1 UNIT 1 THE PEOPLING OF CANADA 10. The term “Aboriginal peoples” includes I. the original, native inhabitants of North America. 1. Historians‟ knowledge about the first migration of people to II. everyone that is born in a country. North America is based on III. all First Nations, Inuit and Metis people. a) written records left by these people. IV. French and British-born Canadians. b) stories and legends passed on to fur traders. a) I and III b) I, II and IV c) archaeological evidence. c) II, III and IV d) I, II, III and IV d) records in the first treaties signed by Natives. 11. When Europeans first arrived in Canada, more Aboriginal 2. The first known inhabitants of North America were groups lived in what is now southeastern Ontario and the west a) French. b) English. coast of BC than in other regions because c) Loyalists. d) Aboriginal peoples. a) powerful enemy groups prevented them from entering other regions. 3. The first immigrants to the Americas likely came b) they were afraid of the evil spirits that were thought to live a) because of a desire for conquest. in other regions. b) because of persecution in their homelands. c) food supplies were more reliable and abundant in these c) because of overpopulation in their homelands. regions. d) because they were following animal herds. d) travel was faster and easier in these regions. 4. The first Aboriginal peoples to migrate to North America came 12. Certain Aboriginal groups moved several times a year to hunt mainly in search of for their food, thus they a) gold and other precious metals. a) usually made homes out of portable materials. b) animals for food. b) had much free time for arts and crafts. c) the spirit Manitou. c) carried belongings in strong steel chests. d) a better form of government. d) worshipped the sun and moon for providing light for their travels. 5. Many historians accept the theory that Aboriginal peoples came to North America by 13. The First Nations groups that engaged in agriculture and lived a) horseback. in longhouses prior to European contact occupied b) island hopping. a) the Pacific Coast. c) drifting here when the continents split. b) the subarctic region. d) crossing a land bridge from Asia. c) the St. Lawrence Lowlands. d) the plains. 6. Aboriginal people believe that the first inhabitants of North America 14. Prior to European contact, all the Aboriginal peoples of Canada a) came to the continent via Beringia. a) engaged in agriculture. b) are the descendents of Adam and Eve. b) lived in tipis. c) drifted here when the continents split. c) used metal traps for hunting. d) originated here, not somewhere else. d) made their clothes from animal skins. 7. Archaeologists digging at the site of what was once a Native 15. Prior to European contact, the buffalo was central to the way of American settlement found broken pottery, deer bones, fire pits, life of flint chips, and buried corn husks, suggesting the people a) the First Nations of the Pacific Coast. a) were very warlike. b) the First Nations of the Plains. b) traded with Europeans. c) the First Nations of the Subarctic Forest. c) did some farming. d) the First Nations of the Arctic. d) traded with the Inuit. 16. When Europeans first arrived, most groups of Aboriginal 8. The term “First Nations” refers to peoples believed that a) any people that are born in a country. a) the spirit of the salmon was the source of life. b) French and British-born Canadians. b) the spirit of the buffalo was the source of food and clothing. c) the groups that Columbus called “Indians,” the Inuit and c) their priest would tell them which spirits to worship. Métis peoples. d) spirits lived in all of nature, and all people. d) the various groups that are often called “Indians,” such as the Ojibway. 17. What did Christians call the indigenous women who married Europeans in Aboriginal ceremonies and often became go- 9. The term “Indian” is betweens in the fur trade? I. used to refer to anyone born in a country. a) Métis b) the King‟s Daughters II. a name imposed by outsiders on First Nations peoples. c) country wives d) Status Indians III. a legal category in Canada. IV. a word that describes people from India. 18. Beginning in the 1600‟s, European missionaries went among a) I and III b) I, II and IV the Aboriginal peoples mainly to c) II, III and IV d) I, II, III and IV a) buy furs and sell guns on behalf of the Hudson‟s Bay Company. b) get information about new trade routes to India. c) convert Aboriginal peoples to the Christian religion. d) learn about Aboriginal art and legends. 19. The early European missionaries who worked among the 25. Treaties made with Aboriginal peoples Aboriginal peoples a) covered all lands in Western Canada. a) left law enforcement to the fur trading companies. b) encouraged the distinct development of the First Nations. b) had a great deal of success in converting the Aboriginal c) made Aboriginal people individual owners of reserves. peoples to Christianity. d) illustrated the differing perceptions of land held by whites c) believed that the Aboriginal religions were mere and Aboriginal peoples. superstitions. d) were accepted by the Hurons because the Hurons wished 26. The numbered treaties of 1871 to 1921 to learn about Christianity. a) were made with the First Nations, Métis and Inuit. b) were seen by the government as the equivalent of a sale of 20. Which of the following are accurate perceptions that Europeans the western lands. and Aboriginal peoples had of each other when they first made c) were physically forced upon the Aboriginal peoples of the contact? west. I. The French regarded the Aboriginal peoples as being d) included written government promises to provide untrustworthy. agricultural implements and medical care. II. The Aboriginal peoples considered the French to be weak and ignorant. 27. Which of the following government actions was most III. The French viewed Aboriginal religions as mere favourably received by Aboriginal leaders? superstition. a) the passage of the Royal Proclamation Act in 1763 IV. The French saw the Iroquois as being savage killers. b) the placing of Aboriginal children in residential schools a) I and III b) I, II and IV c) the attempt to abolish the Indian Department in 1969 c) II, III and IV d) I, II, III and IV d) the proposals made in the Meech Lake Accord of 1987 21. The birch bark canoe, snowshoe and toboggan were all means of 28. Aboriginal peoples gave up their legal status through transportation a) reserves. b) the James Bay Agreement. a) that Aboriginal peoples stopped using when Europeans made c) enfranchisement. d) the Indian Act. contact with them. b) first used by Eastern Woodland Aboriginal peoples and later 29. First Nations peoples received the vote in used by European explorers. a) 1867. b) 1910. c) developed by Europeans to travel in Canada. c) 1910. d) 1960. d) Europeans learned to use from Plains Indians. 30. The James Bay Agreement of 1975 was a provincial court ruling 22. The Hurons accepted attempts to Christianize them because they that resolved dispute between the government of Quebec and the a) hoped to learn European agricultural methods. northern Cree over b) were convinced that Christianity was better than their own a) land claims. b) cultural rights. religion. c) enfranchisment. d) self-government. c) feared that non-acceptance would end their trading relationship with the Europeans. 31. Who was responsible for using his position to hold up, and d) were eager to change their way of life to match that of the ultimately prevent, the approval of the 1987 Meech Lake Europeans. Accord? a) Big Bear b) Ovide Mecredi 23. Which of the following were contributions made by the First c) Tecumseh d) Elijah Harper Nations to European newcomers? a) animal furs and wool blankets 32. The Oka crisis of 1990 stemmed from b) survival techniques and religion a) a proposal to dam and reroute several rivers over traditional c) metal tools and guns Cree hunting grounds. d) new foods and medicines b) the military occupation of the lands of the Kettle and Stony Point First Nations. 24. A major result of early contact between Europeans and First c) an attempted expansion of a golf course on to land claimed Nations groups was by Mohawk peoples. a) Aboriginal peoples adopted European-style government. d) disclosures of abuse at several residential schools in Quebec. b) Aboriginal peoples became urban dwellers. c) an interdependency developed between Aboriginal peoples 33. In the past 15 years, Aboriginal people have confronted the and Europeans. Canadian government with demands for their legal, cultural and d) Europeans adopted Aboriginal spirituality. land rights. Some of these events include I. the hold up, and ultimate prevention, of the approval of the 25. For most of the 19th and 20th centuries, the attitude of the Meech Lake Accord. Canadian government towards Aboriginal peoples was that they II. a 78-day armed stand-off at the site of a proposed golf a) should learn to adapt to white culture. course in Oka, Quebec. b) should be allowed to retain their traditions. III. the establishment of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal c) should be kept as a separate, subordinate race. Peoples in 1991. d) should be encouraged to emigrate. IV. the creation of the Aboriginal Circle political party. a) I and II b) I and III 24. The Aboriginal peoples sometimes refer to the Proclamation Act c) II and III d) II and IV of 1763 as their “Charter of Rights” because a) it gave them full citizenship rights. b) the government recognized them as owners of their lands. c) reservations were established. d) they were granted voting rights. 34. Recently, the Canadian government has shown a change in 43. Which of the following statements is false? attitude towards Aboriginal peoples through a) Some Loyalists criticized some aspects of British colonial a) the abolition of the Indian Act and the implementation of policy. self-government. b) Some Loyalist were Aboriginal peoples who feared American b) a massive increase in funding for residential schools. settlers in their territories. c) a Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples and a Statement c) Many Loyalists were persecuted in the Thirteen Colonies. of Reconciliation. d) Many Loyalists suffered expulsion from their homes by d) improvements to the reserve system, including provisions for British colonial authorities. private ownership. 44. Above all else, what motivated United Empire Loyalists to 35. King Louis XIV doubled the population of New France from migrate to British North America? 1663 to 1675 by ordering the migration of three different a) religious freedom groups. Which of the following were not dispatched from b) allegiance to the Crown France during this period? c) cheap land a) indentured labourers d) opportunities for trade b) Louis‟ biological daughters c) poor and orphaned young women 45. Loyalists did not settle in d) the Carignan-Salières soldiers a) Upper Canada. b) Nova Scotia. c) New Brunswick. d) Manitoba. 36. Of the following methods, which was not used by Jean Talon to increase New France‟s population? 46. In 1784 New Brunswick was established as a separate colony a) He set up a system of indentured labourers. from Nova Scotia in order to b) He encouraged early marriage. a) avoid conflict between French and English-speaking c) He started a system of family allowances. colonists. d) He ran an immigration campaign in Europe. b) satisfy the demands of the Loyalist for a government of their own. 37. In the 1660s and 1670s the French government took special c) provide a separate homeland for Acadians returning from steps to send groups of women to New France because exile in the US. a) the colony‟s industries needed women workers. d) create a reserve for Aboriginal peoples who had supported b) France was overpopulated. Great Britain in wars against the French. c) it wanted to encourage population growth. d) they were expected be active in the fur trade. 47. Which of the following acts of legislation was passed by the British government in response to the demands of the Loyalist 38. The Aboriginal peoples of Canada contributed to the success migration to BNA? and well-being of the European newcomers in all but one of the a) Quebec Act 1774 b) Proclamation Act 1763 following ways: c) Act of Union 1840 d) Constitutional Act 1791 a) food products b) means of transportation c) religious beliefs d) cures for many illnesses 48. One of the results of the Loyalist migration to British North America was to 39. During the American Revolution, those who fled the Thirteen a) establish the colony‟s ties with Great Britain. Colonies because they wanted to continue living under British b) establish closer ties with the United States. rule were c) cause long-term economic hardship. a) Democrats. b) Founding Fathers. d) introduce a revolutionary element into Canadian politics. c) Methodists. d) United Empire Loyalists. 49. A direct result of the Loyalist migration to Canada was that 40. Loyalists came from a) the French became a minority in Canada a) Britain. b) France. b) anti-American sentiment in Canada decreased c) Asia. d) America. c) the colony of Upper Canada was created d) British institutions in Canada were weakened. 41. A false statement about why people chose to remain loyal to the British Crown after the American Revolution is that some of 50. The Loyalist migration to British North America them a) resulted in closer ties between British North America and the a) were persecuted because of their neutrality. United States. b) relied on British commercial ties and could not afford to b) put French Canadians into a minority position. rebel. c) caused long term economic hardship. c) saw Canada as having more economic opportunity than the d) established the bilingual and bicultural nature of Canada. newly formed USA. d) were Indians who feared the expansion of American 51. What was not a result of the Loyalist migration? settlement onto their lands. a) the French became a minority in Canada b) Upper Canada was created 42. Which of the following did not comprise part of the United c) British institutions in Canada were reaffirmed Empire Loyalist group? d)Canadian resentment toward the US developed a) New England merchants b) black freedmen and/or slaves c) backwoods farmers d) Selkirk Settlers 52. Between 1815 and 1850 in Britain 61. Which of the following factors was a cause of immigration in a) the death rate declined because fewer people survived the early 1830s? disease epidemics. a) the clearing of large tracts of forested land b) economic opportunities outpaced the population growth. b) the desire to escape from poverty c) economic changes prevented many people from coming to c) the introduction of new ways of life and values to British Canada. North America d) improved farming methods resulted in better diets and d) the establishments of such settlements as Peterborough healthier people. 62. With which immigrant group is the term “Underground 53. Which of the following did not prompt the Great Migration of Railway” associated? 1815-1850? a) political refugees from Chile a) free land offers in western British North America after b) escaped slaves from the USA government surveying c) the Japanese b) high unemployment in Britain following the end of the d) the Doukhobors Napoleonic Wars c) overpopulation in Britain due to improved farming 63. Which of the following factors was a result of immigration to techniques and better diets North America in the early 1830s? d) large numbers of cargo ships offering immigrants passage to a) crop failures and famine in Great Britain BNA after they had dropped off timber in Britain b) an increase in unemployment following the end of the Napoleonic Wars 54. During the Great Migration of 1815-1850, most immigrants to c) the clearing of large tracts of forested land British North America came from d) the desire to escape from poverty a) Eastern Europe. b) France. c) Great Britain. d) Southern Europe. 64. What was a result of the immigration period between 1815 and 1850? 55. The European group that did not move to Canada in the 1800‟s a) potato crop failure and famine in Ireland is b) overpopulation and thus, an increase in unemployment in a) Romanians. b) Germans. London c) Scandinavians. d) Greeks. c) Anglophones became a majority in British North America d) the replacement of tenant farmers with sheep in Scotland 56. In the 19th century, which of the following was not a significant motive for migration to Canada? 65. A cause of the 1896-1911 Sifton Migration was a) the Loyalist migration from the United States a) the growth of prairie towns such as Dauphin. b) the potato famine in Europe b) persecution of Ukrainians in Eastern Europe. c) religious persecution in Europe c) prejudice and discrimination against foreigners. d) the lure of cheap, fertile land d) Western farmers became a market for eastern industry. 57. A pull factor during the Great Migration was 66. The primary reason for the Mennonites, Doukhobors and a) the Yukon Gold Rush. Hutterites settling in Canada was b) the building of the CPR. a) cheap Trans-Atlantic fares. c) free land. b) religious persecution. d) all of the above. c) the Industrial Revolution. d) war in their home countries. 