiveness leading to minor frustrations, he Significant excesses of one or more of the dis- would be placed in this group." The C class con- proportions over the total series frequencies occur sists of young men "whose history revealed a in the following trait groupings: definite handicap. A good illustration would be Unstable Autonomic Functions swings of mood which interfered noticeably with Less Well-Integrated function. Pronounced groping for purposes and Mood Fluctuations values in life would be sufficient evidence to place Sensitive Affect Bland Affect a young man in this group." Just-So From the frequencies of the disproportions in the Inhibited A, B, and C classes (Table XII) it can be seen that Self-Conscious and Introspective the A class has a smaller percentage of dispropor- Motivations Towards Physical Science Motivations Towards die Ideational tions in every instance than the B and C classes. Cultural The percentage of disproportions for the B class Lack of Purpose and Values is intermediate between A and C in the case of Inarticulate six of the ratios, and somewhat greater than C in Verbalistic the five remaining disproportions. Asocial Relative to the total series frequencies, the A Significant deficiencies, on the other hand, of one class is deficient in all the disproportions, the B or more disproportions over the total series fre- class shows excesses in every instance, while the C quencies occur in these traits: class has excesses in eight out of the eleven dispro- Well-Integrated portions. Where there are deficiencies in the C class Vital Affect these are very small and statistically insignificant. Practical Organizing Humanistic A detailed analysis reveals statistically significant Pragmatic deficiencies of individuals in the A class with very It is quite apparent that the two lists of personality wide shoulders relative to their chest circumfer- groupings show marked contrast in the quality of ences, with very narrow chests relative to the the traits. The first listing (with excesses of dis- breadth of the shoulders, with very large head cir- proportions), with few exceptions, contains trait cumferences relative to the circumferences of the groupings indicating lesser stability, less integration, chest, with very broad hips relative to the width of sensitivity and complexity of the personality, and the chest, and very shallow chests relative to the less capacity for making easy social adjustments. breadth of the shoulders. Deficiencies, of probable The second listing (with deficiencies of dispropor- statistical significance, are also found in individuals tions) is diametrically opposite to the first. Here with very broad faces relative to the width of the the traits are suggestive of stability, good integra- chest, with large hand size relative to the body tion and ease of making adjustments. weight, and with small chest circumferences relative to their statures. Disproportions and A, B, C, Soundness Classification The B class has statistically significant excesses In addition to describing the subjects by domi- of individuals with large head circumferences rel- nant personality traits, the psychiatrists of the Grant ative to their chest circumferences, with large Study have separated the participants into three hands relative to their body weights, and probably 92 CARL C. SELTZER [Vol. 8 with very narrow chests relative to the width of the A random sample of 18-20 year old Freshmen of shoulders. the class of 1946 has been chosen for comparison. The excesses of statistical significance for the C This group of 300 young men, examined in July class indicate for this group a substantially greater of 1942, is comparable in age to the Grant Study proportion of individuals with very wide shoulders participants. Table XIII gives the frequency of dis- relative to the circumference of the chest, very proportions among the freshmen as contrasted with flat chests relative to the width of the shoulders, the Grant series. It is readily apparent that there large head circumferences relative to their chest are striking differences between the two groups. circumferences, and with very broad hips relative The undifferentiated freshmen show consistently to the width of their chests. larger frequencies of disproportions than do the TABLE XII DISPROPORTIONS IN THE A, B, C, CLASSIFICATIONS Total Series A B C (258) (92) (112) (45) Disproportions No. % No. % No. % Height/vAveight 13.5-x 36 14.2 10 10.9 17 15.2 20.0 Biac. diam./chest circ. 48-x 22 8.7 2 2.2 11 9.8 17.8 Chest br./biac. diam. x-70 89 35.2 25 27.2 46 41.1 18 40.0 Chest depth/biac. diam. x-47 73 28.8 19 20.6 33 29.5 19 