Research Projects on Private Labels in India

Document Sample
Research Projects on Private Labels in India Powered By Docstoc
					                                                 Accion Fraterna          BAIF
                               Water Resources
                               Management Ltd




                         Water, Households and Rural
                            Livelihoods (WHIRL)

             Promoting access of the poor to sustainable
             water supplies for domestic and productive
                   uses in areas of water scarcity

                                    Inception report




                                         March 2001




  This project is supported by the UK Department for International Development (DFID) through the
Infrastructure and Urban Development Division‟s Knowledge and Research programme. Project R7804
                        „Integrating drinking water needs in watershed projects‟.
                                                            Table of Contents


        EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ......................................................................................................................... 1

1       INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................................... 2

    1.1 BACKGROUND ............................................................................................................................................ 2
2       GOAL, PURPOSE AND OUTPUTS OF THE PROJECT ...................................................................... 3

3       INITIAL FINDINGS ................................................................................................................................... 4

    3.1 ACTIVITIES TO DATE .................................................................................................................................. 4
       3.1.1 Inception workshop........................................................................................................................... 4
       3.1.2 Demand assessment in focus countries for the research: India and South Africa ............................ 5
       3.1.3 Demand assessment in other countries: Kenya and Tanzania.......................................................... 7
       3.1.4 Development of partnerships with implementation programmes and projects ............................... 10
       3.1.5 Planning with partners ................................................................................................................... 12
       3.1.6 Other activities ............................................................................................................................... 12
    3.2 POVERTY ASSESSMENT............................................................................................................................. 12
       3.2.1 India................................................................................................................................................ 12
       3.2.2 South Africa .................................................................................................................................... 13
4       PROJECT PLANNING ............................................................................................................................ 14

    4.1 IMPLICATIONS OF INITIAL FINDINGS ......................................................................................................... 14
    4.2 REVIEW OF PROJECT PURPOSE AND OUTPUTS ........................................................................................... 14
    4.3 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT METHODOLOGY ............................................................................................... 18
    4.4 REVIEW OF PROJECT TEAM, PARTNERS/ COLLABORATORS AND RESPONSIBILITIES ................................... 18
       4.4.1 Project team .................................................................................................................................... 18
       4.4.2 Partners and collaborators............................................................................................................. 19
    4.5 PROJECT CYCLE MANAGEMENT ................................................................................................................ 19
       4.5.1 Regular project planning, monitoring and evaluation .................................................................... 19
       4.5.2 Description of Action, Outputs and Impact Indicators ................................................................... 20
    4.6 DISSEMINATION AND UPTAKE STRATEGY ................................................................................................. 23
5       APPENDICES ............................................................................................................................................ 24


    APPENDIX 1 SUMMARY OF CONSULTATIONS IN INDIA ....................................................................................... 25
    APPENDIX 2 SUMMARY OF CONSULTATIONS IN SOUTH AFRICA ........................................................................ 32
    APPENDIX 3 SUMMARY OF INTERVIEWS WITH REGIONAL AND NATIONAL ACTORS IN KENYA ........................... 39
    APPENDIX 4 SUMMARY OF INTERVIEWS WITH REGIONAL AND NATIONAL ACTORS IN TANZANIA ...................... 41
    APPENDIX 5 REVISED LOGICAL FRAMEWORK.................................................................................................... 46
    APPENDIX 6. REVISED WORK PLAN, STAFF INPUTS AND LOCATIONS FOR PROJECT WORK .................................. 51
    PROJECT SUMMARY .......................................................................................................................................... 59
Executive summary

Improved access to water supply and sanitation is amongst the most pressing needs of poor people in
all developing countries. Domestic water supplies and environmental sanitation contribute to
livelihoods in a wide range of ways. They are crucial to health and well-being, and can make an
important contribution to food production and income generating activities. But as demand for water
rises due to increasing populations, expansion of irrigated areas, and industrial development, many
parts of the developing world face increasing water scarcity and pollution risks. Continued reliance
upon the traditional approaches to water resources development – such as construction of dams and
exploitation of new aquifers to increase supply – is often no longer an option. Demand management
and improved allocation of existing resources is increasingly recognised as a more sustainable
strategy.

This report describes the inception phase activities carried out between July 2000 and March 2001 for
the collaborative Indo-South African-UK research project „Water, Households and Rural Livelihoods‟
(WHIRL). This project aims to develop and promote improved and more integrated approaches to
address water supply and management problems in areas of water scarcity through collaborative
research between partners and development projects in India and South Africa. The project will
research innovative institutional and operational strategies that bridge the existing gap between water
supply, water resources management at an appropriate scale (e.g. watershed or catchment) and efforts
to improve livelihoods of poor people through improved water supply and associated activities.

During the inception phase, tasks have included the development and modification of the project
design with stakeholders and collaborators, development of partnerships to undertake fieldwork with
appropriate development projects and planning with project partners. Activities have included
consultations and visits in India and South Africa to identify demand and prioritise research issues, an
inception workshop bringing together participants from both countries, and consultations in Kenya
and Tanzania to identify some of the issues associated with uptake of the research findings elsewhere
in sub-Saharan Africa.

The project has been approved and strongly supported by government and appropriate organisations
in both India and South Africa. In India, the project will work closely with the Andhra Pradesh Rural
Livelihoods Project implemented through Andhra Pradesh state-government structures, and World
Bank-supported water supply and sanitation projects. In South Africa, action research will be linked
to the government-supported Save-the-Sand Project being implemented in the Northern Province, and
integrated water resources management initiatives in the region by the Department of Water Affairs
and Forestry. South-south collaboration and development of local research capacity through the
research are considered to be a key element of the project, and will be facilitated through regular study
visits, exchanges and workshops.

The full project team is now in place to undertake the research and activities are well underway in
both India and South Africa. In India, work in Andhra Pradesh is being carried out with the NGO
Accion Fraterna, building upon the assessment and planning activities of the Andhra Pradesh Rural
Livelihoods Project and a major workshop is planned for 5-14 May 2001. In South Africa, research
activities are being led by the Association of Water and Rural Development, working with local
partners and the Department for Water Affairs and Forestry. Local inputs are supported by multi-
disciplinary inputs from the Natural Resources Institute, University of Leeds and Water Resources
Management Limited.




                                                   1
1 Introduction
This report describes the inception phase activities carried out under Project R7804 „Integrating
drinking water needs in watershed projects‟ between July 2000 and March 2001. A new long title that
reflects the project activities is subsequently used throughout this document:

Water, Households and Rural Livelihoods (WHIRL): Promoting access of the poor to sustainable
water supplies for domestic and productive uses in areas of water scarcity

The inception phase activities of the project aimed to meet the following milestones:

     acceptance of the project by key stakeholders, and sense of ownership developed among
      collaborators, key government departments and target institutions (especially NGOs), leading to
      an agreed logical framework and working principles.
     project linkages developed and sites selected for fieldwork.
     full project team in place.

This inception report was originally to have been completed by 31 December 2000. However,
submission was postponed owing to delays in the issuing of revised contracts and illness of a key staff
member. Submission of an agreed report was further delayed to provide additional time requested by
the South African Department of Water Affairs and Forestry for internal consultations.

1.1     Background

India and South Africa were identified as target countries for this research because:

     similar problems are faced in dryland areas in the two countries (e.g. there is increasing
      competition for scarce water resources).
     there is an urgent need to address water supply and sanitation (WSS) issues as part of any strategy
      to alleviate poverty in both countries.
     complementarities exist between experiences and approaches in India and South Africa. These
      include: strengths in local-level rural development and long experience of watershed development
      in India, and new legal and regulatory frameworks and experience of effective management of
      water resources at the catchment scale in South Africa.

The project aims to:

     to compare and contrast approaches to water supply (especially water resource aspects) and
      watershed or catchment management being adopted in India and South Africa,
     to focus on identifying which approaches work and why in a realistic and critical manner through
      participatory action research,
     to facilitate south-south interactions, joint learning, knowledge generation and research capacity
      building through the research.

Work is based upon 4 components:

     Inception phase
     Review component
     Action research phase
     Development and dissemination of planning tools and guidelines




                                                    2
The action research will be carried out in collaboration with large development-orientated projects in
India and South Africa. Partnerships with these projects provide a number of advantages: additional
capacity, infrastructure and a means of scaling up successful findings for example.


2 Goal, purpose and outputs of the project
The goal of the project is improved water resources management.

The project aims to contribute to improving water resources management in support of the livelihoods
of poor people. Improved access to water is amongst the most pressing needs of poor people in most
developing countries. Basic levels of water supply are crucial to health and well-being, and productive
uses of water make an essential contribution to food security and income generating activities.

As demand for water rises due to increasing populations, expansion of irrigated areas, and industrial
development, many parts of the developing world face increasing water scarcity. Continued reliance
upon the traditional approaches to water resources development – such as construction of dams and
exploitation of new aquifers to increase supply – is often no longer an option. Demand management
and improved allocation of existing resources is increasingly recognised as a more sustainable
strategy.

The need for a new approach is reflected in the increasing adoption of Integrated Water Resources
Management (IWRM) principles as a guiding framework. IWRM embraces the integrated
management of land and all aspects of the water cycle for the sustainable benefit of humans and the
environment. In Vision 21 the water and sanitation community signalled acceptance of the IWRM
paradigm while asserting that access to an essential minimum (quantity and quality) is a fundamental
right. As competing uses of water reduce the availability or quality of resources, and raise the cost of
future provision of water services, it is increasingly important that the WSS sector play a more active
role in IWRM.

The purpose of the project is ‘better institutional and operational solutions for water resources
management adopted that promote improved access of the rural poor to safe water supplies for
consumptive and productive use’.

The project will identify, assess and promote innovative institutional and operational strategies to
increase WSS involvement in IWRM. During the inception phase of the project, the resource team
sought to confirm:

   the assumption that developing institutional capacities to operationalise better water resources
    management is the most pressing need rather than for example, a shortage of technical solutions
   the proposed focus on rural rather than urban areas
   the need to focus on productive uses of water as well water supplies for consumptive uses (or
    basic domestic needs).

Three outputs were identified. Key issues to be addressed during the inception phase in relation to the
outputs are summarised below:

Output 1. Assessment of mechanisms, in water-stressed areas (quantity and quality) with competition for water
between multiple uses, to promote more sustainable and equitable access for the rural poor to water supplies
for consumptive (drinking and other domestic uses) and productive use (inc. small-scale irrigation, livestock,
SMEs).

Output 2. Key findings from pilot case studies of outcomes of more integrated and stakeholder-driven
management interventions, and synthesis of piloted methodologies for the development of interventions




                                                      3
     to identify locations for participatory action research
     to develop partnerships with development projects

Output 3. Demand-led planning tools developed, validated and disseminated with guidelines for use that
promote and support, in appropriate circumstances, the integration of rural water supply and environmental
sanitation with watershed development and management

     to identify target institutions, interests and needs in relation to WSS and IWRM
     to initiate development of a dissemination strategy at an early stage in the project cycle


3 Initial findings


3.1     Activities to date

Inception phase activities have focused on consultations and workshops that have sought to further
establish the demand for the research and prioritise key research issues, and build partnerships to
undertake the work within an appropriate institutional framework. This section describes the main
activities that have been undertaken to date including:

     an inception workshop,
     consultations and workshops to assess key research issues and needs in India, South Africa,
      Kenya and Tanzania,
     development of partnerships focused on the implementation of participatory action research and
      dissemination of research findings,
     project planning including the finalisation of the detailed work programme and agreement of sub-
      contracts with research partners,
     commencement of reviews focused on South Africa, India and experiences elsewhere,
     and initial development of tools and guidelines.

3.1.1 Inception workshop

An inception workshop was held from 12-15 September 2000 and brought together South African,
Indian and UK researchers for the first time as part of the project. The purpose of the inception
workshop was to agree and refine the project work programme with a common understanding of the
research issues and the collaborative research process, and to provide an initial opportunity for
preliminary validation by some key stakeholders. The workshop involved participants from the
Association for Water and Rural Development (AWARD, South Africa), BAIF Development
Research Foundation (India), the Natural Resources Institute (NRI, UK), the University of Leeds
(UK), Water Resources Management Ltd (UK) and the Department for Water Affairs and Forestry
(DWAF, South Africa). It was held over 4 days and comprised:

          Day 1 - Introduction
          Day 2 - Field visits in the Sand River Catchment, Northern Province and reflections
          Day 3 - Working papers and presentations from South Africa by AWARD and DWAF, and
          on India by BAIF. Refinement of research project objectives.
          Day 4 - Detailed project planning, focusing on the inception phase of the project.

The main outcomes of the workshop were:

     familiarisation and appreciation of the team with issues in India and South Africa, and use of a
      „common language‟



                                                      4
   agreed and refined project design and work programme, and collaborative research process (i.e.
    management, communication issues etc.)
   agreed methodologies for stakeholder assessments in South Africa and India and other SSA/south
    Asian countries
   agreed methodologies for assessment of demand for research and identification of promotion
    pathways in South Africa and India, and other SSA/south Asian countries
   shortlist of other SSA/south Asian countries for limited project activities
   agreed criteria for selection of sites in India, and shortlist

Outcomes of the workshop have been incorporated in this inception report (a separate internal report
of the inception workshop including working papers on South Africa and India is available). One
important outcome was agreement that action research in India should focus on the state of Andhra
Pradesh. It was agreed that the project should seek to work in partnership with the Andhra Pradesh
Rural Livelihoods Project (APRLP) during the action research phase, but should also include review
work based upon grassroots experience of watershed development, water management and water
supply by BAIF in different states. An action plan was developed for the inception phase of the
project leading into reviews and the action research.

3.1.2 Demand assessment in focus countries for the research: India and South
      Africa

The purpose of demand assessments in India and South Africa was to identify and prioritise research
issues with the participation of key target institutions such as local government and government line
ministries, and to initiate development of a dissemination strategy for the research findings.

India
In November 2000, consultations were held with various organisations in Andhra Pradesh to discuss
the proposed research issues and potential for developing linkages between the research and the
Andhra Pradesh Rural Livelihoods Project (APRLP). A summary of the issues discussed is included
in Appendix 1. It was the consensus of the persons consulted that:

   water supply problems relating to poor management of water resources are a major issue in
    southern Andhra Pradesh especially during the summer season and droughts,
   there is a need for research into how water resources can be better allocated and managed and
    water supplies protected,
   there is a need for an improved understanding of how watershed development interventions may
    be better targeted to maximise the positive impacts on drinking water supplies and minimise
    negative impacts e.g. through increased irrigation,
   there would be mutual benefits to be gained by linking the KaR project research with APRLP
    activities.

Participatory action research in Andhra Pradesh will build upon baseline studies currently being
carried out under the APRLP. Two participatory methodologies are being used: water resource audits
and WSP‟s methodology for participatory assessment (MPA). The outcomes of these studies will be
utilized to identify specific catchments and communities for the action research phase activities, and
will be discussed at a workshop to be held in Andhra Pradesh from 5-14 May 2001 (see
announcement included in Appendix 1).

Members of the research team also discussed the research with the Water and Sanitation Programme –
South Asia (WSP-SA). WSP-SA expressed strong interest in collaboration and utlisation of the
research outputs in support of a new Government of India rural water supply and sanitation
programme (see summary and letter in Appendix 1).




                                                  5
South Africa
Prior to the inception workshop held in September, initial consultations and correspondence with key
organisations included DFID-SA, and the Department of Water and Forestry (DWAF). In July, a
presentation on the proposed research was given to the Save-the-Sand Project (SSP) steering
committee meeting. It was agreed that activities fitted well with the SSP activities and that the action
research should be carried out in collaboration.