58. There were many people who left Scotland for Canada in the 19th century because of 67. The main reason that the Mennonites migrated to Canada in the a) the potato famine. b) land clearances. 1870s was c) overpopulation. d) the opening of the West. a) to take advantage of the free land in Canada. b) to help the development of Canadian cities. 59. The Selkirk settlers left their native land in the early 19th century c) because of war in their home country. to live in Canada because d) because they were being persecuted for their religious beliefs. a) of the failure of the potato crop and the resulting famine. b) they lost their land through Clearances. 68. Opposition to oriental immigration into Canada has been c) Scotland was overpopulated. strongest d) the Dominion Government of Canada was opening the a) among First Nations groups. western plains. b) during the French colonial period. c) in eastern Canada. 60. In the period 1815-1850 significant reasons for migration to d) in British Columbia. Canada included I. the potato famine in Europe. 69. Many Canadians began to oppose Asian immigration in the II. the Loyalist migration from the US. early 1900s because III. religious persecution in Europe. a) Japan had attacked Pearl Harbour. IV. the Clearances in Scotland. b) Canada‟s unemployment rate was too high. a) I & II b) I & IV c) they believed Orientals would monopolize the best jobs and c) I, III & IV d) I, II, III & IV positions of power. d) Asians made up over 50% of the population on the West Coast. 70. “Nativism” refers to 81. According to current government policy, which of the following a) a back-to-nature movement among First Nations groups. is not a class of immigrants? b) settlements on reserves. a) ethnic b) refugee c) prejudice towards Aboriginal peoples. c) family d) independent d) prejudice towards recent immigrants complicated by feelings of national pride. 82. According to Canada‟s Immigration Law, the points system a) is used to choose which of the immigrants who apply will be 71. The arrival of large numbers of immigrants in Canada caused admitted to Canada. the development of an anti-foreign sentiment known as b) does not discriminate on the basis of age or educational a) prejudice. b) nativism. background. c) racism. d) ethnocentrism. c) determines the quota of immigrants who will be allowed into Canada each year. 72. As a result of the 1880-1914 immigration period d) makes it easy for most immigrants to gain entry into Canada. a) English-speaking people became a majority. b) the Canadian nation stretched from sea to sea. 83 The 1978 Immigration Act created a point system by which c) Canada started becoming a multicultural nation. potential immigrants are evaluated. Which of the following d) Canada‟s bilingual/bicultural nature increased. factors is not considered? a) age b) nationality 73. As a result of mass immigration in the later 1800s and early c) job skills d) level of education 1900s, Canada a) increased the number of its French-speaking citizens. 84. The province with most migrants in last 35 years is: b) began the process of becoming a multi-cultural country. a) Newfoundland. b) Manitoba. c) increased its percentage of English-speaking citizens. c) Ontario. f) British Columbia. d) became an urban nation. 85. In the last 20 years, the percentage of humanitarian immigrants 74. A synonym for “melting pot” is has a) multiculturalism. b) segregation. a) increased dramatically. c) assimilation. d) immigration. b) increased slightly. c) decreased dramatically. 75. The most likely cause of Canada‟s low immigration levels from d) decreased slightly. 1936-1941 was a) the Great Migration. 86. Historically, Canada‟s immigration policy has mainly been b) the beginnings of World War II. based upon c) the Vietnam War. a) the demands of potential immigrants. d) transportation costs were too high. b) conditions and needs inside Canada. c) an unbiased selection process. 76. After 1945, a lower % of immigrants came from d) a desire to help people in poorer countries. a) the Ukraine. b) Asia. c) Britain. d) Jewish Europe. 87. Throughout most of Canada‟s existence, the government‟s immigration policy has been 77. During the 1950s and 1960s Canada accepted large numbers of a) “open door.” b) selective and variable. refugees from Hungary and Czechoslovakia. The push factor c) inflexible. d) unrestrictive. for these immigrants was a) large scale unemployment caused by recession in their Potlatches were elaborate gift giving and feasting ceremonies homelands. held by the leading families in West Coast Aboriginal groups to b) Canada‟s commitment to NATO. celebrate such events as the coming of age of a daughter, the c) an oppressive communist government in their homelands arrival of distinguished visitors, or a new chief’s right to his title. d) fighting as a result of the Cold War. 88. A potlatch was probably intended to 78. Canada has been attractive to various immigrant groups over the a) win prestige and social standing for the chief giving it. years because b) make all families equally wealthy a) Canada has no racism, everyone is equal. c) stir up warfare with Plains First Nations who had not been b) Canada has more opportunity than at home. invited to the ceremonies. c) Canada has a free enterprise economy. d) entertain the young people so they would not become d) Canada has a good climate. warlike. 79. A push factor for an immigrant to Canada is: 89. It is most likely that Aboriginal peoples celebrating the potlatch a) religious freedom. a) were following customs introduced to them by Europeans. b) a high standard of living. b) had more wealth and leisure time than the hunting tribes of c) poor economic conditions. eastern Canada. d) the desire to join relatives. c) were hunting tribes who grew many of the foods in the potlatch feasts. 80. A person admitted to Canada on the basis of their skills, capital d) held such celebrations only in the summer. and jobs available is part of the a) family class. b) refugee class. c) independent class. d) Loyalists. I have known you The Department of (Indian Affairs) has had the close when your forests were mine cooperation of religious denominations in the education of the when they gave me my meat Indian. Thus Christianization and education go hand in hand. and clothing. The residential schools are conducted by the Anglican, Roman I have known you Catholic, Presbyterian and United Churches…Education if free; in your streams the Government provides the buildings and pays the managing and rivers authorities a per capita grant for each pupil in residence. In where your fish flashed addition to regular academic subjects, the girls are taught and danced in the sun domestic arts, and the boys agriculture, the care of cattle and where the waters said come, the use of ordinary tools. come and eat of my abundance. I have known you 94. The passage suggests a policy of in the freedom of your winds. a) assimilation of Natives into white culture. And my spirit, b) preservation of Native culture. like the winds, c) using a traditional Native approach to education. once roamed your good lands. d) maintaining on-reserve education. -Chief Dan George, My Heart Soars (North Vancouver, B.C., 1974) 95. According to this passage, responsibility for the education of Natives was shared by 90. By “you,” Chief George seems to mean a) the federal and provincial governments. a) the government, which now owns land that once belonged to b) the churches and provincial governments. his people. c) the churches and the federal government. b) his next-door neighbour, who has just bought his farm. d) the churches and the First Nations themselves. c) Europeans, who now occupy the land that once was his. d) the land, Canada, that once belonged to his people. Never in our own worst nightmare did we ever imagine what was going to take place: that for nearly 100 years, from 1867- 91. The statement that best describes the writer‟s view of nature is 1960 we would be so limited. We couldn’t own businesses. a) He saw nature as a good source of food and clothing, but We couldn’t vote. We really weren’t human beings. disliked having to ram around and hunt for the things he needed. 96. The speaker of the above quotation is discussing the plight of b) He lived in harmony with nature, using and enjoying its a) the Irish immigrants to Canada. resources. b) the Asian people of Canada. c) He saw nature as a place for sports activities like hunting, c) the Aboriginal peoples. fishing and hiking. d) the Loyalists. d) He saw nature as something to be used rather than enjoyed. I Jacques Cartier explored the Gulf of St. Lawrence The soil is good and the Hurons grow a great deal of Indian and the St.Lawrence River in three voyages corn, which does extremely well for them, as do squash and between 1534 and 1541. He was working for the sunflowers. Sun- flowers they grow for their seeds, from which King of France. they extract an oil used in anointing the head. They also grow grapes and plums, raspberries, strawberries, crabapples and II Jacques Cartier tried unsuccessfully to establish nuts. a permanent settlement near the St. Lawrence in 1541. If he had been kinder to his men, he could 92. The passage above indicates that the Huron have made a success of the settlement. a) were sedentary. b) were agricultural. c) both a) and b). d) neither a) nor b). III Jacques Cartier was probably the bravest French explorer ever to come to Canada. There was once a world before this, and in it lived people who were not of our tribe. But the pillars of the earth collapsed, and 97. Which statement provides only facts? all were destroyed. And the world was emptiness. Then two a) I b) II men grew up from a hummock of earth. They were born and c) III d) I and III fully grown all at once. And they wished to have children. A magic song changed one of them into a woman, and they had 98. Which statement provides only an opinion? children. These were our earliest forefathers, and from them a) I b) III all the lands were peopled. c) I and III d) II and III 93. According to the Inuit story printed above, 99 Which statement provides both facts and opinion? a) Aboriginal peoples are the descendants of Adam and Eve. a) I b) II b) Aboriginal peoples originated in North America. c) III d) I and II c) Aboriginal peoples migrated from Siberia during an earthquake. d) Aboriginal peoples are not the original inhabitants of North America. America is inhabited by strange and savage people without “…the immigration of girls and widows was begun, at first on a belief in God, without laws, without religion, but living like voluntary basis and then encouraged by the religious and civil animals as nature has produced them. Of the one Supreme authorities.” God they have a certain slender notion… 105. The quote above refers to 100. This statement indicates that a) the King‟s Daughters. a) Aboriginal peoples had no religious beliefs. b) the Jesuits. b) farming was unknown to Aboriginal peoples c) the Ursuline Sisters. c) Europeans held racist views towards Aboriginal peoples. d) “Country Wives.” d) Aboriginal peoples were impossible to Christianize. 106. Why did the French government decide to send the women I The trade goods offered to the Aboriginal peoples often mentioned above to New France in the 1660s and 1670s? included blankets, muskets, fish hooks, knives and flour. a) It wanted to promote population growth by providing wives for the settlers. II With the bow and arrow, it was necessary to come close b) Women were expected to play an active part in the fur trade. to an animal in order to kill it, but with a gun, it could be c) There were too many women in France. killed from a distance. d) The industries of New France needed women workers. III The newcomers were many, and we were unable to hold On one hand they brought to Canada a conservative outlook, a our own with them. We ere happy to let things stay as the quick distrust of any new idea that might be called republican, Great Spirit made them. They were not, and would and a readiness to make loyalty the test for almost everything. change the rivers if they did not suit them. We were like On the other, they themselves represented a declaration of deer. They were like grizzly bears. independence against the United States, a determination to live apart from that country in North America. As a result, they 101. The statement(s) which present(s) both information and a helped to create not only a new province, but a new nation. personal point of view is(are) - J.M.S. Careless, Canada: A Story of Challenge (1953) a) Statement I only. b) Statement II only. c) Statement III only. d) Statement I and II. 107. The immigrants referred to in the above passage came directly from 102. The conclusion that is most clearly supported by all three a) France. b) England. statements is that c) Ireland. d) the United States. a) both the Aboriginal peoples and the Europeans were victims of a great deal of violence and killing. Not all people in the Thirteen Colonies rose in rebellion against b) contact with Europeans caused many changed in the Great Britain. There were British subjects who wished to Aboriginal way of life. maintain the British connection. Many such people, voluntarily c) contact with Europeans was completely bad for the or by force of circumstance, left the United States. Some Aboriginal peoples. came to live in the British North American colonies. d) neither the Aboriginal peoples nor the Europeans tried to understand each other. 108. The people referred to above opposed a) elected assemblies. b) US independence. The Department of (Indian Affairs) has had the close c) free-hold tenure. d) slavery in the South. cooperation of religious denominations in the education of the Indian. Thus Christianization and education go hand in hand. 109. The rebellion referred to above is the The residential schools are conducted by the Anglican, Roman a) War of 1812. b) American Civil War. Catholic, Presbyterian and United Churches…Education if free; c) Rebellion of 1837. d) American Revolution. the Government provides the buildings and pays the managing authorities a per capita grant for each pupil in residence. In True to their king, faithful to their country, attached to the laws addition to regular academic subjects, the girls are taught and constitution, they have continued firm and inflexible in the domestic arts, and the boys agriculture, the care of cattle and midst of persecutions, torments, and death. Many of them the use of ordinary tools. have abandoned their homes, their friends, their nearest and most tender connections… 103. The passage suggests a policy of a) assimilation of Natives into white culture. 110. The quote above is referring to the b) preservation of Native culture. a) Irish migrants fleeing the famine of their homeland. c) using a traditional Native approach to education. b) Hurons fleeing the final assault of the Iroquois. d) maintaining on-reserve education. c) Loyalists fleeing political persecution at the hands of the Americans. 104. According to this passage, responsibility for the education of d) French Canadians after the Conquest by the British. Natives was shared by a) the federal and provincial governments. b) the churches and provincial governments. c) the churches and the federal government. d) the churches and the First Nations themselves. At the outset probably as many as one-third of the colonists I The first Finns to come to Canada arrived early in the were out of sympathy with the War for Independence. This is 1800s. Many of the young men found work on projects easy to understand: the habit of allegiance to the crown was like the Welland Canal. firmly rooted. Revolution meant that the traditional bonds would be broken, and many colonists regarded this as II The fist permanent Icelandic settlement in Canada was unthinkable. founded at Gimli, Manitoba, in 1875. …The Americans who would not give up their loyalty to the king became known as “Loyalists” or “Tories.” They were often III The Jewish community in Canada grew as a result of people whose social and business connections made them the waves of immigrants from Russia and Poland. directly dependent upon the crown. They included, for During the period from 1882 to about 1914 thousands of example, appointees of military men whose advancement Jews fled from persecution. depended upon the mother country, non-smuggling merchants, and Anglican clergymen, who recognized the king as the head IV The immigration to Canada from the Ukraine in the late of their church. In the back country of Virginia and the 1890s and early 1900s was largely due to the Carolinas, Scotch-Irish frontiersmen were also usually overpopulation and poor economic conditions there. Loyalists because they were often in conflict with the planters. They sided with their enemies’ enemy – England. V The first Japanese to come to Canada were young single men who were attracted to work on the West 111. According to the passage above, the number of Americans who Coast. Their numbers were limited by an informal remained loyal to Britain were agreement between the governments of Canada and a) an insignificant minority. Japan. b) a slight majority. c) an overwhelming majority. 