Assessment of the Socio-Economic Impacts of Quarrying and by the300e

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									European Journal of Social Sciences – Volume 6, Number 4 (2008)

Assessment of the Socio-Economic Impacts of Quarrying and Processing of Limestone at Obajana, Nigeria
Afeni Thomas Busuyi School of Mining Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment University of The Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa E-mail: olubusuyiafeni@yahoo.com, busuyi.afeni@students.wits.ac.za Cawood Frederick School of Mining Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment University of The Witwatersrand Johannesburg, South Africa Isiaka Afolabi Fatai Department of Mining Engineering, School of Eng. and Eng. Technology Federal University of Technology Akure, Nigeria Abstract The persistent high rise in the price of building materials and constant importation of cement in Nigeria requires speedy development of cement factories in country. This research was carried out to assess the socio-economic impacts of quarrying and processing of limestone at Obajana, Nigeria. In order to assess the socio-economic impacts of the operations on the community, questionnaires were distributed to both the staff of the company and the community. The data derived from the questionnaires were subjected to both statistical analysis and chi-square method. The results gotten indicated that the lifestyles of the people are still below high standard with only 7% of the respondents earning above N40,000:000 (forty thousand naira monthly) and majority earn less than N20,000:00 (twenty thousand naira monthly). Also the level of education within the community is poor and there is higher percentage of non-literacy level. The operation has little or no environmental impacts on the community yet due to the fact that the operations/production has not commenced fully. This situation may change in the nearest years to come. When this happen, this work will serve as baseline data for any socioeconomic assessment on Obajana. However, recommendations were made on how to improve the literacy level of the community and other impacts. Keywords: Obajana, socio-economic, limestone, quarrying and processing

Introduction
Minerals exploitation has supported the social and economic development of many developed `countries [1]. In developing countries, it will continue to provide the technological development and employment. According to [2], large-scale mineral exploitation has contributed over 90% of all foreign exchange earnings, 60% of gross National Product, 50% of total government revenue and 30% of total employment in some Southern African Countries. Similarly, small scale – mineral exploitation provides a source of livelihood for those in rural and semi – urban Africa. To fully understand the 56

European Journal of Social Sciences – Volume 6, Number 4 (2008) impact that the mineral exploitation like limestone had on the social and economic life of people close to the mine, there is need to briefly define the socio-economic impact. Social impact is defined as the process of assessing the social consequences that are likely to arise after the project development with its policy and legislation. It also includes the cultural consequences to human populations of any private or public actions that alter the ways in which people live, work, play, relate to one another so as to organize to meet their needs and generally cope as members of society [3]. [4] stated that, ‘Socio-Economic Impacts is regarded as an integral part of environmental impacts’. The efforts of government to use minerals deposits to promote national economic growth have been matched by similar attempts to base the development of peripheral regions upon investment in mining. [5] describes the lasting impacts of the “gold rushes” in South Africa and California demonstrates the possibilities. The gold resources of the Witwatersrand were discovered in 886 and were responsible for the rapid growth of Johannesburg which remains the economic core of South Africa. Similarly, the “Forty- miners” attracted by John Sutter’s chance discovery were the catalyst in California’s rise to economic importance and the population of san Francisco rose form just 450 in 1847 to more than 55,000 by 1860. This experience demonstrates the operation of process on the circular and cumulative causation based on the initial advantage provided by mineral resources [6]. It could be glaringly seen that, the most significant impact of the exploitation is the migration of thousand of foreign and non local employee to the area occupied by a mine concomitantly upset the social balance of local communities, impacting local water supplies and the available resource. Also mass resettlement can result to the spread of disease and increase in the price of local good and services. There is no doubt that mineral exploitation if properly coordinated can have a positive socioeconomic impact on the people of the producing area through the development of some socioeconomic infrastructure such as roads, schools, hospitals, and housing. These may trigger the rise of a wide range of small businesses. Despite these benefits, mineral exploitations can also have a number of adverse Socio-economic impacts on the host community. Losses of ability to hunt games, fish, farm and loss of freedom of movement, force resettlement or relocation and a fundamental disrespect to traditions among others were observed by [7] as part of the negative impacts. Accidents and death are also some of the adverse impact. In Columbia, 100 gemstone miners were killed by mudslide in 1998 [2]. Prior to the commencement of the construction work at Obajana Cement Plant in February 2003, the community in the Oworo District of Lokoja, Kogi State, was a sleepy rural settlement with no social and infrastructural amenities. The population of the Obajana community then was estimated at about 400 (four hundred), while the residential houses, mostly built with mud and raffia palms were barely up to 20 (twenty) as life then centred round the agricultural practices of the indigenes and some few Tiv settlers who came to take advantage of the rich agricultural land the community is endowed with. The story has changed, the community has an estimated population of over 5,000 (five thousand) and no less than 500 (five hundred) residential buildings [8]. The main objective of this study is to assess the socio-economic impacts of the exploitation and processing of limestone at Obajana, now that the whole plant construction work is on with little or no production yet. This research work will serve as a basement data for assessing the full socio-economic impacts of the operations in the nearest years to come.