Follow-up demand assessment activities in South Africa were unfortunately delayed due to illness and
pressures on staff at AWARD. To avoid further delays, the methodology was modified and an
intensive series of meetings and workshops was held during the period 5-12 February 2001. This
process included:

   a two-day workshop with AWARD staff focused on prioritisation of possible research themes in
    the Sand River Catchment,
   a meeting with DWAF regional staff in Mpumulanga and a one-day workshop at DWAF, Pretoria
    to present and discuss the proposed research focus, to discuss the possible role of DWAF and
    other organisations, and a dissemination strategy for the project.
   follow-up meetings with the Strategic Environmental Assessment team at DWAF and the Mvula
    Trust.

The workshop at AWARD drew upon the outcomes of the earlier inception workshop, and was
facilitated using a Bayesian Network1 to grasp the complex interrelationships between livelihoods,
water supply and sanitation, and water resources management in the Sand River Catchment (SRC).
Use of this technique was facilitated by the IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre, and
proved to be a powerful tool in capturing the views of this group of stakeholders.

A summary of these meetings and workshops is included in Appendix 2. The major outcome of these
consultations was support for the research in South Africa to focus on two themes:

Theme 1: Promoting productive uses of water - This was agreed as the major theme for a programme
of Participatory Action Research (PAR) in the Sand River Catchment (SRC). The theme will promote
the sustainable use of water for productive purposes from systems or resources that also support
domestic water supply. Project activities under this theme will:

   promote the productive use of water and contribute to improved livelihoods through impacts on
    food security, and income generating opportunities.
   complement current WSS efforts that focus on improving health (through providing access to a
    basic level of domestic water supply, sanitation and hygiene awareness) by addressing the
    potential of productive uses of water to improve the viability of service provision.
   meet a need identified in the Save-the-Sand feasibility study to promote research into the
    understanding of the water use and economic potential of small-scale economic activities in the
    catchment.
   address sustainability issues, especially the risks of conflict and inefficiencies through
    unsustainable development. The theme will complement project activities in India, where the
    overexploitation of groundwater for productive uses by smallholders has had severe negative
    impacts on domestic water supply. It is also suggested that only where productive uses of water
    play an important role in peoples livelihoods will the incentives for large-scale participation in
    catchment management exist.


1
 The use of Bayesian networks for natural resource management has been developed under DFID KaR project
R7137, Integrated planning and management of water resources, led by the UK Centre for Ecology &
Hydrology.



                                                   6
The theme will address the use of water for productive purposes from systems or resources that also
support domestic water supply. Initial use of the Bayesian Network based upon the views of AWARD
staff suggests that the most appropriate entry points or areas for intervention include: supporting
catchment management institutions, strengthening local institutions such as local government, water
service providers etc., enhancing community skills and capacity and promoting more equitable
allocation of water resources. PAR will be carried out with communities and institutions in the SRC.
Communities are to be identified following further consultations (including local government) and
baseline surveys.

Work under theme one is intended to contribute the major part of the project in South Africa. In
addition, a second parallel research theme was also agreed.

Theme 2: Emerging lessons from institutional reform in catchment management in South Africa

This second parallel research theme will concentrate on distilling and disseminating emerging lessons
from pilot integrated water resources management projects and the establishment of catchment
management institutions, focusing on integrating the role of WSS in this process. It will particularly
focus on lessons from the Sand/ Nkomati for other catchments and countries elsewhere including
India.

DWAF have expressed strong interest in the research, which they feel, will:

   contribute to the successful implementation of the National Water Act principles of equity,
    sustainability and beneficial use,
   address the need for better integration and coordination of water services provision and catchment
    management,
   meet a need to address the role of productive use of water and enhance socio-economic
    development.

Follow-up meetings were held with the Mvula Trust and the Strategic Environmental Action team at
DWAF, who are both involved in activities relating to the productive use of water resources. Links
will be maintained with both these initiatives.

3.1.3 Demand assessment in other countries: Kenya and Tanzania

Recognising that South Africa is in many respects a special case with respect to WSS and IWRM in
sub-Saharan Africa – a stronger economy, excellent legislation, and commitment and capacity to
reform institutions in the water sector for example – a series of consultations were planned for Kenya,
Tanzania and Mozambique. These aimed to:

1. identify to what extent WSS is felt to be an issue within wider IWRM frameworks;
2. determine the existing demand for tools to integrate WSS within WRM projects;
3. identify the approaches most likely to be useful in these countries and which experiences from
   India or South Africa could most readily be applied.

Consultations in Mozambique unfortunately had to be postponed due to illness of a key (Portuguese
speaking) team member.

This section of the report discusses the main results of a series of visits to national and regional level
actors in the water and sanitation, and water resources management sectors in Kenya and Tanzania. In
Tanzania, consultations were facilitated by Dr Faustin Maganga from the Institute of Resource
Assessment (University of Dar-es-Salaam).




                                                    7
Interviews were informal, and sought to introduce the project and its aims and to locate these within
the wider context of regional experiences in water supply and water resource management efforts.
The list of organisations visited is far from exhaustive, and reflects the limited time and resources to
carry out this stage of the work. Nonetheless the results were both interesting and encouraging, and
confirm that the issue of dealing with drinking water (and to a lesser extent sanitation) issues within
larger water resource management efforts is indeed an important issue.

The organisations visited were:

In Kenya        The World Bank/UNDP Water and Sanitation Programme (WSP)
                African Water Resources management Forum (hosted by WSP)
                The Network for Water and Sanitation International (NETWAS)
                SIDA‟s Regional Land Management Unit (RELMA)

In Tanzania     The Institute of Resource Assessment (IRA) of the University of Dar es Salaam
                NETWAS – Tanzania
                Ministry of Water (Small towns and Rural water supply and sanitation projects)
                Ministry of Water – Water resources division

This section contains a brief summary of the main findings of the demand assessment exercise. A full
list of the people met, and the main points of interviews with each of them can be found in
Appendices 3 & 4.

WSS as an issue within wider IWRM
   Respondents in both countries identified areas where conflicts over water resources, and in
    particular between domestic and other uses of water existed. In addition the drought experienced
    by both countries last year has once again raised the issue of overall resource scarcity.
   However, again in both countries, it was also clear that it is only in some specific areas that there
    is conflict, and that the conflict is not always between domestic and other uses. For example in
    two basin areas in Tanzania (Rufiji and Pangani) the main conflict was perceived as being
    between irrigation and hydro-power generation.
   In general it seemed that domestic water only becomes an issue in areas (or times) of absolute
    water shortage. At least in the perception of most of those interviewed, where water resources are
    plentiful – which is perceived to be the case in some areas in both countries - the „small‟ amounts
    needed for domestic mean the problem of assuring domestic resources is seen principally of one
    of supply provision.
   In Tanzania the perception of the problem being principally linked to one of supply development
    was particularly strong – presumably due to decades of more or less uninterrupted decline of
    systems and service provision.
   Also in Tanzania, there was a clear difference in perceptions between those involved in „resource‟
    management – who generally saw few conflicts involving domestic supply, and those involved in
    „domestic supply‟, who did.
   Sanitation generally received low recognition as an element within the broader WSS & IWRM
    picture. Where it was mentioned several times was in relation to the uncontrolled development of
    shallow wells, particularly in urban settings, where the risk of contamination form sanitary
    facilities – particularly pit latrines – was seen as being high.

Likely approaches and foci for tool development
   While respondents in both countries agreed on the need for tools to integrated WSS better within
    IWRM, there were important differences on where they thought the focus on tool development
    should be.
   In Kenya there was a general perception that widespread corruption, and lack of government
    capacity meant that in the short term at least there was little prospect of efforts that attempted to



                                                   8
    work through central government being successful. The suggestion here was that the „community
    management‟ model of rural water supply was more likely to be successful, building community
    water resource management in which NGOs and CBOs taking most of the responsibility.
   In Tanzania by way of contrast much of the current focus (including two major World Bank
    funded projects) is on developing capacity within government. Respondents repeatedly talked of
    the change in function necessary in government – from providers to facilitators in both water
    supply and sanitation and water resources management. They saw the crucial tools as being those
    that would help government personnel to undertake this shift.
   Tanzania already has a basin focussed IWRM programme, currently operational in two pilot
    basins. There is a reasonable legislative basis for basin level resource management and an
    established system of water rights. Existing pilot schemes are however reliant on donor and
    government inputs and as a result it seems unlikely that self-financing water boards would be able
    to effectively regulate resource use.
   It is worth noting that despite both major Tanzanian projects being World Bank supported there
    was little evidence of collaboration between them. There seems to be a strong tendency in
    Tanzania to focus on groundwater resources for water supply and sanitation, while the basin
    management projects occupy themselves with surface water resources for „irrigation‟ (though the
    same water provides the main domestic supply for urban centres), hydro-power, and
    „environment‟.
   An interesting point that came out of the meetings in Tanzania is that while those working at the
    „basin‟ level frequently reported no conflict between domestic and other uses (typically
    concentrating on that between „irrigation‟ and hydropower), those looking at management at the
    „furrow‟ level (i.e. within irrigation scheme command areas) reported considerable competition
    and potential for conflict. The furrow systems are important sources for domestic supply as well
    as for irrigation. While the amounts used for livestock and domestic use are small, this use has
    important implications for irrigation efficiency because the furrows must be kept flowing to meet
    a regular demand.

Conclusions
In conclusion it can be said that while there is a growing awareness of the need to take more account
of domestic water supply within wider resource management programmes – and to apply the
principles of resource management more fully to water supply – this is a new and untested area for
most organisations. In both Tanzania and Kenya current policy remains largely supply-focussed as
far as WSS is concerned, with an emphasis on increasing levels of coverage and improving
sustainability and cost recovery.

Despite the apparent differences between Tanzania and Kenya, however, it seems clear that in both
countries the main source of conflict is over domestic water resources is at the local level. This has
important implications for the development of tools for better integrating WSS and IWRM activities.

NETWAS, a major regional training organisation has identified IWRM as an area where there is a
growing and genuine need for new tools. In Kenya this was primarily seen as being tools for local
level actors, while in Tanzania the greater need was for retraining of national level – government –
staff.

It is clear that tools and approaches will need to be tailored to the realities of these countries – neither
of which have either the legislative base, or the extremes of resource conflict found in India and South
Africa. Several respondents mentioned the disparity in terms of South Africa‟s relative wealth,
legislative sophistication, and regulatory ability when compared to their own.




                                                     9
3.1.4 Development of partnerships with implementation programmes and projects

A major effort during the inception has been to establish partnerships with implementation projects
and target institutions in India and South Africa. Such linkages are felt to be important in order:

   to facilitate the implementation of participatory action research (PAR) within the context of
    implementation projects able to act upon research findings and outcomes,
   enhance potential of uptake of the research findings by involving target institutions, and
   to ensure that the research contributes to develop of in-country institutional capacity.

India
In India, the project has established links to support the Andhra Pradesh Rural Livelihoods Project
(APRLP), as well as the collaborative research (as part of the review component of the project)
focused on watershed development projects underway by BAIF in other states. The APRLP project
operates in areas of southern Andhra Pradesh (A.P) where competition for scarce water resources is
having serious impacts on drinking water supplies, and this has been identified as a priority issue to be
addressed by APRLP. Linkages with APRLP will provide a number of advantages. Most importantly
it will provide a well-defined uptake pathway for research findings, through project activities and
linkages to key persons and organisations involved in water sector reforms in Andhra Pradesh. To
support this collaboration, additional partners working with APRLP will participate and make
contributions to the research within the existing budget. This includes commissioned inputs from Dr
A.J. James (an Indian natural resource economist with extensive experience in WSS and watershed
development) and the NGO Accion Fraterna (part of the Rural Development Trust, RDT) that
operates in southern part of the state. Accion Fraterna will also contribute some human resources from
their own resources.

Linkages have been established with the Policy Research Programme project led by the University of
Leeds that includes research on water policy in Andhra Pradesh.

Firm interest in the research has also been shown by the World Bank WSP-SA with a request received
to support WSP-SA supported projects in Andhra Pradesh that are aiming to pilot WSS schemes with
integrated measures to promote source sustainability through watershed development and local water
management. This will provide an additional opportunity for the research to work with a development
project with considerable potential impact, as well as the DFID-funded APRLP project in the same
state. Opportunities for collaboration including joint studies/research, workshops, other 'knowledge
products', piloting and networking.

South Africa
In South Africa, the project will work with the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF),
and in partnership with the Save-the-Sand project, an integrated catchment management/ landcare
initiative involving cross-sectoral partners. Linkages are now in place to undertake the action research
in the Sand River Catchment, Northern Province, in co-ordination with this project.

Participation of DWAF will encompass both Head Office and the Regional Office involvement. The
regional offices (Pietersburg, Northern Province and Nelspruit, Mpumulanga) will be involved in
direct involvement in the project implementation whereas involvement with regards to policy
development and overall guidance of the project will be co-ordinated by Head office. This will
involve several Directorates (Catchment Management, Water Conservation and Water Services). The
level of involvement will depend on the availability of staff in the Regional and Head office.
However, at both levels DWAF have expressed strong support to be involved in the research from the
outset, rather than being merely seen as a target for findings:

….The regional office of the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry is in full support of this
research project based on the understanding that some members of staff will be actively involved in


                                                   10
the implementation of the project. This will provide an opportunity for the department to have first
hand information for some of the issues involved in water resources management activities at
localised levels, which would also be helpful when it comes to implementing some sections of the
National Water Act. It would also be a learning process for DWAF staff in terms of implementing
projects in the regions…. (Washington Tunha, DWAF regional Office, Northern Province 12 March
2001)

Other partnerships
Linkages have also been developed with the IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre
(Netherlands) programme in Community Integrated Water Resources Management. Dr Patrick
Moriarty assisted the inception phase for this project, drawing upon expertise developed through an
earlier IRC multi-country study on IWRM and the WSS sector. IRC wish to maintain links with the
research project as part of a programme of research on water resources issues, and in particular will
provide a useful dissemination pathway for research outputs. The following points summarise
discussions on this theme with Patrick Moriarty.

   IRC facilitates the creation, sharing and use of knowledge so that sector staff and organisations
    can better support poor men, women and children in developing countries to obtain water and
    sanitation services they will use and can sustain. IRC has three main objectives in achieving this
    mission: to facilitate the sharing and use of quality sector knowledge; to improve the information
    and knowledge base of the water and sanitation sector; to strengthen sector resource centres in the
    South

   IRC is currently developing a project looking at the tools and approaches that will lead to the
    fuller integration of poor peoples water needs - both productive and domestic into water resource
    management plans at the catchment or watershed level.

   Currently the water based needs of the rural poor tend to get lost somewhere between the
    domestic water supply focus of conventional WATSAN projects, and the large, irrigation and
    industry focussed catchment management plans of water resource agencies.

   The use of water by the rural poor seldom figures in the larger catchment level water allocation
    schemes of water authorities, or catchment councils. It is largely invisible - being both too
    dispersed, and individually small scale to merit inclusion. However, there is growing evidence
    from around the world that once rural people start to use water resources for small scale
    productive use, particularly micro-irrigation, their combined share rapidly becomes a large part of
    the total available resource, and conflict is often quick to follow. The case of groundwater mining
    in India is probably the best known example, but local level conflict over resources is growing
    alarmingly elsewhere.

   Several 'shibboleths' underlie the current approach to catchment or watershed management in
    much of the developing world. Many of these are drawn from a northern/temperate understanding
    of water resources, and hydrological systems and do not stand careful scrutiny. Perhaps the most
    important is the assumption that ground and surface water form part of a single resource at the
    catchment scale. In fact in semi-arid regions, the two systems are often largely disconnected, with
    groundwater resources themselves being highly fragmented and variable across a catchment. This
    often means that both conflict, and its resolution are far more localised affairs than the 'basin
    level' so popular with resource planners.