115. Based on the statements above, which of the following is a valid d) a sizable minority. generalization about Canada‟s immigration policy in the 19th century? 112. Loyalists were a) It was a period of tight restrictions on immigration. a) from many different groups. b) The gates to Canada were wide-open only to English speaking b) usually of the wealthy, planter class. people. c) usually those who lived along the frontier. c) Few immigrants entered Canada. d) usually of Irish-Scotch descent. d) There were few restrictions and immigration was from many different lands. I think a stalwart peasant in a sheepskin coat, born on the soil, whose forefathers have been farmers for generations, with a 116. Assuming that Statements I-IV are true, which of the following stout wife and half a dozen children, is good quality. conclusions would also be true? -Clifford Sifton a) Almost all of the new immigrants settled in large cities like Vancouver and Toronto. 113. Clifford Sifton‟s quote indicates a preference for immigrants b) The new immigrants had many different reasons for coming a) from the cities of Britain and northern France. to Canada. b) from northern China and Siberia. c) Most of the immigrants failed to greatly improve their c) that were upper class, suited for business. standard of living in Canada. d) that were peasants, suited for farming. d) The Canadian government permitted only immigrants from the British Isles to enter Canada. I do not care what language a man speaks, or what religion he professes, if he is honest and law-abiding, if he will go on the To healthy Britons of good behaviour welcome is everlasting; land and make a living for himself and his family, he is a but to make this country a dumping ground for the scum and desirable settler for the Dominion of Canada. dregs of the old world means transplanting the evils and vices -Clifford Sifton that they may flourish in a new soil. Since 1882 the immigration flowing into the United States has changed from 114. Sifton appears to have believed that the progressive and enlightened people of northwestern a) all immigrants should speak the English language. Europe to those of the south and east. b) all immigrants to the Dominion of Canada should be hard- working European peasants. 117. The immigration referred to in article above is c) as long as immigrants were honest and hard-working, it did a) the Great Migration. not matter where they came from. b) the Sifton Migration. d) all immigrants to the Dominion of Canada should be c) Oriental immigration when the CPR was being constructed. religious. d) post-World War II immigration from war-ravaged Europe. First there was a tent but as soon as possible…they went to ground like the gopher and the badger…Sods were cut and lifted to be piled up against a frame of poles; some might boast a wooden roof with shingles… 118. The quote above refers to the living quarters of a) Natives of the western plains. b) immigrants of the Great Migration era. c) settlers on the western plains. d) Chinese labourers working on the CPR. (Chart Jan 2001) Essays 119. According to the chart above, the majority of Canada‟s “The contact between the Aboriginal peoples of Canada and the population in 1881 were people with a Eurocanadians has often been of mixed benefit for the Aboriginal background peoples. A variety of problems has resulted from this contact and has a) non-European b) continental European led to the demand for Aboriginal rights.” Discuss this statement with c) Native Canadian d) British reference to the contact period, 120. There is most likely no reference to Mennonites, Doukhobors the effects of the contact and the treaty/reserve system on and Mormons in the chart above because: Aboriginal life-style and culture, and a) these peoples had not yet emigrated to Canada. the reasons for the demand for self-government and some of the b) they were pacifists. attempts to achieve it. c) they were considered to be religious groups, not separate nationalities. “The specific causes of immigration may be different at different d) they were not included in census figures in those days. times, but the general causes remain the same: a combination of problems in the home country (the push) and advantages in Canada In his memoirs, written in 1938, Robert Borden made the (the pull).” Discuss this statement with reference to following statement: the Loyalists (1780-1810), “A Japanese vessel, the Komagata Maru has sailed from the Great Migration (1815-1850), and Shanghai with 5,000 Hindus for Vancouver.” the Laurier-Sifton period (1870s-1915). In 1975, an historian named Ted Ferguson wrote a book about “The Loyalists faced serious problems in the Thirteen Colonies the Komagata Maru incident in which he stated: during the American Revolution. Many left and went to British “On May 23, 1914, the decaying freighter Komagata Maru, its North America. Here they changed its character and aided in its hold jammed with a human cargo of 376 East Indians, dropped development.” Explain anchor in Vancouver Harbour.” the reasons colonists remained loyal to Britain, how they were treated in America, 121. Given that Ferguson‟s figure is the correct one, what can be and what their impact was on British North America. concluded from the above quotations? a) Memoirs must be used with caution. “From 1815-1850, Canada‟s population exploded.” Discuss this b) A primary source is better than a secondary source. period, known as the Great Migration, by including information on c) A secondary source is better than a primary source. why so many people came to Canada at this particular time, d) Both primary and secondary sources can be flawed. the ethnic backgrounds of the various groups who came and where they settled, and Would you rather stay in camps? Be treated like dogs?…I the impact that the movement has had on present-day Canada. didn’t come to this country for this kind of treatment…I’m a Canadian. I have to pay all the taxes, but I have never been “I do not care what language a man speaks, or what religion he allowed to vote. professes, if he is honest and law-abiding, if he will go on the land and make a living for himself and his family, he is a desirable settler 122. The quote above would most likely have been made by for the Dominion of Canada.” (Clifford Sifton, Minister of the a) a Japanese-Canadian during World War II. Interior). Explain how Sifton‟s attitude affected Canadian b) a Chinese labourer on a CPR construction crew. immigration at the turn of the 20th century by discussing c) a refugee from communist persecution after World War II. his immigration campaign / pull factors, d) a member of a suffragette organization. the ethnic groups he targeted / push factors, and the impact his ideas had on Canada. In most instances, emigration is a matter of necessity, not of choice; and this is more especially true of the emigration of “Immigration to Canada has seldom been uncontrolled or accidental. persons of respectable connections, or of any position or Almost always the government has regulated who has been allowed station in the world. Few educated persons, accustomed to to enter the country and in what number.” Prove or disprove this the refinements and luxuries of European society, ever willingly statement by examining government policies during each of the relinquish these advantages...without the pressure of some following periods in Canadian history: urgent cause...Nor is it until adversity has pressed sorely...that 1880-1914, they...arm themselves with fortitude to meet and dare 1945-1989, and the heartbreaking conflict. 1989-present. 123. According to this passage, most people that emigrate leave their homelands because a) they simply want a change. b) they are highly educated. c) circumstances force them to move. d) they are upper class. UNIT 2 NEW SOCIETIES TO 1867 10. According to the mercantilist theory under which New France operated 1. Which of the following explorers laid French claim to the St. a) colonies should contribute to the economy of the mother Lawrence area between 1534 and 1541? country a) John Cabot b) colonies should be self-supporting b) Jacques Cartier c) colonies should be abandoned c) Pierre La Vérendrye d) colonies should be politically independent d) René-Robert La Salle 11. According to the theory of mercantilism, colonies should be 2. During the French colonial era, Jean-Baptiste Colbert (Louis I. used as settlement areas for surplus population XIV‟s chief aide) felt that II. exploited for their natural resources a) the Mississippi Valley (Louisiana) should be colonized III. self sufficient in all aspects of the economy before the British took it over. IV. acquired as markets for the goods of the Mother country b) a larger trading post needed to be built at Toronto to a) I & II b) II and IV accommodate Aboriginal peoples that did not want to travel c) I, III and IV d) I, II, III & IV to Quebec. c) habitants should be encouraged to explore western lands and 12. The mercantile policy of New France claim them for France. a) helped the colony diversify its economy. d) only the most fertile lands near the seacoast should be b) was a major reason for its slow growth. cleared, consolidated and formed into towns and villages. c) encouraged it to increase the fur trade. d) was a major cause of the rebellion in the Thirteen Colonies. 3. The colony of New France did not include: a) Acadia b) Florida 13. A colony was important in the mercantilist system for the c) Cape Breton d) Louisiana mother country because it provided a) raw materials and a market for goods. 4. By 1700, the western boundary of New France was b) raw materials and a source of immigrants. a) the Atlantic Ocean. c) a market for goods and a source of immigrants. b) the Pacific Ocean. d) manufactured goods and technology. c) Lake Winnipeg and the Mississippi River. d) Hudson Bay and the Ottawa River. 14. The main export from New France was a) wheat. b) fish. 5. New France‟s population grew slowly for all of the following c) timber. d) furs. reasons except for a) the restrictions of the mercantilist system 15. Commercially, the most important animal in the history of the b) the ferocity of the Iroquois Canadian fur trade is the c) the arrival of the “King‟s Daughters” a) wolf. b) bear. d) the restrictions placed on non-Catholic immigration by the c) buffalo. d) beaver. Catholic Church 16. The item that dominated men‟s fashion from 1580, through the 6. New France‟s population grew slowly for all of the following 17th and 18th centuries, and indirectly supported the economy of reasons except New France was a) Aboriginal peoples provided the manpower for the fur trade a) the sash. b) the toque. b) the ferocity of the Hurons and Algonquins c) the felt hat. d) leather gloves. c) the geographic features of the land and harsh climate d) a “Catholics only” immigration policy 17. “Coureurs-de-bois” were a) men who went into the wilderness of North America to get 7. Reasons for the slow growth of New France are furs from the First Nations. I. Iroquois hostility b) missionaries who went into the wilderness of North America II. limited land available for farming to preach to the First Nations. III. an immigration policy barring Protestants c) French merchants who bought and sold furs. IV. a climate more severe than in France d) the officials who governed New France. a) I, II and III b) II, III and III c) I, III and IV d) I, II, III, and IV 18. The church in New France was concerned that the coureurs-de- bois would 8. What resulted from Champlain‟s alliance with the Hurons a) divert furs to the Thirteen Colonies. against the Iroquois in 1609? b) corrupt the morals of the Aboriginal peoples. a) The Iroquois and Huron lived in peace. c) open up new territories for fur trading. b) The Iroquois continually attacked New France. d) threaten the existence of fur trade. c) The Iroquois attacked the English. d) The Iroquois gave up warfare and settled near what is now 19. What was not a reason New France was forced into the interior Brantford, Ontario. in search of furs? a) British posts on Hudson Bay 9. Upon taking control in New France, the royal government took b) British posts in upper New York the step of sending groups of women to the colony in order to c) increased settlement of New France a) supply workers for New France‟s industries. d) the destruction of Huronia by the Iroquois b) provide relief from the overpopulation in France. c) provide teachers and nurses for the colony. d) encourage population growth by providing wives for the settlers. 20. As a result of French involvement in the North American fur 26. In New France, the intendant who brought in indentured trade in the 1600s, the French laboureres and the King‟s Daughters, encouraged early a) discovered an inland water route to China marriages and introduced family allowances to increase the b) became partners with the Iroquois in the trade population of the colony was c) prevented English involvement in the trade a) Jean-Baptiste Colbert. b) Sieur d‟Iberville d) explored vast areas north, south and west of the St. c) Jean Talon. d) Louis Hebert. Lawrence Valley 27. In New France, the intendant was in charge of 21. One of the benefits of New France‟s fur economy was that a) the Church and missions among Aboriginals. a) it brought France into competition with other European b) the defence of the colony. powers. c) exploring new territory to find sources of fur. b) it earned huge profits for the majority of the colonists. d) regulating day-to-day government and enforcing laws in the c) it required many workers, thus inspired immigration to the colony colony. d) it provided an additional source of income for adventurous 28. Who taught their religious beliefs to Aboriginal peoples and habitants. started schools in New France? a) habitants b) coureurs-de-bois 22. During the French era, the greatest threat to French dominance c) Jesuits d) Loyalists of the fur trade came from a) independent coureur-de-bois. 29. Which of the following was not a problem faced by French b) independent British traders in the 13 Colonies. missionaries working with the Hurons? c) the North West Company. a) the semi-nomadic existence of the Hurons d) the Hudson‟s Bay Company. b) the Hurons had their own religious beliefs c) the recurrence of diseases like smallpox 23. The role of the Aboriginal people in the fur trade economy of d) the indifferent attitude of missionaries New France was to a) move the furs from the interior to Albany 30. In New France, the Church was responsible for all of the b) assist the Europeans in trapping the furs following tasks, except c) man the York boats carrying furs to Montreal a) education. b) missionary work. d) supply furs, like farmers grow wheat today c) health care. d) maintaining Native alliances. 22. Which of the following statements about the fur economy is 31. Social services in New France, such as education and health false? care, were mainly the responsibility of a) Trading was introduced to the Aboriginal peoples by a) the Church. b) the Seigneurial class. Europeans. c) the Intendant. d) the Sovereign Council. b) The fur trade had been a sideline for 15th century European fishermen that visited the east coast of North America each 32. With reference to religion in New France, summer. a) the Jesuits concentrated their missionary efforts on the c) Samuel de Champlain traded with the Huron and Algonquin Iroquois peoples. peoples, eventually involving the French in wars with the b) missionaries believed that the sedentary lifestyle of Iroquois. Aboriginal groups made it hard to convert them to d) The popularity of felt hats in 16th and 17th century Europe Christianity. created a huge demand for beaver pelts from North America. c) the Church served as both a social and religious center for the colonists. 23. New France developed a uniquely French Canadian character d) the Church played only a small role in the daily lives of the because people. a) it was isolated from the Thirteen Colonies. b) most colonists had come from France. 33. In New France, the bishop was in charge of c) France ruled it in a “paternalistic” fashion. a) the daily affairs of government. d) natural increase, rather than immigration, was b) the courts of law. mainly responsible for population growth. c) coureurs-de-bois and the fur trade. d) all matters related to the Church. 24. The fact that the majority of the inhabitants of New France were native born is said to account for 34. In New France, the seigneur was in charge of: a) the collapse of New France. a) settling tenants on his land b) the slow development of New France. b) acting as a missionary for his Church c) the unique character of the French Canadians. c) governing the colony fairly d) the introduction of the seigneurial system. d) encouraging the growth of the fur trade 25. Jean Talon was: 35. In New France, the seigneurial system was for a) the first farmer in New France. a) landholding. b) mapping the colony. b) the British general who defeated the French at the Plains c) Royal Government. d) establishing churches. of Abraham. c) the Intendant who worked to increase New France‟s 36. New France‟s seigneurial system was not population and economic growth. a) based on a similar system in France. d) a dedicated missionary who worked among the Huron b) a landholding system. Indians. c) set up mainly to encourage the fur trade. d) continued after the British conquest. 