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					  VMware 101
         Ken Stewart
Director of Technical Services
           InterTech
   Disclaimer
This session may contain product features that are
currently under development.

This session/overview of the new technology represents
no commitment from VMware to deliver these features in
any generally available product.

Features are subject to change, and must not be included in
contracts, purchase orders, or sales agreements of any kind.

Technical feasibility and market demand will affect final delivery.

Pricing and packaging for any new technologies or features
discussed or presented have not been determined.
“These features are representative of feature areas under development. Feature commitments are
subject to change, and must not be included in contracts, purchase orders, or sales agreements of
any kind. Technical feasibility and market demand will affect final delivery.”




                                               2
    Who am I?
Ken Stewart, Director of Technical Services, InterTech

•VMware Certified Professional
•    Capacity Planner, Site Recovery Manager, Virtual Infrastructure
•HP Master Accredited Systems Engineer
•    SAN Architect, BladeSystems, Proliant Servers, ProCurve Networking
•IBM Certified Specialist
•    BladeCenter, System x High Performance Servers, Storage Systems
•Cisco Certified Voice Professional




                                    3
InterTech Services

  VMware Enterprise VIP Partner
  Cisco Premier Partner – Voice and Wireless Specialized
  Dell Premier Partner - PowerEdge Servers, Equallogic, Storage
  HP Elite Partner - Proliant Servers, BladeSystems, ProCurve, MSA & EVA SANs
  IBM Premier Partner - xSeries Servers, BladeCenters, Storage
  Microsoft Gold Partner
  Network Services - Infrastructure, Security, VoIP , Wireless
  Managed Service Provider - 7X24 NOC, Help Desk, Hosting
  Authorized Warranty Service Provider -          Dell, HP, IBM, Lenovo, Xerox

  Licensed Low Voltage Contractor



                                    4
Session Agenda

 Selecting a Virtualization Platform
 VMware ESXi Overview
 Virtual Infrastructure Design Considerations
   ESX Server hosts
   Networking
   Storage
   Software Configuration
 VirtualCenter and Collaborative Services
 Virtual Machine Protection




                              5
Selecting a Virtualization Platform
   Framework for virtualization evaluation


Five Core, Required Elements




Robust       True         Complete         Support for      Proven and
Reliable     Dynamic IT   Virtualization   Entire IT        Trusted
Foundation   Services     Management       Infrastructure   Platform




    Reliable, Comprehensive, Cost-effective Solutions




                                 7
  Customers Count on                      Most Reliable
                                          Foundation
  VMware ESX Reliability

VMware ESX: #1 in Reliability
Large pharmaceutical customer: Over
four years of VMware ESX uptime!




  Companies Trust Their Production Servers
  to Run on VMware



                                      8
                                                          Most Reliable
Architectures Matter
Matter                                                    Foundation




      Virtual       Virtual      Virtual
     Machine       Machine      Machine

     Drivers       Drivers      Drivers



                   Drivers
        ESXi                                          Hyper-V / Xen




VMware Architecture                              Microsoft / Xen Architecture
 •       True thin hypervisor: 32MB               •   2-10GB footprint
 •       No general-purpose OS                    •   General purpose management OS
 •       Direct driver model = I/O scaling        •   Indirect driver model
 •       Drivers optimized for VMs                •   Generic drivers in mgmt partition
 •       Special treatment for drivers            •   I/O bottlenecks




                                             9
                                Most Reliable
Size Does Matter                Foundation




VMware             Windows 2008
ESXi                  Citrix XenServer v4
32 MB              Server Core with
                     1.8 GB
                   Hyper-V RTM

                   2.6 GB


                        10
Risk from Generic Windows            Most Reliable
                                     Foundation
Drivers




                     “In a nutshell, one of Hyper-V's advertised
                     strengths -- the host partition's ability to
                     work with generic Windows device drivers
                     -- is also its greatest weakness. That's
                     because the quality level of Windows
                     device drivers, especially those from
                     third-party developers, is notoriously
                     inconsistent.”




                     11
  Generic Windows Drivers:           Most Reliable
                                     Foundation
  Root Cause of 70% of Crashes
         Slide from TechEd 2006 Mark Russinovich




!!!