   The current focus on watershed management to augment supply is probably misguided. The
    amount of extra water that can be made available by such approaches is minimal and frequently
    difficult to quantify. This supply side approach should be modified in favour of one that focuses
    on demand management, and local allocation.




                                                  11
It is IRCs belief that initially at least the switch in focus to promoting the use of water resources as
part of household and community food security should come from the WATSAN sector. Project
planners and implementers need to broaden their focus to take account of all uses of water, and where
necessary to develop innovative sources to meet demand. IRC hope over the next four to five years to
develop a number of participatory research projects to identify and develop the tools necessary to
allow this change in emphasis. Much of the technical knowledge already exists, the challenge is
therefore to identify institutional models and capacity necessary to facilitate the change in approach.
Local level tools for resource estimation and monitoring, for developing mixed use schemes using
multiple sources, for using revenue from productive uses to underpin improved service levels within a
DRA framework, and where necessary for helping to resolve conflict over competing uses of water
are all needed.

3.1.5 Planning with partners

In addition to the activities described above, planning with partners has included the agreement of
sub-contracts to undertake research activities, development of a revised workplan (see section 4.3)
and preparation for a workshop in May 2001.

     Contracts are now place between all the organisations and individuals in the research team, except
      Accion Fraterna where involvement is has been agreed in principle but the sub-contract is still in
      preparation.

     A collaborative workshop to be held in Andhra Pradesh from 5-14 May 2001 is in preparation,
      and a first announcement is included in Appendix 1.

3.1.6 Other activities

Other activities have included:

     Drafting of a paper with a working title „Water Supply and Sanitation & Integrated Water
      Resources Management: why seek better integration?‟ which is in preparation.
     Documentation of a „Methodology for Water Resource Audits‟ as part of the development of tools
      and guidelines.
     Design of a project web-site http://www.nri.org/WSS-IWRM (still under construction).

3.2     Poverty assessment

This section includes a summary of some key indicators of poverty in the study areas.

3.2.1 India

The rural population in India is diverse, dispersed by region, caste, and occupational categories.
Landless and near landless households, comprising a disproportionate number of scheduled castes,
and often accounting for more than 40% of agricultural households, are key indicators of poverty.

The social indicators in Andhra Pradesh suggest high levels of poverty along a number of dimensions.
Population density in the state is approximately 242 people per square kilometre. About 30% of the
state‟s population of 73 million people
                                                 Andhra Pradesh
live below the poverty line. The figure in
the    rural    areas,    accounting    for
                                                  Population density 232 people/km 2
approximately 70% of the population, is
                                                  Infant mortality 73 per 1000 live births
much higher, due in part to chronic under-
                                                  Male literacy 44%, Female literacy at 33%


                                                   12
employment and low returns to agriculture. Around 70% of the cultivated area is rain-fed, but rainfall
is erratic and much of the region is drought prone. 30% of children under age 6 are malnourished; and
infant mortality is 73 per 1000 live births. Across the state, estimates suggest that 55% of households
have access to safe water. However drinking water coverage statistics can be misleading, they do not
take account of the fact that pumps are often inoperative, or wells run dry during the summer. Within
the rural areas less than 6% of the population has access both to safe drinking water and toilet
facilities.

Although the proportion of children in the state attending primary school is similar to the average for
the whole of the country (approximately 69% for boys and 59% for girls), literacy in the state is much
lower. Male literacy (over 15 years) is approximately 44% and female literacy at 33% is one of the
lowest in the country. The school drop out rate is also high, approximately 50% in primary schools,
and particularly high for girls, scheduled castes, and scheduled tribes.

3.2.2 South Africa

The Sand River Catchment is characterised by high population densities (176 people per square
kilometre), high population growth rates (2.4% per year) and in the ex-homeland areas squeezed into
the middle reaches of the catchment and where most of the population live, a diminishing and
degraded natural resource base. In 1998, the population of the SRSC was estimated as 336 638
people. People live in three small towns and almost 100 villages. Due to population growth many
villages have become inter-linked providing a peri-urban effect. The average household size is 6.2
persons.

Opportunities for local formal employment and subsistence agriculture are scarce and the recent
economic downturn has reduced even further opportunities for formal employment. Monthly
household income varies from R178 to R1138 p.m. ($25 to $ 170 p.m.). Unemployment is estimated
to be between 40% and 80% throughout the catchment and most families rely on male migration for
income. It is estimated that approximately 50% of males and 14% of women between the ages of 25
and 59 are migrant workers. Not surprisingly, wage remittances and pensions provide the primary
                                                                                source of income for
   Sand River Catchment, South Africa                                           households and the sex
                                                                                ratio (males to females)
    Population: 336 638 people with a 2.4% growth rate
                                                                                is 0.48:1 in this age
    Average density : 176 people km
                                          2
                                                                                bracket. These are low
    Formal unemployment is between 40% and 80%,
    Large of proportion of single headed households
                                                                                and       thus      most
    HIV/AIDS is having a serious impact (estimated at 25%).
                                                                                households        employ
    Male literacy 70%, female literacy 63%                                     multiple strategies to
                                                                                sustain themselves. This
includes harvesting of natural resources (for trade or consumptive use), cattle and so-called “informal”
activities or, rather, small-scale businesses. Nonetheless, opportunities are limited by access to water.
Where this is available, activities include brick-making, hair salons, small nurseries and the like.
Women tend to be marginalised from political life and formal economic activities. Domestic violence
is common.

Chronic and severe shortages have left much of the population in the greater Bushbuckridge area
without access to adequate, safe water supplies. Many former Mozambique refugees also reside in the
catchment. Many of these people, though well integrated, are particularly vulnerable, unable to secure
legal employment, and living in temporary settlements without basic infrastructure such as water
supply and electricity.

Average literacy in the local is 66% (70% for men and 63% for women). Although over 90% of
children attend primary school this figure falls to 46% for secondary education (of whom only 6%
matriculate), and 3% for tertiary education. Moreover, the teacher-pupil ratio is low; between 1:55



                                                   13
and 1:119. Women play an important economic and social role. Their responsibilities include water
and fuelwood collection, the running of household gardens and the sale of any surplus. Women also
head approximately 30% of households with children. However, despite their key role, women tend to
be marginalised from political life.


4 Project planning


4.1   Implications of initial findings

The initial findings of the study have confirmed the interest of a broad range of target institutions in
India, South Africa and elsewhere in the research issues. The proposed focus areas for the research in
the Sand River Catchment and southern Andhra Pradesh are both areas where the project will meet
local needs to improve water resources management for the benefit of domestic users and small-scale
economic activities.

4.2   Review of project purpose and outputs

A review of the project purpose and outputs is shown in the output to propose review form.




                                                  14
OUTPUT TO PURPOSE SUMMARY FORM
Title: Improved water resources management                      Country: India, South Africa               MISCODE:
Report No.                 Date: 16 February        Project start date: 1 July 2000                       Stage of project: Inception phase
                           2001                     Project end date: 31 March 2004
Project framework
Goal statement: Improved water resources management
Purpose statement: Better institutional and operational solutions for water resources management adopted that promote improved access of the rural
poor to safe water supplies for consumptive and productive use.
Outputs:                   OVIs:                    Progress:                                             Recommendations/actions: Rating:

1. Assessment of           Comprehensive review       Working paper in progress.                                Papers on South African and
existing mechanisms, in    capturing worldwide                                                                  Indian experiences to be
water-stressed areas       experience of best-                                                                  completed by May 2001, for
(quantity and quality)     practice and emerging                                                                workshop in Andhra Pradesh
with competition for       approaches (inc.
water between multiple     community-based                                                                      Intervention options to be
uses, to promote more      management,                                                                          identified through greater
sustainable and            regulatory approaches,                                                               emphasis on participatory
equitable access for the   new institutional                                                                    research reflecting local
rural poor to water        structures and                                                                       circumstances, than transfer
supplies for               economic instruments)                                                                of successful approaches
consumptive (drinking      by Mar 2001                                                                          from elsewhere.
and other domestic
uses) and productive       Analysis of policy and     Issues addressed in demand assessment and                 Chapter to be prepared for
use (inc. small-scale      institutional conditions   consultations.                                            project report.
irrigation, livestock,     for uptake by Mar 2001
SMEs).

2. Key findings from       Documented outcomes        Initial project planning meetings held with NRI, AWARD,
piloting of approaches     (hydrological,             BAIF and Accion Fraterna
that integrate water       institutional, socio-
supply and sanitation      economic) of pilot case    Linkages developed with Save-the-Sand Project and         Need to identify specific
with watershed             studies focused on poor    Andhra Pradesh Rural Livelihoods Project as basis for     communities and locations for
development and            communities within 2       implementing participatory action research                participatory action research
management, and            watersheds in India and                                                              based upon further analysis
synthesis of tested        1 in S Africa by Mar       Inception meeting held 12-15 September, 2000              and consultations (including
methodologies,             2004                                                                                 local government), and

                                                                             15
OUTPUT TO PURPOSE SUMMARY FORM
Title: Improved water resources management                      Country: India, South Africa               MISCODE:
Report No.                 Date: 16 February        Project start date: 1 July 2000                       Stage of project: Inception phase
                           2001                     Project end date: 31 March 2004
Project framework
Goal statement: Improved water resources management
Purpose statement: Better institutional and operational solutions for water resources management adopted that promote improved access of the rural
poor to safe water supplies for consumptive and productive use.
Outputs:                   OVIs:                    Progress:                                             Recommendations/actions: Rating:

                                                                                                                  drawing upon APRLP water
                          Documentation on                                                                        resources audits and use of
                          piloting of                                                                             Methodology for Participatory
                          methodologies for site                                                                  Assessment (MPA).
                          selection, assessment
                          of resources, issues
                          and problems
                          (hydrological,
                          institutional, socio-
                          economic), participatory
                          decision-making,
                          implementation,
                          monitoring and
                          evaluation

                          Demand assessment in       Demand assessed in India, South Africa, Tanzania and         To further develop links,
                          5 countries (inc. S        Kenya and some regional organisations consulted in           especially with IRC’s training
                          Africa, & India) and       eastern Africa and south Asia, and documented in project     and dissemination
                          identified uptake          inception reports. Uptake pathways identified especially     programme. To contact
                          pathways by December       through partnerships with implementation projects, and       training organisations in
                          2000.                      initial contacts with training and dissemination             South Africa.
                                                     organisations including IRC and NETWAS.

3. Demand-led planning    Tools and guidelines       Initiated documentation of a methodology for water
tools developed,          developed in response      resources audits that has proved successful in studies for
validated and             to demand, and             KAWAD and APRLP projects in India and has potential
disseminated with         validated in               for wider use.
guidelines for use that   collaboration with long-

                                                                            16
OUTPUT TO PURPOSE SUMMARY FORM
Title: Improved water resources management                      Country: India, South Africa               MISCODE:
Report No.                 Date: 16 February        Project start date: 1 July 2000                       Stage of project: Inception phase
                           2001                     Project end date: 31 March 2004
Project framework
Goal statement: Improved water resources management
Purpose statement: Better institutional and operational solutions for water resources management adopted that promote improved access of the rural
poor to safe water supplies for consumptive and productive use.
Outputs:                   OVIs:                    Progress:                                             Recommendations/actions: Rating:

promote and support, in     term participatory
appropriate                 watershed development
circumstances, the          projects in at least 2
integration of rural        watersheds in different
water supply and            settings in India and 1
sanitation with             in S Africa by March
watershed development       2004.
and management
                            Dissemination of
                            tools/guidelines through
                            identified uptake
                            pathways in 5 countries
                            by March 2004

Purpose:                    OVIs                       Progress:                                          Recommendations/action
Better institutional and    Uptake reflected in
operational solutions for   guidelines for
water resources             development and
management adopted          management of
that promote improved       watersheds and RWSS
access of the rural poor    in India, S Africa and
to safe water supplies      elsewhere, and tools in
for consumptive and         use on at least 2 major
productive use.             development projects
                            by Mar 2005




                                                                       17
4.3     Description of project methodology

Following the inception phase activities, the research is based upon 3 components:

     A review component
     An action research phase
     Development and dissemination of planning tools and guidelines

A revised logical framework for the activities is included in Appendix 5, and a revised workplan, staff
inputs and locations for project work is included at Appendix 6.

Changes proposed to the log-frame are shown in italics and completed activities are shaded.

Highlighted changes include:

     recognition of the need to include urban and peri-urban areas. The logframe has been modified
      broadening the focus from rural areas to encompass urban and peri-urban locations. The project
      locations include areas of high population density in the Sand River Catchment such as the per-
      urban sprawl around Thulamahashe, and many large villages/ towns in southern Andhra Pradesh
      with populations up to around 10,000 people that have some of the most severe water supply
      problems. Urban-rural linkages are a key issue.



4.4     Review of project team, partners/ collaborators and responsibilities

The research will be led by Indian and South African NGOs working with local partners and
supported by local consultants and UK inputs. In India, Accion Fraterna will implement research
activities working closely with APRLP, with BAIF implementing some parallel research as part of the
review component. In South Africa, AWARD will lead research activities working closely with the
SSP.

4.4.1 Project team

Y.V. Malla Reddy will be responsible for Accion Fraterna inputs2. Accion Fraterna will draw upon
field level staff who are already in place and from time-to-time agreed local consultants. BAIF
activities will be led by BK Kakade who has experience of both technical and social aspects of
watershed development, drawing upon field staff and agreed inputs from local consultants.

Sharon Pollard, an environmental specialist and head of AWARD‟s Environmental Support
component will be responsible for AWARD inputs. Sharon has considerable experience of catchment
management and rural development in the Sand River Catchment and is currently the coordinator of
project implementation for the Save-the-Sand Project. Research activities will be undertaken by
Kgopotso Mokgope, a social scientist who has been recruited by AWARD as a Junior Research
Officer to work full-time on the project within the Environmental Support Component. Kgopotso
joined AWARD on 5 February 2001 from the Programme for Land and Agrarian Studies at the
University of the Western Cape where she was involved in participatory research on land reform. As
appropriate, and where agreed with DFID, the research may draw upon the skills and experience of
other AWARD staff, particularly field staff. Progress will be monitored internally and inputs from


2
  Accion Fraterna implement the watershed development programme as part of the Rural Development Trust
(RDT), Anantapur.


                                                  18
other groups facilitated, through short bi-monthly progress meetings with heads of the environmental
support, community support and institutional support components at AWARD.

John Butterworth, a water resources specialist at NRI will lead UK inputs and is the project
coordinator with overall responsibility on behalf of NRI for the project. To support research in both
India and South Africa, John will be supported by colleagues at NRI and other experienced UK-based
researchers. Sabine Gündel and Jim Hancock are both CBNRM specialists at NRI providing expertise
in social development, participatory approaches and community-level institutions. Sabine or Jim will
support implementation of participatory action research, and monitoring and evaluation. During the
inception phase, Jim Hancock has provided these inputs while Sabine has been on maternity leave.
The balance of these inputs will be reviewed in due course. Elizabeth Robinson, NRI is providing
expertise in institutions and natural resource economics. Charles Batchelor of Water Resources
Management Ltd. is a hydrologist with worldwide experience of participatory watershed management
projects. Charles is providing inputs on water resource audits, and will facilitate linkage of the
research to APRLP priorities. John Soussan is a geographer with broad experience in CBNRM in
Asia and Africa including water resources management, and will focus on supporting policy level
findings from the research. John will facilitate links with the University of Leeds-led Policy Research
Programme project in Andhra Pradesh.