Geographical description of the study area
Affected settlement Settlements / communities affected by the project include Oyo–Iwa, Obajana, Oile, Oshokoshoko / Eshi, Nyamako and its environs. Apart from Obajana, Iwa and Oshokoshoko, the settlements are remotely located and not easily accessible. All these communities are inhabited by native land owners, 57

European Journal of Social Sciences – Volume 6, Number 4(2008) except Nyamaku and environs, which are inhabited by TIV settlers on Oyo – Iwa land [9]. The affected settlement is shown in figure 1 below. The project is sited in Obajana village on 968,000m2 of land allocated to Obajana Cement Plc by the government of Kogi State due to relatively flat terrain shown in the location plan in figure 2 below. The community of Obajana is located next to the site of the cement plant and truck park. Communities downstream of the project includes Fulani, migrant settlements (Wuro Gada Biyu, Wuro Ardo, Wuro Masho and Waro Jahun and Shagari town) which is inhabited by Bassa people (on Igbira land).
Figure 1: Map of Nigeria showing the affected settlement. (Source: Executive Summary on Obajana Cement plc. January 2005)

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Figure 2: Diagram Showing the Location Plan. (Source: Executive Summary on Obajana Cement plc. January 2005)

Geology of Obajana The study area consists of Basement Complex rocks, predominantly composed of folded gneisses and metal sediments. The rock type found in the area includes: Schist, Pegmatite, quartzite, limestone, granite and granulites. An overburden of 2m and 8m thickness of soil overlies the limestone. The site is characterized by two types of landforms, domed shaped residual hills and river valleys. The hilly area is located westwards from the dam site. Generally, this ecological zone is made up of mixtures of true and shrub density are higher between Eganyin and Obajana (1089 / ha) than between Ajaokuta and Eganyin (895/ ha), but there were more herbs with higher biomass between Ajaokuta, Eganyin than 59

European Journal of Social Sciences – Volume 6, Number 4(2008) between Eganyin and Obajana and beyond. Plant species diversity was high in the savannah woodland vegetation but stem girth measurements at breast – height were small. Due to this, timber – size trees decrease as one move northwards. More than 50% of the total number of economic plants varies and they include their uses as fuel, timber, dye’s, vegetable, edible fruits and seed trees medicinal and religious plants and sponge. The mean annual rainfall for the project area ranges from 1,100 to 1,320mm. Rainfall lasts from May to October with dry season occurring in between. The prevailing wind direction for the month of June /July and December/January is south to southwesterly and northeasterly respectively shown in figure 3.
Figure 3: Map of Nigeria showing rainfall distribution (Source: Altas Map of Nigeria)

Field measurement methodology This study was conducted in Obajana, a village in Lokoja Local Government Area of Kogi State, Nigeria. The vegetation is grass shrubs, and mixture of trees signifying guinea savannah. There are settlements around Obajana cement factory. The major occupation of he inhabitants of Obajana and her environs is farming, with leguminous crops, cassava, maize are predominant crops. Data were collected through the use of questionnaire and oral interview. A total of one hundred and twenty-nine (129) 60