37. A true statement about the seigneurial system in New France is it 46. Governor Lawrence of Nova Scotia expelled the Acadians a) was an arm of the governing council. because they b) involved certain duties for both the seigneur and his tenants. a) posed a threat to the security of New France. c) was established mainly to encourage the fur trade. b) refused to swear allegiance to Britain‟s Crown. d) was useful for missionary work among the Huron and c) supported the revolt in the Thirteen Colonies. Algonquin. d) refused to be assimilated into British society. 38. Seigneuries ran back from the river in long, narrow strips so that 47. For many years before 1760, the French and English in North New France‟s settlers could America had competed for a) have a place to wash and swim in summer. a) land, furs and fish. b) gold and silver. b) easily irrigate their crops. c) control of the Gulf of Mexico. d) control of the Pacific coast c) travel and transport goods on the river. d) earn their living by fishing. 48. What did not contribute to the French-English conflict in 18th century North America? 39. “Habitants” were a) wars between France and England in Europe a) tenant farmers in New France. b) the struggle for commercial supremacy b) Loyalist settlers in Upper Canada. c) English claims in the St. Lawrence Valley c) government officials in New France. d) the expansion of New France d) fur traders. 47. The main cause of the French-English wars in North America 40. The “King‟s Daughters” (filles du roi) were was a) nuns who traveled as missionaries. a) New France‟s desire to conquer the Thirteen Colonies b) women sent to New France in the 1600s to be wives for b) the desire of the English colonists to conquer New France unmarried settlers. c) British envy with reference to the lucrative French fur trade c) the direct heirs of the King of France. d) French expansionism threatening to hem in the Thirteen d) female soldiers in the Seven Years‟ War. Colonies 41. Which of the following statements about life in New France is 48. In his 1759 defence of New France, General Montcalm did not false? have to cope with a) The intendant looked after the day-to-day administration of a) a corrupt and dishonest Intendant Bigot. the colony. b) weak economic and military resources. b) The seigneurial system provided for the purchase of land by c) interference from Governor Vaudreuil. habitants. d) attacks from hostile tribes of First Nations. c) The majority of women married between 12 and 16 years of age. 49. The English captured the French empire in North America in d) The colonists gave a portion of their income (a tithe) to the this order Catholic Church. a) Montreal, Quebec, Louisbourg b) Louisbourg, Montreal, Quebec 42. What was not true of life in New France? c) Quebec, Louisbourg, Montreal a) Outside of marriage, domestic service and the church were d) Louisbourg, Quebec, Montreal options available to females b) The government encouraged early marriage and large 50. The British victory over the French that led to the fall of Quebec families took place at c) Hundreds of King‟s daughters arrived each year for ten years a) Ticonderoga. b) the Plains of Abraham. d) The majority of the inhabitants were born there c) Queenston Heights. d) Montmorency Falls. 43. What tragedy befell French Canada in the mid 1750s? 51. The French colonial period in Canada lasted: a) The Hurons were wiped out by the Iroquois. a) from 1492-1608. b) from 1608-1759. b) The Acadians were expelled from their lands. c) from 1759-1812. d) from 1812-1867. c) France ceded New France to England. d) The fur trade came to an end. 52. The leader of the French forces in the Battle for Quebec was a) François Laval. 44. Which reason best explains why the Acadians were expelled b) Louis de Buade, comte de Frontenac. from Acadia? c) James Wolfe. a) They openly supported the French. d) Louis-Joseph, Marquis de Montcalm. b) They openly supported the Thirteen Colonies. c) They represented a potential threat to British troops in 53. With regards to the geography of British North America, which Acadia. of the following statements are accurate? d) They were a dominant military factor in the French-English I. The Treaty of Utrecht outlined its physical boundaries. wars. II. St. Pierre and Miquelon were important fishing centres in the colony. 45. In the mid-1750s, the British expelled the Acadians from their III. Most of the population of Canada West lived close to the lands because Great Lakes. a) they refused to swear allegiance to the British Crown. IV. Port towns like Montreal and Saint John served the needs b) they were actively resisting British rule. of their hinterlands. c) they planned to support the American Revolution. a) I and II. b) III and IV. d) they were economically backward. c) I, II and III. d) I, II and IV. 54. Under the terms of the Treaty of Paris, what did not become a 62. The Quebec Act of 1774 was intended to British possession in 1763? a) provide democratic government for Quebec. a) Quebec b) Prince Edward Island b) allow seigneurs to vote in an Assembly. c) Cape Breton Island d) Miquelon c) guarantee the Roman Catholic religion and traditional civil laws for French Canadians. 55. When Britain took control of New France, its intentions d) make Quebec like the Thirteen Colonies. regarding the Canadiens, as outlined in the Proclamation Act of 1763, was to 63. The intent of the British in the 1774 Quebec Act was to a) deport them, just like the Acadians. a) assimilate the French Canadians by reducing the size of b) assimilate them into British culture & society. Quebec, introducing an appointed governor and council, and c) allow them to maintain a distinct identity. implementing British common law. d) create a dual society. b) please the French Canadians by enlarging the size of Quebec, establishing freedom of worship, and retaining the 56. With the Proclamation Act of 1763, Britain hoped to seigneurial system. a) assimilate the colonists in New France. c) assimilate the French Canadians by dividing Quebec into b) appease the colonies to the south. Upper and Lower Canada, reserving land to pay for the c) grant the French colonists equal rights. expenses of government and the Protestant Church, and d) force the Aboriginal peoples onto reservations. providing for a free hold land system in Upper Canada. d) please the French Canadians by uniting Upper and Lower 57. The objective of the Proclamation Act of 1763 regarding the Canada, providing for a federal system of government, and Aboriginal peoples could be described as giving the provinces power over direct taxation and a) providing security for the colonists and their allies in the education. event of war. b) placing the Natives on reserves. 64. The coming of the Loyalists created c) assimilating the Native population. a) Upper Canada and Manitoba. d) annihilating the Native population. b) Nova Scotia and Newfoundland. c) Upper Canada and New Brunswick. 58. The Royal Proclamation Act of 1763 showed that the British d) Quebec and Prince Edward Island. attitude at the time was that a) the French in Quebec should be allowed to maintain their 65. What piece of legislation was a response by Great Britain to the distinct identity. influx of the Loyalists? b) a dual society should be created. a) The Proclamation Act. b) The Constitutional Act. c) gradual elimination of the French from Quebec should occur. c) The Act of Union. d) The Quebec Act. d) the French should be assimilated into British society. 66. Why did the British government pass the Constitutional Act of 59. The intent of the British in the 1763 Royal Proclamation Act 1791? was to a) to satisfy the Catholic clergy in Quebec a) assimilate the French Canadians by reducing the size of b) to satisfy the Americans Quebec, introducing an appointed governor and council, and c) because of pressure from the Loyalists implementing British common law. d) all of the above b) please the French Canadians by enlarging the size of Quebec, establishing freedom of worship, and retaining the 67. The Constitutional Act seigneurial system. a) imposed one government for Upper and Lower Canada. c) assimilate the French Canadians by dividing Quebec into b) divided Quebec into Upper and Lower Canada. Upper and Lower Canada, reserving land to pay for the c) is the Constitution for Canada. expenses of government and the Protestant Church, and d) took away all French rights. providing for a free hold land system in Upper Canada d) please the French Canadians by uniting Upper and Lower 68. The most important purpose of the Constitutional Act of 1791 Canada, providing for a federal system of government, and was to giving the provinces power over direct taxation and a) combine Upper and Lower Canada. education. b) combine Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. c) give French Canadians their own laws. 60. The Quebec Act of 1774 d) create two separate colonies, Upper Canada for Loyalists a) denied the religious and political rights of French Canadians and Lower Canada for the French. b) recognized the need to separate French and English Canadians 69. In colonial British North America, the economy was based c) recognized the need to introduce an elected assembly mainly upon d) marked the end of the first attempt to assimilate the French a) minerals, timber and wheat. Canadians b) furs, timber, gold and nickel. c) potash, lumber and manufactured goods. 61. The Quebec Act of 1774 d) wheat, timber, fish and furs. a) denied French rights in British North America. b) allowed the French to take part in government. 70. What was not a reason for the flourishing wheat economy of c) established Upper and Lower Canada. Upper Canada in the 1800s? d) united the two Canada‟s. a) there was a protected market in Great Britain b) Great Britain introduced free trade c) wheat represented a cash crop for the farmer d) an increase in the number of settlers and amount of land in production 71. The pioneer farmer in Upper Canada did all of the following 82. One of the principal causes of the 1837 Rebellions was that in before the first winter except both colonies a) construct a shelter for his family. a) elite ruling groups had emerged. b) harvest his first crop of grain. b) Clergy Reserves were a problem. c) construct a sturdy frame house. c) the French language became an issue. d) make potash from tree ash. d) independence from Britain was desired. 72. The main products British North America sold to Britain in the 83. A principal cause of the rebellions that occurred in the Canadas 1850s were in 1837 was a) wheat, timber and fish. a) economic depression. b) gold, wheat and timber. b) the issue of bilingualism. c) furs, timber and nickel. c) the control of society by elite ruling groups. d) potash, lumber, and iron products. d) all of the above. 73. The chief export of Canada West in the 1850s was 84. The main aim of the Family Compact and the Chateau Clique in a) fish. b) furs. Upper and Lower Canada respectively was to c) wheat. d) farm machinery. a) introduce true responsible government. b) create political democracy. 74. What was not a reason for the importance of the Canadian c) maintain the social, political and economic status quo. timber trade in the 1800s? d) make the colonies independent of Great Britain. a) Shipping cost were lower because of distance b) Britain‟s Royal Navy relied on Canadian timber 85. In the 1837 Rebellions, the issue in Upper Canada was , c) Britain had exhausted her own forests and the issue in Lower Canada was . d) The Napoleonic wars threatened Britain a) ethnic rivalry, religion b) religion, religion 75. The timber trade in British North America: c) religion, ethnic rivalry a) increased employment opportunities d) privilege, ethnic rivalry b) hurt the economy c) caused environmental damage 86. In Upper Canada, the reformers wanted d) was controlled by merchants in Britain a) the Family Compact to run the government. b) French people to speak English. 76. What was not a feature of pioneer life in Upper Canada? c) the United States to annex the Canadas. a) barter was the usual method for transactions d) government to be responsible to the people‟s elected d) potash from wood ash was important representatives. e) shelter was usually a log cabin a) the Catholic Church dominated family life 87. A positive result of the Rebellions of 1837 was a) they made Canada independent. 77. The Church that was granted special privileges and powers in b) they kept the USA from annexing Canada. Upper Canada was the c) they wiped out the Family Compact. a) Roman Catholic Church. b) Anglican Church. d) they alerted the Britain to colonial grievances. c) Baptist Church. d) Mormon Church. 88. In his report to the British gov‟t in 1839, one of Lord Durham‟s 78. The elite society of colonial Canada during the British era main aims was to consisted of a) recommend steps to give Britain tighter control over her a) artisans, government officials, and farmers. North American colonies. b) farmers, religious leaders, and government officials. b) suggest steps that should be taken to assimilate the French c) businessmen, government officials, and religious leaders. Canadians. d) government officials, labourers, and artisans. c) promote American investment in and immigration to Canada. 79. In Upper Canada, the “Family Compact” was d) describe ways in which French language and cultural a) a ruling group of prominent, wealthy citizens. rights in could be protected. b) the executive council, formed by members of the same family. 89. Something that was not an economic factor that helped to c) a group of men who worked closely together to reform the promote Confederation was the colony‟s government. a) cancellation of the Reciprocity Treaty. d) the governor‟s family from Great Britain. b) repeal of the Corn Laws by Great Britain. c) US desire to annex British North America. 80. The leader of the Patriotes in Lower Canada was d) barriers to inter-colonial trade in BNA. a) William Lyon Mackenzie. b) Lord Durham. c) Louis Joseph Papineau. d) the Marquis de Montcalm. 90. When the American Civil War ended in 1865: a) the British built fortresses along the border to defend the 81. The leader of the Reformers in Upper Canada was colonies from American invasion. a) William Lyon Mackenzie. b) Lord Durham. b) the British built the Welland and Rideau canals to move c) Louis Joseph Papineau. d) James Wolfe. troops more easily. c) the colonial governments forced able young men to form an army. d) there was increased support for a political union of the colonies to help resist a possible American invasion. 91. Fenian invasions in the 1860s accelerated unification for It was not without tears that we left the country which defence. Who were the Fenians? possessed our hearts and engaged our hopes: and which a) American fur traders who came to the West to trade even now, reddened with the glorious blood of our brethren, illegally with the Aboriginal peoples promised us a like happiness and opened to us the way to b) American Indians who tried to relocate in Canada after Heaven and the gate of Paradise. they were driven out of the U.S. c) former slave owners from the southern U.S. who entered 98. The above quotation from The Jesuit Relations indicates that Canada illegally to track down fleeing slaves the Jesuits: d) Irish-Americans who hoped to promote Ireland‟s a) were happy to leave New France independence from England by attacking the British North b) were fearful of the threat to their lives American colonies c) were willing to die for their faith & salvation d) wanted to destroy their enemies 92. Which of the following factors did not help to promote Confederation? My Dearest Brother: May Our Lord be ever in your heart! It is a) The implementation of the British Corn Laws. by no means easy to steal these few precious moments for a b) American feelings of Manifest Destiny. few words with you. So many things are clamoring to be done c) The construction of canals and railways in British North immediately that I must make my letter short. Things have America. reached such a stage here now that we have to work d) The political deadlock in Canada. unceasingly and harder than before. The Hurons of this part of the country have in the last year, driven to the utmost, been 93. Which of the following was not a defence consideration that sorely oppressed by the Iroquois. Last year they lost two of helped to promote Confederation? their towns, and during the past winter four more of their a) American feelings of Manifest Destiny strongholds were captured and laid waste. b) deteriorating relations between the US and Britain c) the repeal of the British Corn Laws 99. This letter would most likely have been written by: d) deteriorating relations between the US and British North a) a coureur de bois labouring west of the Ottawa River America b) a habitant farmer living near Montreal c) a Jesuit priest in the missions near the Great Lakes 94. Before Confederation, “Canada” referred only to part(s) of what d) the governor Champlain is now a) Ontario. b) Ontario and Quebec. c) Quebec. d) Ont., Que., NS & NB. I The way of life of the Aboriginal peoples involved in the fur trade was greatly changed. 