4.4.2 Partners and collaborators

Key partners in both India and South Africa are development projects and local government.
Development of partnerships with implementation projects is discussed in section 3.1.4. The APRLP
in India is being implemented through government structures and includes NGO implementation. The
SSP in South Africa is being implemented by DWAF and the Department of Agriculture. Key
partners here will also include new emerging institutions, the Nkomati Catchment Management
Agency which is under establishment and the newly-formed Eastern District Local Government.



4.5   Project cycle management


4.5.1 Regular project planning, monitoring and evaluation

The key researchers and partners of this research project, to stay firmly focused on delivering useful
results, will regularly monitor what they are doing and review that this results in desired outcomes.
This will then result in a review of plans with a consideration of possible changes, some of which may
need negotiation with DFID and partners. Following the basic principles of this project, it is expected
that planning, monitoring and evaluation (PM&E) will be:

           Participatory to the extent possible and efficient. All key stakeholders should have a
            chance to influence key decisions. When these decisions are made they should be sign-
            posted.
           Gathering M&E info to learn (capacity building) what are the best processes and ways of
            doing things. Indicators and information on research methods used should be looked at.
           Keeping communication simple and user friendly. Maximise website and simple reports
            (e.g. summaries) on project progress as tools or dissemination and identifying demand.

There is a fundamental link between planning and M&E. Planning is not a one off activity. The
planning and review cycle, should be a process of refinement of plans and strategies, and indicators of
how to measure changes, at the same time as strengthening and widening the ownership of the project
by the main stakeholders (see figure below). The logframe, while also forming part of an initial
contract with DFID, should also been seen as a dynamic management and communication tool.


                                                  19
                                 Objective        Detailed
                                 setting and      logframe
                                 planning
                                 activities
               Managing
               and doing
               the Project                                             Reporting


                                 Indicators       Monitoring
                                                  and
                                                  Evaluation




Regular and annual project internal reviews will be linked to the preparation of DFID six-monthly
reports due in March and September.

4.5.2 Description of Action, Outputs and Impact Indicators

Bearing in mind the above points on the links between planning and M&E,the logframe can be
elaborated with refined indicators to assist in project management. The members of the project team
have been familiarised with the existing logframe at the workshops and meetings held in South Africa
and India. The purpose of this section is to expand on the development of more detailed indicators
that can be used to measure project progress and how to build these into project review and planning,
depending on local agreements on their applicability. In deciding on the indicators to be used, one
should follow the SMART rules for objectives: specific, measurable, achievable, relevant and time-
bound.




                                                 20
Impacts
The desired impact of the project is encapsulated in the 'Goal' and 'Purpose' levels of the project
logframe, together with follow on expected effects on actual indicators of improved well being of the
poor implied in the higher levels of the KaR Research programme logframe (this could be a
'Supergoal' level of this logframe).

While the project goal may be outside the immediate scope of project deliverables, it nevertheless
forms the centre of the vision of what the partners are driving towards, and there should be clear and
measurable ways for measuring if this is being reached. The purpose of the project should be reflected
in measures of its overall achievement (its successful performance).

 From present logframe                      Proposed project planning and management
 Narrative         Objectively              Emerging indicators             Planning and M&E
 summary           verifiable               (what)                          process
                   indicators                                               (when and who)
 Supergoal:                                 As a result of improved IWRM              Initially identified through
 Improved                                   resulting from project goals amongst      situational analysis and PAR.
 sustainability of                          target poor:                              The PAR will eventually also
 livelihoods and                                Increased income from                identify changes, to then be built
 wellbeing of the                                productive water use (crops and      into end of project evaluation.
 poor                                            livestock, other)
                                                Increased income due to reduced      All stakeholders will have a
                                                 WSS costs                            major role and interest in this
                                                Improved health due to improved      info:
                                                 water provision (reduced                  Community stakeholders
                                                 waterborne diseases in                    Local, national agencies
                                                 particular)                               Project team
                                                Reduced local water conflicts, as         donor
                                                 identified by target groups
 Goal:                                      As a result of project achievements
 Improved water        Improved             (below):
 resources             provision of safe        Greater water allocations (%
 management            water supplies for        and/or benchmark volumes) to
                       the consumptive           identified need of target rural
                       and productive            poor
                       activities of the        Improved reliability of supplies
                       rural poor               Improved water quality where
                                                 identified as critical
                                                More efficient use where critical
 Purpose:                                   As identified through demand, and         Information identified through:
 More effective        Uptake reflected     subsequent references made:                   Demand assessment
 institutional and     in guidelines for                                                  Situational analysis
 operational           development and          Changes made in key policies             Institutional analysis
 solutions for water   management of             and programmes (Save the Sand            Participatory action
 resources             watersheds and            India, DWAF, SA, etc; APRLP               research
 management            WSS in India, S           and WSP-SA India).
 adopted that          Africa and               New policies guidelines used by      These should offer opportunities
 promote improved      elsewhere, and            existing and emerging institutions   for an annual review of these
 access of the poor    tools in use on at       Functional partnerships and          indicators by:
 to safe water         least 2 major             agreements developed                     Community organisation
 supplies for          development              Resources allocated to                    reps involved in PAR
 consumptive and       projects by Mar           implementing new approaches,             Local agencies and national
 productive use.       2005                      methodologies                             agencies involved in project
                                                                                          Project team
                                                                                          Donor through annual
                                                                                           report
                                            The nature of guidelines and tools will
                                            be the final outcome of the project.      Also wider circulation to
                                                                                      agencies and programmes
                                                                                      identified in demand
                                                                                      assessment, especially at the
                                                                                      end of the project.




                                                            21
Outputs

 From present logframe                         Proposed project planning
                                               and management
 Narrative                Objectively          Emerging indicators                        Planning and M&E
 summary                  verifiable           (what)                                     process
 (Example)                indicators                                                      (when and who)
 Outputs:                                      Quality of review, to be described,        Objectives and indicators at the
 1. Assessment of         Comprehensive        this can form a mutually agreed            output level (deliverables) should
 existing                 review capturing     terms of reference among partners:         be developed in planning the
 mechanisms, in           world-wide                                                      activities to deliver the output, this
 water-stressed           experience of            Comprehensiveness: as to be           can be specific workshop or 6-
 areas (quantity and      best-practice and         laid out in proposed outline.         monthly meetings, where key
 quality) with            emerging                 Expected nature of consultation       groups involved in delivering the
 competition for          approaches (inc.          and its outcomes, at local and        outputs are involved:
 water between            community-based           global level.                              Project team members
 multiple uses, to        management,              Factors which will make it useful          Local national agency
 promote more             regulatory                for field testing:                          partner reps
 sustainable and          approaches, new                 To focus on existing local          PAR target community reps
 equitable access         institutional                    processes
 for the rural poor to    structures and                  Applicability of transfer to   It is largely the concern of the
 water supplies for       economic                         other areas                    project team with the support of
 consumptive              instruments) by                 Levels of approaches:          the above groups to monitor these
 (drinking and other      May 2001                         local, catchment, national     indicators on a short term basis,
 domestic uses) and                                        etc                            again through workshops or 6
 productive use (inc.     Analysis of policy              How will it address            monthly meetings.
 small-scale              and institutional                identified demand
 irrigation, livestock,   conditions for                                                  The quality of the outputs will be
 SMEs).                   uptake by May                                                   reviewed annually, with donor,
                          2001                                                            and wider project team group.



Activities

 From present logframe                         Proposed project planning
                                               and management
 Narrative                Objectively          Emerging indicators                        Planning and M&E
 summary                  verifiable           (what)                                     process
 (Example)                indicators                                                      (when and who)
 Activities:                                   Quality of Activity:                       Particularly useful in terms of
 1.0 Review and           Comprehensive        Activity planning should be very           short term planning, quarterly or
 consultations      to    review by May        output focused, as this gives strong       6-monthly basis.
 identify intervention    2001                 indicators of proposed quality of
 options                  Consultations        activity                                   Detailed activity planning shall be
                          held by May 2001                                                devolved as far as possible to
                          2 workshops held                                                partners within a framework of
                          in India and S                                                  resources and timing.
                          Africa by Aug                                                   Detailed PAR activities will be
                          2001                                                            planned with:
                                                                                              Project team field
                                                                                               implementers
                                                                                              Community reps
                                                                                              Local agency partners

                                               Overall assessment of activity             Annual efficiency review, by:
                                               efficiency, to strengthen project             Project team.
                                               management:                                   Donor (?)
                                                    Working relationships
                                                    Communication
                                                    Resources
                                                    Partner capacities
                                                    Budget and cost




                                                                22
4.6     Dissemination and uptake strategy

An outline dissemination strategy has been developed during the inception phase of the project. Key
elements include:

     the development of partnerships with implementation projects and programmes, including DFID
      bilateral programmes in India, and South Africa.
     continuous dissemination via a project website (still under construction) and other appropriate
      fora including WEDC water and sanitation conferences, the DFID WATER newsletter and
      journals.
     development of partnerships and collaborative development of materials with training
      organisations including the IRC International Water and Sanitation Centre, a leading information
      dissemination and training centre in the WSS sector.
     the documentation of practical and replicable approaches and guidelines for better integration of
      WSS and IWRM. These will include a series of tools and will be disseminated in an appropriate
      format, possibly CD-Rom based.
     Appropriate documentation and targeting of policy level findings aimed at influencing policy
      development.




                                                   23
5 Appendices

Appendix 1 Summary of consultations in India

Appendix 2 Summary of consultations in South Africa

Appendix 3 Summary of interviews with regional and national actors in Kenya

Appendix 4 Summary of interviews with regional and national actors in Tanzania

Appendix 5 Revised logical framework

Appendix 6. Revised work plan, staff inputs and locations for project work




                                                 24
Appendix 1 Summary of consultations in India

Andhra Pradesh Rural Livelihoods Project (APRLP)

During the period 16-22 November 2000, John Butterworth (project co-ordinator) and Charles
Batchelor visited various organisations in Andhra Pradesh to discuss the potential for developing
linkages between the research and the Andhra Pradesh Rural Livelihoods Project (APRLP) in India.
The following persons were consulted:

   Mr S.P.Tucker (APRLP, Hyderabad)
   Dr M.S. Rama Mohan Rao (Head of Station, CSWCRTI, Bellary)
   Mr S.Gupta (Project Director, Drought-Prone Areas Programme, Kurnool)
   Mr Y.V.Malla Reddy, Accion Fraterna

The project was also discussed with the participants in the APRLP Water Resource Audit (WRA)
planning meeting that was held in the DPAP offices, Kurnool during 20-22 November.

It was the consensus of the persons consulted that there would be mutual benefits to be gained by
linking the KaR project research with APRLP activities. The scope for sharing of experiences
between approaches to water management in the South African and Indian contexts, and lesson-
learning through joint research in both countries was highlighted. It was proposed that the study could
build upon the findings of the WRAs being undertaken initially in two mandals - one each in Kurnool
and Anantapur Districts. Therefore it should be flexible to address the key water supply and sanitation
research issues that emerge from these studies. Potential follow-up work might involve:

   In-depth studies (over a full year?) on water availability, use and livelihood impacts. Might
    compare 2 towns (e.g. Kalyandurg in Anantapur or similar and Thulamahashe in Northern
    Province, South Africa) and/or villages in each country that experience drinking water shortages.
    In particular, the project might study the ways in which individual households, communities and
    village-level institutions respond to and cope with water shortages. The in-depth studies will also
    provide a baseline for evaluating the impact of new policies, legislation etc.
   Drawing on ideas or suggestions that might result from the south-south links, the KAR project
    could help the APRLP pilot approaches for better water management at the village/mandal level,
    focusing on villages with drinking water shortages. These might include fluoride-affected
    villages, and areas where groundwater levels are declining with resulting seasonal water shortages
    and increased vulnerability to drought. There should be a focus on managing both supply and
    demand, and institutional solutions to manage water for different uses.
   Development, documentation and synthesis of methodologies and training materials that meet the
    needs of APRLP and other watershed development projects.

It is proposed that work at the village/district level could be undertaken with Accion Fraterna and with
key institutions involved in APRLP at the district/state level. The role of the KaR project clearly
should be to provide support and specialist advice. But it must be careful, with limited resources, not
to try and do things that could and should be done by the APRLP. It is understood that good co-
ordination will be necessitated in this regard, and to avoid increasing burdens upon key
DPAP/DDP/NGO staff.

Proposed next steps arising from the various meetings were:

   To prepare a paper on water resource management and water supply and sanitation in A.P. to
    complement a similar paper already produced for South Africa (by end April 2001).
   To organise a collaborative study visit/workshop involving researchers and key institutions from
    South Africa and India during May 2001 (announcement attached). The workshop would aim to


                                                  25
    build linkages between partners in South Africa and India, and further develop research activities
    building upon the WRAs. It would be followed by a similar study visit/workshop in South Africa.
   to continue to develop linkages with the policy research programme project led by the University
    of Leeds that includes components on water management. John Soussan who heads this project, is
    also a collaborator in the KaR study.

Water and Sanitation Programme - South Asia (WSP-SA)

Charles Batchelor and Viju James subsequently met Mike Webster from the Water and Sanitation
Programme South Asia (WSP-SA) on 18 January 2001. WSP-SA are currently supporting an
innovative Government of India-funded rural water supply and sanitation project that among other
activities, aims to address problems of resources scarcity through better watershed management.
Under the RGNDWM‟s Accelerated Water and Sanitation Program, 20% of the national funds are
being directed to 58 districts spread all over the country. The funding, which is being disbursed
directly to the districts, is being used to pilot improved WSS procedures (e.g. more demand
responsive approaches, cost recovery, state as a facilitator not a provider, community participation
etc.). In Andhra Pradesh, there are five districts that fall under this program (one funded by the
Dutch?). Two are APRLP districts (i.e. Nalgonda and Prakasam). Both projects/programmes are
using the AP Academy of Rural Development (APARD) as the location of their support offices. A
common feature of both projects/programmes is recognition of the need to protect drinking water
sources.

WSP have subsequently expressed support for the objectives of the research and an interest in
collaboration and utilisation of the research outputs. A letter received from the programme is attached.
The first project activity, that might involve WSP and APRLP staff, is the proposed workshop in AP
during 5-14 May.




                                                  26
Dear Sir/ Madam


Re: First announcement of a collaborative workshop on ‘Water Supply & Sanitation and Watershed
Development: positive and negative interactions’ in Andhra Pradesh, India, 5-14 May 2001

As an activity of the Indo-South Africa-UK research project on Water, Households and Rural Livelihoods
(WHIRL)3, a workshop on „Water Supply & Sanitation and Watershed Development: positive and negative
interactions‟ will be held in Andhra Pradesh, India, between 5-14 May 2001. The workshop is arranged as a
series of site visits and discussion sessions, together with seminars to be held in Bellary on 7 May, Kurnool on
10 May and Hyderabad on 14 May.

The research team would like to invite you to attend the whole workshop, or alternatively either of the
seminars in Bellary, Kurnool or Hyderabad. We would also be happy for you to bring this workshop to the
attention of your colleagues implementing RGNDWM projects in AP.

The purpose of the workshop will be to explore water resources issues faced by people in southern Andhra
Pradesh, particularly how these impact on drinking water supplies for the rural and urban poor, and to identify
the potential for watershed development (or catchment management) projects and programmes to address or
compound these problems. It will address the negative consequences of current water use patterns, and
approaches to tackle these problems. Issues that are expected to take prominence include:

   impacts of overexploitation of groundwater (for irrigation) on drinking water supplies,
   measures to augment water resources and protect domestic supplies,
   possible negative impacts of watershed development projects to stimulate water use and increase
    overexploitation,
   potential for legislative, institutional and practical solutions to improve the allocation, management
    (especially demand management) and regulation of water resources.

