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AP Biology


									                                                                  Adapted from L. Miriello by S. Sharp

AP Biology

Chapter 41 Animal Nutrition
  Learning Objectives
  Nutritional Requirements of Animals
  1. Explain why fat hoarding may have provided a fitness advantage to our
      hunter-gatherer ancestors.
  2. Explain the role of leptin in the regulation of fat storage and use.
  3. Define essential nutrients and describe the four classes of essential
  4. Distinguish between water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins.

      Overview of Food Processing
   5. Define and compare the four main stages of food processing.
   6. Compare intracellular and extracellular digestion.

       The Mammalian Digestive System
   7. Describe the common processes and structural components of the
       mammalian digestive system.
   8. Name three functions of saliva.
   9. Compare where and how the major types of macromolecules are digested
       and absorbed within the mammalian digestive system.
   10. Explain why pepsin does not digest the stomach lining.Explain how the
       small intestine is specialized for digestion and absorption.
   11. Explain how the small intestine is specialized for digestion and absorption.
   12. Describe the major functions of the large intestine.

       Evolutionary Adaptations of Vertebrate Digestive Systems
   13. Relate variations in dentition and length of the digestive system to the
       feeding strategies and diets of herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores.
   14. Describe the roles of symbiotic microorganisms in vertebrate digestion.

Guided Reading Chapter 41

1. Define the following types of feeding mechanisms:
   a. Suspension
   b. Substrate
   c. Fluid

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                                                               Adapted from L. Miriello by S. Sharp

   d. Bulk

2. Complete the diagram below concerning animal homeostasis and blood sugar

3. How do hormones regulate appetite in humans?

4. Contrast the terms undernourished, overnourished and malnourished?

5. What are essential amino acids and essential fatty acids?

6. Contrast vitamins and minerals.

7. Define the following terms:
   a. Ingestion

   b. Digestion

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                                                                Adapted from L. Miriello by S. Sharp

   c. Enzymatic hydrolysis

   d. Absorption

   e. Elimination

8. Contrast intracellular and extracellular digestion.

9. Label the diagram below of the human digestive system.

10. What are the accessory glands of the digestive system and why are they call
   “accessory” – are they part of the digestive tract?

11. What is peristalsis?

                                           3 of 5
                                                                      Adapted from L. Miriello by S. Sharp

12. Use the diagram below to label and explain the process of swallowing.

13. What are the three cell types of the gastric glands and what does each of them

14. Why is it an advantage that pepsin is secreted in its inactive form?

15. Describe the first part of the small intestine – what activity is occurring here?

16. What is bile – is it’s action mechanical or chemical digestion?

                                           4 of 5
                                                                   Adapted from L. Miriello by S. Sharp

17. Complete the chart below – use it as a study guide for the process of enzymatic
   digestion and the respective enzymes.

18. Explain the roles of the hormones listed below on digestive activity – note whether
   each are a case of stimulation or inhibition. Why is this level of control an advantage
   to the organism?

   a. Enterogastrone

   b. Gastrin

   c. Secretin

   d. Cholecystokinin

19. How does the body control the absorption of nutrients in the small intestine?

20. What is the route for fat absorption? Include the term chylomicrons and the role of

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                                                                   Adapted from L. Miriello by S. Sharp

21. What role does the liver play in homeostasis with regard to digestion?

22. What is the major role of the large intestine in the digestive process?

23. Does the appendix have a role in the human body?

24. How can you infer an organism’s diet based on it’s teeth?

25. What general trends are noted in the digestive tracts of herbivores and carnivores?

26. What is different about the ruminant’s digestive system that adapts it to eating a diet
   of “cellulose”?

27. How does symbiotic interactions impact digestion?

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