Research Proposal in Information Technology by wsq14662

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									Writing a Research
Proposal
    Dr Heidi Probst
Aims of this presentation
    What is a research proposal?
    Why do you write research proposals?
    Who are the likely audiences for your research
     proposals?
    How will different audiences influence the
     presentation of the proposal?
    What features make a good and bad research
     proposal?
    How can you optimise the impact of your
     proposal?
By the end of this presentation
you will...
   Have an understanding of the format of a
    research proposal
   Be aware of the attributes that make a good
    quality research proposal
   Be aware of the different requirements for
    different audiences of research proposals
   Have considered the factors that will increase
    the quality of your own final proposal and its
    ability to gain favourable approval at various
    committees who will need to look at and
    approve your proposal.
Guidance Notes
 Audit is a project which seeks to measure
  existing practice against evidence based
  standards.
 A Project is service evaluation if it seeks to
  establish existing practice or the views of users
  and staff, where the findings may not be
  universally applicable.
 A project is research if it seeks to establish
  new knowledge and its findings may be
  generalised.
Guidance Notes
    A research project requires ethical approval if it takes
     place on NHS property or uses NHS facilities or
     involves;
    Patients, users, relatives or carers
    Data of past or present patients
    Organs or other bodily materials of past and present
     pts
    Foetal material and IVF
    The recently dead
    NHS staff recruited by virtue of their professional
     role.
About research proposals...
  Why write one?
  Who are the likely audiences?
Why write a research
proposal?
  To act as a ‘map’ to guide your research
  To ensure that you have a researchable question and
   appropriate methodology to address that question
  A statement of the purpose and plan of the research
   project
  Details how the study is to be carried out
  Incorporates any practical and ethical issues which
   need to be addressed
  To ensure that you have taken account of the
   resource requirements to undertake your research
  Accountability… funding… governance…
  To inform other stakeholders of your intentions
The Types of Proposal
  A proposal for a quantitative or
   qualitative or mixed methods
   investigation
  A proposal for an extended review of
   the literature or systematic review.
   The headings used will be dependent
   on the type of proposal that is
   undertaken.
Who is your audience?
   You
   Your supervisor
   Funding bodies
   Research committees                      What are they looking for?
   Research governance
    committees including ISR
    (what is this? click here to find out)
   Managers
   The ‘researched’ (ie your
    ‘subjects’)
     ISR- What are they looking for
     from my proposal?
     Primarily they are reviewing the scientific quality of the work.
1.    Has an area/problem/issue been identified?
2.    Is it significant?
3.    Is there a gap in current literature? Is the review
      extensive/informative/clear?
4.    What is the aim of the project? Does the research question
      follow? Is it clear, doable?
5.    Has the project been well planned? Is the design
      appropriate? Has reliability/validity/trustworthiness been
      considered?
6.    Has researcher bias been considered?
7.    Is the timescale well considered and practical?
8.    Has the funding for the project be adequately
      considered.Etc…
ISR- What are they looking for
from my proposal?
 9.  Does the researcher or project team have
     the appropriate qualifications to undertake
     the work?
 10. Does the researcher have the appropriate
     access to subjects?
 11. Are the information sheet/consent forms
     appropriate?
 12. Has data analysis been adequately
     considered?
What are the Ethics
Committee Looking for?
    How are participants to be recruited?
    How will safety of participants be assured?
    Is the design culturally sensitive?
    Are there opportunities for equality in recruitment?
    Confidentiality, anonymity
    Data protection
    User Involvement? This is crucial and it is worth
     considering user perspectives in the design stage as
     well as having user representation on the project
     team.
Funders- what do they look
for?
    Value for money- can your project produce
     results efficiently.
    Is the research topical and relevant within the
     current NHS/social care environment- political
     context? Does it fit with national research
     priorities? Mention the research priorities that
     fit with your project.
    Is it designed well? Scientific quality.
    Potential for follow on projects?
    What impact will the research have? Does it
     have the potential to change practice?
     Improve outcomes?
Funders- what do they look for?
contd