The workshop will include a number of participants from South Africa, who are involved in parallel research
on similar issues. A number of interesting complementarities exist between the experiences and approaches
being followed to address the water resource problems faced in India and South Africa. In South Africa, new
legal and regulatory frameworks and long experience of effective management of water resources at the
macro-level, provide good examples of how to potentially address similar issues elsewhere. In India,




3
 This project is supported by the UK Department for International Development
(DFID) through the Infrastructure and Urban Development Division’s Knowledge
and Research programme. Project R7804 ‘Integrating drinking water needs in
watershed projects’.

                                                                                Natural Resources Institute
                                                                                Medway University Campus
                                                                                Central Avenue, Chatham Maritime
                                                                                Kent ME4 4TB, United Kingdom

                                                                                Telephone: +44 (0)1634 883615 (direct)
                                                                                Fax:         +44 (0)1634 883959
                                                                                Email: j.a.butterworth@greenwich.ac.uk
                                                                                Internet:    http://www.nri.org
strengths in local-level rural development, long experience of watershed development as an approach,
and experiences in scaling-up and replicating success offer rich lessons for poverty alleviation
programmes elsewhere. Sharing lessons across these two different contexts will be an important
thread running through the workshop, and is expected to lead to further south-south linkages and
collaborative research.

The approach taken by the workshop will combine a series of site visits, workshop sessions and
seminars to identify and explore issues and problems faced by poor communities. Visits will include
watershed development project sites, rural and urban water supply and sanitation schemes, and
villages and towns with severe drinking water shortages facilitated by NGOs and development
projects working in these areas. It will involve travelling between Bangalore and Hyderabad over a
period of 10 days, with overnights stops en-route in Bellary, Kurnool (and/or Anantapur). One day
seminars in Bellary and Kurnool will provide an opportunity for a wider range of stakeholders to be
involved at district and state levels. The final day of the workshop will involve a seminar in
Hyderabad with a larger group of participants from Andhra Pradesh and elsewhere in India.

A novel decision-making approach4, that is well suited to the issues faced in promoting sustainable
water resource development will be used throughout the workshop. This will provide a mechanism to
integrate multi-disciplinary thinking, combine quantitative and qualitative data and allow the views of
a wide range of stakeholder to be represented. The output from the workshop will be a dynamic 'map'
that represents the views of the workshop participants and allow key issues and priorities for action to
be identified. These views will be presented by the workshop participants at the Hyderabad seminar.

Provisional workshop itinerary and logistical arrangements

The provisional timetable and itinerary is as follows:

5 May            Participants arrive and meet in Bangalore
6 May            Travel to Bellary, stopping at watershed development villages en-route
7 May            Bellary Seminar
8 May            Travel to Kurnool via watershed development sites/ small town water supply schemes
9 May            Visits to watersheds and rural water supply schemes in Kurnool and Anantapur
10 May           Kurnool Seminar (am) and workshop sessions
11 May           Workshop sessions
12 May           Travel to Hyderabad by road (via further sites) or rail
13 May           Rest day
14 May           Hyderabad Seminar (at Viceroy)

The nature of the workshop will be very intensive and will include afternoon and evening sessions on
the days of field visits, as well as considerable travel. Participants will visit a range of field sites in
small groups, with specific tasks to complete. Because of the travel involved, and the tasks to be
completed by workshop participants, it is essential that participants attend either the specially
arranged seminars in Bellary, Kurnool or Hyderabad or for all 10 days.

Logistical arrangements also mean that the workshop will be restricted to invited participants only.
Unless agreed in writing prior to the workshop, it is expected that participating organisations will
meet the costs of travel to attend either the entire workshop or seminars, and the costs of
accommodation and meals. For participants attending the entire workshop, transport between
Bangalore, Bellary, Kurnool and Hyderbad will be provided. Limited support for actual travel,
accommodation and meal costs for invited participants whose organisations are unable to fund

4
  The use of Bayesian networks will be facilitated at the workshop by Jeremy Cain (Centre for Ecology and
Hydrology) and Patrick Moriarty (IRC International Water and Sanitation Center). The use of Bayesian
networks for natural resource management has been developed under DFID KaR project R7137, Integrated
planning and management of water resources.
attendance may be available. In these cases, all other expenses must be met by participants.
Accommodation bookings will be made by the workshop organisers.

Participants planning to attend the whole workshop should arrange to arrive in Bangalore on or before
the 5 May and depart from Hyderabad after 1800hrs on 14 May. The times of the seminars in Bellary,
Kurnool and Hyderbad will be confirmed in a second announcement to be sent to all intending
participants before the 30 March.
Warning: May is also the hottest month in this part of India!

Optional activities

In the week following the workshop, and subject to sufficient demand, it may be possible to
optionally arrange either:
 Pairing and shadowing between participants from South Africa and India allowing an opportunity
    for workshop participants from South Africa to spend several days with counterparts working in
    similar contexts e.g. NGO, government etc., to explore in more detail the issues and challenges
    faced, and develop south-south collaboration and links.
 A short training course in the use of Bayesian networks as a tool for better decision-making in
    natural resources management.

Participants are asked to identify interest in either of these options as soon as possible to enable the
necessary arrangements to be made.

Follow-up activities after the workshop

The purpose of the research project is to promote better institutional and operational solutions for
water resources management that lead to improved access of the rural poor to safe water supplies for
drinking and other uses. This 4-year project, funded by the DFID Knowledge and Research (KaR)
programme, is based upon collaborative research in India and South Africa. In South Africa, the
project is working with AWARD (Association for Water and Rural Development), the Department of
Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF), and in partnership with the „Save the Sand project‟. In India,
activities are focused on Andhra Pradesh working with Accion Fraterna and the Andhra Pradesh Rural
Livelihoods Project (APRLP) with additional research by BAIF Development Research Foundation
underway in other states. The project aims to establish and draw upon south-south linkages, and to
develop, validate and disseminate demand-led guidelines that promote the integration of rural water
supply and sanitation within watershed development programmes. The workshop will contribute to
development of this project, and opportunities for further links and collaboration are expected to arise
from the workshop.

I hope you will be able to attend and look forward to your response (please send this to
j.a.butterworth@gre.ac.uk). As the number of participants will be strictly limited, I should be grateful
if you would reply to this invitation by 1 March at the latest, and making clear which parts of the
workshop you wish to attend.

Yours sincerely,

John Butterworth
(Project Co-ordinator, WHIRL)
OFFICE MEMORANDUM
DATE:            August 11, 2011

TO:              Dr JA Butterworth
                 Natural Resources Institute
                 Central Avenue, Chatham Maritime
                 Kent ME4 4TB, United Kingdom

FROM:            Mike Webster

EXTENSION:       467

SUBJECT:         DFID KAR:
                 Integrating WSS & catchment management:
                 Promoting access of the poor to secure, safe and sustainable rural water
                 supplies in areas of water scarcity


Dear Dr John Butterworth

I discussed the potential for the Water and Sanitation Program – South Asia to collaborate
with the above KAR programme with your colleague Charles Batchelor on 18 January 2001
in our Delhi offices. As indicated before, WSP-SA would be interested in such a
collaboration and in the outputs from the research. We realize the need for responsible
Integrated Water Resource Management to be an integral component of drinking water
supply and sanitation projects and would welcome more research in this area. We have a
particular interest in advising the Government of India, and the three states in which we are
working closely (Andhra Pradesh, Kerala and Maharashtra), through the current RWSS
sector reform programme how best to take on some of these principles. We would be
interested in joint dissemination activities and in peer reviewing the process.

Best regards,


Mike Webster
Rural Development Specialist
Water and Sanitation Program – South Asia
Appendix 2 Summary of consultations in South Africa

This appendix includes a summary of follow-up consultations held in February 2001.

AWARD workshop

On the 5 & 6 February 2001, AWARD staff representing a range of disciplines and including field
workers, engineers, social scientists, institutional and environmental specialists met to further develop
the research priorities for the project. Staff present were James Rhoda, Peter Segkobela, Toka
Molapo, Kgopotso Mokgope, Modjadji Letsoalo, Sipho Molambo, Mohammed Wardere, and Derrick
Maesela.

The workshop drew upon the outcomes of the inception workshop, and was facilitated using a
Bayesian Network to grasp the complex interrelationships between livelihoods, water supply and
sanitation, and water resources management in the Sand River Catchment (SRC). Use of this
technique was facilitated by Patrick Moriarty from IRC International Water and Sanitation Center.
The Bayesian network proved by a powerful tool in capturing the views of this group of stakeholders.

Bayesian Network for ‘water-based livelihoods’ in the Sand River Catchment

The Bayesian Network designed by the staff of AWARD to illustrate their understanding of the main
factors influencing people‟s water based livelihoods is attached. The labels at the top of the boxes
(known as nodes) give the name of the factor, the words underneath give the possible states for that
factor. So, for example, the box immediately above „improved livelihoods‟ refers to a factor called
„production‟ which can be either high or low. The arrows on the diagram reflect the direction of
cause and affect so, for example, „Production‟ has an affect on „Improved water based livelihoods‟ not
the other way around.

Starting at the main objective node („Improved water based livelihoods‟) and working backwards
along the chain of cause and affect, it is possible to see how a variety of inter-linked factors
areathought to affect the objective. By using the computer software in which the network was
developed it wss possible to evaluate the relative importance of changes to the states associated with
various factors and groups of factors.

In the reasoning of the AWARD staff who produced the network, water based livelihoods have two
major components: a health related aspect, largely driven by access to „domestic‟ water; and a
production based aspect, driven by a combination of access to „productive‟ water, and an ability to use
it. In the network „production‟ is used as shorthand to represent all household activities in which
water plays a productive role e.g. gardening, making bricks, brewing beer, etc. It includes components
of household food security as well as economic activity. An important assumption that came to light
during the development of the network is that in overall livelihoods, water for productive purposes is
considered to have greater impact than water for domestic purposes. This assumption was viewed as
being so important that it has become a key research focus for the project.

Working back along the chain of logic expressed in the network, access to water for both productive
and domestic use is seen to rely on a combination of the physical resource base, allocation
(„redistribution and equity‟), affordability, and supply infrastructure. Equitable allocation is believed
to be more important than the physical resource base, although the two together need to be assured.
Equitable allocation is seen to rely on enabling national legislation, but perhaps more importantly (at
least from the point of view of AWARD staff) also on effective catchment level institutions.
Affordability has an important negative impact, in that where water is too expensive it acts as an
effective block to improving livelihoods – regardless of what is done in terms of improving allocation




                                                   32
or resource availability. Supply infrastructure has a similar role – without a decent infrastructure,
addressing allocation or resource availability issues will be futile.

Looking at the other key control to improving livelihoods through water for production, „ability to use
water productively‟, a complex web of controlling factors can be seen. All of these must be present in
some degree for people to be able to benefit fully from increased access to water. Access to land,
labour, and a sound economic environment (which lumped together issues such as access to credit and
markets) are all crucial, but were felt to be outside the immediate sphere of the project. However
community skills and capacity were also crucial, and here that a clear field for intervention exists.

A final major group of factors affecting livelihoods is health as affected through access to domestic
water. While this was felt to relatively less important than production it nonetheless plays a crucial
role in livelihoods. Here the networks suggests that hygiene awareness and sanitation can play an
effective role in improving health, but ONLY where sufficient water is available.

Neither „Gender‟ nor „Poverty‟ appears directly on the network; this is because they are cross cutting
themes. It was agreed that it is impossible to speak meaningfully of improved livelihoods without
addressing gender and poverty issues. Throughout the network where words like appropriate or
effective are seen it should be assumed that this also means appropriate in terms of gender and
poverty.




                                                  33
       National Water Act                                         Catch. Man. Institutions                                        Water Services Act                     Local Government Legisl ...
   Effective     50.0                                            Effective       39.7                                         Effective     50.0                         Effective          50.0
   Ineffective   50.0                                            Ineffective     60.3                                         Ineffective   50.0                         Ineffective        50.0

           Physical Environment
       Favourable       50.0                                                                                 Revenue                                          Local Institutions
       Unfavourable     50.0
                                                                                                    High 50.0                                            Effective       40.6
                                                                                                    Low 50.0                                             Ineffective     59.4
    Climate               Appropriate Land Manag ...
                                                                               Investment
Wet 50.0                  True            50.0
                                                                        High 43.1                                                                         Community Institutions
Dry 50.0                  False           50.0
                                                                        Low 56.9
                                                                                                                                                         Effective       44.4
                                                                                                                                                         Ineffective     55.6
                                                                                                           Ownership and Awareness
       Sustainable Resource Base                                    Supply Infrastructure
                                                                                                           High           45.5
       Good             41.2                                     Functioning    18.8
                                                                                                           Low            54.5
       Bad              58.8                                     NonFunctio ... 81.2                                                                   Comm. Skills and Capacity
                                                                                                                                                       Strong            34.8
                                                                                                                                                       Weak              65.2
                                                 Technology                                                   Management and O&M
                                         Appropriate   50.0                                                   Good     33.9
                                         Inappropriate 50.0                                                   Poor     66.1
                                                                                                                                                          Economic environment ( ...
    Redistribution and Equity
                                                                                                                                                         Good              50.0
    Strong        23.1
                                                                                                                                                         Poor              50.0
    Weak          76.9
                                         Com. acc. to productive        ...
                                                                                                         Ability to use water prod ...                      Access to Land
                                     High                 17.7
                                                                                                     High              17.9                               High 50.0
                                     Low                  82.3
                                                                                                     Low               82.1                               Low 50.0
                                  Comm. acc. to domestic ...
                                  High             12.3                                    Production                                              Health                           Sanitation
                                  Low              87.7                                 High 13.5                                            Good 27.1                          Good 50.0
                                                                                        Low 86.5                                             Poor 72.9                          Poor 50.0

      Affordability
      Affordibility
                                                     Improved water based livelihoods
                                                      Improved water based liv ...                                 Hospitals, endemic disea ...                        Hygiene awareness
   High 50.0
                                                     True                16.8                                     Good              50.0                               High 50.0
   Low 50.0
                                                     False               83.2                                     Bad               50.0                               Low 50.0


                                                                                                    34
Proposed focus themes for research in the Sand River Catchment, South Africa

On the basis of manipulation of the Bayesian Network the following research themes were identified:

Theme 1: Promoting productive uses of water

This was proposed as the major theme for a programme of Participatory Action Research (PAR) in
the Sand River Catchment. The theme will promote the sustainable use of water for productive
purposes from systems or resources that also support domestic water supply. Project activities under
this theme will:

   promote the productive use of water and contribute to improved livelihoods through impacts on
    food security, and income generating opportunities
   complement current WSS efforts that focus on improving health (through providing access to a
    basic level of domestic water supply, sanitation and hygiene awareness) by addressing the
    potential of productive uses of water to improve the viability of service provision.
   meet a need identified in the Save-the-Sand feasibility study to promote research into the
    understanding of the water use and economic potential of small-scale economic activities in the
    catchment.
   address sustainability issues, especially the risks of conflict and inefficiencies through
    unsustainable development. The theme will complement project activities in India, where the
    overexploitation of groundwater for productive uses by smallholders has had severe negative
    impacts on domestic water supply. It is only suggested that only where productive uses of water
    play an important role in peoples livelihoods will the incentives for large-scale participation in
    catchment management exist.

The theme will address the use of water for productive purposes from systems or resources that also
support domestic water supply. PAR will be carried out with communities and institutions in the SRC.
Communities are to be identified following further consultations and baseline surveys.

Work under theme one is intended to contribute the major part of the project in South Africa. In
addition,a second parallel research theme was also proposed.