42.2 Bi-iliac diam./biac. diam. 75-x 42 16.6 14 15.2 22 19.6 6 13.3 Head circ./chest circ. 64-x 116 45.8 29 31.5 61 54.5 27 60.0 Chest circ./stature x-48 54 21.3 14 15.2 28 25.0 10 22.2 Calf circ./biac. diam. x-85 62 24.5 18 19.6 33 29.5 10 22.2 Face br./chest br. 50-x 77 30.4 21 22.8 39 34.8 17 37.7 Hand size/weight 110-x 46 18.2 11 12.0 28 25.0 8 17.8 Bi-iliac diam./chest br. 103-x 68 26.9 15 16.3 33 29.5 18 40.0 s. total s B vs. total series C vs. total s (92) (112) (45) Diff. C. R. Dilf. C. R. Diff. C. R. Height/vAveight 13.5-x - 3.3 1.13 + 1.0 0.40 + 5.8 1.23 Biac. diam./chest circ. 48-x - 6.5 2.76 + 1.1 0.55 + 9.1 2.38 Chest br./biac. diam. x-70 - 8.0 2.01 + 5.9 1.74 + 4.8 0.74 Chest depth/biac. diam. x-47 - 8.2 2.17 + 0.7 0.22 + 13.4 2.18 Bi-iliac diam./biac. diam. 75-x - 1.4 0.45 + 3.0 1.14 - 3.3 0.65 Head circ./chest circ. 64-x -14.3 3.43 + 8.7 2.46 + 14.2 2.10 Chest, circ./stature x-48 - 6.1 1.78 + 3.7 1.28 + 0.9 0.16 Calf circ./biac. diam. x-85 - 4.9 1.36 + 5.0 1.64 - 2.3 0.40 Face br./chest br. 50-x - 7.6 1.98 + 4.4 1.35 + 7.3 1.17 Hand size/weight 110-x - 6.2 1.92 + 6.8 2.48 - 0.4 0.08 Bi-iliac diam./chest br. 103-x -10.6 2.86 + 2.6 0.82 + 13.1 2.18 DISPROPORTIONS IN OTHER CROUPS "normal" Grant study subjects. The only exception Comparison Between Grant Study Series and Har- to this trend is in the bi-iliac-biacromial index, vard Freshmen where the freshmen have an insignificantly smaller percentage of individuals with this disproportion. It is pertinent to inquire, "How do these selected In every other instance the disproportions are in Grant Study subjects compare with an undiffer- excess in the freshmen, and in most cases the dif- entiated sample of Harvard undergraduates?" ferences are statistically significant. Since the Grant group of "normal" young men was selected on the basis of satisfactory academic status, The freshmen compared to the Grant Study good health, and overtly good social adjustment, series have a significantly greater percentage of in- then it may be presumed that as a group they will dividuals with extreme linearity or ectomorphy, deviate significantly from the general average of with very broad shoulders relative to their chest Harvard undergraduates. This should follow since circumferences, with narrow chests relative to their the foregoing analysis indicates that frequency of shoulder breadths, with very large head circum- disproportions is associated with those personality ferences relative to the size of the chest circumfer- traits which make for less easy social adjustment. ences; a greater proportion of individuals with Mar. 1946] BODY DISPROPORTIONS AND DOMINANT PERSONALITY TRAITS 93 small chest circumferences relative to their statures, occur in the following disproportions: height- with very broad faces relative to the width of their weight ratio, bi-iliac-biacromial ratio, head circum- chests, with large hands relative to their body ference-chest circumference ratio, chest circumfer- weights, and with broad hips relative to their chest ence-stature ratio, face breadth-chest breadth ratio, widths. and bi-iliac chest breadth ratio. In every one of Here then, is strong confirmation of the associa- these disproportions, the group with C and D tion of disproportions with personality. In no wise ratings includes a significantly larger percentage of were the Grant Study subjects selected on the basis its individuals than does the group with A and B of anthropological measurements or observations, ratings. yet the group is significantly less disproportionate It should be recognized that these predictive than a random sample of undergraduates of com- ratings of the freshmen made by the college parable age. The paucity of disproportions in the physicians are not strictly comparable to the A, Grant series must be related to its "normality," B, C "soundness" ratings of the Grant Study series. since this was the basis of selection from the under- The latter were established by the staff psychiatrists graduate body. after considerable contact, study and interview of TABLE XIII COMPARISON OF DISPROPORTIONS BETWEEN GRANT STUDY SERIES AND HARVARD FRESHMEN Grant Study Harvard Freshmen (258) (300) • • . • • Critical Disproportions No. % No. % Did. ratio Height/-^ weight 13.5-x 36 14.2 73 24.3 +10.1 3.06 Biac. diam./chest circ. 48-x 22 8.7 69 23.0 +14.3 4.78 Chest br./biac. diam. x-70 89 35.2 181 60.3 +25.1 6.12 Chest depth/biac. diam. x-47 73 28.8 107 35.7 +6.9 1.75 Bi-iliac diam./biac. diam. 75-x 42 16.6 48 16.0 -0.6 0.19 Head circ./chest circ. 64-x 116 45.8 202 67.3 +21.5 5.23 Chest circ./stature x-48 54 21.3 134 44.7 +23.4 6.09 Calf circ./biac. x-85 