European Journal of Social Sciences – Volume 6, Number 4 (2008) questionnaires were distributed; 104 among the staffs and 25 among the people within the community in all 125 questionnaires were returned, 100 from the staffs and 25 from the people of the host community. The one hundred and twenty – five (125) questionnaires that were returned were subjected to statistical analyses. In the twenty – five questionnaires distributed to the people in the community, there is a table on likely adverse impacts of the operation on the host community. The data gotten from the community in this aspect were used to develop hypotheses and this was tested using chi-square distribution to analyze the impacts of the operation on host community. Results and discussions Tables 1 to 8 show the socio-economic features of the respondents. The histogram representations of these tables were presented in appendix (figure 4 to 10). Table 1 shows the staff and community respondents; that is the number of the questionnaires retrieved is 96.9 %.
Table 1: staff and community respondents
Frequency C.P 25 25 Percentage (%) 100 96.9

No of questionnaires distributed No of questionnaires retrieved
Note: C.P – Community People. NAD – No accurate data.

Staff 104 100

Total 129 125

Table 2 shows that 28.8% are between 26 – 30 years, 25.6% are between 31 – 35years, above 36 and 21 – 25 years are about 16.0% and 13.6%. With these, it can be inferred that the ages 26 – 30 are actively participated in the work; hence it gives an overview that most of the people living here are male with 88%. There are more men engaged in the quarry than women as shown in Table 3.
Table 2:
Age (year) 16 – 20 21 – 25 26 – 30 31 – 35 Above 36
Source: Field Survey 2006.

distribution of respondents
Frequency C.P 4 6 5 6 4 Percentage (%) 13.6 16.0 28.8 25.6 16.0

Staff 13 14 31 26 16

Total 17 20 36 32 20

Table 3:
Sex Male Female
Source:

Sex distribution of the respondents
Frequency C.P 20 5 Percentage (%) 88 12

Staff 90 10
Field Survey 2006.

Total 110 15

According to Table 4 about 78.4% were found to be Christians, 18.4% are Islam and small proportion is traditional worshipper. The predominant religions in the area are Christianity, followed by Islam and few people practice African traditional religions. Table 5 shows that, about 62.4% were married, while 24.8% were still single as at the time of filling this report. This shows the predominance of dependence and culture, societal norms within the community must have been quieted some of the singles will have been able to move out to the neighboring communities in search of greener pastures.

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Table 4:
Religion Christianity Muslim Traditionalist
Source: Field Survey 2006.

Religion distribution of the respondents
Frequency C.P 18 4 1 Percentage (%) 78.4 18.4 3.2

Staff 80 19 1

Total 98 23 4

Table 5:

Marital status distribution of the respondents
Frequency C.P 7 12 4 1 1 Percentage (%) 24.8 62.4 8.0 2.4 2.4

Marital status Single Married Divorced Widowed Separated
Source: Field Survey 2006.

Staff 24 66 6 2 2

Total 31 78 10 3 3

However, their educational background was found to be generally poor (Table 6) as over 36.0% of them did not have complete education, about 17.0% has no formal education and 12.0% had post secondary education. It can be deduced that due to the low and poor educational background, this host community could not optimize the mineral and cement industry in their domain.
Table 6: Educational level distribution of the respondents
Frequency C.P 4 2 8 4 4 1 1 1 Percentage (%) 4.8 4.8 12.8 12.0 23.2 21.6 8.8 12.0

Level of education Non – formal Quaranic Primary school incomplete Primary school complete Secondary school incomplete Secondary school complete Adult literacy Tertiary/post secondary
Source: Field Survey 2006.

Staff 2 4 8 11 25 26 10 14

Total 6 6 16 15 29 27 11 15

Table 7 reveals that majority of respondents, 51% does not realize up to N 20, 000 per month from the jobs they engaged in the company, they are basically unskilled labour. While 25% realizes between N 20, 000 – N 30, 000 per month, 17% and 7% are realized between N 30, 000 – N 40, 000 and above N 40, 000 respectively. This statistics invariably shows that the people area still living within the standard economy values.
Table 7:
Income Below N 20,000 N 20, 000 – N 29,999 N 30,000 – N 39,999 Above N 40,000
Source: Field Survey 2006.

