Usefulness of Educational Technology at Secondary School Level in by the300e

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									European Journal of Social Sciences – Volume 7, Number 4 (2009)



    Usefulness of Educational Technology at Secondary School
                    Level in NWFP (Pakistan)

                                    Sajjad Hayat Akhtar
        House No: 577/c Mohallah Shamgunj Mardan North West Frontier Province Pakistan
                               E-mail: akhtarsajjad@yahoo.com
                            Tel: +92-0937862690, +92-3339861168

                                                Abstract
     Purpose: The study probed into a descriptive research to evaluate the usefulness of
     educational technology at secondary level in North West Frontier Province (Pakistan). It
     has worked out on the provision, availability, problems, status, emerging trends of
     educational technology in general and its usefulness in particular. The main focus was the
     usefulness of educational technology.
     Objectives: Main objectives were to determine the usefulness, effectives, emerging trends,
     status and provision of educational technology.
     Hypothesis: On the basis of the pervious research studies and insight into general
     literature, the following hypotheses were drawn to be tested by the present study: There is
     no significant difference in the usefulness of educational technology at secondary school in
     NWFP in rural as well as urban areas. There is no significance difference in the status of
     the provision of educational technology at secondary school in NWFP in rural as well as
     urban areas. There is no significance difference in the scope and opportunities of
     educational technology at secondary schools in NWFP in rural as well as urban areas.
     Methodology: Data was collected through survey and questionnaires. Three different self
     assessment questionnaires on sampled principals, teachers and students at secondary level
     in six selected District of North West Frontier Province (Pakistan). For demographic profile
     percentage was used and chi square applied to measure the availability, usefulness,
     emerging trends, utilization and status of educational technology.
     Population: Total GHS, GGHS, SSTs, Heads of the GHS, GGHS and secondary school
     students were taken as a Population of the study. Total GHS, GGHS, SSTs, Heads of the
     GHS, GGHS and secondary school students were taken as a population of the study.
     Population No: I in April 2007 total no. of GHS, GGHS in six selected district of North
     West Frontier Province i.e. Mardan, Nowshera, Peshawar, AbbottAbad, Kohistan and
     Shangla were taken 87, 63, 87, 82, 14 and 27 respectively. Population No: II In the period
     of study total no. of SSTs in Mardan, Nowshera, Peshawar, AbbottAbad, Kohistan and
     Shangla district were 511, 365, 640, 488, 84 and 202 respectively. 360 Heads of the
     secondary schools were taken as population III of the study. Population No IV: 39595
     students of the secondary level from 360 selected schools were taken as population IV.
     Sample: Heads of the schools, SST Teachers, students of secondary schools and
     GHS/GGHS schools total population 1,2,3 and 4 were taken as a sample 1,2,3,4 i.e. 25%,
     25%,25% and 5% respectively.
     Result: The following results were made by the researcher in the light of the analysis of
     data. Majority of the teachers were not using educational technology; in addition computer
     mediated communication for counselling was not used. Further, computer is not used in
     science practical, over head projectors are not used, and educational trips and exhibition are
     not arranged. Inadequacy of trained educational technology teachers was also found. Lack

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     of computers, non-availability of internet facility, lack of well integrated media with
     content as well as lack of provision of guidance and counselling was also noticed.
     Conclusion: It was found that majority of the teachers are not using audio cassettes in
     teaching learning process. It was discovered that radio and television are not accessible.
     The study identified that majority of schools are deprived of computer technology.
     Recommendations: Education technology i.e. radio, television, internet, computers,
     audio/video recorder, overhead projector, online lectures should be provided. The
     continuous system of curriculum revision at secondary level in accordance with the
     national needs, market requirements and capabilities of students should be introduced.
     (Contains 5 tables.)


     Keywords: To identify the extent of use of educational technology at secondary school
               level in North West Frontier Province (Pakistan).