95. Before Confederation, the word “Canada” referred to a) only part of what we now call Ontario. II Competition over the fur trade led to wars involving both b) only part of what we now call Quebec, including Acadia. Aboriginal peoples and Europeans. c) parts of Ontario, Quebec and the western lands. d) parts of what we now call Ontario and Quebec. III The search for furs led to the exploration of the Great Lakes and the Mississippi Valley. In 1619 Champlain sent to France for a number of materials for IV The fur trade led millions of people to settle in New the new colony of New France. His list included...mattresses, France. beds, muskets, scythes, hammers, spades, pickaxes, bricks, bowls, plates, jugs, copper pots and frying pans. 100. Which statements correctly describe results of the fur trade in 96. Based on the list, Champlain‟s main purpose in setting up the New France? colony seems to have been to a) I and IV only b) III and IV only a) expand the fur trade across North America. c) I, II and III d) I, II, III and IV b) prepare for war against England. c) increase missionary activities of the church. …they deserted the settlement…by this abandonment they d) establish a permanent settlement. retarded agriculture, crippled industry, played havoc with the labours of the missionaries, undermined commercial (Sketch January 2002) development, diminished religious feeling, threatened the defence of the colony… 97. Samuel de Champlain made this sketch of the 1609 battle between the French and the Iroquois to illustrate his memoirs. 101. The “they” in the quote above refers to This sketch is important to historians because a) Chinese labourers. a) sketches are less biased sources of information that b) the Huron First Nations. memoirs. c) Loyalists fleeing the America. b) sketches often reveal valuable details on the position of d) the coureur-de-bois. troops, their dress, the terrain, etc. c) little of the information revealed by the sketch can be found by consulting other sources. d) the sketch gives us an accurate estimate of the number of men who fought on each side in the battle. The King has heard with pleasure…that of the 165 women who 108. Which of the following statements is most likely true about the arrived last year there remained but 15 to be married…and that colony if others were like Oudy? the soldiers, having worked on the habitations, are capable of a) The population was declining rapidly. marrying. To this effect, His Majesty has taken the measures b) There was a surplus of wheat. necessary to send 150 women this year. I am sure that as c) Land that could have been used to grow crops for sale was soon as they arrive you will see that they are established and left unused. married to…soldiers and other inhabitants…I have given the d) Many settlers were neglecting their farms to trade furs. necessary orders so that those chosen will be healthy and strong. I Most of the European settlers in Acadia were of French background. 102. The women mentioned were being sent to New France to become II Control over Acadia changed several times as a result of a) missionary workers. b) wives and mothers. wars between France and England. c) fur traders. d) nurses. III Most Acadians were farmers or fishermen. 103. This report is mainly about efforts to a) lower the population of France. IV Acadia included all of present-day Nova Scotia, Prince b) slow down the growth of the fur trade. Edward Island and part of New Brunswick. c) give French women a chance to see new lands. d) increase the population of New France. 109. The Statement(s) that give accurate information about Acadia is(are) 104. The report illustrates the fact that final authority for decisions a) I only. b) II only. about the colony belonged to the c) III and IV. d) I, II, III and IV. a) King‟s chief minister. b) Intendant of New France. c) soldiers of New France. d) King of France. The French Canadians...did not feel that hard work for the purpose of making money in itself was important. When the off spring of these Filles du Roi came of age 20 Consequently, if the Canadian habitant found that he could years later, the demographic situation had changed. In 1663 provide for his basic needs without too much effort, he would there had been one woman to every 6 men; now the sexes devote his extra time, not to making more money, but to were roughly equal in number. The colony thereafter enjoying himself. replenished 95% of its numbers through childbirth. Edward H. Borins, Canada in the Days of New France (Toronto, 1971) 105. New France developed a uniquely French Canadian character because 110. Which of the following statements about habitants is supported a) the King‟s Daughters emigrated from France. by the above quote? b) Louis XIV ruled the colony from Paris. a) They grew only enough crops for themselves. c) a high birth rate rather than immigration was mainly b) They had an endless love of money. responsible for population growth. c) They worked hard all the time. d) most colonists had come from France. d) They never worked, but only played. It was estimated that what with festivals and various religious 111. If the view of habitants expressed in the above passage is observances he did not have more than ninety days available accurate, the “saying” with which they would likely agree is: for labour between spring thaw and autumn freeze-up. (Some a) “Never put off until tomorrow what you can do today.” nineteen saints’ days eventually were stricken from the b) “All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.” calendar in order to provide him with more working time). c) “He who hesitates is lost.” d) “Time is money.” 106. The “him” referred to in the last line would have been a(n): a) habitant. B) union member. I It was touched off in North America by rivalry between c) entrepreneur. D) coureur-de-bois. the French and English for greater control of the fur trade. According to the census of 1752 in Acadia, Claude Oudy was a fisherman and ploughman who had lived in Acadia for 30 II It was a war between the English and French fought only years. He and his wife Angelique had 8 children - 2 sons and in North America. 6 daughters. They owned 1 ox, 6 cows, 2 sheep, 1 pig and 56 chickens. They cleared enough land to plant 2 bushels of III It brought an end to French rule in North America. wheat but they had enough uncleared land for 10 times that amount. IV It took place after the American Revolution. 107. If Oudy and his family were typical, what conclusions can be 112. Accurate information about the Seven Years‟ War is given in made about Acadia in 1752? a) I only. b) I and II. a) Its economy was based on fishing and farming c) I and III. d) I, II, III and IV. b) It was warlike and wanted to fight Britain c) It had many cities and large towns d) It was running out of farmland England imposed by the sword on reluctant Canada the boon 117. The passage above refers to the of rational and ordered liberty. a) 1763 Royal Proclamation Act. b) 1774 Quebec Act. 113. The quotation refers to c) 1791 Constitutional Act. a) the arrival of Wolseley‟s force in Red River in 1870. d) 1867 British North America Act. b) the conquest of New France in 1763. c) the expulsion of the Canadians in 1753. 118. The passage implies that the Act in question attempted to d) the defeat of the Metis in 1885. a) please both the French and English in Quebec. b) pacify the French in Quebec. c) compel the English to accept French civil law. “He who has conquered by force has only half vanquished his d) pacify the English in Canada. enemy"”(Francis-Xavier Garneau, 1828) “A happier calamity never befell a people than the conquest of When a settler was given land in Upper Canada in the early Canada by the British arms.” (Francis Parkman, 1874) 1800s he usually received a “location ticket” which told him where his land was located and what his responsibilities were. “The wound of 1760 has never been closed completely.” Part of a location ticket issued in Perth County in 1816 is (Lionel Groulx, 1922) reproduced here. The Condition of this Location is such, that if the above named 114. The three statements dealing with the conquest of Canada in , is not residing upon, and improving the 1760 are good examples of historical above described lot, clearing and putting in crops at least four a) fact. b) denial. acres yearly, then this Title to be void and of no effect, and c) objectivity. d) interpretation. subject to be immediately re-granted. Reproduced in E.C.Guillet, Pioneer Days in Upper Canada The passage below is adapted from a letter written in 1764 by (Toronto, 1964) General James Murray, who had just been appointed Governor of Quebec. He was writing to the colonial officials in the 119. The requirements printed on this part of the ticket were English government. intended to a) make it possible for a settler to keep his land even if he did It will take very little to make the French Canadians happy. But not want to live on it for a few years. nothing will satisfy the British merchants trading here, except to b) make the settler understand that he must live on his land and expel the French Canadians, who are perhaps the bravest and begin clearing and farming it. best race on earth. If the French could be given a few c) make it possible for a settler to acquire several lots and sell privileges which the laws of England deny to Roman Catholics them later to newcomers wanting to settle in the area. at home, they would soon get over their great dislike of their d) tell the settler how he should go about clearing his land and conquerors, and become the most faithful and useful men in what crops he should plant. British North America… And I am certain that unless the French Canadians are allowed 120. What would happen if the settler did not meet his to serve on juries, and given judges and lawyers who responsibilities? He would understand their language, his Majesty will lose the support of a) be jailed and his land granted to another settler. most of these valuable people. b) be allowed to sell his land back to the government. c) have to sell his land to another settler. 115. After reading this passage, it appears that Governor Murray d) lose possession of his land and it would be granted to a) wanted to let the French Canadians use their own language another settler. in the courts. b) felt that the French Canadians should be persuaded to give I In Upper Canada in the 1830s, most people were up their religion. farmers. c) had always disliked the French Canadians. d) wanted to protect the French Canadians‟ language and II Upper Canada in the 1830s had great sources of water religion against the orders of the officials in England. for transportation and power. The colony’s future was rosy. 116. Which of the following seems to be Governor Murray‟s opinion about conditions in Quebec? III Life in the lumber camps of Upper Canada in the 1830s a) He wanted to win the support of the British merchants. was often rough and dangerous. They were places to be b) He wanted to win the support of the French Canadians but avoided. felt it would be very hard to do so. c) He felt it would be quite easy to win the support of the IV In the 1830 potash making was an important source of French Canadians. income for farmers in Upper Canada. d) He thought the French Canadians and the British merchants had learned to live in harmony. 121. The statement(s) of opinion about aspects of life in Upper Canada as well as facts about the colony is(are) The ensuing Act attempted to resolve the confusion in the legal a) I. b) I and II. system resulting from the Proclamation. French civil laws, the c) II and III. d) I and IV. “Custom of Paris” – those that were in force at the time of the Conquest – were to be used. English criminal law, instituted 122. The statement which would most likely convince immigrants by the Proclamation, was to continue in use. The seigneurial that they should consider settling in Upper Canada in order to system was retained, but provisions were also made for the enjoy a successful future is freehold tenure for those British subjects who might a) I. b) II. c) III. d) IV. contemplate immigration to Quebec. 123. Assuming that the information contained in these statements is 128. Based on the information provided in this passage, which of accurate, the most logical conclusion that one can draw from the following would-be settlers do you think would have the them is that in the 1830s best chance of success in Canada West? a) Upper Canada was a highly developed colony with many a) a Welsh tin-miner with a wife and four children large cities and towns. b) the operator of a power-loom in a textile factory in b) the economy of Upper Canada was based mainly on England agriculture and lumbering. c) a young English blacksmith who has saved enough money c) there were few roads in Upper Canada. to open his own shop d) the people of Upper Canada were rich and successful. d) a Scottish shepherd who wished to continue his profession in Canada I In November of 1837, French Patriotes and anti-French British groups rioted in the streets of Montreal. 129. Which of these statements about the passage is most accurate? a) Mrs. Traill presented factual information without II The Rebellion of 1837 probably taught the French revealing her own opinion about the regions. Canadians to respect British authority. b) Mrs. Traill used information about the region to paint a very positive picture of it. III The French-Canadian blood that was spilled during the c) Mrs. Traill used information about the region to Rebellion in Lower Canada was necessary in order to discourage setters from going there. guarantee French rights and culture. d) Mrs. Traill gave a favourable opinion of the region but provided no information to back it up. IV Lower Canada rebels were defeated by British troops at St. Eustache in December 1837. Essays 124. Which of the statements provide only factual information? “The fur trade was the basis of the early economy of New France and a) II only. b) III only. caused its expansion across North America, yet it eventually led to c) I and IV. d) II and III. military conflicts and the downfall of the French empire in North America.” Expand on this statement, supporting your answer with 125. Which of the statements present opinions about the Rebellion the following details: in Lower Canada? how and why the fur trade system developed in New France, a) I only. b) II and III. how and why the fur trade led to the addition of territory (give c) I and II. d) I and IV. examples), why the British North American trade became a threat and how 126. Which of the statements would most likely arouse French competition led to violence and ultimately the conquest of New Canadian pride? France. a) I b) II c) III d) IV Account for the large physical size of the colony of New France and The following is an excerpt from a book written by Catherine its relatively small population. In your answer, Parr Traill and published in 1855. Mrs. Traill was an indicate reasons for the territorial growth of New France, Englishwoman with twenty-two years of pioneering experience indicate reasons for its slow population growth, and who wished to advise and inform would-be immigrants of the explain how New France entered into a growth phase which it conditions they would likely experience in what is now Ontario. was unable to sustain. …the most eligible(suitable) part of Canada for emigrants “Several institutions played major roles in the development of desiring to buy wild land, is the western portion of the Upper French-Canadian society in the colonial period.” Expand on this idea Province(Canada West)…that peninsula that lies between the by explaining the contributions and impact of great waters of Lakes Ontario, Erie, Huron and the smaller the church, Lake Simcoe. Railroads, and public works are being carried the seigneurial system, and on in this part of the country; the land is of the richest and most government in New France. fertile description, and the climate is less severe. The new townships afford excellent chances for mechanics (skilled “The seigneurial system in New France was a landholding system workers) settling in small villages, where such trades as the based upon the feudal system of Europe. It involved obligations on shoemaker, blacksmith, carpenter, wheelwright and other, are the part of all the parties involved.” Expand on this statement by much needed…It is a good thing for those who grow up with a explaining new place: they are sure to become rich men. the purpose of the seigneurial system, the obligations of seigneurs, and 127. Mrs. Traill‟s opinion seems to be that settlers coming to the obligations of habitants. Canada West in the mid-1880s a) will likely be successful if they choose their location “The `winds of change‟ often forced Britain to alter its methods of carefully and are skilled workers. governing its colonies. Such was the case in British North America b) have an equal chance of success no matter where they settle. with the Canadiens and the Loyalists.” Explain this statement by c) are unlikely to be successful, so should plan to move on. comparing and contrast the Quebec Act of 1774 with the d) can expect an easy time and quick success. Constitutional Act of 1791 with regards to government, legal system, landholding system, and religion. UNIT 3 POLITICS AND GOVERNMENT 10. In the 1830s, the governors of British North American colonies were responsible to the 1. Prior to European contact, the method used by most Aboriginal a) Executive Council. b) Legislative Council. peoples to make decisions was to c) British Government. d) Legislative Assembly. a) accept the chief‟s decision. b) accept the decision of the chief and council. 