Theme 2: Emerging lessons from institutional reform in catchment management in South Africa

This second parallel research theme will concentrate on distilling and disseminating emerging lessons
from pilot integrated catchment management projects and the establishment of catchment
management institutions, focusing on the role of WSS in this process. It will particularly focus on
lessons from the Sand/ Nkomati for other catchments and countries elsewhere including India.

DWAF Mpumulanga

The outcomes of the AWARD workshop, particularly the Bayesian Network and prioritised research
themes were subsequently presented at a meeting in the DWAF Mpumulanga regional office on 7
February 2001 attended by Magda Ligthelm and Nancy ? The focus on promoting productive uses of
water through participatory action research was supported and DWAF would like to be involved and
participate. This should focus on both small-scale irrigators and use of productive use from
reticulation systems, and also address quality issues. Key points arising were:

   both the Nkomati and the Olifants are water-stressed catchments and re-allocation to
    accommodate new users is a key issue and need, as well as meeting the reserve requirements.
   the formation of a water users association in the lower Nkomati that is multi-sectoral and is
    broaden than just agricultural users.




                                                 35
   a previous study on catchment management institutions in the Nkomati by Woodhouse and
    Hassan is relevant.
   The Nkomati CMA proposal has been submitted and a governing board may be in place in around
    9 months. Then CMCs will be formed. A new CM strategy will be drafted shortly.
   WSDPs are currently being prepared but only 5% have been submitted in old format. Are trying
    to link CM strategies (the startegic plan for water resources) and WSDPs (the strategic plan for
    water services), and need to links WSAs abd CMAs.
   A socio-economic study focusing on water use in transboundary areas (South Africa,
    Mozambique abd Swaziland) by AFRIDEV may be relevant
   An MSc study on empowerment of users in the Nkomati has also recently been completed
    (Canadian?).
   The dense settlements project is looking at water quality problems asscoiated with dense
    settlements, and includes work in Acornhoek on waste disposal.
   Action research should be prioritised on the basis of socio-economic status of users or potential
    users, economic returns, the potential increase in water use and the potential for successful pilot
    activities.
   Should consider importance of tourism, and also traditional healers in the study areas.
   Need to ensure participation of DPLG, DWAF HQ and regional offices as well SSP.

DWAF, Pretoria
A workshop was subsequently held in the DWAF Pretoria office on 9 February 2001. Participants
included DWAF staff in the national offices from catchment management (Eustathia Bofilatos, Azwi
Nelwamondo and Derek Weston) and water services directorates (Sorrious Manele, Maxima
Ranamane, and Sanjay Wijesekera), Washington Tunha from DWAF Northern province, Peter Smith
(DFID Water Sector Field Manager), Minnie Venter-Hildebrand (Mvula Trust), and Anthony Turton
(AWIRU, University of Pretoria).

This workshop was held to discuss the proposed research priorities, the role of DWAF and other
organisations, and a dissemination strategy for the project. John Butterworth (project coordinator -
Natural Resources Institute), James Rhoda (AWARD) and Patrick Moriarty (IRC International Water
and Sanitation Centre - facilitator) presented the findings of earlier consultations held in South Africa
including the Bayesian Network and proposed research themes.

After a stimulating discussion during which many interesting issues were raised, these two themes and
particularly the focus on promoting productive uses of water, were unanimously supported by those
present at the meeting. Some of the key issues arising in the discussion were:

   the need for the research to inform policy, particularly as the current legislative, policy and
    regulative framework focuses on meeting basic needs, and does not yet adequately address the
    role of productive uses of water in the livelihoods of the poor.
   the potential for improved cost recovery through implementing a demand responsive approach
    that includes meeting the need for water for productive use.
   the need to strengthen the ability of rural communities to access allocations for productive
    purposes.
   the need for the research to link into the development of the catchment management strategy.
    Work on this will begin in a couple of months.
   the fact that the proposed focus is consistent with the new National Water Management Strategy.
   the potential for additional funding to facilitate additional DWAF inputs under DFID-support to
    Water Resources Management (for which the timescale of funding is compatible i.e. to March
    2004).
   the importance of involvement of local-level DWAF staff and local government.
   the need for tools, guidelines and other research outputs to be targeted at local government and
    other intermediate-level organisations (WSAs, WSPs, CMAs, WUAs etc) as well as training
    organisations (such as National Community Water and Sanitation Training Institute).


                                                   36
   the potential for dissemination using the AWIRU website and possibilities of linking graduate
    student research projects to the study.
   the ability of the project to contribute to implementation of the key principles of equitable,
    efficient and sustainable water use.
   the challenge to the project of relating different institutions and planning structures across
    catchment management, water services, and rural development.
   the need for continued consultations with pilot projects linking development of WSDPs with
    catchment management (Northern Cape?), the Mvula Trust pilot project in Kwazulu Natal, and
    the Strategic Environmental Assessment Team at DWAF.

Given the strong level of interest and support expressed by DWAF, the following action points were
agreed:

1. To delay competition of the inception report (from 18 February to 16 March 2001 subject to DFID
approval) to provide further time for DWAF to hold internal consultations. These will address the
involvement of DWAF in the research activities, and the need for any additional resources that may
be applied for under DFIDSA support to DWAF (DWAF to prepare a letter of support for the delay to
be sent to DFID as soon as possible)
2. To consult with the Strategic Environmental Assessment team at DWAF (John Butterworth and
Kgopotso Mokgope by 16 February 2001)
3. To discuss the project with the Chief Director and other staff as appropriate in the Northern
Province regional office (John Butterworth and Kgopotso Mokgope as soon as possible)
4. To prepare a draft inception report for circulation within DWAF and to meeting attendees (John
Butterworth by 16 February 2001)
5. To prepare a short summary of the meeting and agreed actions (John Butterworth and Kgopotso
Mokgope by 12 February)

Strategic Environmental Assessment Team, DWAF

John Butterworth, Kgopotso Mokgope and Minnie Venter-Hildebrand (Mvula Trust), subsequently
met members from the Strategic Environment Assessment (SEA) team at DWAF (Mike Warren, Peter
Nelson and Steve Horak) on 12 February 2001. As a result of a pilot SEA project in the Mhlathuze
Catchment (supported by DFID) „water for rural development‟ was identified as a possible „spin-off‟
theme for follow-up work and a draft scoping paper has been prepared by Dirk Versfeld. Proposed
work will focus on the strategic issues relating to the use of water for productive purposes in rural
areas. It was agreed that given the common interests in productive use of water, links should be
maintained between this initiative and proposed research under this project and by Mvula Trust (see
below).

Mvula Trust

The proposed research was also discussed in detail with Minnie Venter-Hildebrand at Mvula Trust.
Mvula are currently involved in a pilot scheme in KwaZulu-Natal to provide higher levels of service
and enhance livelihoods through water use, and are leading the preparation of a proposal to scale up
work on using water for productive purposes and increasing livelihoods. The research outputs from
the WHIRL project are considered important to support this proposed project, which may include
implementation in the neighbouring district. Links will be maintained with these initiatives.

Local government

Consultations have not yet been held with local government, and this is recognised as a priority
activity for the coming weeks. The Sand River Ccatchment falls within the area of the new Eastern
District Council and local government structures are currently in a state of transition with few staff in
place. The new district comprises two municipalities, Bushbuckridge and Drakensburg. The research


                                                   37
will be discussed as soon as possible with the Acting Municipal Manager, Bushbuckridge
Municipality and the Acting District Municipal Manager, Eastern District Council. As local
government staff are put in place, the research will seek to work closely with appropriate officers.




                                                38
Appendix 3 Summary of interviews with regional and national
actors in Kenya
This appendix includes a summary of project consultations carried out in Kenya during the period 22-
23 January 2001. In general interviews were informal and unstructured. Interview reports have been
arranged so that general background to the organisation, and to its perception of the water sector (or
its part of the water sector) are presented first. This is followed, under the heading „main issues‟, by
those areas where in the interviewees opinion there was evidence of existing conflict and where new
tools/approaches were needed.

Interview No 1: NETWAS International
Beth Karanja, Head of Training & Isaack Onenga, Deputy Director

The Network for Water and Sanitation International (NETWAS) is a regional resource centre for
training, applied research, networking and information dissemination in the water and sanitation
sector. Training courses regularly attract participants from East, West and Southern Africa.

Issues highlighted were the failure to co-ordinate relevant actors in relation to WSS and WRM, and
lack of an effective framework for IWRM at national or local level. IWRM hasn‟t been a major issue
for the WSS sector until the recent drought that led to water shortages (mainly in urban areas) and
outbreaks of disease such as typhoid (following the return of the rains). In addition there is a general
increase in conflict over water resources in some agro-climatic areas (e.g. between livestock,
irrigation, and domestic uses). Examples cited were:

   In Western Kenya, WSS projects in Nandi district using surface water supply sources were
    affected by upstream pollution due to poor sanitation practice in an upstream district. In response
    the project was expanded to encompass the headwater areas in the neighbouring district, including
    improved sanitation.
   A shift towards alternative sources in urban and peri-urban areas for example the use of
    groundwater by hotels and other businesses in Nairobi due to unreliable PWS.
   Increased development of private boreholes for irrigation water in peri-urban areas. In the
    absence of controls or incentives to manage water resources there are concerns about falling
    groundwater levels. However there is currently no monitoring system of either the resource or
    abstractions.
   Settlements along pipelines are increasingly demanding a share of the resource flowing through
    them, leading to increased pressure on sources supplying cities such as Nairobi.

At national level there is a move towards increased co-ordination between sectors and development of
new water policy, however corruption and inefficiency at high levels may limit such efforts. It was
felt that the concept of IWRM has been on the table for a while, and talked about at these levels, but
with little coming through at the field level. It was felt that other efforts would be better focused at a
district or local level. This is the critical scale anyway. Conflict is often local and a river basin model
assumes a degree of linkage that seldom exists in semi-arid areas.

As a training organisation, NETWAS have identified IWRM as an area of interest for the WSS sector
but feel constrained by a lack of tools and difficulty in identifying clear entry points and roles.
Priorities identified, which should focus on areas with high water demand or genuine resource
shortage/conflict were:

   Participatory tools and methodologies for WRM particularly development of platforms for
    interaction of different user groups
   Tools for resource assessment, identification of management options, and monitoring which can
    be used at the „lower levels‟ by projects, NGOs and local government to improve IWRM in the
    absence of effective basin or national level management.


                                                    39
   Tools to help water supply sector actors to take a wider view of water use and integrate productive
    uses into their schemes.

In addition to training there is a need for advocacy materials to raise awareness of the need for WRM
in WSS programmes. This should be targeted at all levels of society, and should aim to generate a
genuine grass roots demand for better management of water resources.

Interview No 2: WSP and African Water Resource Management Forum
Piers Cross, Michael Mutale

WSP East and Southern Africa is a regional organisation focussing on policy reform, improved
investment and, increasingly, on information dissemination. WSP has no money of its own but acts as
a facilitator between governments, donors, and other financiers. The East and Southern Africa office
currently concentrates on 6 countries in the region.

The African Water Resource Management Forum (AWRMF) is a new body (est. 1999) hosted by
WSP and currently headed by Mike Mutale. It is mainly concerned with improved networking
between water resource professionals in Africa.

Priorities for the research work suggested by WSP and AWRMF include
 Groundwater management and in particular the vulnerability of shallow wells to falling water
    tables.
 Identification of the proper institutional structures for effective IWRM – one area of particular
    interest are „water parliaments‟, that is the democratisation of the allocation and management
    process.
 Juxtaposition of new structures in relation to strong moves towards decentralisation but with often
    week local government
 The need to recognise that legal frameworks backed by regulation and enforcement may be more
    difficult to establish in some countries than in others

The AWRMF is actively promoting further research in line with the project objectives, and would like
to see the work focus on a few key issues. Both the WSP and the AWRMF will be happy to help
provide an opportunity to disseminate key findings within SSA.

Interview No. 3: Regional Land Managment Unit (RELMA)
Rolf Winberg

RELMA is a SIDA funded initiative that aims to promote networking at a regional level and to pilot
innovative approaches to soil and water conservation and management. As well as an organisation
focussing on soil and water conservation, RELMA are now increasingly involved in catchment
management including projects with a WATSAN focus. Projects include piloting an approach to
catchment and environmental management in Lake Victoria. They co-ordinate a new rainwater
utilisation network in East and Southern Africa which in future will links to similar efforts in India
aimed at holistic use of rainwater in response to a GWP request. They stress the need to focus on
work at lower level with communities.




                                                  40
Appendix 4 Summary of interviews with regional and national
actors in Tanzania
This appendix includes a summary of project consultations carried out in Kenya during the period 24-
26 January 2001.

Interview No. 4: NETWAS Tanzania
Eng. Ryubha Magesa, Head

NETWAS Tanzania is a branch of NETWAS International focussed solely on Tanzania. It has been
recently set up (in 1999) and is currently preparing new training programmes which it hopes to
instigate using local expertise as far as possible.

Main issues:

IWRM is an issue in Tanzania in some specific locations including the Pangani basin, where there has
been competition between water for irrigation and domestic use. In addition there has been
considerable conflict between upstream irrigators and downstream hydro-power generation,
exacerbated by the recent drought.

The current focus for domestic water supply is mainly focussed on groundwater, which is sometimes
difficult to find in drier areas.

Previous approaches (including free water) have failed and services deteriorated rather than improved.

New government policy relies on community initiation, including a commitment to contribute at least
5% of capital costs and all O&M costs.

The new approach to RWSS will be demand driven and participatory, identifying need and co-
ordinating with other departments. Where a suitable source exists rural water supplies will be
expanded to deal with livestock and backyard irrigation requirements in addition to domestic.

Current issues of particular relevance for the WSS, and ones where NETWAS intends to become active include:
   Cost recovery in WSS - people were used to free water and have low income, WSS as currently
    implemented won't necessarily contribute to income therefore raising money for cost recovery is a
    serious potential problem
   Private sector participation to increase capacity – Tanzania is firmly committed to a withdrawal of
    government from service provision, a role that will be taken up by the private sector and
    communities themselves
   Retraining government staff – as part of its new function Government will act as facilitator and
    regulator. Currently staff are trained mainly as technicians, and will need large scale re-training
    and capacity building to undertake their new roles.

Interview No. 5: Ministry of Water
Gabriel Lwakabare, Project Co-ordinator, Rural water supply and Sanitation project; Small towns
water supply and sanitation project

The World Bank funded RWSS project is aiming to develop safe and adequate water supplies for
rural areas and small towns. Major urban centres such as Dar es Salaam and regional capitals are not
being dealt with.

In the past community schemes have failed for reasons including source failures (i.e. resource failure)
and the collapse of institutions and facilities surrounding the water supply. To try to tackle these past
failures the RWSS programme is using a DRA based approach. Currently baseline social assessments



                                                      41
have been carried out in 3 districts, with an environmental assessment to follow. The programme is
starting in 3 districts, and will add 3 new districts each year.

In rural areas the programme is mainly relying on groundwater – developed using shallow and deep
wells, and is shunning sources that require treatment. However, where the situation is very favourable
the programme may consider small dams. The community has to contribute in cash or kind. As
groundwater is the principal source, the main resource dangers concern pollution and depletion.

The project has recognised the need to protect the water source but does not extend this to whole
basin planning. Rather the local source, where practical, is protected using techniques such as
planting trees, banning farming, and constructing fences. In theory the DRA extends to providing
sources for uses other than domestic – however in practice sources are inadequate for this in 2 out of 3
districts.

In Small towns the project is taking a different approach as due to problems of implementing a
community based approach in such heterogeneous areas. Water user associations and private sector
involvement will be the main approaches tried. In addition there will be an increased focus on
sanitation, particularly appropriate low cost technologies. The programme is currently working in 19
small towns in 6 districts.