                          12
       Virtualization is More than                                                                    True Dynamic
                                                                                                      IT Services
       Just Running VMs
               True Dynamic IT Services
                Core Business Services



Required for       Downtime/      Business     Image      Disaster     Storage   Software       Lab
                   Availability   Continuity Management   Recovery   Management Maintenance Self-Service
a Dynamic
Datacenter

                    Resource   Hardware Live Mobility        VM     Authentication Security     Virtual
                   Management Maintenance                 Lifecycle Authorization              Desktop




               Virtual Infrastructure


               Hypervisor




                                                             13
    Live Migration is a Critical                                        True Dynamic
                                                                        IT Services
    Service for Dynamic IT



                                  Virtual machine          Downtime per month       Downtime per year
Suspend / Resume                      memory
                                      512 MB                    8 seconds                1.6 minutes
Migration Doesn’t                       1 GB
                                        2 GB
                                                                   16 s
                                                                   32 s
                                                                                            3.2 m
                                                                                            6.4 m
Cut It for Dynamic IT                   4 GB
                                        8 GB
                                                            1 minute 4 seconds
                                                                  2.1 m
                                                                                           12.8 m
                                                                                           25.6 m
                                       16 GB                      4.2 m                    51.2 m
                                       32 GB                      8.4 m                   1.7 hours


Network connections         V             V
                                              GC

                                                    V              V       V       V              V       V      V
                            M             M         M              M       M       M              M       M      M
break!                      1             2         2’             3       1       2              1’      2’     3

                                Virtual                  Virtual               Virtual                 Virtual
                                Server                   Server                Server                  Server
Users are affected!                                                                          HC



                                                                                                  36




                                 14
File Systems Matter                     True Dynamic
                                        IT Services




Built-In VMFS Cluster
File System
  Simplifies VM
  provisioning
  Enables independent
  VMotion and HA restart
  of VMs in common LUN
  File-level locking
  protects virtual disks
  Separates VM and
  storage administration
  Use RDMs for access to        VMFS Datastore
  SAN features

                           15
                                               True Dynamic
File Systems Matter                            IT Services




Cluster Services an
inadequate
substitute
  All VMs on a LUN
  migrate/failover
  together
  Must provision one
  VM per LUN for VM
  independence
  Storage
  administration
  burden as VM count
  grows                    All one Storage must move together
                        Many VMs = LUN/VM management nightmare
                       RequiresVMs on a LUNfor independent mobility



                            16
     MSFT Claim: Better Management                                                 Complete
                                                                                   Virtualization
     Reality: Incomplete Solution                                                  Management


                                                                               VMware           Competitor’s
                                                                               vCenter            Offering
                 Basic VM management                                                                
                 Basic patch management                                                             
  Basic
  Offering       Performance monitoring                                                             
                 Backup                                                                             
                                                                           Integrates w/ IBM,
                 Manage physical servers
                                                                            HP, CA, BMC, …           
                 Zero-app downtime maintenance                                                     
                 Dynamic load balancing                                                            

Additional       Zero-app downtime + offline VM patching                                           
Required         Self-service provisioning, image library mgmt of multi-
                 tier environments                                                                 
Components
                 VM lifecycle mgmt with track-and-control                                          
                 Staging of multi-tier environments for production
                 deployment                                                                        

                 BC / DR workflow & automation                                                     




                                              17
Management Ecosystem for                            Complete
                                                    Virtualization
VMware Infrastructure                               Management



  Dozens of Management Partners, including:




Open VMware interfaces and developer resources
support deep management tool integrations
  VI SDK & API, VI Toolkits, Remote CLI, SNMP, CIM APIs, OVF, VMI,
  VMDK, VDDK, Community Source Program, Guest SDK, VMCI SDK
Use the best-of-breed management tools of your choice


                               18
     Single Platform to Support                                                                             Complete IT
                                                                                                            Infrastructure
     the Entire IT Infrastructure                                                                           Support




VMware Infrastructure                                     Multiple Silos
    Windows VMs


                  Linux VMs


                              Oracle DB


                                          Citrix Server




                                                             Windows VMs




                                                                             Linux VMs




                                                                                           Oracle Apps/DB




                                                                                                                     Server
                                                                                                                     Presentation
                                                           MSFT                          Oracle                    Citrix
                                                                           Xen
                                                           Hyper-V                       VM                        XenSrvr



                                                                 Clear example of Windows bias: 4-way
                                                                 vSMP only for Win2008 guests

  Do you want one solution for the entire infrastructure? Or Four?