Income distribution of the respondents
Frequency C.P NAD NAD NAD NAD Percentage (%) 51 25 17 7

Staff 51 25 17 7

Total 51 25 17 7

The nature of ailments commonly treated includes malaria 76.8%, cough 8.8%, Asthma 3.2%, skin rashes and rabies 3.2%, gastroenteritis 4.0% and others 4.0% according to Table 8. The frequency 62

European Journal of Social Sciences – Volume 6, Number 4 (2008) at which these ailments occur tends to suggest that Obajana activities have no significant adverse effect on the residents of surrounding as at the time of this report, this situation may change as soon as full operation commences at the site.
Table 8:
Diseases Malaria Cough Asthma Skin rashes/scabies Gastroventeritis Other transmitted diseases
Source: Field Survey 2006.

Distribution of Respondents on Health
Frequency C.P 16 4 2 1 1 1 Percentage (%) 76.8 8.8 3.2 3.2 4.0 4.0

Staff 80 7 2 3 4 4

Total 96 11 4 4 5 5

Test of hypotheses Table 9 shows the sampling parameter on the likely impacts of exploitation of limestone at Obajana. Table 10 shows the community response on the likely adverse impact of the exploitation on the community. The hypotheses developed in this study would be tested using chi-square test at 95% level of significance. The chi-square formular used is as follows:
Table 9:
S/ N A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O.
Source:

Sample table for assessing likely impact of limestone exploitation in Obajana
Strongly Agree Agree Slightly Disagree Disagree Strongly Disagree

Identified impacts Removal of vegetation cover. Dust emission / solid wastes disposal during construction. Air emission during the operation. Impacts associated with liquid effluents (storms, water, sewage, cooling water). Impacts of accidental spillages. Conflicts due to agricultural land / income derived from land. Disruption of livelihood as a result of lost resources. High noise levels during cement production process. Road traffic hazard due to truck / vehicle movement per day. Impacts associated with blasting. Impacts associated with mine water discharge and change of water quality. Social tension due to unprecedented flux of people. Creation of breeding grounds for disease vectors. Risk of introduction of new diseases. Vandalism / corrosion.
Field Survey 2006.

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Table 10: the contributors that identified likely adverse impact of exploitation on the host community
INDENTIFIED IMPACT A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O TOTAL EXPECTED VALUE SA 15 14 14 15 14 15 14 15 14 15 15 15 14 13 15 217 14.5 A 8 7 8 9 8 8 6 7 8 8 7 7 8 9 7 115 7.7 SD 1 1 1 0 1 1 2 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 2 13 0.9 D 1 2 2 1 2 0 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 24 1.6 S 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 6 0.4 TOTAL 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 375

Ground Total = 217 + 115 + 13 + 24 + 6 = 375 Number of Rows = 15, Number of Column = 5 ∑ of each Column 217 Expected Value = = 14.5 e.g. No of Row 15 Row Total X Column Total Or Ground Total Note; S.A Strongly Agree A Agree S.D Slightly Agree D Disagree S Strongly Disagree