11. The Family Compact & Chateau Clique wanted c) vote and accept the majority decision. a) to introduce responsible government to the Canadas. d) arrive at a decision by consensus. b) to delay the introduction of responsible government. c) to introduce republican ideas into government. 2. A strength of the Aboriginal systems of government is d) to introduce democratic ideas into government. a) they allow for a great deal of independence. b) they are inflexible. 12. Which statement would most likely have been made by a c) only women can participate. member of the Family Compact? d) they are tightly organized. a) “Gov‟t positions should be open equally to rich and poor, provided they have honesty, intelligence and the support of 3. Despite varying systems of government among the different the voters.” Aboriginal groups, there were two characteristics that were b) “Gov‟t should be left to those whose wealth, position, and common to them all: family background make them suited to the task.” a) the family was the basic unit of government and societies c) “Everyone over 40 should be allowed to vote and hold enjoyed a great deal of local independence and freedom government positions.” b) hunting bands, consisting of two adult males and their d) “The sons and daughters of gov‟t officials should be allowed immediate families, made and enforced their own rules to inherit their positions.” and met with others in large annual gatherings c) several families descended from a common female 13. A positive result of the Rebellions of 1837 was that ancestor made up clans and village councils were a) they made Canada independent. dominated by men b) they kept the United States from annexing Canada. d) a grand chief presided over lesser chiefs and majority rule c) they wiped out the Family Compact. was traditional d) they alerted Britain to colonial grievances. 4. The situation in New France was that 14. The passing of the 1849 Rebellion Losses Bill was important in a) women held important government positions . the achievement of responsible government because it: b) the King of France ruled by “divine right.” a) provided for payment to people in Lower Canada who had c) intendant François Bigot governed in a paternalistic fashion. suffered losses d) habitants elected seigneurs and governors. b) was signed in the Legislature of the Canadas by the Governor General, Lord Elgin 5. Under Royal Government, the administration of New France c) prompted a Tory mob to stone the Governor General and consisted of burn the Parliament buildings a) governor, intendant, bishop, and sovereign council. d) showed that the Governor General was prepared to accept b) governor and sovereign council. the wishes of the people‟s elected representatives in spite c) governor and elected legislative assembly. of the Tories d) prime minister and elected cabinet. 15. The Governor who took the final step toward establishing 6. Government under royal control in New France was in the responsible government by signing the Rebellion Losses Bill of hands of 1849 was a) governor, intendant, biship and sovereign council. a) Lord Durham. b) Sir Francis Bond-Head. b) prime minister and cabinet. c) Lord Elgin. d) William Lyon Mackenzie. c) governor only. d) officials of the fur trading companies. 16. One of the requirements of responsible government is that a) cabinet ministers come from all the political parties in the 7. The French colonial government was considered to be Assembly (Parliament). “paternalistic,” meaning that it b) the Governor General uses his/her influence during a) had no interest in the welfare of the people. elections. b) acted in a dictatorial fashion. c) cabinet ministers do not have to be picked from the c) derived its powers from the people. Assembly (Parliament). d) regulated prices, set standards for consumer goods and d) the Governor General accepts the advice of the cabinet looked after the welfare of society. even if he/she disagrees with it. 8. Something that was not a feature of British colonial government 17. What caused the political deadlock of the 1850s and 1860s in was the Canadas? a) a House of Lords. b) universal suffrage. a) There were more English-speaking than French-speaking c) patronage. d) free speech. members in the assembly. b) No political party had a large enough majority in the 9. What is the correct chronological order for the following Acts? assembly to remain in power. a) Proclamation Act, Quebec Act, Act of Union, Constitutional Act c) No political party had a satisfactory leader. b) Proclamation Act, Quebec Act, Constitutional Act, Act of Union d) The governor of the Canadas refused to approve c) Constitutional Act, Act of Union, Quebec Act, Proclamation Act legislation passed in the assembly. d) Quebec Act, Act of Union, Proclamation Act, Constitutional Act 18. Which of the following statements is most likely to have been 27. The basic ideas of the BNA Act are contained in the phrase made by A.A. Dorion, a French- Canadian politician opposed a) “liberty or death.” to Canada East‟s joining Confederation? b) “liberty, equality, fraternity.” a) “I hope we shall be some day a great British North c) “peace, order and good government.” American Confederation.” d) “life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.” b) “A great advantages of Confederation is, that we shall have a united system of defence.” 28. The BNA Act was passed by the c) “Sooner or later, the central gov‟t of Canada will fall into a) federal government of Canada. the hands of a hostile English majority, which will destroy b) parliament of Great Britain. our way of life.” c) provincial governments of Canada. d) “Confederation might at first cause some problems, but d) federal and colonial governments of British our long-range destiny is to be part of British North North America. America.” 29. The document that forms the main written part of Canada‟s 19. The question of a confederation of the colonies of British North constitution is the America arose as a result of a) Act of Union. b) Declaration of Independence. a) political problems in the Canadas. c) Constitutional Act. d) British North America Act. b) military needs. c) economic difficulties. 30. The name for Canada‟s current constitution is d) all of the above. a) BNA Act b) The Magna Carta c) Canada Act d) Charter of Rights and Freedoms 20. Confederation in 1867 was partially caused by a) Canadian trade agreements with the US. 31. Which of the following was not a new provision in the Canada b) the completion of the CPR. Act of 1982? c) the Manitoba Rebellion and Riel‟s List of Rights. a) the Charter of Rights and Freedoms d) British hesitation to defend its British North American b) a clear division of power between the federal and provincial colonies. governments c) the protection of existing Aboriginal rights 21. Which of the following was not a reason for establishing a d) the principle of equalization for all Canadians centralized federal system in Canada? a) It was needed to establish a prosperous nation in British 32. Canada‟s government can be described as a North America. a) representative democracy b) It was needed to unite colonies which were not used to b) constitutional monarchy managing their own local affairs. c) party system c) It was needed to control a large area effectively. d) all of the above d) It was needed to unite colonies which had different cultural interests. 33. The notion that a Prime Minister and his/her cabinet must have the support of the elected members of the people is known as: 22. “Confederation” refers to the event that a) republican government. b) responsible government. a) created Upper and Lower Canada. c) federalism d) representative government. b) established the United Nations. c) ended French rule in Canada. 34. Which characteristic of Canadian government did not come d) established the Dominion of Canada. about as a result of American influence? a) the method of choosing the leader of government 23. With respect to Confederation b) the existence of a written constitution a) support for it increased with the end of the US Civil War c) the role of the Senate as a regional rep. as many hoped union might deter an American invasion. d) the existence of a federal system b) the implementation of the British Corn Laws was a major economic consideration in prompting the union of the 35. The aspect of the American political system that was adopted British North American colonies. by Canada was the c) those who drew up the plans to unite the colonies adopted a) two party system. what seemed to them to be the best features of b) federal system. government in France and Great Britain. c) office of the Governor General. d) Canada East, Canada West, Nova Scotia and New d) process of electing senators. Brunswick officially became the republic of Canada. 36. All but one of the following aspects of our government came 24. On July 1. 1867, Canada officially became a(n) about as a result of American influence. The exception is a) colony. b) dominion. a) a federal system. c) independent nation. d) republic. b) a written constitution. c) the role of the Senate as a regional representative. 25. The Dominion of Canada was officially “born” d) the method of choosing the cabinet. a) January 1, 1867. b) May 24, 1867. c) July 1, 1867. d) July 4, 1867. 37. In drawing up plans for a union of the colonies, the Fathers of Confederation adopted what seemed to them to be the best 26. The British North America Act was passed in features of government a) 1767. b) 1867. a) in Great Britain and France. c) 1967. d) 1982. b) in Great Britain and the United States. c) in Great Britain and Germany. d) in France and the United States. 38. The concept of federalism originally came from 48. With respect to the division of powers, which statement is a) Great Britain. b) France. false? c) the USA. d) the Fathers of Confederation. a) The federal government operates penitentiaries; the provinces operate jails 39. Several aspects of Canada‟s political system resulted from b) The federal government controls banking; the provinces British influence, including control currency I. the existence of political parties. c) The federal government amends the Criminal Code; the II. the two houses of parliament. provinces administer justice III. the adoption of a federal system. d) The federal government issues bonds; the provinces issue IV. the existence of a written constitution. bonds a) I and III b) III and IV c) I, II and III d) I, III and IV 49. The Fathers of Confederation intended this to be the strongest part of government: 40. A federal system of government exists where a) Senate b) House of Commons a) a Prime Minister is head of government. c) Governor General d) Provincial Governments b) the powers of government are divided. c) powers of the government are held by courts. 50. Which of the following measures does not show the intent of d) one level of government has all the power. the BNA Act to ensure that the central government be stronger than regional governments? 41. Which statement best defines federalism? a) federal-provincial conferences were held annually a) It is a form of constitutional monarchy. b) power of disallowance was given to the central government b) It is government headed by a prime minister within a c) lieutenant governors were to be appointed by the central parliamentary system. government c) It divides authority between a House of Commons and an a) residual powers belonged to the central government elected Senate. d) It divides authority between one central and several 51. According to the BNA Act, residual powers could best be regional governments. described as a) the specified powers of the federal government. 42. In establishing federalism, a problem faced by the Fathers of b) powers given to the provincial governments. Confederation was how to c) the right of the federal government to control all unassigned a) divide powers between the 2 levels of government. powers. b) provide for the creation of municipal government. d) the right of the provinces to control all unassigned powers. c) determine who could vote. d) set up an equitable system of representation by population. 52. Who, officially, is the head of state in Canada? a) a monarch b) a Governor General 43. Which of the following pairs of men had contrasting views of c) a Prime Minister d) the Senate the division of powers in the BNA Act? a) Mowat and Mackenzie 53. In Canada, the monarch can be described as b) Macdonald and Mackenzie a) dictator. b) supreme ruler. c) Macdonald and Riel c) advisor. d) figurehead. d) Macdonald and Mowat 54. Elizabeth II is Queen of Canada, meaning that she 44. As a result of Oliver Mowat‟s challenges of federal powers a) must write and deliver the Speech from the Throne to a) the federal government became even more powerful. open Parliament. b) the federal-provincial relationship changed. b) is the symbolic head of our government. c) the power of the Ontario government was clearly limited. c) personally decides whom to appoint as Prime Minister or d) the powers of municipal governments were defined. Governor-General. d) has the power to change laws passed by the federal 45. Which of the following statements is false? Parliament. a) Canada was formed by an act of British parliament in 1867 b) Only four provinces joined in Confederation in 1867 55. Representation in the H of C is based on c) Canada “borrowed” the parliamentary system from the US a) regionalism. d) Parties of the right tend to support business interests b) provincial equity. c) population. 46. Which of the following are federal responsibilities? d) a complex formula giving Ontario and Quebc ½ the seats. a) water supply, garbage pick-up, snow removal b) defence, banking, education, drivers‟ licenses 56. The Senate‟s function is to represent: c) education, Medicare, police, fire protection a) business interests. b) Crown‟s interests. d) post office, defence, banking, child tax benefit c) people‟s interests. d) regional interests. 47. Which of the following are provincial responsibilities? 57. The legislative branch of government has the power to a) water supply, garbage pick-up, snow removal a) make laws. b) carry out laws. b) defence, banking, education c) enforce laws. d) interpret laws. c) highways, health, education d) highways, health, banking 58. Which one of the following is a statement of fact, rather than 66. A political party‟s ideas or policies are refereed to as opinion, about the causes of Quebec separatism in 1970? a) backbenchers. b) a platform. a) Rene Levesque‟s desire for power was the main cause of c) a caucus. d) a coalition. Quebec separatism. b) Quebec did not have enough power to protect and advance 67. How many major federal parties are there in Canada? the French language and culture. a) two. b) three. c) The kidnapping of British Trade Commissioner James c) four. d) five. Cross helped the cause of separatism. d) In 1967 President Charles De Gaulle made a speech in 68. Many “Third Parties” emerged during the Great Depression. Montreal supporting Quebec separatism. Generally, they rose in response to specific problems and remained active mainly on a local level. Which party has been 59. Quebec refused to go along with the compromise reached by the exception? Ottawa and the other nine provinces to bring the Constitution a) the Communist Party to Canada in 1981 because b) the Union Nationale Party a) they wanted to maintain close ties with Britain. c) the Rhinoceros Party b) their language requests were not guaranteed. d) the New Democratic Party c) the amending formula did not give Quebec veto power. d) they were waiting for the Meech Lake Accord. 69. The party responsible for holding referendums on Quebec‟s future in 1980 and 1995 was the 60. Which of the following is not considered to have contributed to a) Parti Québecois. b) Bloc Québecois. feelings of Western alienation? c) Liberal Party. d) Reform Party. a) the Official Languages Act b) Medicare 70. “Left,” “right,” and “centre” are terms used to c) the National Energy Policy a) refer to the seating in the House of Commons. d) the question of Senate Reform b) refer to the seating in the Senate. c) classify the political philosophies of parties. 61. The development of feelings of Western alienation from the d) classify a political party‟s structure. central government is mainly a result of a) the need for western Canada to develop resources. 