                                                                    19
Most Comprehensive                                                                      Complete IT
                                                                                        Infrastructure

OS Support                                                                              Support




       VMware Runs the Widest Selection of
        Operating Systems You Depend On
           Source: “Virtualization Licensing and Support Lethargy: Curing the Disease
           That Stalls Virtualization Adoption”, Burton Group, Jan 2008

                                       20
Most Comprehensive                                                                         Complete IT
                                                                                           Infrastructure
Application Support                                                                        Support




VMware Runs the Widest Selection of Apps You Depend On

              Source: “Virtualization Licensing and Support Lethargy: Curing the Disease
              That Stalls Virtualization Adoption”, Burton Group, Jan 2008

                                          21
VMware ESX 3.5                                                                                          Complete IT
                                                                                                        Infrastructure
Guest OS Support                                                                                        Support




                                                                                  RHEL5
                                                                                  RHEL4
                                                                                  RHEL3
                                                                                  RHEL2.1
                                                                                  SLES10
                                                                                  SLES9
                                                                                  SLES8
                                                                                  Ubuntu 7.04
                                                                                  Windows NT 4.0
                                                                                  Windows 2000
                                                                                  Windows Server 2003
                                                                                  Windows Server 2008
                                                                                  Windows Vista
                                                                                  Windows XP
                                                                                  Solaris 10 for x86
                                                                                  NetWare 6.5
                                                                                  NetWare 6.0
                                                                                  NetWare 6.1
http://www.microsoft.com/windowsserver2008/en/us/hyperv-supported-guest-os.aspx




                                                                                   22
MS Hyper-V Guest                                                                                  Complete IT
                                                                                                  Infrastructure
                                                                                                  Support
OS Support



                                                            Win Server 2008 (up to 4P vSMP)
                                                            Win Server 2003 SP2 (up to 2P vSMP)
                                                            Win Server 2000 SP4 (1P only)
                                                            SLES10 (1P only)
                                                            Windows Vista SP1
                                                            Windows XP Pro SP2/SP3




http://www.microsoft.com/windowsserver2008/en/us/hyperv-supported-guest-os.aspx




                                                                23
Proven Solution, Unrivaled                                             Most Proven,
                                                                       Trusted Platform
Customer Success
120,000+ VMware customers
  100% of Fortune 100
  92% of Fortune 1000

85% use VMware in production

54% VMware as the default application platform

59% use live migration
in production


                                    The World’s Most Successful
                                    Companies Run VMware
                                    (hundreds of customer stories on
                                    www.vmware.com)




                               24
           Lowest Cost per VM
                                          VMware VI3   VMware VI3   Microsoft     Citrix     Other “free”
                                          Foundation   Enterprise   Hyper-V     XenServer     Xen based
                                                                                Enterprise
 Hardware: 2P server with
 16GB RAM
                                           $7,000       $7,000       $7,000      $7,000        $7,000

 Guest OS: 2P Windows
 Server 2008 Datacenter                    $5,942       $5,942       $5,942      $5,942        $5,942
 Edition without Hyper-V

 2P Virtualization License                  $995        $5,750         $0        $2,600          $0

 Subtotal                                  $13,937      $18,692     $12,942     $15,542       $12,942

 Total VMs1 (2GB each)                       16           16           8            8             8

 Price per VM                               $871        $1,168       $1,618      $1,943        $1,618
                                                        plus …
                          VI3 Enterprise includes VMotion, Storage VMotion,
                          HA, DRS, VCB, DPM, Update Manager


1 Assumes a 2:1 memory overcommit ratio
                                                           25
VI3 Enterprise: Deploying
Dynamic, On-demand Datacenters                                                     Cost to deploy 1000 VMs
                                                                                                 Necessary add-ons make others
                                                           Other                                    more expensive, yet they still
                                                           Hypervisors                              don’t match VI3 functionality
                                          VMware ESX /                                                                    Other
Basic Single Server Partitioning         ESXi 3.5            1st generation
                                                               hypervisor
                                                                                                                          Hypervisors
High Availability                                              Requires cluster        $1,677,092
(failover individual VMs)                VI3 HA              upgrade/3rd-party
                                                               add-on                 (with 2 yrs support)
                                                                                                                          $1,722,748
                                                                                                                          (with 2 yrs support)
                                                               Not available,                                                $100,500 cluster
Memory Overcommit                         VMware ESX /
(higher VM density per host)             ESXi 3.5         x   more RAM req’d
                                                                                               $7,318
                                                                                              vCenter
                                                                                                                             FS/HA add-ons
                                                                                                                             $88,149 management
                                                                                                                             server/agent licenses
Ultra-thin virtualization footprint       VMware ESXi          Full OS in mgmt
(better reliability, security)           3.5, 32MB        x   partition, ~2GB               $564,475
                                                                                                                             $174,200 hypervisor
                                                                                                                             licenses
                                                                                     67 VI3 Enterprise
                                          Update
Patching of Offline VMs                  Manager          x   Not available                                                 $602,799
                                                                                                                             67 Windows Server
                                                                                                                             Datacenter Ed.
                                                               Requires 3rd-
Clustered FS (enables VM mobility
independent of LUN mapping)              VMFS                party add-on                 $602,799
                                                                                   67 Windows Server
                                                               Some suspend            Datacenter Ed.
Live VM Migration                        VI3 Enterprise      VMs when
                                                               moved
                                                                                                                             $757,100
                                                                                                                             67 Servers
                                                                                                                             (32GB RAM each)
                                                                                           $502,500
Live VM Storage Migration                VI3 Enterprise   x   Not available
                                                                                          67 Servers
                                                                                    (16GB RAM each)