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Table 11: computation of x2t calculated using chi – square distribution
SN A Observed value O 15 8 1 1 0 14 7 1 2 1 14 8 1 2 0 15 9 0 1 0 14 8 1 2 0 15 8 1 0 1 14 6 2 2 1 15 7 1 2 0 14 8 1 2 0 15 8 0 2 0 15 7 0 2 1 15 7 0 2 1 14 8 1 1 1 13 9 1 2 0 15 7 2 1 0 Expected value E 14.5 7.7 0.9 1.6 0.4 14.5 7.7 0.9 1.6 0.4 14.5 7.7 0.9 1.6 0.4 14.5 7.7 0.9 1.6 0.4 14.5 7.7 0.9 1.6 0.4 14.5 7.7 0.9 1.6 0.4 14.5 7.7 0.9 1.6 0.4 14.5 7.7 0.9 1.6 0.4 14.5 7.7 0.9 1.6 0.4 14.5 7.7 0.9 1.6 0.4 14.5 7.7 0.9 1.6 0.4 14.5 7.7 0.9 1.6 0.4 14.5 7.7 0.9 1.6 0.4 14.5 7.7 0.9 1.6 0.4 14.5 7.7 0.9 1.6 0.4 O–E 0.5 0.3 0.1 -0.6 -0.4 -0.5 -0.7 0.1 0.4 0.6 -0.5 0.3 0.1 0.1 -0.4 0.5 1.3 -0.9 -0.6 -0.4 -0.5 0.3 0.1 0.4 -0.4 0.5 0.3 0.1 -1.6 0.6 -0.5 -1.7 1.1 0.4 0.6 0.5 -0.7 0.1 0.4 0.4 -0.5 0.3 0.1 0.4 -0.4 0.5 0.3 -0.9 0.4 -0.4 0.5 -0.7 -0.9 0.4 0.6 0.5 -0.7 -0.9 -0.4 0.6 0.5 0.3 0.1 -0.6 0.6 -1.5 1.3 0.1 0.4 -0.4 0.5 -0.7 1.1 -0.6 -0.4 (O – E)2 0.25 0.09 0.01 0.36 0.16 0.25 0.49 0.01 0.16 0.36 0.25 0.09 0.01 0.16 0.16 0.25 1.69 0.81 0.36 0.16 0.25 0.09 0.01 0.16 0.16 0.25 0.09 0.01 2.56 0.36 0.25 2.89 1.21 0.16 0.36 0.25 0.49 0.01 0.16 0.16 0.25 0.09 0.01 0.16 0.16 0.25 0.09 0.81 0.16 0.16 0.25 0.49 0.81 0.16 0.36 0.25 0.49 0.81 0.16 0.36 0.25 0.09 0.01 0.36 0.36 2.25 1.69 0.01 0.16 0.16 0.025 0.49 0.21 0.36 0.16 (O – E)2/E 0.017 0.012 0.011 0.225 0.400 0.017 0.064 0.011 0.100 0.900 0.017 0.012 0.011 0.100 0.400 0.033 0.220 0.900 0.225 0.400 0.017 0.012 0.011 0.100 0.400 0.017 0.012 0.011 1.600 0.900 0.017 0.375 1.344 0.100 0.900 0.017 0.064 0.011 0.100 0.400 0.017 0.012 0.011 0.100 0.400 0.017 0.012 0.900 0.100 0.400 0.017 0.064 0.900 0.100 0.900 0.017 0.064 0.900 0.100 0.900 0.017 0.012 0.011 0.225 0.900 0.155 0.220 0.011 0.100 0.400 0.017 0.064 1.344 0.225 0.400 20.515

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

N

0

TOTAL

Source:

Field Survey 2006.

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(O j – E j ) 2 (O – E) 2 or X 2 = ∑ k j=1 E Ej 2 2 Where X = X calculated O = Observed value E = Expected value K = Number of categories The expected value is calculated using Row total × Column total =E Ground total The degree of freedom is also determined using (r -1) (c – 1) Degree of freedom = (15 -1) (5 – 1) = 14 × 4 = 56. Where r = Number of rows c = Number of columns HO represents the null hypothesis HA is the alternative hypothesis

X2 =

(1)

(2) (3)

Decision rule

Reject the null hypotheses (HO) when the xc2 calculated is greater than xt2 tabulate and accept the alternative hypothesis (HA), otherwise, accept the null hypothesis (HO) and reject the alternative hypothesis (HA). Reject HO if xc2 > xt2, otherwise, accept.
Interpolation of value

Percentage value (X2P) the chi – square distribution with V degree of freedom using Table 10 and 11.
V V1 = 50 V2 = 56 V = 60
V 2 −V1 X 2 − X1 = V 3 −V1 X 3− X1

X20.05 X1 = 34.8 X2 = X X3 = 43.2

56 − 50 X − 34.8 = 60 − 50 43.2 − 34.8 6 X 2 − 34.8 = 10 8.4 6 X 8.4 = 10X2 - 348 -10X2 = -348 – 50.4 10 x 2 398.4 = 10 10 X2 = 39.84 Tabulated value = 39.84 X2t = 39.84
Hypothesis

HO: The adverse impact would not show rapid growth and development on the environment or the development of the project will have positive impact on the economy of the area. 66

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HA: The adverse impact would show rapid growth and development on the environment. or the development of the project will have negative impact on the economy of the area.
Interpretation of result

From: Table 10, it shows that the xc2 calculated is less than xt2 tabulated, we accept the null hypothesis (HO) and reject the alternative hypothesis (HA). The critical value / tabulated value at x20.05 = 39.84. The computed / calculated value of x20.05 = 20.515 (≈ 20.52). The computed value of xc2 is 20.515 less than tabulated value, so HO is accepted at this level of 95% significant. There would be no significant difference in normal environmental impacts.