71. Parties of the “right” do not favour b) the policy of allowing Asian immigrants into Canada. a) less government intervention. c) resentment over Aboriginal land rights. b) a reduction in government debt. d) a perception that Ontario and Quebec dominate the country c) the implementation of social programs. politically and economically. d) free enterprise. 62. When political leaders in Canada discuss constitutional 72. Persons on the right side of the political spectrum would amendments, they agree that a) favor government intervention, social welfare programs a) powers of the federal government should increase. and less economic dependence on the U.S. b) the BNA Act should be abolished. b) be members of the NDP. c) the present constitution should be protected. c) make up the population of Western Canada. d) some aspects of the constitution need to change to suit d) favor free enterprise, less government, and a reduction in present day situations. the national debt. 63. A major preoccupation of Canadian federalism today is 73. A person with a right wing political philosophy would most a) the need to develop an effective national economy of likely be in favour of transcontinental proportions. a) government ownership of industry. b) the need to find a satisfactory relationship between the b) tightening government regulations on gun ownership and French and English speaking communities. use. c) the need to develop a more effective means to resist c) a return to the death penalty for convicted murderers. foreign investment in Canada. d) removing the monarch‟s likeness from our currency and d) an increase in federal government powers to control the stamps. quality and quantity of education in Canada. 74. Of the following parties, the one that is classified as being left 63. In Canada, the term “federalist” is usually used to describe a wing is the person who a) Canadian Alliance. b) Social Credit Party. a) wants a federal union with the USA. c) NDP. d) PC Party. b) would like to see Canada become a republic. c) wants to see Quebec remain a province. 75. Traditionally, the strongest supporters of the NDP have been d) supports the separation of Quebec. a) voters in Quebec. b) voters in rural Alberta. c) labour unions. d) western separatists. 64. In a federal election in Canada, the person who wins the most votes in a constituency becomes a 76. What is the name for the beliefs of parties? a) city councilor. b) Member of Parliament. a) platform b) hansard c) Senator. d)Member of the Legislative Assembly. c) lobby d) special interest 65. “A group of people who share similar political values and goals 77. Which party would most likely advocate decreased spending and who want to form the government” describes on bilingualism and multiculturalism to bring down the deficit? a) a trade union. b) a political party. a) NDP b) Canadian Alliance Party c) a protest group. d) a lobbying organization. c) PC Party d) Liberal Party 78. One proposed solution to the increasing budgetary surplus is to 86. The Prime Minister of Canada is have the federal government subsidize a national day care I. the leader of a political party. program. This solution would most likely be supported by a II. the representative of the British monarch in Canada. member of the III. a Member of Parliament representing one constituency. a) Conservative Party. b) New Democratic Party. IV. the person who has received more votes that anyone else b) Canadian Alliance. d) Rhinoceros Party. in the House of Commons. a) I and II b) I and III 77. Economic planning and equality, rather than private enterprise c) I, II and IV d) I, III and IV and competition are tenets of a) Mercantilism. b) continentalism. 87. Who was Canada‟s first Prime Minister? c) capitalism. d) socialism. a) Macdonald b) Laurier c) Borden d) King 78. Aberhart is to the Social Credit party as a) Woodsworth is the to CCF. 88. Who was Canada‟s first French-Canadian PM? b) Turner is to the Liberals. a) Macdonald b) Laurier c) Mulroney is to the Conservatives. c) King d) Trudeau d) Broadbent is to the NDP. 89. Who negotiated a compromise to the Manitoba Schools 79. Which of the following are not correctly linked? Question? a) Jean Chretien – Liberal Party a) Macdonald b) Laurier b) William Aberhart – Social Credit Party c) Bennett d) Borden c) William Lyon Mackenzie King – Conservative Party d) William Woodworth – Cooperative Commonwealth 90. Who supported reciprocity in the 1911 election? Federation a) Macdonald b) Laurier c) Borden d) Mulroney 80. Which of the following are not correctly linked? a) Lester Pearson – Canadian flag 91. The policy that Sir Wilfred Laurier and the Liberal Party b) Pierre Elliot Trudeau – War Measures Act supported in the 1911 election was c) John Diefenbaker – Charter of Rights and Freedoms a) annexation. d) Brian Mulroney – North American Free Trade Agreement b) a trade ban on foreign goods. c) high tariffs on American manufactured goods. 81. MPs and MLAs usually vote according to d) reciprocity. a) their own conscience. b) the influence of the press. 92. Which one of the following election slogans was used by the c) the preference of their constituents. Liberal Party? d) the decision of their party. a) “Better Pensions for All.” (1963) b) “The Old Man, the Old Flag, the Old Policy.” (1891) 82. Riel‟s execution and the Conscription Crisis led to a severe loss c) “A Vote for Laurier is a Vote for the Kaiser.” (1917) of popularity for the d) “A Vote for Borden is a Vote for King and Flag and a) Conservative Party in Quebec. Country.” (1911) b) Conservative Party in Ontario. c) Liberal Party in Quebec. 93. Which of the following election slogans was used by the d) Liberal Party in Ontario. Conservative Party? a) “No Truck nor Trade with the Yankees.” (1911) 83. A direct political consequence of Sir John A. Macdonald‟s b) “It‟s King or Chaos.” (1935) decision to proceed with Riel‟s execution was c) “Peace, Progress and Pearson.” (1957) a) western alienation from the Conservative Party. d) “Trudeau and One Canada.” (1968) b) Liberal Party success in Ontario. c) the splitting of the Conservatives and their loss in the next 94. Who supported conscription in the 1917 federal election? election. a) Macdonald b) Laurier d) the Conservative Party‟s being frozen out of Quebec for c) Borden d) Trudeau decades. 95. Who was PM when the Japanese-Canadians were relocated? 84. The Prime Minister is a) Macdonald b) Laurier a) the leader of a political party. c) Borden d) King b) an MLA representing one constituency. c) the representative of the Queen in Canada. 96. The Prime Minister responsible for patriating Canada‟s d) all of the above. constitution in 1982 was a) John G. Diefenbaker. b) Lester B. Pearson. 85. The Prime Minister of Canada is the leader c) Pierre Elliot Trudeau. d) Brian Mulroney. a) who has personally received more votes than any other leader. 97. John Diefenbaker is to the Bill of Rights as Pierre Elliot b) who has received more votes than any other member of Trudeau is to the his/her party. a) Meech Lake Accord. c) of the party with the most seats in the House of Commons. b) Statute of Westminster. d) of the party that has received the most votes. c) Charter of Rights and Freedoms. d) North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 98. Which of the following events was not associated with the 109. When historians speak of Quebec‟s “Quiet Revolution,” they Mackenzie King era? are referring to a) the depression a) changes brought about by Jean Lesage‟s Liberals in the b) the old age pension early 1960s c) the Klondike Gold Rush b) changes brought about under PM Trudeau‟s leadership of d) the conscription crisis of World War II the Liberals from 1968-1979 c) changes brought about under René Lévesque‟s leadership 99. The longest lasting and arguably the most significant of Prime of the PQ after 1976 Minister Pierre Trudeau‟s accomplishments was the d) Pierre LaPorte‟s death and other events related to the FLQ a) Free Trade Agreement. Crisis b) patriation of the BNA Act. c) Goods and Services Tax. 110. The 1970 “October Crisis” in Quebec refers to d) National Energy Policy. a) the election of a government determined to bring about the province‟s separation from Canada. 100. The activities of pressure groups may clash with democratic b) trouble caused in Canada by a foreign leader who publicly principles because such activities supported the idea of separation. a) disrupt free and open elections c) disputes that arose when the Quebec government made b) act as a check on government Members of Parliament French the province‟s official language. c) favour minority groups that have power and influence d) a series of violent acts carried out by a radical group to d) identify areas of dissatisfaction with government policy promote independence and change. 101. The practice of appointing people to government jobs on a 111. The War Measures Act is basis other than merit is know as a) a law giving special powers to the federal government a) patronage. b) bribery. during emergencies c) nepotism. d) filibustering. b) a plan to prevent a province from leaving Confederation c) a guideline for conscripting individuals for the armed 102. Patronage could be defined as the forces during war time a) favors a government gives to its friends. d) a means of protecting Canadians‟ civil rights b) donations made by large corporations to the government. c) time workers contribute to a political party. 112. The passage of the War Measures Act in 1970 created a d) collection of donations by a political party. conflict between a) national security and civil liberties. 103. Civil Servants in Canada b) Canada and the United States. a) are government employees, not elected officials c) rights of the federal government and the provinces. b) have the legislative powers in government. d) the PM of Canada and the premier of Quebec. c) exist only at the federal level. d) must resign if a new party is elected. 113. The last time that the War Measures Act was invoked by the Canadian government was 104. The basic function of the civil service is to a) when Chretien declared war on terrorism. a) initiate law. b) interpret law. b) during the Cold War. c) make laws. d) implement laws. c) during the 1995 referendum in Quebec. d) during the 1970 FLQ crisis in Quebec. 105. The size of the civil service in Canada continues to grow despite attempts at cut-backs mainly because 114. According to the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, what is a a) Canada‟s population is growing. fundamental freedom? b) the Prime Minister gives jobs to his friends. a) security against unreasonable search &seizure c) the public‟s demand for services is growing b) freedom of thought, belief, and expression d) the government enjoys creating a large bureaucracy. c) right to enter, remain in, and leave Canada d) right to life, liberty, and security of person 106. The continuing growth in the size of the civil service can be accounted for mainly by 115. According to the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, an equality a) the rapidly increasing Canadian population. right in Canada is b) the demands of Quebec. a) security against unreasonable search &seizure. c) an increasing public expectation regarding gov‟t services. b) to enter, remain in, and leave Canada. d) the need for the government to create “make-work” projects. c) non-discrimination based on sexual preference. d) non-discrimination based on mental or physical disability. 107. The media affects the political process in all but one of the following ways. The exception is 116. The 1982 Charter of Rights and Freedoms guarantees a) style of presentation affects the voter. democratic rights. These include b) the media provide information to the public. a) the right to be educated in either French or English. c) the media package and market politicians. b) the right to be innocent until proven guilty. d) parties arrange their schedules to coincide with coverage. c) the right to vote and run in an election. d) the right to live where you wish in Canada. 108. Television has affected all of the following elections except the election of 117. Something that is not guaranteed in The Canadian Charter of a) Brian Mulroney to his first term. Rights and Freedoms is b) William Aberhart to his first term. a) democratic rights. b) two official languages. c) Pierre Trudeau to his first term. c) freedom of speech. d) the right to bear arms. d) Gary Filmon to his third term. 118. Which of the following is not a provision of the Canadian Of no man of any period can it be more truly said that he was Charter of Rights and Freedoms? the father and founder of his country…(he) lived to see as the a) it can be interpreted by the courts fruits of work in which he took a leading part, nearly all British b) it forms part of the Constitution North America united under one system of government. c) it may be changed by the provinces d) it can be amended 125. The person being praised in the quote above is a) Louis Riel. b) Wilfred Laurier. 119. The general requirements to amend the Constitution are the c) Samuel de Champlain. d) John A. Macdonald. approval of I. the federal government “Confederation had been a political union of several provinces, II. the British Parliament not a cultural compact between two ethnic communities, III. 7 provinces with ½ Canada‟s population English and French.” (Donald G. Creighton, Canada’s First IV. approval of Quebec Century, 1970) a) I and II b) I, II and III c) II, III and IV d) I, II, III and IV “The Canadian Confederation was nothing more than a vast financial transaction carried out by the bourgeoisie at the 120. Final interpretation of clauses contained in the Charter of expense of the workers of the country, and more especially the Rights and Freedoms is made by the workers of Quebec.” (Pierre Vallières, White Niggers of a) federal government. b) provincial governments. America, 1971) c) Privy Council. d) Supreme Court of Canada. 121. According to the 1982 Charter of Rights and Freedoms, 126. Creighton and Vallières disagreed in their analysis of the I. freedom of association is a fundamental freedom. forces leading to Confederation primarily because they II. non-discrimination based on age is an equality right. a) used different facts. III. its provisions take precedence over treaties made with b) wrote in different years. Aboriginal peoples. c) consulted different sources. IV. only Quebec can opt out of certain clauses. d) had different biases. a) I and II b) III and IV c) I, II and III d) I, II and IV The Department of Indian Affairs has had the close co- operation of religious denominations in the education of the 122. Which of the following statements is true? Indian. Thus Christianization and education go hand in hand. a) The bishop was the King‟s personal representative in New The residential schools are conducted by the Anglican, Roman France. Catholic, Presbyterian and United Churches... Education is b) Lord Durham limited responsible government for both free; the Federal Government provides the buildings and pays Upper and Lower Canada. the managing authorities a per capita grant for each pupil in c) In 1867, Canada‟s parliament was declared to be bilingual residence. In addition to regular academic subjects, the girls (both French and English). are taught domestic arts, and the boys agriculture, the care of d) The Reform Party is a left-of-centre party. cattle and the use of ordinary tools. 123. The most difficult to prove true or false is 127. The passage above suggest a policy of a) the proposed subsidy to NHL teams was unpopular with a) assimilation of Natives into white culture. Canadians. b) preservation of Native culture. b) Charles Tupper served the shortest period of any Canadian c) using traditional Native education. prime minister. d) maintaining on-reserve education. c) the Free Trade Agreement has destroyed Canada‟s industrial capacity. 128. According to this passage, responsibility for the education of d) Medicare was widely opposed by doctors in Aboriginal peoples was shared by Saskatchewan in 1962. a) the federal and provincial governments. b) the churches and provincial governments. c) the churches and federal government. The “family compact” of Upper Canada composed of those d) the churches and the Indian bands. members of its society who, either by their abilities and character have been honoured by the confidence of the executive government, or who, by their industry and I am not a bit afraid of the government cry. I have intelligence, have amassed wealth. The party, I won, is already done much to put it down in its inadmissible sense: comparatively a small one; but to put the multitude at the top namely the demand that the council shall be responsible to the and the few at the bottom is a radical revision of the pyramid of assembly, and that the governor shall take their advice, and be society which every reflecting man must foresee can end only bound by it. In fact, this demand…I have told the people by its downfall… plainly that, as I cannot get rid of my responsibility to the home - Sir Francis Bond Head government, I will place no responsibility on the council; that they are a council for the governor to consult, but no more… 124. According to Sir Francis Bond Head - Lord Sydenham, 1839 a) the “family compact” is a radical revision of the pyramid of society. 