Zero VM Downtime Host Patching           VI3 Enterprise   x   Not available
                                                                                     VMware VI3                            Other
Dynamic Load Balancing                   VI3 Enterprise   x   Not available          Enterprise                           Hypervisors
                                                                                   Host = 2P Quad-core, 16 or 32 GBs physical RAM (1 GB physical
Complete Virtual Infrastructure                                Extra cost mgmt
                                                          
                                          VI3 Enterprise                           RAM allocated for virtualization software per host). Each VM
                                                               agents & servers
Management                                + VCMS                                   provisioned with 2.0 GB RAM. VMware solution using memory
                                                               required
                                                                     26            overcommit technology at 2:1 ratio.
   VMware – The Best Platform
   for Your Applications

The VMware Advantage




Robust       True         Complete         Support for      Proven and
Reliable     Dynamic IT   Virtualization   Entire IT        Trusted
Foundation   Services     Management       Infrastructure   Platform




    Reliable, Comprehensive, Cost-effective Solutions




                                 27
VMware ESXi Overview
VMware Technology Overview

                    New Model:
                    Virtualization Technology
                    Separation of OS and hardware
                    Encapsulation of OS and
                    application into VMs
   VMware ESXi      Isolation
                    Hardware independence
                    Flexibility




                    29
VMware ESXi Overview
    Next generation of VMware’s market-leading ESX hypervisor

                              Partitions a server into virtual
                              machines
Virtual Machines
                                 Reduces hardware, power, and cooling
                                 with the performance and features of ESX
                              Plug-and-Play
                                 Minimal configuration. Run VMs in minutes
                              OS-Independent, thin architecture
 VMware ESXi                     Unparalleled security and reliability
                              Full-featured
                                 Superior consolidation and scalability
                                 Easy to mange with remote tools
                                 Simple license upgrade to VI3 Enterprise




                               30
 Installing VMware ESXi

VMware ESXi Embedded                       VMware ESXi Installable
  Installed via SD flash or USB key          Load Installer via CD or ISO
  internal to the server                     image
  Distributed with a new server              Simple 2-step procedure:
  No Installation -- Just Turn It On!        1.   Accept EULA
                                             2.   Select local drive for installation




                                      31
VMware ESXi vs VMware Infrastructure
                                        VMware Infrastructure
VMware ESXi
                                           Pools of computing resources
    Single server partitioning
                                           Built-in automation, availability and
    Production-class hypervisor             manageability
    Advanced server resource               Three bundles, all inclusive of ESXi,
    management                              starting at $995
    FREE

                                                  VMware Infrastructure
                                                 Centralized Management
                                       Dynamic Resource Scheduling and Power Mgmt
                                         High Availability and Consolidated Backup
                                               VMotion and Storage VMotion
  VMware ESXi                          VMware ESXi    VMware ESXi    VMware ESXi



The hypervisor is to Virtual Infrastructure what the engine is to a car, or the
    BIOS to a PC – an enabling component but not the whole solution.



                                      32
Virtual Infrastructure Design
       Considerations
Typical VMware Infrastructure Deployments
                             VI Enterprise
VI Foundation
                               VMotion & Storage VMotion
  Central management
                               Resource pooling
  Patch management
                               High availability
  Consolidated Backup




                                VirtualCenter
                                    Server
    VirtualCenter
        Server




                        34
VI3 Foundation: Additional Features

Additional Management Features
  Virtual Machine Templates
    Create “golden image” for rapid, standardized deployment
  Virtual Machine Cloning
    Create exact copy of virtual machine for testing, debugging, etc.
  Alarms and Alerts
    Get notified of resource shortage and other issues
  Cold Migration of virtual machines between ESX hosts
    Enables flexibility for hardware maintenance, etc
  Fine-grained roles and permissions
    Allows for delegated administration
  Active Directory based authentication
    Unified with existing user directory