62 24.5 80 26.7 +2.2 0.59 Face br./chest br. 50-x 77 30.4 154 51.3 +20.9 5.14 Hand area/weight 110-x 46 18.2 108 36.0 +17.8 4.85 Bi-iliac diam./chest br. 103-x 68 26.9 136 45.3 +18.4 4.62 Disproportions in Freshmen Scries According to the subjects. The freshmen ratings, on the other "Soundness" Ratings hand, were impressionistic, intuitive ratings as a r e s u l t of a s i n Further evidence of the relationship between the S l e a n d ™P«>tracted interview. What a disproportions and personality may be derived from PPears t0 , b e s ' g n ' f i « n t from the point of view of this stud "soundness" ratings of the Freshmen series. Sub- y l s t h e verification of the relationship betw een jective ratings for "soundness" were made for the , disproportions and "soundness of per- sonallt freshmen by the examining college physicians at y - T h l s l s a11 t h e m o r e important since the r e s u l t s a r e b a s e d o n o t h e r d a t a a a r t f r o m t h a t of the end of the forty minute period of the entrance P the G r a n t Stud medical examination. These ratings, on an ABCD y s e n e s a n d o n "soundness" ratings m a d e b other examiners scale, were made on the basis of the judgment of ? - of the physician as to the general all around sound- ness and stability of the individual, as well as to Comparison Between Grant Study and Psychia- tnc Climc Seues his ability to adjust to the college environment. For the purposes of this study, the "soundness" The association of disproportions with person- ratings of the freshmen were separated into two alities less well-organized and less capable of making groups, those individuals with ratings of A or B easy social adjustments is further emphasized by an and those with ratings of C or D. These two analysis of a series of 51 Harvard students referred groups are compared for their frequency of dis- to the Psychiatric Clinic of the Department of proportions in Table XIV. Again we find that the Hygiene of Harvard University. More than half "more sound" persons (ratings of A and B) have of the group were diagnosed as belonging to the in general fewer disproportions than the "less category of psychoneurosis of the anxiety type, sound" individuals (ratings of C and D ) . Differ- while the remainder consisted of a conglomerate ences that attain the level of statistical significance assembly of individuals classified as'having psycho- 94 CARL C. SELTZER [Vol. 8 pathic conditions of various types, functional dis- the Psychiatric Clinic series exceeds those of the orders, and a few undiagnosed. This group is of Freshmen group. the same age as the Grant Study series. The Psychiatric Clinic series has been compared with the Grant Study group for frequency of dis- The preceding analysis gives clear indication of proportions (Table X V ) . The data indicate clearly significant relationships between physique and per- a greater incidence of the various disproportions sonality in normal individuals. The main generali- in the Psychiatric Clinic group. In only one ratio zation to be derived from these data is the principle TABLE XIV DISPROPORTIONS IN FRESHMAN '46 SERIES ACCORDING TO "SOUNDNESS" RATINGS A and B Cand D "Sou ndness" ratings "Soiindness" ratings (176) (110) Critical Disproportions No. % No. Diff. ratio Height/-^ weight 13.5-x 38 21.6 36 32.7 + 11.1 2.04 Biac. diam./chest circ. 48-x.. . . 37 21.0 29 26.4 + 5.4 1.04 Chest br./biac. diam. x-70 00 56.8 72 65.5 + 8.7 1.48 Chest depth/biac. diam. x-47 . . 65 36.9 40 36.4 - 0.5 0.09 Bi-iliac diam./biac. diam. 75-x. 22 12.5 25 22.7 + 10.2 2.16 Head circ./chest circ. 64-x 09 61.9 84 76.4 + 14.5 2.66 Chest circ./stature x-48 71 40.3 60 54.5 + 14.2 2.36 Calf circ./biac. diam. x-85 48 27.3 28 25.5 - 1.8 0.34 Face br./chest br. 50-x 87 49.4 72 65.5 + 16.1 2.73 Hand area/weight 110-x 58 33.0 42 38.2 + 5.2 0.89 Bi-iliac diam./chest br. 103-x. . 72 40.9 64 58.2 + 17.3 2.89 TABLE XV COMPARISON OF DISPROPORTIONS BETWEEN GRANT STUDY SERIES AND PSYCHIATRIC CLINIC SERIES Grant Study Psychiatric Clinic (258) (51) Disproportions No. % No. % Diff. ratio Height/-^ weight 13.5-x 36 14.2 12 23.5 +9.3 1.47 Biac. diam./chest circ. 48-x 22 8.7 14 27.4 +18.7 2.88 Chest br./biac. diam. x-70 89 35.2 32 62.7 +27.5 3.72 Chest depth/biac. diam. x-47 73 28.8 14 27.4 - 1.4 0.20 Bi-iliac diam./biac. diam. 75-x 42 16.6 12 23.5 +6.9 1.08 Head circ./chest circ. 64-x 116 45.8 41 80.4 . +34.6 5.43 Chest circ./stature x-48 54 21.3 20 39.2 +17.9 2.45 Calf circ./biac. diam. x-85 62 24.5 21 41.2 +16.7 2.26 Face br./chest br. 50-x 77 30.4 33 64.7 +34.3 4.71 Hand area/weight 110-x 46 18.2 14 27.4 +9.2 1.37 Bi-iliac diam./chest br. 103-x 