    Think about mentioning professional
     research priorities the SCoR have a list
     of current research priorities look at
     these and identify how your study fits
     with those listed.
    Also consider DoH research priorities,
     how does your proposed study fit with
     these national priorities.
What makes a good research
proposal?
 Sticking to the ‘rules’ eg guidelines for presentation etc
 Importance of the research / justification
 Demonstrated ability to do the work
 Robustness of the research methods
 Quality of presentation – typos / formatting etc
 Innovation
 Well organised proposal that is simple, and logical
 Research team have evidence of a good track record
 The budget is reasonable, believable and justified, with
  rational arguments for including consumables, equipment
  and other items
Be creative

  Think of a good idea
  Make the reader think "why didn't I
   think of that"
  Good proposals are often simple
   proposals!
WRITE.... NOW...
    Proposals take time
    Writing organises your thoughts
    Assume your audience know nothing of your
     field
    Know where your audience are coming from
    Avoid writing with 'attitude‘
    Avoid writing in the first person
    Remember you are proposing an idea- it
     shouldn’t come across as though you have
     already completed the work.
What are the common sections of
a Proposal?
 Title
 Summary
 Aims
 Research Questions
 End Points
 Significance of the research
 Background
 Method (clear here for sub sections)
 Timeline (Gantt Chart)
 Project Management
 Dissemination strategy
 Ethics and Research Governance
 Costs
 References
Title
   A simple statement which describes the
    study, should be confined to one
    sentence, try to include the aim of the
    study and the outcomes.
   Hint – Leave the title till last, it will be
    easier to formulate a concise statement
    when you have written your aims.
1.0 Summary
This study examines job turnover (Intentions to Leave) in the radiation therapy
Summary
workforce. High vacancy rates and an unsatisfied workforce significantly limit
the access of cancer patients to appropriate care that has deleterious effects on
health outcomes through delays in treatment. This study will address this
        This is a bit like an abstract for an
significant problem through a longitudinal prospective investigation of the
      
impact of workload, task complexity and unmet career expectations on
          article The study will initially draw on the model for the
Intentions to Leave. and helps to summarise proposed by
Janssen et al [1], that job turnover intention is highly correlated with emotional
          reader the purpose In addition the study and the
exhaustion and unmet career expectations. of the study will extend the
        possible outcomes.
knowledge base on workforce planning in this profession through the
development of a rigorous workload measurement instrument that can be
utilised The next slide gives an example of a
         internationally.

        summary
The study aims to develop a tool for measuring radiation therapists’ activity,
based on a validated method for measuring Linear Accelerator productivity
(Basic Treatment Equivalent, BTE). This tool will be used to investigate the
impact of task complexity and work overload on therapists’ intention to leave.
What is the purpose of the
background section?
   Who will benefit?
   What is the context of the investigation?
    Service/political
   Why do you want to investigate it?
   What is the value of the investigation?
   What has already been published?
   Critical review of the published literature
   How will your study build on published
    literature? And why are you best placed to
    undertake the work.
Example Aims

Aims identify the factors that influence Radiation
1. To
Therapists intention to leave their current post or leave
the profession, investigating the factors behind the
    Need to be clear, doable, specific.
differences in vacancy levels between 2 NHS regions
   Move from the next slide to see an
(identifiedon tothe DoH 2002/2003 statistics[2] as one
     example of some project aims.
of the best and one of the worst regions in terms of
vacancy rates).
2. To determine the characteristics of the work
environment and conditions of service that can be
changed to enhance therapists work satisfaction, and
reduce turnover.
The Research Question
  Probably the most difficult part of the
   research design.
  You have to conceptualise the area
   under study and formalise into words
   the exact question under study.
  For each aim you have identified there
   should be 1 or 2 research questions
   that are clearly linked.
Example Research Questions
   What aspects of a radiation therapist’s work are the most
    influential in causing a person to leave their job?
   What aspects of radiation therapy contribute to therapists work
    motivation?