                                  35
    Virtual Infrastructure
    VMware Product Portfolio
             Desktop                                                                           Datacenter
        Apps & Infrastructure Mgmt                                               Apps & Infrastructure Mgmt
   ACE Management Server               ThinApp                             Application Performance Mgmt      Site Recovery Manager
   Application Performance Mgmt        Update Manager                      Capacity Planner                  Stage Manager
   Consolidated Backup                 Virtual Desktop Manager             Consolidated Backup               Update Manager
   Converter                           VirtualCenter                       Converter                         VI Toolkit
   Site Recovery Manager for           Workstation                         Lab Manager                       VirtualCenter
    Virtual Desktop Infrastructure                                           Lifecycle Manager




             Desktop Infrastructure                                                  Datacenter Infrastructure
 ACE                                 Virtual Desktop                     Distributed Power                 Storage VMotion
 Fusion                               Infrastructure                       Management                        Virtual Machine File
 Player                              Workstation                         Distributed Resource               System
                                                                            Scheduler                         VMotion
                                                                           High Availability




                                                             ESX/ESXi Hypervisor

                                                           Physical Infrastructure




                                                                     36
   Hardware Needed
Server
  CPU                                                           CPU
     Minimum: Single socket, dual core
     Ideal: Dual-socket, 4 cores per CPU
  Memory:
     Minimum: 1GB                                              Memory
     Ideal: 8+GB
Network
  Minimum: one NIC, plus one for Management
  interface
  Ideal: One for Management Interface plus multiple            Network
  NICs for VMs
Storage
  Local Storage (SATA/SAS):
     Minimum: one 80GB drive
     Ideal:2 mirrored drives (only for ESXi Installable)       Storage
     plus 4 RAID5 drives for VMs
  Shared Storage
     NFS, iSCSI, Fibre Channel: for VM storage
     ESXi Installable requires local disk for the hypervisor



                                                       37
ESX Server – Hardware Compatibility

VMware Certified Compatibility Guides (VCCGs)
http://www.vmware.com/resources/techresources/cat/119
  Guides for systems (servers), storage/SANs, I/O devices (HBAs,
  SCSI adapters), backup software

Ensure all hardware for production environments is
listed in the VCCGs!

Test/development environments often built with
“white box” systems and components
  Community supported list (not officially supported by VMware)
  http://www.vmware.com/resources/communitysupport/




                               38
ESX Server – Hardware Configuration - CPUs

ESX schedules CPU cycles for processing requests
from virtual machines and Service Console
The greater the number of available CPU targets, the
better ESX manages the scheduling (8+ cores optimal)
  Hyperthreading does not give the benefit of multi-core
  processors; recommend disabling hyperthreading
Intel VT and AMD V with EM64T capable processors
allow for running 32-bit and 64-bit VMs
Keep same vendor, family, and generation of processors
throughout the environment to ensure VMotion
compatibility



                              39
ESX Server – Hardware Configuration - RAM

RAM is most often maxed out before CPU resources
Potential to over commit host RAM due to:
  Host swap file (avoid using for best performance)
  Transparent Page Sharing
Beware of server-specific memory configuration
requirements
  DIMM sizes, bank pairing, parity, upgrade considerations (mix
  and match or forklift replacement)
Purchase largest amount possible, and largest size
possible (especially if not filling all banks)



                              40
Networking

Basic Virtual Infrastructure network component
connectivity:




                                                                      Port Group
                                       (Management virtual machine)




                                                                      Port Group
                                         (Vmotion, iSCSI, NFS)




                                                                      Port Group
                                            (VM connectivity)




                         41
Networking – Virtual Switches and Port Groups

Minimum of 1 vSwitch required,
minimum of 3 recommended
  vSwitches can host all three types of port groups (Service
  Console, VMkernel, VM)
  Recommended to place Service Console, VMkernel, and VM
  port groups on their own vSwitches
  VLANs require separate port groups per VLAN
  Networking configuration must match between VMware ESX for
  Vmotion and DRS to function (including Network Label names!)