Introduction
Educational Technology comprehends a number of distinguishable areas of activity. The most familiar
use of technical devices supports the process of teaching and learning. They include the visual
projection apparatus; radio and television systems tap recorders for sound and vision, duplicating the
photographing and other reprographic equipment. Language laboratories and teaching machines; from
a very simple to the highly elaborate, some of which require staff with special training or experience to
operate and maintain them.
        However, the use of technical aids is not sufficient. They are devices of conveying learning
material, which has to be supplied either by the individual teacher or by some other teacher or author
on his behalf. Other aspects of education relate therefore to the production of this material. Sometimes,
it stems from the general interaction of teacher and student with a range of problems and situations. At
other times, it is necessary to construct the material most systematically in the light of research into the
process of learning particularly of learning by a carefully designed sequence of steps. This process is
characteristic of what has become known as programmed learning, although even here current
practices frequently embrace structures considerably broader than those originally conceived. Thus the
teacher constantly requires facilities to make resource material for him self, or to adapt to his own
needs material supplied from other sources.
        The awareness and use of educational technology in educational institutions in Pakistan is not
in good position. In spite of having God gifted facilities, our country is for behind as compared to some
other countries under development.
        Pakistan is a developing country and has a variety of natural resources and manpower.
        “Pakistan has multi-stage educational structure. The first stage is primary; comprising of
        classes 1-5 and up to the age group 5-9. The primary stage is followed by the middle
        stage composed of classes 6-7 and 8. Education was a provincial subject in the past but
        as a result of constitution 1973, a number of important matters in the education sphere
        were placed on the government legislation list in respect of which the federal assembly
        has power to make laws, if necessary”. Rashid. M (1993, P.21)
        The 1st stage of education technology is connected with application of audio visual aids e.g.
charts, maps models, specimen and concrete equipment the term education technology was used in the
meanings of audio visual aids.
        It is believed that good instructor always used visual aids for making their instructions
effective. Ancient Greek geometers were drawing diagrams of the earth. In order to enhance the
interests of the learners, the Czech Comenious suggested the instructors, to used pictorial explanations
and models.


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European Journal of Social Sciences – Volume 7, Number 4 (2009)

        The 2nd stage of education technology is connected with the electronic revolution, which has
led to the stage of extraordinary software and hardware. The projector, tape recorder, radio and
television altered the scenario of education. For that reason ET was considered synonym to their tools
and equipments, which were in used for increasing the instructional material.
        The 3rd please of education technology is connected with the mass media, which brought
communication revolution for the instructional purposes. Computer assist instruction also became
famous.
        The 4th stage education technology is known by the individualized prawns of instruction. The
invention of programmed learning and programmed instruction gave a new book to education
technology, a system of self-learning. The new concept of education technology is affected by the
concept of systems engineering or system approach. Aggarwal (1995, P. 15-16)
        Usually it is misinterpreted that education technology with all its devices can be a treatment to
the education maladies. The important thing is that how systematically the modern media like
television, tape recorder, computer etc applied together the teaching learning process. System approach
in education can put the technological development to the best care in education like in other areas. It is
without any doubt that technology will be thoroughly in the education process in future. The time has
arrived now to consider the abbreviation of Henri Qiezeide, in which he has noted in place of
continuing to allow machines do those things which the teacher cannot do, we should ask ourselves
what is that which teachers should which the machines cannot do. Skinner told that about all our main
problems include human behaviour in they cannot be resolved by biological technology only. What is
required is technology of behaviour.
        In teaching learning process different activities are performed which determine the
interrelationship of teacher in student. These interrelationship are three way communication i.e. teacher
in again from teacher to student. The application of education technology is planed to enhance the
functions of teachers and of learner in these complex relationships. Education technology may be
considered in terms of particular functions which they seen most suitable to extend. Aggarwal (1995,
P.25)
        Educational technology has a great capacity for betterment of the teaching learning process.
The important contributions of education technology are mentioned as under: -
        1.    Individualized Instruction:
              Education technology is of great help in individualizing instruction by making us able to
              use self-instructional programs.
        2.    Improvement in the Quality of Teaching:
              Education technology helps in the betterment of the teaching learning process and enables
              us to use more varied, rich and motivating programs through different media.
        3.    Meeting the Problem of Mass Education:
              Education technology assists us in using programs developed by experts for a large
              number of learners with utilization of television, computers, etc.
        4.    Equalizing Educational Opportunity
              Education technology helps us in the struggle to equalize the opportunities of education,
              without taking into consideration the economic, social and geographical status of the
              students.
        5.    Providing Continuing Education
              The learners in service personnel and vocational works are kept in touch with the latest
              material through television lessons and self-instructional programmed material, which I
              sent to them. Aggarwal (1995, P.33-34)




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                                          European Journal of Social Sciences – Volume 7, Number 4(2009)

Analysis
The analysis of the general opinion of principals regarding the usefulness of E.T

 T.No    Statement                                                                                  χ2
   1     Opinion about the awareness of educational technology                                     56.11
   2     Opinion about the storage and retrieval of educational technology                         38.34
   3     Opinion about the successful utilization of educational technology                        73.78
   4     Opinion about the facilitated dissemination of information through educational            38.89
         technology
  5      Opinion about promotion of recreational activities through educational                    49.78
         technology
  6      Opinion about the dissemination of latest knowledge through educational                   58.23
         technology
  7      Opinion about the stimulation and promotion of teacher's critical thoughts                49.78
         educational technology
  8      Opinion about the promotion of peer relationship through educational technology           59.78
  9      Opinion about the achievement of curriculum objectives through educational                23.78
         technology
  10     Opinion about the criticism of curriculum incase of non availability of                   20.34
         educational technology
  11     Opinion about the usefulness of educational technology                                    14.12
  12     Opinion about the sound environment for educational technology by teacher's                 13
         Total of χ2=                                                                              495.93
         Average χ2=                                                                               41.33