Conclusion and Recommendations
Conclusion

Even though the exploitation and processing have not commenced fully, from the results obtained both from the respondents through questionnaires the lifestyles of the people are still below standard in comparison to non-mineral exploiting areas, also level of education is poor, and there is higher percentage level of illiteracy.
Recommendation

From the result of this research work conducted on the socio-economic impacts of limestone quarrying and processing in the community, the following recommendation should be put into consideration. • The company must provide reasonable compensation for lost crops / economic trees. • The company must develop with communities an influence management plans. • Improve basic facilities / utilities such as water supply, schools, roads and health infrastructure. • They should form a partner in enlightenment for increased environmental awareness in surrounding communities. • Scholarship programme should be implemented for the benefit of the host community members. • Regular assessment of environmental impacts and mitigation through technical initiatives with collaborative efforts of research institutes should be encouraged. • To reduce poor educational level and improve the community, the company should necessitate the provision (building) of schools (primary and secondary) and finance all its expenses to assist the government’s effort towards the development of the community. • Their farming activities can be better encouraged by the provision of fertilizers to further help improves the soil quantity such as the supply of organic manure

Appreciation
The author would like to thank Mr. Adewumi, Johnson for his contribution in the area of field data gathering.

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References
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9]
.

Akande J.M and Idris M.A., Environmental effects of gemstone exploration in Ofiki,Oyo State, Nigeria: Journal of Science Engineering of Technology (JOSET), 2005; 12(1), pp 5858 – 5869. IMasiku, A.N., Economic, environmental and social impact of small – scale mining. http:www.32.org sited on 7th April, 2008. Burdge, R. and Vanclay, F., ‘Social impact assessment: a contribution to the state of the art series’. Impact Assessment, 1996; 14(1), pp59-86. Carley, M. and Bustelo E., Crowding and human aggressiveness. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 2000; pp528-548. Warren, K., Mineral Resources. Newton Abbot, David and Charles; pp209-225 Chapman, K. and Walker, D.F., Industrial Location (2nd edition), Oxford, Blackwell. 1998; pp.170-177. Hilson G., An overview of land use conflicts in mining communities. Land use Policy 2002; 19(1), pp16 – 17. All Africa Global Media ‘Sleepy Obajana community, now an economic hub’. http://allafrica.com/stories/printable/200705210435.html.view on 2nd May, 2008. Executive Summary on Obajana cement project, 2005, pp. 40. http://www.ifc.org/ifcext/spiwebsite1.nsf/0/327d28aaf0c4f24985256fea0079213c?OpenDocum ent

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Appendix
Figure 4: Distribution of repondent's age

30 25
Percentage (%)

20 15 10 5 0
16-20 21-25 26-30 Age (years) 31-35 Above 36

Figure 5: Distribution of respondents' sex

male female

Figure 6: Religion distribution of the respondents

Christianity Muslim Traditionalist

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Figure 7: Marital status distribution of the respondents

70 60
Percentage (%)

50 40 30 20 10 0
Single Divorced Marital status Separated

Figure 8: Educational level distribution of the respondents

25

20

15

10

5

N: Non-formal Q: Quranic PI: Primary school incomplete PC: Primary school completed SI: Secondary school incomplete SC: Secondary school completed A: Adult education T: Post secondary /Tertiary education
N Q PI PC SI SC A T

Percentage (%)

0

Level of education

Figure 9: Income distribution of the respondents

60 50
Percentage (%)

40 30 20 10 0
Below N20,000 N20,000 N29,999 N30,000 N39,999 Above N40,000

Income

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Figure 10: Percentage distribution of respondents on health issues

80 70 60
Percentage (%)

50 40 30 20 10 0
M C A S Diseases G O

M: Malaria C: Cough A: Asthma S: Skin rashes/Scabies G: Gastroventeritis O: Other transmitted diseases

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