                              42
Networking – Essential Components

ESX Servers, vSwitches, & physical NICs (pNICs)
Each vSwitch should have at least 2 pNICs assigned to it
for fault tolerance
Number of pNICs per VMware ESX depends on number
of vSwitches
    If 3 port group types (SC, VMkernel, VM) are on different vSwitches,
    at least 6 pNICs recommended
    vSwitches with VM port groups will gain load distribution benefits
    when assigned multiple pNICs




                                 43
 Networking – Physical Infrastructure Design

pNICs and pSwitches
  pNICs in the same vSwitch should
  be connected to different
  pSwitches
  Connect the pNICs for all
  VMotion-enabled VMkernel port
  groups on all VMware ESX in a
  cluster to the same set of
  pSwitches (while still keeping the
  above rule)




                                 44
Storage



                            Local Storage vs.
                            Shared Storage
                             Fibre Channel (FC)
                             iSCSI
                             NAS/NFS

            Local Storage



          Shared Storage



                  45
Storage

Shared storage between VMware ESX hosts required for
collaborative features (VMotion, DRS, HA)
  Fibre Channel (FC)
    Block level storage
    1/2/4/8Gb throughput speeds (8Gb with ESX 3.5 Update 2)
  iSCSI
    Block level storage
    1/10Gb throughput speed (10Gb with ESX 3.5 Update 2)
  NAS/NFS
    File level storage
    1/10Gb throughput speed (10Gb with ESX 3.5 Update 2)



                              46
Storage – Platform Considerations

Which type of storage to use?
  Fibre Channel
    Pros: Fast, enterprise-proven
    Cons: Expensive, requires separate infrastructure
  iSCSI
    Pros: Inexpensive, leverages existing infrastructure, fast
    Cons: Sometimes slower than FC (depending on infrastructure)
  NAS/NFS
    Pros: Inexpensive, leverages existing infrastructure
    Cons: Slower than FC and iSCSI, no RDMs




                                 47
Storage – Platform Considerations

Why choose only one?
 Tiered storage – placing VMs on different storage based on
 defined characteristics (workload, criticality, etc.)
   SANs (FC and iSCSI) – more expensive, higher performing,
     more reliable
      High I/O: Database, email, application server VMs
      Critical: Directory services, content management/repository VMs
   NAS/NFS – less expensive, lower performing, less reliable
      Low I/O: static web server, licensing server, virtual desktop VMs
       (depending on workload)
      Non-critical: development, test, sandbox VMs




                                 48
Storage - Platform Considerations

Fibre Channel (FC)
  ESX Server HBAs, fibre switch ports, and SAN controller ports
  should all be at same and highest speed possible (4/8Gb)
  Ensure zoning on fibre switches include all VMware ESX hosts
  to be included for VMotion, DRS, and HA
  Avoid “daisy chaining” of fibre switches or other single points of
  failure in fabric design
  When installing an new VMware ESX with fibre HBAs,
  disconnect them from the fabric until after the install is complete




                               49
Storage - Platform Considerations

iSCSI and NAS/NFS
  Separate, dedicated Ethernet switches recommended – may
  also use dedicated VLAN (not native VLAN!)
  Configure multiple network connections on SAN/NAS to prevent
  network oversubscription (VLANs may still oversubscribe)
  Configure jumbo frame and flow control support
  If using the software iSCSI initiator included with VMware ESX,
  1Gb pNICs are required (set to full duplex or auto negotiate)
  Hardware initiators (iSCSI HBAs) generally outperform software
  initiators (greater host CPU utilization with software initiator)
  When installing a new VMware ESX using iSCSI HBAs,
  disconnect them from the network until after install is complete


                               50
Storage – General Considerations

Storage performance needs good throughput and I/O
  Disk types
    SCSI/SAS - 10K or 15K RPM vs. SATA – 7200 RPM
  RAID levels
    Most common - RAID-10, RAID-50, RAID-5
    Trade-off – performance and useable space
  Combinations of disk type and RAID level matter
    SATA disks in RAID-10 often outperform SAS disks in RAID-5
  Array-specific (check with the vendor)
    Read/write caching on controllers/processors




                                51
Storage – General Considerations

Redundant connections to SAN/NAS are critical
  Fibre Channel and Hardware iSCSI (HBAs)
    Configure multipathing via multiple HBAs connected to multiple
    switches accessing the same LUNs
    Follow SAN vendor and VMware specifications for multipathing
    policy to prevent “path thrashing”
       Fixed or Most Recently Used (MRU)
    Verify all paths to LUNs are visible from within the Virtual
    Infrastructure client
  Software iSCSI and NAS/NFS
    Assign multiple pNICs to vSwitch hosting iSCSI/NFS traffic