        From table No: 1 to 12 it is revealed that the average χ2 (41.33) is greater than the table value
of χ2 (9.488) at P (0.05), so that the opinion is different among the principals. There fore Ho is
rejected.
        Table show Availability of A.V aids at Secondary School Level in NWFP

 S.No        A.V aids                            Yes           %age            No          %age             Total
 I           Radio                               23            25.56           67          74.44             90
 Ii          Pictures                            59            65.56           31          34.44             90
 Iii         Flash Card                          30            33.33           60          66.67             90
 Iv          Maps                                50            55.56           40          44.44             90
 V           Poster                              42            46.67           48          53.33             90
 Vi          Charts                              55            61.11           35          38.89             90
 Vii         Writing Board                       87            96.67           3           3.33              90
 Viii        Felt Board                          15            16.67           75          83.33             90
 Ix          Magnetic Board                      12            13.33           78          86.67             90
 X           Models                              60            66.67           30          33.33             90
 Xi          Static Model                        10            11.11           80          88.89             90
 Xii         84 Opinion aboutional Model          4             4.44           86          95.56             90
 Xiii        Film Strip                           0             0.00           90           100              90
 Xiv         Slides                              12            13.33           78          86.67             90
 Xv          Over Head Projector                 11            12.22           79          87.78             90
 Xvi         Opaque Projector                     5             5.56           85          94.44             90
 Xvii        Film                                 3             3.33           87          96.67             90
 Xviii       Television                           9            10.00           81          90.00             90
 Xix         Educational Television              10            11.11           80          88.89             90
 Xx          Video                                8             8.89           82          91.11             90
 Xxi         Computer                            29            32.22           61          67.78             90
 Xxii        Computer Assisted Instruction       28            31.11           62          68.89             90

       It shows the opinion of principals about the availability of A.V aids items. Less then 20%
principals stated that only 12 items of AV aids are available but in very less quantity. But more than
20% principal stated that only 10 items of AV aids are available in reasonable quantity
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        General Opinion of Teachers about usefulness, provision and availability of E.T

 T.No   Statement                                                                                  χ2
   1    Opinion about the accessibility of radio as a medium                                     204.66
   2    Opinion about the usefulness of radio as a motivational tool                             418.89
   3    Point of view about the audio cassettes for group discussion                              317.7
   4    Point of view about the usefulness of audio cassette for drama in documentaries          253.85
   5    Opinion about the usefulness of computer in teaching learning process                    31.88
   6    Opinion about the usefulness of educational video cassette's                              93.97
   7    Opinion about the consideration of educational technology in curriculum                  106.04
        development
  8     Opinion about the frequent revising of syllabus                                           90.44
  9     Opinion about the arrangement of educational exhibitions                                  53.91
  10    Opinion about the arrangement of educational trips                                        20.57
        Total of χ2 =                                                                     SUM(ABOVE) 1591.91
        Average χ2                                                                          1591.91/10 159.19

        From table No: 1 to 10 it is revealed that the average χ2 (159.19) is greater than the table value
of χ2 (9.488) at P (0.05), so that the opinion is different among the Teachers. There fore Ho is rejected.
        Table showing General opinion of students with respect to usefulness of E.T

 T.No   Statement                                                                                   χ2
   1    Point of view about audio cassettes as a medium in teaching learning process             246.14
   2    Opinion about the usefulness of audio cassettes in teaching learning process             378.81
   3    Opinion about the usefulness of audio cassettes for dramas and documentaries             1205.64
   4    Opinion about the usefulness of audio cassettes for group discussion                    2282.91
   5    Opinion about the usefulness of computer mediated communication for counseling           1026.72
   6    Opinion about the usefulness of computer mediated communication                          1706.4
   7    Opinion about the use of computer in science practical                                   1055.65
   8    Opinion about the demonstration of scientific concept's                                   460.14
   9    Opinion about the use of over head projector                                              724.77
  10    Opinion about the arrangement of educational exhibitions                                  144.69
        Total of χ2 =                                                                     SUM(ABOVE) 9231.87
        Average χ2                                                                          9231.87/10 923.19

        From table No: 1 to 10, it is concluded that the average χ2 (923.19) is greater than the table
value of χ2 (5.991) at P (0.05), so that the opinion is different among the Students. There fore Ho is
rejected.