Try to ensure your research questions reflect the complexity of the
  topic area. For example, a question with a simple yes /no answer
  in a qualitative study will not reflect the complex interplay of
  issues that surround human behaviour or human interaction.
Method
    Things to consider
    What design will be adopted, you need to have a clear well
     argued rationale for choosing this approach with reference to
     relevant research texts or previous research.
      Will subjects be Randomised if not explain why or limitations
    If the study is a qualitative study what sampling approach is to
     be used and why?
     Inclusion/exclusion criteria for subjects
     How will subjects be referred
     Non-conformance- how will you deal with cases that don’t
     conform to the prescribed intervention or protocol.
  Where you can, support your approach with evidence from the
   literature
Data Collection and Analysis
  Consider in detail how the data will be
   collected, who is best placed to collect
   data? Will they produce bias in
   recording data? What if they are off?
   Who will stand in?
  In what format should data be
   recorded?
Data Analysis
    It is vital that you consider at the outset what type of
     analysis you would like to undertake, failure to do so
     could mean you record the data in an inappropriate
     form.
    For qualitative studies describe the method of
     analysis and make sure it fits with any philosophical
     perspectives described earlier.
    Hint- try analysing some data in the expected form,
     set up a data base so you are clear how you need
     the data to be recorded, and try a statistical test,
     have you got the right level of data?
Ethical considerations
     You need to consider two factors…
 1.   The ethical implications of your
      research – ie how will it impact on
      your participants?
 2.   The processes of research governance
      and ethical approval that you need to
      comply with – ie which committees do
      you need to go through
Ethical Considerations
  What might be the ethical implications
   of your study?
  How will you protect participant’s
   confidentiality?
  Who will benefit from your study?
Ethical Considerations
    Any research involving patients,
     questioning hospital staff, or use of
     hospital property will require ethical
     approval by the local research ethics
     committee.
Risk Assessment
  Will any of your subjects suffer any detriment
   as a result of inclusion or exclusion in your
   study?
  Consider inequality between researcher and
   participant, will potential participants perceive
   pressure to participate?
  Consider unanticipated consequences of the
   results, they may be politically sensitive.
Informed Consent
  Consider Informed Consent
  What is informed?
  Usually written consent form is required
  Usually contains a number of
   statements for participants to agree to.
  Informed consent is a process that
   involves good quality information
Time line
  Identify ALL time issues...
  Consider how time is to be
   allocated,
  Gantt charts click here
  Allow 2 – 3 months to prepare
   and clear all ethics and
   governance processes.
Research Personnel

  Who will do the work?
  When will they do the work?
  Other support – statistics,
   administration
Other costs

  Transcribing
  Transport
  Administration
  Tapes
  Technology
  Software costs
Budget

  Should be a logical progression from
   your time and resource input.
  Are there alternative forms of funding?
  Make sure your project will fit your
   budget.
Identified target audiences:
•
Dissemination of the results
      The Board of the College of Radiographers (CoR) and the Council for the Society of
Radiographers (SoR).
• Council for Clinical Oncology at the Royal College of Radiologists (RCR).
• Hospital Trust managers (including Human resources managers).
• Clinical Oncologists.
         Who cares?
• Radiation Therapists.

       makers within the they know
• Policy How will Department of Health. about the results.
• Workforce confederations.
       Think about the audiences that need to
• Users or carers

          know the results and the best way to
Dissemination

          inform them.
Publication of the studies findings within peer-reviewed National and International journals
(including Radiography and Health Service Research and Policy sources) will be an important facet
of the dissemination of findings to Clinical Oncologists, Radiographers, Health Service policy
makers and Radiation Therapists.
Meetings with the CoR/SoR Board and Council, Council for Clinical Oncology at the RCR, and
Workforce Confederations to present the findings should ensure relevant decision-makers are aware
of the research.
References
  Choose style according to the rules for
   the relevant committee, funding bodies
   may stipulate in their rules which
   referencing type you should use.
  Accurate, up to date, relevant, don’t
   miss any out of your reference list.
Formatting

  Comply with style requirements
  Be professional in your presentation
  Use a spell checker
  Get someone to look over your work
   before you submit.
A Proposal for a Systematic
Review of the Literature
     How does this differ from a primary project
      proposal?


 1.   Headings are slightly different
 2.   Within the method need to identify a clear
      search strategy.
 3.   Ethical considerations are about researcher
      bias.
Final Reminder… What makes
proposals uncompetitive or weak?

   Project aims are unclear
   Poorly defined research question
   A lack of innovation
   The design is flawed
   The project is unlikely to lead to the stated outcomes
   The project has a ‘so what’ factor, for example it may
    not lead to any changes or improvements in patient
    care or there may be no societal benefit apparent
    from the proposed outcomes.
   Timeframe and milestones are unachievable

								
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