                                  52
Storage - LUNs/Volumes

Spread LUNs/volumes across as many disks as possible
 More spindles = better I/O
Sizing Considerations and general Rules of Thumb
 20-30 server VMs per LUN to avoid SCSI reservation issues
 30-40 desktop VMs per LUN
 Maintain free space for snapshots and VM swap files (~ 20%)
 Maximum number of LUNs per VMware ESX host – 256
 400-600GB LUNs recommended as standard, adjust on as-
  needed basis




                               53
Storage – LUN/Volume formatting

LUNs used in 2 different ways
 Raw Device Mapping (RDM)
    LUN is presented “raw” to VM, VM writes to it directly
 Formatted with VMFS (clustered file system)
    VMs exist as series of files on VMFS file system
    VMFS block size determines how space is used and largest file size
       1MB block, 256GB max file size / 2MB block, 512GB max file size
       4MB block, 1TB max file size / 8MB block, 2TB max file size
    Format with block size which gives max file size larger than the LUN
       For example, format a 400GB LUN with a 2MB block size
       Small amount of space may be wasted, but will provide for larger than
        expected VMs without having to clear off and reformat the LUN




                                    54
ESX Server – Software Configuration - NTP

NTP (Network Time Protocol)
Ensure time is consistent between ESX hosts,
VirtualCenter, directory services (AD, eDirectory, etc)
Virtual machine time issues
  Time in VM OS may be skewed due to ESX CPU time slicing
  VMs may be configured to sync time with ESX hosts
    If syncing Windows VMs in an Active Directory environment to ESX
    hosts, point ESX hosts and PDC emulator to same external time
    server




                               55
ESX Server – Software Configuration - Firewall

Security Profile (firewall)
Out of the box limited to essential ports
SSH access via root disabled by default
  Comment out “PermitRootLogin No” line in /etc/ssh/sshd_config
  file, then issue “service sshd restart” command to enable
Commonly opened additional ports:
  Outgoing: SSH client, SNMP, software ISCSI client, NFS client,
  Update Manager
  Incoming: SNMP, FTP (better to use SFTP or SCP)
Keep “attack surface” minimized by limiting the open
ports and separating Service Console on management
VLAN/subnet


                              56
Creating Virtual Machines
                                   Use VMware Converter
                                      Transfer existing physical servers
                                       into virtual machines
                                      Import existing VMware and 3rd
                                       party virtual images



                                         Create from Scratch
                                            Specify CPUs (1-4), Memory
                                             (1-64 GB), Disks, Network
                                             interfaces
                                            Load OS from ISO image
                                             (over 80 supported OSes)


                     Import a Virtual Appliance
                        Hundreds to choose from on the
                         Virtual Appliance Marketplace
                        Download directly via VI Client and
                         deploy on host




                         57
VirtualCenter and Collaborative Services
Virtual Infrastructure - VirtualCenter

                                       VMware VirtualCenter




 VMware VirtualCenter




                        SHARED
                        STORAGE




                                  59
Virtual Infrastructure - VirtualCenter

Should the VirtualCenter server be physical or virtual?
  Virtual
    Pros: No additional hardware or infrastructure needed
    Cons: performance issues in large environments, reduces
    opportunities to co-host additional services, “observer effect”
  Physical
    Pros: Better performance and scalability, able to co-host
    additional services (VCB, 3rd party monitoring and reporting tools,
    etc.)
    Cons: Additional hardware and infrastructure needed
  Recommended to run VirtualCenter on physical server




                                  60
Virtual Infrastructure - Sizing

How many VMware ESX hosts are needed?
  Influencing variables:
    Configuration of hosts (amount of CPU cores and RAM)
       8 cores, 32GB RAM – 20-25 servers, 35-45+ desktops
    Utilization profile of VMs (servers vs. desktops, types of servers)
    Growth projections and budgetary processes
  General guidelines
    Plan for VM sprawl
    Maintain N+1 environment to allow for maintenance and failures
       Recommended to start with 3 hosts and grow accordingly




                                  61
Virtual Infrastructure – Resource Pools and Clusters

Resource pools are logical divisions of CPU and RAM
resource allocations
  VMs assigned to pool cannot utilize more resources than
  allocated to the pool – provides resource throttling
  Useful for protecting production VMs from dev/test VMs
  Pool resource configuration, combined with VM reservation
  settings, may prevent VMs from powering on
Clusters are logical collections of VMware ESX hosts
  Used to enable collaborative features (DRS, HA)
  Clusters contain a default resource pool, can create sub-pools
  Recommended to maintain single default pool where possible