68 26.9 26 51.0 +24.1 3.20 are the disproportions fewer than in the "normal" that unilateral disharmonic bodily proportions are Grant Study series, and then by a very small per- associated with less stable personalities, with traits centage. In a number of instances the frequency of indicating difficulty in making easy social adjust- disproportions is about twice as marked as in the ments, and with motivations that are less practicable Grant Study group. T h e differences between the and leading to more ideational (cerebrotonic) Psychiatric Clinic and the Grant Study series which fields of endeavor. T h e unilateral aspect of these are beyond the level of statistical significance are disproportions must be stressed. Their association indicated in the following ratios: biacromial-chest with the Jess well-integrated personalities involves circumference, chest breadth-biacromial diameter, one end of the distribution curve of the bodily ratio, head circumference-chest circumference, chest cir- Thus the traits concerned are positively related to cumference-stature, calf circumference-biacromial bodily proportions which represent, for example, diameter, face breadth-chest breadth, and bi-iliac- head size big for the size of chest, and not head diameter-chest breadth. size small for size of chest. They are associated It is of some interest to note that in certain of the with shoulders big for the size of chest, and not bodily ratios the frequency of the disproportions of with shoulders small for the size of chest; with Mar. 1946] BODY DISPROPORTIONS AND DOMINANT PERSONALITY TRAITS 95 hands large for the size of body, and not with hands data have been independently gathered by dif- small for the size of the body, et cetera. In the case ferent observers representing different disciplines of the extremes of the curves opposite to those de- removes from consideration the imputation of fined as disproportions, there is no clear-cut associa- spurious correlation through bias, or "halo effect." tion in every instance with the more stable, prac- The findings in this study are perforce circum- tical and more vital traits, such as the "well- scribed by the nature and scope of the personality integrated," "practical organizing," "self-driving," traits with which the disproportions were related. "humanistic," "sociable," and "vital affect." Such The trait groupings represent dominant or out- a relationship does exist in certain cases and in standing traits, which are to a great extent on the others there is simply a deficiency of the more sen- intellectual and motivational level. The extension sitive and complex traits. of this concept of disproportions to traits of lesser The question may be raised in connection with degrees of intensity, and on the more biological and the ratios as to the specific nature of the dispropor- temperamental levels, will probably yield additional tion. Is the index the result of a very large size of significant relationships. one dimension or the small size of the other dimen- The origin of the variations in the body propor- sion? For example, in the disproportion of head tions here studied is largely a matter of speculation. circumference-chest circumference of 64 and higher, But since the disproportions are derived from is the index due to the large size of the head or measurements which are in most instances closely the small size of the chest? In answer to this query, related to skeletal dimensions, it suggests that they analyses of the disproportionate indices have been are largely independent of physical environmental made, and the results show that in approximately influences and that we are dealing with character- 50 per cent of the cases the disproportionate index istics which are principally of an inherited nature. is attributable to the combination of the large size The variations in such measurements as the cir- of one of the dimensions and the small size of the cumference of the head, the biacromial breadth of other measurement. In approximately 40 per cent the shoulders, the bizygomatic width of the face, of cases, although there is a disproportionate rela- the breadth and depth of the chest, and the bi-iliac tionship between one dimension and the other, both breadth of the hips, can hardly be ascribed to gross of the absolute dimensions are smaller than the factors of the physical environment such as climate, corresponding means of the series. In the remain- diet and disease. In this "normal" group, the diets, ing cases, approximately 10 per cent, both measure- from infancy on, may be regarded as being well- ments are larger than their corresponding