Main issues:

In the Kilimanjaro area there is existing competition over access to domestic water, in other areas
there is competition between irrigation and domestic supply. In the Rufiji basin competition is mainly
between downstream hydropower generation and upstream irrigation, due mainly to the design of
hydropower schemes that did not take increasing irrigation demand into account. Currently there are
many problems linked to widespread illegal abstraction and environmental degradation which are
affecting flows.

A new water policy has been developed, that is largely based on a DRA approach. This new policy
envisages a revised role for government, that in turn requires large scale development of new
capacity, particularly at district level. People need to be trained in demand assessment, management,
procurement etc. There is a clear role here for organisations such as NETWAS

While the RWSS project is aware of the World Bank River Basin Management – Small scale
irrigation Improvement (RBM-SIIP) project there is not real co-ordination between the two.

Interview No. 6: Institute of Resource Assessment – University of Dar es Salaam
Prof. Mark Mujwahuzi

In Tanzania there is a theoretical priority in resource allocation and development for
domestic/drinking water, however, in reality considerably greater resources are put into irrigation
(food security) and other (such as hydropower) schemes. New policies focus on energy and food
security by 2025, with hydropower and irrigation respectively being key factors in achieving these
ends.

Within the water sector existing responsibilities are fragmented. There is a need for an integrating
body to implement IWRM, and to avoid currently overlapping fields of authority. The new water
resource policy aims to take a basin approach but key resources (financial and human) are lacking. In
general there is a respect for the ruled of law in Tanzania, and some elements of the necessary
regulation are already in place (such as a system for allocating water rights). As a result both
legislation and policy are reform are areas where it is worth making improvements – in a way that it
may not be in countries where the rule of law is less well established.




                                                  42
Main issues

The water supply for Dar es Salaam comes from the Morogoro mountains. Water resources issues
affecting it are mainly to do with siltation and chemical pollution coming from commerical
agriculture (e.g. sisal processing) in the headwaters. In addition there is a growing problem of
contamination from mercury used in from artisanal gold mining.

In addition to these quality issues, there is a general issue of falling quantity available. Per capita
water availability had gone down in urban areas but up in rural (1967-97). This is more to do with
failing infrastructure in urban areas that to do with absolute resource shortage.

Interview No. 7: Ministry of Water – Water Resources Division
Mwakalinga, Senior Hydrologist, River Basin Management

Introduced World Bank supported River Basin Management (RBM) and Small scale Irrigation
Improvement (SSIP) projects which are in their 4th year of operation. The projects aim to strengthen
government capacity to manage water resources using an integrated approach. Currently, there is a
lack of co-ordination, but the projects are reviewing water policy and institutional frameworks with an
aim to improve this in the near future. In addition the projects are helping to rehabilitate the
hydrometric networks in the two pilot basins to provide the necessary data to take management
decisions.

Currently the projects are being piloted in the Pangani and Rufiji river basins. Both basins have a
pattern of irrigation upstream of reservoirs and hydropower plants. A rapid water resource assessment
(WRA) has shown conflict in these basins.

Under current legislation the Principal Water Officer (PWO) – based in Dar es Salaam issues water
rights for large scale abstraction from rivers of national importance, while the Basin Water Officers
(where they exist) licence smaller abstractions from regional water bodies.

Main issues:

On the great Ruaha river (in the Rufiji basin) there is conflict between irrigation, hydropower and
environment. In a story that almost all interviewees mentioned during last year drought it was
necessary to sacrifice 15MW of generation potential in order to ensure that a minimum amount of
water was available for a rare species of toads („spray toads‟).

Perceptions are often as large a problem as reality. A DFID funded study on the upper Ruaha found
that wet season flows were not being adversely affected by irrigation, however they had problems
convincing TANESCO – the national power utility – of this.

In theory a person of community must have a water right to be allowed to take water form a pump or
irrigation „furrow‟. However, in general smallholder irrigators don‟t hold water rights. Currently
efforts are being made to persuade communities in the Kilimanjaro region to accept them, but there is
resistance. Tanzania has a very long history (stretching back into pre-history) of indigenous irrigation,
and people do not understand why they must now pay for a permit for something their ancestors have
always seen as a right. The project is trying to create water users associations as it is not practical to
administer large numbers of small water rights. As part of this policy they are trying to reduce the
overall number of off-take points, so as to facilitate monitoring of those that are left.

In general domestic use is not a problem as regards quantity of resources, and is mainly a supply
issue. Traditionally drinking water is collected from irrigation furrow, and represents a tiny
percentage of the flow in these. However there are some quality problems for example high levels of
fluoride and iron in some areas.



                                                   43
Currently stakeholder involvement is limited. The Water Officer is advised by a board of 8 people
(four from government, four from „civil society‟). However the board only has advisory role on
allocation issues. Legally the water officer is therefore powerful, however in reality due to lack of
resources his power is often limited.

Interview No. 8:     Ministry of Water – Water Resources Division
Dutingo Luhumbika – Director; Julius Mihayo Assistant Director - Hydrology

Rapid water resources assessment highlighted the importance of competition for water resources in
the Rufiji and Pangani basins. These two basins are the only ones out of Tanzania‟s nine major basins
that currently have a functioning authority, however, the Ministry is trying to extend similar
structures to o other basins including Ruva, which supplies Dar es Salaam.

Main issues

There is a lot of conflict, particularly in Pangani. In both basins problems exist between all uses –
livestock, irrigation, domestic and industry. The Pangani also has a concentration of industry which
uses more water and can be polluting

The water use in these systems is very complicated, and awareness of legislation is low. The projects
work at a basin level, aiming to create awareness of resource management needs and issues from the
bottom up.

Conflict over domestic resource is primarily a local issue. Water is taken in „furrows‟ that tap the
main river and then run for up to 10km through as many as four villages. Conflict revolves around
competing requirements for livestock, domestic, and irrigation within these furrow systems. The
project aims to form water user associations to manage the irrigation furrows, and who will then
interact with the basin board on issues related to overall water consumption.

The intention is that basin water boards should be autonomous and self-financing. However it is
problematic to get people to pay, especially upstream users who have traditionally used the source
anyway. Downstream users are in general more happy to pay, as they see payment as one means to
guarantee supply. In general power and industry are also willing to pay, and it is this part of the
system that is easiest to regulate.

Interview No. 9:       Institute of Resource Assessment – University of Dar es Salaam
Prof. James O. Ngana – Co-ordinator Pangani Project

The Pangani project is supported by NORAD and is being carried out in partnership by the University
of Dar es Salaam and the Technical University of Norway. It is mainly looking at land use, water
resources and socio-economics in an integrated way. It is currently concentrating on investigation
conflict, but also needs to start looking at the overall dynamic or land and water management.

The water board in Pangani is making some progress but has many problems to tackle. In particular
people don‟t see logic of paying for water that they‟ve used for hundreds of years. In addition the
board has yet to become truly participatory, and finding mechanisms for the representation and
empowerment of small-scale water users on the board remains a priority.

Main issues:

The main problems and conflicts exist between hydropower and irrigation, and there is no real issue
of domestic water being the cause of conflict. There are some problems in dry areas – where
rainwater harvesting is being looked into.




                                                 44
In Tanzania water supply is not being given priority, in many towns including Dar es Salaam the
water supply is disastrous. Most schemes were built in 1970s and have never been revisited or
improved since. This is at least partly due to what used to be government‟s role in supporting all
infrastructure for which it was completely under-resourced

Currently most drinking water is from surface sources, but there is increasing use of groundwater. In
Dar es Salaam the lack of an efficient distribution network is leading to widespread private
development of groundwater, with people resorting to deep and shallow wells, and in some cases
selling the water form their wells. The rapid rise in the use of shallow wells is leading to an increased
risk of groundwater contamination from pit latrines.




                                                   45
Appendix 5 Revised logical framework

Narrative summary           Measurable indicators                Means of verification    Important assumptions
Goal:
Improved water              Improved provision of safe           National data and
resources management        water supplies for the               sector studies
                            consumptive and productive
                            activities of the poor
Purpose:                                                                                  (Pupose to goal)
More effective              Uptake reflected in guidelines       GoI and RSA policy       Favourable political
institutional and           for development and                  documents                environment
operational solutions for   management of watersheds             Project Reports
water resources             and WSS in India, S Africa and       Consultation
management adopted          elsewhere, and tools in use on
that promote improved       at least 2 major development
access of the poor to       projects by Mar 2005
safe water supplies for
consumptive and
productive use.
Outputs:                                                                                  (Output to purpose)
1. Assessment of            Comprehensive review                 Project reports          Governments and
existing mechanisms, in     capturing worldwide experience       Conference               donors continue to
water-stressed areas        of best-practice and emerging        proceedings              invest in participatory
(quantity and quality)      approaches (inc. community-          Journal papers           watershed development
with competition for        based management, regulatory                                  projects and rural water
water between multiple      approaches, new institutional                                 supply and sanitation,
uses, to promote more       structures and economic                                       and are willing to adopt
sustainable and             instruments) by May 2001                                      more integrated
equitable access for the                                                                  approaches.
poor to water supplies      Analysis of policy and               Project reports          Government measures
for consumptive             institutional conditions for                                  progressed to reduce
(drinking and other         uptake by May 2001                                            the negative influences
domestic uses) and                                                                        of those with vested
productive use (inc.                                                                      interests in water
small-scale irrigation,                                                                   shortage.
livestock, SMEs).

2. Key findings from        Documented outcomes                  Project reports on
piloting of approaches      (hydrological, institutional,        outcomes of pilot case
that integrate water        socio-economic) of pilot case        studies
supply and sanitation       studies focused on poor              Conference and
with watershed              communities within 2                 journal papers
development and             watersheds in India and 1 in S
management, and             Africa by Mar 2004
synthesis of tested
methodologies.              Documentation on piloting of         Project reports on
                            methodologies for site               testing of
                            selection, assessment of             methodologies
                            resources, issues and problems       Local draft guidelines
                            (hydrological, institutional,
                            socio-economic), participatory
                            decision-making,
                            implementation, monitoring and
                            evaluation by Mar 2004.

                            Demand assessment in 5               Project reports
                            countries (inc. S Africa, & India)
                            and identified uptake pathways



                                                           46
                           by Dec 2000.

3. Demand-led planning     Tools and guidelines developed     Planning
tools developed,           in response to demand, and         tools/guidelines
validated and              validated in collaboration with    (e.g. manual,
disseminated with          long-term participatory            electronic publication
guidelines for use that    watershed development              or toolbox)
promote and support, in    projects in at least 2
appropriate                watersheds in different settings
circumstances, the         in India and 1 in S Africa by
integration of water       March 2004.
supply and sanitation
with watershed             Dissemination of                   Preliminary and
development and            tools/guidelines through           continuous
management                 identified uptake pathways in 5    dissemination through
                           countries by March 2004            project website
                                                              Conference/journal
                                                              papers focused on
                                                              replication and policy-
                                                              level

Activities:
0 Inception activities,
and continued project
management

0.1 Initial project        Lead professionals from NRI,       Project inception
planning meeting of        BAIF and AWARD meet by end         report
lead professionals to      July 2000
build South-South
collaboration and refine
scope of work


0.2 Stakeholder            By Dec 2000, linkages              Project inception
assessment, and            developed with potential partner   report
consultations with key     development projects (e.g.
stakeholders in India, S   Save the Sand project in S
Africa and other           Africa), key stakeholders
targeted countries         identified and consulted in S
                           Africa, India and 3 other
                           identified target countries in
                           SSA/Asia, and complementary
                           activities by others identified
                           and linkages developed.


0.3 Inception workshop     All team members meet by end       Project inception
                           Sep 2000, further activities and   report
                           programme finalised and
                           agreed by project partners and
                           key stakeholders/ host
                           governments.

0.4 Progress meetings      Initial meeting by Oct 2000 and    Project inception
with DFID                  further meetings as appropriate    report

0.5 Regular progress       Summary progress reports           Six-monthly progress
reporting, and annual      submitted to DFID by end-Mar       reports to DFID
reviews and planning       and end-Sep



                                                       47
meetings
                            Research findings synthesised       Annual project
                            and reported on annual basis        research reports
                            (end of years 1,2 and 3)

                            Annual review and planning
                            documents                           Project reports


0.6 On-going project        Correspondance, financial           Files held by NRI,   Timely disbursement of
management and              records                             BAIF and AWARD       funds to NRI and
monitoring                                                      including monthly    collaborators
                                                                progress reports
1.0 Review and
consultations to identify
intervention options

1.1 Literature search       Comprehensive review by May         Literature review
and review                  2001

1.2 Consultations with      Consultations held by May           Project reports
with key specialists and    2001
stakeholders

1.3 Workshops               2 workshops held in India and S     Workshop reports     Policy-makers, key
including representation    Africa by Aug 2001                                       stakeholders and
by policy-makers to                                                                  specialists willing to
validate findings and                                                                attend and participate
identify realistic local                                                             actively in workshops.
options
                                                                                     Implementing agencies
2.0 Pilot case-study                                                                 of development projects
fieldwork (output 2 -                                                                are willing to participate
activities replicated in                                                             in piloting of new
each watershed)                                                                      approaches.

2.1 Analysis and            Rapid analysis of secondary         Project reports      Individuals and
consultation to identify    and existing project data by                             communities willing to
watersheds, sites and       May 2001                                                 participate in research
target communities                                                                   and influences of those
(including use of           Consultations/workshops with        Project reports      individuals/ elites with
poverty criteria) and       local-level stakeholders leading                         negative interests in
agree working               to identification of sites in 2                          promoting water
principles                  watersheds in India and 1 in S                           shortages can be
                            Africa, and agreed working                               minimised.
                            principles for collaboration with
                            existing development projects
                            by Jul 2001

2.2 Water audits for        Analysis by Oct 2001 for            Project reports      Data readily made
selected watershed -        identified watersheds                                    available by government
(e.g. assessment of                                                                  and other organisations
supplies, demands,
trends etc)

2.3 Other baseline data     Analysis by Oct 2001 for            Project reports      Data readily made
collection and analysis     identified watersheds                                    available.
including secondary
(i.e. census data etc)
and primary data



                                                         48
(social, economic, bio-
physical)

2.4 Option selection        Workshops/ meetings/                   Project reports,        Individuals and
including participatory     consultations/ interviews to           including reports of    communities willing to
decision-making             identify agreed options by Nov         meetings                participate in research
                            2001, and piloting process


2.5 Piloting of             Implemented of new                     Project reports
interventions in            approaches underway by Mar
collaboration with          2002
RWSS/ watershed
projects

2.6 Monitoring of           Monitoring and study to Mar            Project reports
outcomes, and               2004
establishment of
sustainable monitoring
mechanisms beyond
project timescale

2.7 Validation of           2 workshops held in S Africa           Workshop reports        Invitees willing to attend
outcomes and piloting       and India by by Jan 2004                                       and participate activiely
process                                                                                    in workshops

3.0 Development of
planning tools and
guidelines

3.1 Consultations to a)     Demand assessed in India, S            Project inception
assess demand (needs,       Africa and 3 other identified          report
constraints,                target countries by Dec 2000
opportunities) for more
integrated approaches       Uptake pathways in India, S
and for planning tools/     Africa and 3 other target              Project inception
guidelines and, b) to       countries identified by Dec            report
identify possible uptake    2000
pathways

3.2 Draft planning tools/   Initial draft tools/ guidelines        Draft guidelines in
guidelines developed        developed by Nov 2001                  project reports and
by project team,                                                   website
through
multidisciplinary review
of best-practice

3.3 Preliminary             Draft outputs tested by Oct            Project reports and
elements of planning        2003                                   website
tools/ guidelines tested
in collaboration with on-
going RWSS/
watershed projects