                              62
   Virtual Infrastructure – VMotion

                                          Eliminates planned
                                          downtime
                                          Enables dynamic load
                                          balancing
                                          Reduces power
                                          consumption
                                          Essential to managing the
  Proven: VMotion has been available
                                          virtualized datacenter
since 2003 and is now trusted by 62% of
   VMware customers in production*




                                    63
Virtual Infrastructure – VMotion and DRS

Ensure CPU compatibility (same family and supported
instruction sets) between hosts and within DRS cluster
Most vendors publish compatibility matrices
  VMware compatibility check utility:
  http://www.vmware.com/download/shared_utilities.html
Per-VM CPU masks may be used between incompatible
hosts, but not supported in production
Connected floppy or CD drive on VM will cause VMotion
to fail
    Use vmcdconnected (http://www.ntpro.nl/blog/archives/172-
    Software.html) or similar tool to find and disconnect devices




                                 64
Live Migration Extended to Storage


                             Live migration of VMs
                             across storage disks
                             with no downtime
                             Minimizes planned
                             downtime




                       65
Virtual Infrastructure - HA

Before configuring HA, ensure that DNS is correct and
functional
  Verify full and short name lookups for all ESX hosts in cluster
  After HA is configured, verify all hosts are listed in /etc/hosts
Avoiding “false isolation” events
  Configure Service Console network redundancy
  Adjust failure detection time from 15 seconds to higher value
    Cluster – VMware HA – Advanced Options – das.failuredetectiontime
    (value in milliseconds)
  Set Isolation Response default value to Leave Powered On
    Cluster – VMware HA – Isolation Response



                                66
Virtual Machine Protection
Virtual Machine Protection – Backup and Recovery

Essential nature of virtual machines – a collection of
files
  Configuration file, disk file(s), NVRAM file, logs
Backup and recovery of VMs based on different
perspectives
  Data and configurations contained within the VM (Guest OS
  view)
  VM files stored on host/SAN datastores (ESX Server view)
Recommended to use a combination approach which
provides for both application/data and complete system
protection



                                68
Virtual Machine Protection – Backup and Recovery

Protection from Guest OS perspective
  Use same backup/recovery programs as physical servers (i.e.
  NTBackup, Tivoli, Backup Exec, scripts, etc.)
       Typically licensed per node
       Focused on protecting data, not entire systems (bare-metal
        recovery)
Protection from VMware ESX perspective
  Applications tailored for virtual environments (i.e. VCB, vRanger
  Pro, etc.)
       Typically licensed per socket of VMware ESX hosts
       Focused on protecting entire VMs (bare-virtual-metal recovery),
        although many provide OS-level file recovery as well



                                 69
Virtual Machine Protection – Backup and Recovery

Methodology recommendations
 Implement hybrid solutions (Guest OS and VMware ESX views)
      Node-based file/data backups, VI-specific app full snapshot
       backups - may consist of multiple backup applications or a single
       application
 VMware Consolidated Backup (VCB) provides for backups
   across the storage infrastructure, increasing backup speeds
      Use in conjunction with 3rd party applications to gain additional
       functionality and performance benefits (i.e. compression, file
       redirection, incremental/differential backups, etc.)
      May be possible to replace node-based solutions depending on
       3rd party application feature sets – may result in significant cost
       savings vs. per-node licensing for traditional backup software
   Test, test, test – regularly restore individual files and entire VMs!



                                  70
     VI3 Foundation: Consolidated Backup

                                                   VMware Consolidated
                              Backup Server
                                                   Backup (VCB)
                                                   interface
                                                    Move backup out of the
                                                    virtual machine
VMware ESX
    3i
                                    Mount           Eliminate backup traffic on
                                                    the local area network
                                                    Integrated with major 3rd-
                       Snap
                                                    party backup products
                       Snap
             Storage




                                              71
   Virtualization Services from InterTech

VMware Capacity Planner
  Capacity planning tool that collects comprehensive resource
  utilization data in heterogeneous IT environments, and compares it
  to industry standard reference data to provide analysis and decision
  support modeling.

VMware Implementation
  • VMware Infrastructure
  • WMware Virtual Desktop Infrastructure
  • Site Recovery Manager

Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery
   •Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery Planning
   •Site Recovery Manager Hosting



                                  72
Recent Microsoft-VMware Support News

ESX 3.5 Update 2 first hypervisor certified under
Microsoft Server Virtualization Validation Program
  Microsoft supports all users running Windows & applications
  For other ESX versions: users with Microsoft Premiere support
  get “commercially reasonable” efforts
90-day license reassignment restrictions lifted for 41
Microsoft server applications
  No more “VMotion Tax”!




                             73
Q&A

				
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