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                                          European Journal of Social Sciences – Volume 7, Number 4(2009)

         Items Related to the Use of A.V aids for Secondary School Students

S.No     A.V aids                        Regularly   %Age    Some Time   %Age    Never Used   %Age    Total
 i       Radio                              36       1.93       508      27.25      1320      70.82   1864
 ii      Pictures                          319       17.11     1169      62.71      376       20.17   1864
 iii     Flash Card                        315       16.90      593      31.81      956       51.29   1864
 iv      Maps                              384       20.60      944      50.64      536       28.76   1864
 v       Poster                            398       21.35     1022      54.83      444       23.82   1864
 vi      Charts                            552       29.61      927      49.73       385      20.65   1864
 vii     Writing Board                     579       31.06      256      13.73      1029      55.20   1864
 viii    Felt Board                        351       18.83      454      24.36      1059      56.81   1864
 ix      Magnetic Board                    570       30.58      855      45.87      439       23.55   1864
 x       Models                            310       16.63      890      47.75       664      35.62   1864
 xi      Static Model                      373       20.01      496      26.61      995       53.38   1864
 xii     Sectional Model                   360       19.31      378      20.28      1126      60.41   1864
 xiii    Film Strip                        509       27.31      592      31.76      763       40.93   1864
 xiv     Slides                            387       20.76      723      38.79      754       40.45   1864
 xv      Over Head Projector               375       20.12      378      20.28      1111      59.60   1864
 xvi     Opaque Projector                  451       24.20      202      10.84      1211      64.97   1864
 xvii    Film                              399       21.41      840      45.06      625       33.53   1864
 xviii   Television                        494       26.50      270      14.48      1100      59.01   1864
 xix     Educational Television            310       16.63      246      13.20      1308      70.17   1864
 xx      Video                             547       29.35      405      21.73      912       48.93   1864
 xxi     Computer                          400       21.46      359      19.26      1105      59.28   1864
 xxii    Computer Assisted Instruction     295       15.83      838      44.96      731       39.22   1864

       Table shows that less than 20% students stated that only 8 items are regularly used. But
according to more than 20% students stated that only 14 items are regularly used.


Result / Conclusion
    1. It was discovered from the analysis of data that the educational technology is not accessible for
       students. It was also found that radio is not accessible as a medium of instruction. The study
       identified that television is not accessible as a medium of instruction. There is wide spectrum of
       problems that video cassettes are not accessible.
    2. The students were confronted with the problem like that CD’s are not available. The study
       analyzed that majority of teachers are not using audio cassettes in teaching learning process,
       drama and documentaries.
    3. The study identified that educational technology items are not available. In addition, it was
       found that enough places are not available for educational technology.
    4. It was found that majority of school are not arranging the educational exhibition and
       educational trips. There is a wide spectrum of problem that computer is not used in science
       practical.
    5. The secondary school students were confronted with the problem like there teachers are not
       using computer mediated communication for counselling.


Recommendations
Keeping in view to constraints due to in-adequate educational technology facilities the researcher
makes a few general recommendations.
The researcher firm in his belief that: if the existing in-adequate resources are optimally utilized and
efficient management is corrected; the motivation for innovation would start with in rural as well as
urban areas schools themselves.

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European Journal of Social Sciences – Volume 7, Number 4 (2009)

      •   Computer should be included in curriculum as a compulsory subject.
      •   The course contents should be extensively supported through radio and television programs.
          Enough places should be provided for educational technology.
      •   Language laboratory should be established at secondary level. Availability of educational
          technology should be insured.
      •   Availability of educational technology should be ensured. Internet facilities should be provided
          at secondary level. Computer mediated communication should be used for counselling.
      •   Teachers should be provided sound environment for use of educational technology. Teachers
          should be demonstrated scientific concept through educational technology.
      •   Educational television should be accessible as a medium of instruction.
      •   Educational video cassettes should be used in teaching learning process.
      •   Curriculum developer should be enlisted the educational technology.
      •   Educational exhibition should be arranged for students. Educational trips should be arranged
          for students.
      •   Advanced method should be adopted. Availability of educational technology should be
          ensured.


References
[1]       Aggarwal, Jc (1995) Essential of educational technology teaching learning, India, Vishal
          printers, Delhi.
[2]       Rashid, M. 1993 Educational Technology A Study Guide for Course M.Phil Education Code
          740, Islamabad AIOU.
[3]       Rashid, M.1993 Educational Technology, A study Guide for course M.Phill Education code
          740, Islamabad AIOU.




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