3.4 Planning tools/         Tools/ guidelines modified             Updated guidelines in
guidelines modified by      throughout piloting phase              project reports and
project team                                                       website

3.5 Planning tools/         Workshops and consultations            Workshop                Invitees willing to attend
guidelines validated        held by Dec 2003                       proceedings             and participate actively



                                                              49
through workshops and                                                                 in workshops
consultations with
identified stakeholders

3.6 Planning tools/        Tools/ guidelines finalised by    Project reports
guidelines finalised in    Jan 2004                          Manual, targeted at
response to feedback                                         project implementing
                                                             agencies,
                                                             incorporating planning
                                                             tools and guidelines
                                                             Final project report

3.7 Planning tools/        Outputs disseminated by Mar       Final project report
guidelines                 2004 within S Africa, India and
disseminated and           other targeted countries using
promoted using             identified uptake pathways
identified uptake
pathways. These may
include presentations at
conferences and
distribution through
electronic media, to
influence policy and
practice

Inputs                     Performance budget

Personal emoluments        £ 227556
Capital costs                  3400
Other charges                267039
VAT                           87149
Total costs                  585145




                                                        50
   Appendix 6. Revised work plan, staff inputs and locations for
   project work
              PROJECT TITLE
              Integrating drinking water needs in watershed projects
              YEAR OF ACTIVITY (eg; 00/01)
              00/01




                           ACTIVITY                              A     M   J   J   A   S   O   N   D   J   F   M

1. Inception        activities,   and      continued   project
management
                                                                               
1.1 Initial project planning meeting

1.2 Stakeholder assessment and consultations                                                  

1.3 Inception workshop                                                                 

1.4 Progress meetings                                                                      

1.5 Regular progress reporting                                                                                

1.6 On-going project management and monitoring                                                         

2. Review and consultations to identify intervention
approaches
                                                                                                         
2.1 Literature search and review

2.2 Consultations                                                                                        

2.3 Workshops                                                                                                  

3. Pilot case-study fieldwork

3.1 Analysis and consultation to identify watersheds….                                                       

3.2 Water audits

3.3 Other baseline data collection and analysis

3.4 Option selection

3.5 Piloting of interventions

3.6 Monitoring of outcomes

3.7 Validation of outcomes and piloting process

4. Development of planning tools and guidelines

4.1 Consultations to assess demand and identify uptake                                        
pathways

4.2 Draft planning tools/ guidelines developed

4.3 Preliminary elements of planning tools tested

4.4 Planning tools/ guidelines modified

4.5 Planning tools/ guidelines validated through workshops

4.6 Planning tools/ guidelines finalised

4.7 Planning tools/ guidelines disseminated and promoted




                                                                 51
                   OVERSEAS TRAVEL                    DURATION (DAYS)


                                     A    M   J   J   A   S    O   N    D   J   F   M

By John Butterworth
To India                                          5       10       10
    South Africa                                  5
    Other target countries                                10       10
By Sabine Gündel
To India
    South Africa
By Jim Hancock
To India                                                  5
    South Africa
By Elizabeth Robinson
To India                                                  5
    South Africa                                                                    5
By Charles Batchelor
To India                                                  5
    South Africa
By John Soussan
To India                                                  5
    South Africa
By BK Kakade
To NRI, UK
    South Africa                                  5
By YV Malla Reddy
To NRI, UK
    South Africa
By AJ James
To NRI, UK
    South Africa
By Sharon Pollard
To NRI, UK
    India
By Kgopotso Mokgope
To NRI, UK
    India




                                     52
              PROJECT TITLE
              Integrating drinking water needs in watershed projects
              YEAR OF ACTIVITY (eg; 00/01)
              01/02




                           ACTIVITY                              A        M   J   J   A   S   O   N   D   J   F   M

1. Inception        activities,   and      continued   project
management

1.1 Initial project planning meeting

1.2 Stakeholder assessment and consultations

1.3 Inception workshop

1.4 Progress meetings

1.5 Regular progress reporting                                                                                   

1.6 On-going project management and monitoring                                                         

2. Review and consultations to identify intervention
approaches
                                                                         
2.1 Literature search and review

2.2 Consultations                                                        

2.3 Workshops                                                                        

3. Pilot case-study fieldwork

3.1 Analysis and consultation to identify watersheds….                         

3.2 Water audits                                                                        

3.3 Other baseline data collection and analysis                                         

3.4 Option selection                                                                           

3.5 Piloting of interventions                                                                                  

3.6 Monitoring of outcomes                                                                                     

3.7 Validation of outcomes and piloting process

4. Development of planning tools and guidelines

4.1 Consultations to assess demand and identify uptake
pathways

4.2 Draft planning tools/ guidelines developed                                                            

4.3 Preliminary elements of planning tools tested                                                              

4.4 Planning tools/ guidelines modified                                                                        

4.5 Planning tools/ guidelines validated through workshops

4.6 Planning tools/ guidelines finalised

4.7 Planning tools/ guidelines disseminated and promoted




                                                                     53
                OVERSEAS TRAVEL                      DURATION (DAYS)


                                  A    M    J    J   A    S   O    N   D    J    F   M

By John Butterworth
To India                               15                     15            10
    South Africa                            15       15                10
By Sabine Gündel
To India
    South Africa
By Jim Hancock
To India                               10   10
    South Africa                            10
By Elizabeth Robinson
To India                          5    10                              10
    South Africa                                     10
By Charles Batchelor
To India                               10
    South Africa                            10       5        5
By John Soussan
To India                               10                 5
    South Africa                                     5
By BK Kakade
To NRI, UK
    South Africa
By YV Malla Reddy
To NRI, UK                                                                           5
    South Africa                                     10
By AJ James
To NRI, UK                                                                           5
    South Africa                                     10
By Sharon Pollard
To NRI, UK
    India                              10
By Kgopotso Mokgope
To NRI, UK                                                                           5
    India                              10




                                  54
              PROJECT TITLE
              Integrating drinking water needs in watershed projects
              YEAR OF ACTIVITY (eg; 00/01)
              02/03




                           ACTIVITY                              A        M   J   J   A   S   O   N   D   J   F   M

1. Inception        activities,   and      continued   project
management

1.1 Initial project planning meeting

1.2 Stakeholder assessment and consultations

1.3 Inception workshop

1.4 Progress meetings

1.5 Regular progress reporting                                                                                   

1.6 On-going project management and monitoring                                                         

2. Review and consultations to identify intervention
approaches

2.1 Literature search and review

2.2 Consultations

2.3 Workshops

3. Pilot case-study fieldwork

3.1 Analysis and consultation to identify watersheds….

3.2 Water audits

3.3 Other baseline data collection and analysis

3.4 Option selection

3.5 Piloting of interventions                                                                          

3.6 Monitoring of outcomes                                                                             

3.7 Validation of outcomes and piloting process

4. Development of planning tools and guidelines

4.1 Consultations to assess demand and identify uptake
pathways

4.2 Draft planning tools/ guidelines developed

4.3 Preliminary elements of planning tools tested                                                      

4.4 Planning tools/ guidelines modified                                                                

4.5 Planning tools/ guidelines validated through workshops

4.6 Planning tools/ guidelines finalised

4.7 Planning tools/ guidelines disseminated and promoted




                                                                     55
                OVERSEAS TRAVEL                      DURATION (DAYS)


                                  A    M   J    J    A   S   O    N    D   J   F   M

By John Butterworth
To India                                   20                10                    5
    South Africa                                20                10
By Sabine Gündel
To India
    South Africa
By Jim Hancock
To India
    South Africa
By Elizabeth Robinson
To India                                   10
    South Africa                                10
By Charles Batchelor
To India                                   10                                      5
    South Africa                                10
By John Soussan
To India                                   10
    South Africa                                10
By BK Kakade
To NRI, UK
    South Africa
By YV Malla Reddy
To NRI, UK
    South Africa                                10
By AJ James
To NRI, UK
    South Africa                                10
By Sharon Pollard
To NRI, UK                                 10
    India                                                                          5
By Kgopotso Mokgope
To NRI, UK
    India                                  10                                      5




                                  56
              PROJECT TITLE
              Integrating drinking water needs in watershed projects
              YEAR OF ACTIVITY (eg; 00/01)
              03/04




                           ACTIVITY                              A        M   J   J   A   S   O   N   D   J   F   M

1. Inception        activities,   and      continued   project
management

1.1 Initial project planning meeting

1.2 Stakeholder assessment and consultations

1.3 Inception workshop

1.4 Progress meetings

1.5 Regular progress reporting                                                                                   

1.6 On-going project management and monitoring                                                         

2. Review and consultations to identify intervention
approaches

2.1 Literature search and review

2.2 Consultations

2.3 Workshops

3. Pilot case-study fieldwork

3.1 Analysis and consultation to identify watersheds….

3.2 Water audits

3.3 Other baseline data collection and analysis

3.4 Option selection

3.5 Piloting of interventions                                                                 

3.6 Monitoring of outcomes                                                                    

3.7 Validation of outcomes and piloting process                                                         

4. Development of planning tools and guidelines

4.1 Consultations to assess demand and identify uptake
pathways

4.2 Draft planning tools/ guidelines developed                                          

4.3 Preliminary elements of planning tools tested                                       

4.4 Planning tools/ guidelines modified                                                 

4.5 Planning tools/ guidelines validated through workshops                                           

4.6 Planning tools/ guidelines finalised                                                                  

4.7 Planning tools/ guidelines disseminated and promoted                                                         




                                                                     57
                OVERSEAS TRAVEL                      DURATION (DAYS)


                                  A    M   J    J    A   S   O    N    D    J    F   M

By John Butterworth
To India                                   20                     10             5
    South Africa                                20                     10   10       5
By Sabine Gündel
To India
    South Africa
By Jim Hancock
To India                                                          5
    South Africa                                                       5
By Elizabeth Robinson
To India                                   10                     5
    South Africa                                10                     5
By Charles Batchelor
To India                                   10                                    5
    South Africa                                10
By John Soussan
To India                                   10
    South Africa                                10                                   5
By BK Kakade
To NRI, UK
    South Africa
By YV Malla Reddy
To NRI, UK
    South Africa                                                            10
By AJ James
To NRI, UK
    South Africa                                                            10
By Sharon Pollard
To NRI, UK
    India
By Kgopotso Mokgope
To NRI, UK
    India                                  10




                                  58
                     Water, Households and Rural Livelihoods (WHIRL): Promoting
                   access of the poor to sustainable water supplies for domestic and
                               productive uses in areas of water scarcity

                              A joint Indian, South African and UK research project

                  Improved access to water supply and sanitation (WSS) is amongst the most
                  pressing needs of poor people in all developing countries. Domestic water
                  supplies and environmental sanitation contribute to livelihoods in a wide range of
                  ways. They are crucial to health and well-being, and can make an important
                  contribution to food production and income generating activities. The
                  management of WSS systems also has important effects on the ecosystems that
                  support livelihoods.

                  As demand for water rises due to increasing populations, expansion of irrigated
                  areas, and industrial development, many parts of the developing world face
                  increasing water scarcity. Continued reliance upon the traditional approaches to
                  water resources development – such as construction of dams and exploitation of
                  new aquifers to increase supply – is often no longer an option. Demand
                  management and improved allocation of existing resources is increasingly
                  recognised as a more sustainable strategy.

                  Integrated Water Resources Management
                  The need for a new approach is reflected in the increasing adoption of Integrated
                  Water Resources Management (IWRM) principles as a guiding framework.
                  IWRM embraces the integrated management of land and all aspects of the water
                  cycle for the sustainable benefit of humans and the environment. In Vision 21 the
                  water and sanitation community signaled acceptance of the IWRM paradigm
                  while asserting that access to an essential minimum (quantity and quality) is a
                  fundamental right. As competing uses of water reduce the availability or quality of
                  resources, and raise the cost of future provision of water services, it is
                  increasingly important that the WSS sector play a more active role in IWRM.
Water Resources
Management Ltd
                  The project          India – key focus issues include:

                  The project will     1. Groundwater management – impacts on drinking water

RDT               identify, assess
                  and        promote
                                          supplies of overexploitation of aquifers for irrigation
                                       2. Watershed development potential:
                                             to augment groundwater recharge
                  innovative
                                             to increase water demands for irrigated cropping

BAIF
                  institutional and          for improved human and social capital to address
                  operational                 water allocation issues.
                                       3. Economics - costs and benefits of alternative approaches
                  strategies      to
                                          to overcome water shortages
                  increase      WSS    4. Legislation, regulation and policy relating to IWRM
                  involvement     in      objectives.
                  IWRM.
Action research is being carried out by NGOs and partner organisations in
India and South Africa. There are interesting complementarities and
differences between
                          South Africa – key focus issues include:
these countries in
relation to addressing    1. Challenges in building efficient institutions
                              Catchment Management Agencies to
IWRM. The project               manage water resources
will promote the               Water Service Providers to develop and
sharing of                      manage water and sanitation services
                          2. Catchment management & WSS
experiences and
                                 impact of ICM projects on WSS services
approaches to                 WSS as an entry point for ICM.
stimulate new             3. Promoting productive activities
thinking and to                  domestic water supplies for small-scale
                                  economic activities (garden irrigation,
develop in-country                construction, livestock etc.)
research capacity.
South-south collaboration in the research will be a key component, and will
be facilitated through regular study visits, exchanges and workshops.


The development of partnerships with projects and institutions able to utilise      Making contact:
the research findings, pilot innovative approaches and replicate successful
                                                                                    United Kingdom
impacts, is a key feature. In India, the project will work mainly in Andhra
Pradesh in collaboration with on-going participatory watershed development          John Butterworth
                                                                                    Natural Resources Institute
 Partnerships                                          and WSS projects. In         University of Greenwich Kent,
                                                                                    UK
                                                       Northern Province,           j.a.butterworth@gre.ac.uk
 Partnerships have been established with:
                                                       South Africa, it will work
    ‘Save-the-Sand’ Project (SSP) – A pilot ICM/                                   India
     Landcare project in the Sand River Catchment,     with integrated
     Northern Province, South Africa                                                Y.V. Malla Reddy
                                                       catchment management         RDT
    Andhra Pradesh Rural Livelihoods Project                                       Anantapur
     (APRLP) - A watershed development project in      (ICM) and rural
                                                                                    Andhra Pradesh
     southern Andhra Pradesh, India                    development projects.
    Water and Sanitation Programme South Asia                                      BK Kakade
                                                       As well as the action        BAIF Development Research
     (WSP-SA) supporting WSS projects in Andhra
                                                                                    Foundation
     Pradesh, India                                    research in these            Pune mdmtc@pn2.vsnl.net.in
    IRC International Water and Sanitation            locations, the project
     Centre’s water supply innovation project                                       South Africa
 The project team would also like to hear from other
                                                       will give priority to
 organisations or individuals interested in the        identifying elements         Sharon Pollard
 research findings, or researchers addressing                                       Association for Water and Rural
 similar issues.                                       that are replicable          Development (AWARD)
                                                                                    Acornhoek
                                                       elsewhere and will seek      sharon@award.org.za
                                                       to form alliances and
promote dissemination in other countries and regions.                               This project is supported by the
                                                                                    UK Department for International
Sharing project findings                                                            Development (DFID) through
The project will produce papers, guidelines, training and advocacy                  the Infrastructure and Urban
                                                                                    Development             Division’s
materials, to improve integration of WSS issues within programmes                   Knowledge       and     Research
                                                                                    programme. Project R7804
incorporating IWRM principles. These will also be disseminated on-line              ‘Integrating    drinking    water
http://www.nri.org/WSS-IWRM                                                         needs in watershed projects’.

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:21
posted:8/12/2011
language:English
pages:64
Description: Research Projects on Private Labels in India document sample