means, standardized, at least from the point of view of while at the same time one of the dimensions is still divergencies of diets throughout the world. Among disproportionately larger than the other. Thus, in these selected young men, there was rarely evidence 51.3 per cent of head circumference-chest circum- of any stigmata which could be attributed to rickets ference disproportions the absolute head circum- or other deficiency diseases, or to any specific effec- ference is larger than the mean of the total series tive agencies of pathology. Other conditions which and the corresponding chest circumference smaller might conceivably have interfered with or modified than the mean of the total series. In 41.9 per cent skeletal growth were not found. There is no doubt of instances both the head circumference and the that racial factors play some role, and it is thought chest circumference dimensions are smaller than the that familial influences might be identified. In corresponding means of the entire series. And in addition, there are scarcely any indications that the the residual 6.8 per cent, the head and chest cir- personality traits themselves might have been modi- cumferences are larger than the means of the fied appreciably by the presence of these dispropor- entire series. tions. In many cases, the disproportions are so The consistency of the general findings in other subde to the eye that they cannot be identified with- groups distinct from the Grant Study material out the actual measurement and computation of the makes it highly unlikely that the association of the ratio. They are scarcely so pronounced as to inter- disproportions with the personality trait groupings fere with normal activities or indulgence in sports may be the result of some artifact or peculiarity although they may dictate to a certain extent the of the Grant Study sample. The analysis of the particular variety of sports in which the subject Freshmen data and the Psychiatric Clinic series might excel. It would seem that the disproportions must be considered as strong evidence of the are constitutional, and as such their relationship to authenticity of this general psycho-physical relation- the personality traits may indicate a genetic element ship. The fact that the physical and personality as a basic factor in the determination of behavior 96 CARL C. SELTZER [Vol. 8 and personality. The proof of this supposition must be recognized that the trait groups were compared await further studies on other groups in varying with the total series of which they are a part. If cultural settings. If it is true, it becomes of course a they were taken out of the total series so that the matter of marked importance. On the other hand, comparisons would be between one trait group and the absence of any hereditary significance of the dis- another, the differences obtained would naturally proportions to behavior would in no way diminish be larger than those quoted for the total series. the potential utility of these findings. There would Another subject which necessitates further study still remain considerable usefulness in understand- is the relationship of the disproportions with the ing the individual "as is" and possible use for pre- various somatotypes. Disproportions appear to be diction based on further work. The application least common in the marked endomorphs and the of these findings in education, medicine, personnel marked mesomorphs. They are most common in selection, and the like is readily apparent. the strong ectomorphs. This does not mean that It is noteworthy that the disproportions do not disproportions are synonymous with, ectomorphy appear to be of equal importance in their relation- or that the underlying factor in the disproportions is ship to the various personality traits. There are the ectomorphic -element. Disproportions occur in some disproportions which are more frequently as- individuals in which the ectomorphic component sociated with the traits and others less so. If we is not marked, and not all strong ectomorphs take as a yardstick the statistically significant ex- are replete with disproportions. The element of cesses over the total series frequencies, we find that strong ectomorphy is included in one of the dis- the bi-iliac-chest breadth and the chest breadth- proportions in the height ^weight ratio of 13.5 biacromial disproportions are significantly differ- and higher. Even though this height-weight ratio entiated in more of the personality trait groupings is correlated with almost all of the other ratios of here studied than any of the other ratios. In con- disproportion, and particularly so with chest cir- trast, the hand area-weight, bi-iliac-biacromial, and cumference-stature index, it does not show the face breadth-chest breadth disproportions are sig- greatest frequency of significant divergencies with nificantly differentiated in the least number of the the personality traits but actually less than several personality traits. In regard to significant deficien- other disproportions. There are instances in which cies from the total series frequencies, the head cir- the chest circumference-stature disproportion pre- cumference-chest circumference disproportion leads sents significant personality trait divergencies which by far in number of significant differentiations, and are not matched by the height-weight ratio. It is followed by the chest circumference-stature ratio. would appear therefore that the height-weight dis- No deficiencies of statistical significance are en- proportion (representing marked ectomorphy) is countered in the case of the hand area-weight, bi- not independent of other disproportions but it can- iliac-biacromial, and bi-iliac-chest breadth dispro- not be said that it is so highly intercorrelated as to portions. Hence, the bi-iliac-biacromial and hand produce spurious correlations in the case of the area-weight disproportions are of least value in other disproportions. their overall relationship to these personality trait groupings. The impression is not meant to be conveyed that the disproportions indicated in this study represent Results of the analysis of the body proportions all the amodal proportions of significance as re- of a group of 258 "normal" young men, investi- lated to personality. The need for pressing further gated by the Grant Study of Harvard University, the search for additional ratios of this order is im- indicate an association between restricted ranges of plicit and desirable. Added investigations may well the body ratios called disproportions, and the fre- disclose changes in the ranges of the disproportions quency of certain dominant personality traits. The which would produce more significant relationships. disproportions here studied are: The use of more formalized methods for establish- Stature tall for body weight ing the most profitable ranges for the disproportions, Shoulders broad for circumference of such as the X 2 method for determining the best chest "cut-off points," might increase their predictive Chests narrow for width of shoulders value. Inasmuch as some of the body ratios used Chests shallow (front to back) for width of shoulders change somewhat with age, different ranges for the Hips broad for width of shoulders disproportions may be required for age groups Heads large for size of chest other than that of the college level. It also should Chests small for stature Mar. 1946] BODY DISPROPORTIONS AND DOMINANT PERSONALITY TRAITS 97 Leg circumferences small for width of of a large series of unselected undergraduates rated shoulders on the basis of general "soundness" of personality, Faces broad for width of chest Hands large for body weight and a group of students who were referred to the Hips broad for width of chest college psychiatric clinic. In both instances the dis- proportions were more frequent in the "less sound" Individuals possessing these disproportions have undergraduates and in the psychiatric clinic cases. a greater frequency of those dominant personality It is suggested that the disproportions are con- traits indicating lesser stability, lesser integration, stitutional and as such may indicate a genetic greater sensitivity and complexity of the person- element in the determination of personality and ality, and lesser capacity for making easy social behavior. However, it is pointed out that verifica- adjustments. Some of the traits which go with the tion of this supposition must await further study disproportions are "unstable autonomic functions," with other groups, in different age levels, and in "less well-integrated," "mood fluctuations," "bland varying cultural settings. affect," "inhibited," "cultural," "lack of purpose and values," "inarticulate," and "asocial." ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Conversely, individuals with traits indicating "soundness," stability, integration, vitality, and I am indebted to Drs. A. V. Bock, E. A. Hooton, strength of personality have fewer disproportions in F. L. Wells, and C. W. Heath for criticism and their physiques than the average of the group. helpful suggestions; and to Eleanor B. McTernan These generalizations are supported by analyses for editorial assistance.
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