129. According to the passage above, Lord Sydenham was clearly b) the “family compact” will result in the down fall of society. opposed to c) the “family compact” represents the natural order of society. a) democratic government. b) responsible government. d) the “multitude” should rule society. c) republican government. d) democratic government. I If Sir John A. Macdonald had not been so far-sighted, the 156. This document would most likely have been written by provinces of Canada would have separated and been a) a businessman who belonged to the Canadian annexed to the United States. Manufacturers‟ Association. b) a member of General Wolfe‟s staff prior to the final II Sir John A. Macdonald was a corrupt leader, who struggle for Quebec. introduced only those policies that would keep him in c) a member of the CCF Party in the 1930s. power. d) an immigrant from eastern Europe at the time of the Sifton Migration. III The Canadian government under Sir John A. Macdonald promised to complete a transcontinental railway to British “Cent ans d’injustice.” (“One hundred years of injustice.”) Columbia within ten years of that province’s entry into Confederation. “Vive Montréal! Vive le Québec!! Vive le Québec libre!” (“Long live Montreal! Long live Quebec! Long live free Quebec!) 130. The opinion of someone apparently biased against Macdonald is provided by “Maîtres chez nous.” (“Masters in our own house.”) a) I. b) II. c) III. d) all three statements. “I faut que ça change.” (“It’s time for a change.”) 131. Only factual information is presented in 157. The above slogans are all good examples of Quebec b) I. b) II. a) imperialism. b) nationalism. c) III. d) all three statements. c) democracy. d) internationalism. 132. The opinion of someone apparently biased in favour of 158. The following statements were made between 1960 and 1966. Macdonald is provided by Which one was likely made by a separatist? c) I. b) II. a) “What makes Canada unique as a bilingual state is that her c) III. d) all three statements. two official languages are English and French…both have international status.” “Until this grand work is completed our Dominion is little more b) “Recognizing the rights of a linguistic minority does not than a geographical expression.” reduce those of the majority: with a little good will, the -Sir John A. Macdonald, 1875 rights of both can be exercised without conflict, as is clearly demonstrated by the examples of Switzerland and 133. The “grand work” Macdonald referred to was the construction Finland.” of the c) “Canada…is passing through the greatest crisis in its a) Rideau Canal. history…Who is right and who is wrong? We don not b) St. Lawrence Seaway. even ask ourselves that question…if [the crisis] is c) Canadian Pacific Railway. overcome, it will have contributed to the rebirth of a d) Parliament buildings in Ottawa. richer and more dynamic Canada.” d) “You‟ve got about five million French-Canadians who make up just about 80% of the population of Quebec. In other However, the real strength of the federal power lay in the words, you have a well-knit, well-defined population statement that they were able to “make laws for the Peace, whose common personality is tied to the fact that they Order and good Government of Canada” in relation to those speak French. Quebec…[has] the right …to make its own matters not specifically given to the provinces. decisions, make its own mistakes, achieve its own success.” 134. The quotation refers to a) residual powers. b) the War Measures Act. c) disallowance. d) executive privilege. I It is wrong to say that Confederation has been a total failure for French Canadians; the truth is rather that they have never really tried to make a success of it… One Fleet, One Flag, One Throne! II I think of Quebec first because this province is the only 155. This slogan would most likely have been made by a one in which I feel completely at home, the only one a) Liberal in 1982. which allows me to live freely in French twenty-four hours b) Conservative in 1910. a day. c) CCF Member of Parliament in the 1940s. d) Reform Party member in 1992. III I deny that any province has the right to secede. I think that any such attempt should be resisted by every We aim to replace the present capitalist system, with its means, including force if necessary. inherent injustice and inhumanity, by a social order form which the domination and exploitation of one class by another will be IV French Canada is a true nation. It has all the elements eliminated, in which economic planning will supersede essential to national life: it possesses unity as well as unregulated private enterprise and competition, and in which human and material resources, including equipment and genuine democratic self-government, based upon economic personnel, which are as good or better than those of a equality will be possible. The present order is marked by large number of the countries of the world. glaring inequalities of wealth and opportunity by chaotic waste and instability; and in an age of plenty it condemns the great mass of the people to poverty and insecurity. 159. Which of the politicians clearly approves of the use of force to (Ad June 2002) keep all provinces in Confederation? a) I b) II c) III d) IV 167. The accompanying illustration from a 1945 pamphlet most likely supports which one of the following political parties? 160. Which of the politicians expresses the view that French a) CCF. b) Liberal. Canadians have never tried to make Confederation work? c) Social Credit d) Conservative. b) I b) II c) III d) IV [This party] is unalterably opposed to communism, fascism, 161. Which of the politicians could most clearly be classified as a and all other forms of socialism which make the individual federalist? subservient to the state…[This party] recognized the family as c) I b) II c) III d) IV the basic unit of society and regards the sanctity of the home as fundamental to the preservation of Christian civilization. 162. Which of the politicians believes that Quebec can live as an [The fiscal policy of the party includes] the development of independent nation? procedures to ensure the widest possible distribution of d) I b) II c) III d) IV purchasing power to provide the maximum of opportunity for each individual to improve his standard of living. The problem of a separate Quebec had come to obsess and monopolize the mind of both English and French Canadians. It 168. The political platform described above belongs to the had distracted them from other and more vital tasks. It blinded a) Liberal Party. b) Conservative Party. them to the peril that threatened their existence as a separate b) Social Credit Party. d) CCF. nation in North America. 1962 FEDERAL ELECTION RESULTS 163. The author of the quote above suggests that a) it is vital for Canada to solve its constitutional crisis to Party # of Members Elected compete globally. Conservatives 116 b) separation of Quebec from Canada is in the country‟s best Liberals 100 interest. New Democrats 19 c) Canadians failed to see the threat involved in the Free Social Credit 30 Trade Agreement. TOTAL SEATS 265 d) Canadian have become absorbed in French-English conflicts to the exclusion of critical national questions. 169. If one party formed the government after the 1962 election, it would be called a(n) What is good for the other provinces is not necessarily good for a) majority. b) minority. Quebec. The converse is also true: What is good for Quebec c) coalition. d) oligarchy. is not necessarily good for the other provinces. 170. Which party would likely be called upon to form the 164. The speaker in the above quote would most likely be government? a) Prime Minister Chretien. a) Conservatives b) Liberals b) a member of the Reform Party. c) New Democrats d) Social Credit c) in favour of the distinct society clause for Quebec. d) in favour of the Canada Act of 1982. 171. Which party would likely be called upon to form the official opposition? We are French Canadians, but our country is not confined to b) Conservatives b) Liberals the territory overshadowed by the citadel of Quebec; our c) New Democrats d) Social Credit country is Canada, it is the whole of what is covered by the British flag on the American continent, the fertile lands 172. Which coalition of parties might provide for a majority vote in bordered by the Bay of Fundy, the Valley of the St. Lawrence, the House of Commons? the region of the Great Lakes, the prairies of the West, the a) Social Credit and New Democratic Parties Rocky Mountains, the lands washed by the famous ocean b) New Democratic and Liberal Parties where breezes are said to be as sweet as the breezes of the c) Social Credit and Conservative Parties Mediterranean. -Sir Wilfred Laurier, 1885 d) Liberal and Social Credit Parties 165. Which of the following Canadians hold views which most Left Centre Right closely resemble those of Laurier? 1 2 3 4 5 6 a) Gilles Duceppe. b) Jean Chretien. b) Jacques Parizeau. d) Matthew Coon Come. 173. From the political spectrum shown above, the number that best represents the New Democratic Party in Canada is a) 1. b) 2. c) 4. d) 5. The dominance of eastern Canada over western Canada seems likely to persist. Western Canada has paid for the 174. The number that best represents the Canadian Alliance is development of Canadian nationality, and it would appear that a) 2. b) 3. c) 5. d) 6. it must continue to pay. The acquisitiveness of eastern Canada shows little sign of abatement. -Harold A. Innis, 1923 166. The “dominance of eastern Canada” results primarily from the allotment of seats a) in the Senate. b) in the House of Commons. c) to Quebec in the H of C. d) to the Maritimes in the H of C. ...Today, the civil service and the tasks of public administration 179. Civil servants do the work of putting government decisions into they perform are seen to occupy a position of central effect. importance. We have noted an enormous expansion in the a) This statement is true and its truth can be determined from activities of government, and the voluminous detailed work this the passage above. involves is performed by the civil service. When governments b) This statement is true, but its truth cannot be determined restrict immigration, impose a tariff on imports, or establish a from the passage. postal service, it is civil servants in the garb of customs and c) This statement is false and this can be determined from the immigration officials and postmen who do the work. When it is passage. decreed that [family] allowances or old age pensions are to be d) This statement is false, but this cannot be proved from the paid by the government, it takes hundreds, if not thousands, of passage. officials to make the investigations, keep the records, pay the claims, and supervise the service. We have already seen Mothers are prostrate in nervous exhaustion – the babies something of the range of civil service action that is involved in crying almost endlessly – the fathers torn from them without governmental regulation of various aspects of economic life. farewell – everyone crammed into two buildings like so many At every turn, officials are now expected to do many things pigs – children taken out of school with no provision for future which the community wants done quickly and well. The civil education – more and more people pouring into the Park – service has grown enormously and it spends or distributes a forbidden to step outside the barbed wire gates and fence – large portion of the national income. Everyone has a vital the men can’t even leave the building – police guards around interest in what it is doing and how it does it. them…Babies and motherless children totally stranded – their fathers taken to camp… 175. Civil servants make the decision that family and allowances and The other day there were a lot of people lined up on old age pensions shall be paid. Street to register at [police] headquarters and so a) This statement is true and its truth can be determined from frightened by what was going on and afraid of uniforms. You the passage above. could feel their terror…And there was this one officer tramping b) This statement is true, but its truth cannot be determined up and down that perfectly quiet line of people, holding his from the passage. riding crop like a switch in his hand, smacking the palm of c) This statement is false and this can be determined from the other hand regularly – whack, whack – as if he would just have passage. loved to hit someone with it if they so much as spoke or moved d) This statement is false, but this cannot be proved from the out of line. - Joy Kogawa, Obasan (Toronto: Lester & Orpen passage. Dennys, 1981) 176. Since civil servants must be impartial in their work, they are not The government ordered the incarceration of all male nationals allowed to belong to political parties. between the ages of 18 and 45. Some 1300 men were a) This statement is true and its truth can be determined from transported to road camps in Rainbow, Lucerne, Jasper and the passage above. Yellowhead on February 23. Armed with the unlimited powers b) This statement is true, but its truth cannot be determined of the War Measures Act, RCMP officers entered homes from the passage. without warrant, day and night, giving families only hours to c) This statement is false and this can be determined from the collect a few belongings before departure for parts unknown. passage. d) This statement is false, but this cannot be proved from the 180. The incident described in the articles refers to the passage. a) expulsion of the Chinese from Canada following the completion of the CPR. 177. Members of Parliament are considered to be civil servants. b) removal of the Métis from their farms in the Red River a) This statement is true and its truth can be determined from region. the passage above. c) arrest of suspected FLQ terrorists. b) This statement is true, but its truth cannot be determined d) internment of Japanese-Canadians following the attack on from the passage. Pearl Harbour. c) This statement is false and this can be determined from the passage. (Cartoon Begbie 46) d) This statement is false, but this cannot be proved from the passage. 181. The cartoon deals with the a) Canadian census of 1941. 178. The Deputy Minister is the chief civil servant in any government b) immigration of Japanese to Canada. department. c) relocation of Canadians of Japanese origin in 1942. a) This statement is true and its truth can be determined from d) registration of Canadians of Japanese origin as voters in the passage above. 1949. b) This statement is true, but its truth cannot be determined from the passage. 182. The cartoonist‟s drawing is a good example of c) This statement is false and this can be determined from the a) multiculturalism passage. b) stereotyping d) This statement is false, but this cannot be proved from the c) integration passage. d) discrimination. Trudeau: “Yes, well there are a lot of bleeding hearts around “The system of government created in 1867 by the British North who just don’t like to see people with helmets and guns. All I America Act is called a federal system of government.” Explain can say is, go on and bleed, but it is more important to keep what is meant by a federal system, law and order in the society than to be worried about weak- the distribution of powers (with specific examples) that the BNA kneed people who don't like the looks of... Act assigned to the different levels of government, and Interviewer: “At any cost? How far would you go with that? the concerns that existed in 1867 that caused the colonies of How far would you extend that? British North America to form a federal state rather than a Trudeau: “Well, just watch me…Yes, I think the society must unitary state. take every means at its disposal to defend itself against the emergence of a parallel power with defies the elected power in “The tariff has often been a factor in Canada‟s history.” Explain the this country and I think that goes at any distance.” importance of the tariff in relation to Confederation, 183. Soon after this interview in 1970 Trudeau invoked the National Policy, and a) conscription. the election of 1911. b) the War Measures Act. c) the Charter of Rights and Freedoms. “The patriation of the Constitution in 1982 has had a great impact on d) a Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism. Canadian society, even to this day.” Explain how this is true by examining Essays Quebec‟s attitude to patriation, Canada‟s independent status, and After the British conquered New France and France surrendered its the judicial system. colonies in British North America, Britain became the dominant power in North America. How to deal with the 65 000 - 70 000 “The Canadian constitution provides protection for the rights of the French-speaking people, with a distinct culture, became the major individual in the Charter of Rights and Freedoms. However, task of the British leaders.” Referring to this statement, discuss citizenship rights have not always been observed by the government.” the Royal Proclamation Act of 1763, Discuss this statement with reference to any three of the following: the Quebec Act 1774, and the use of the Padlock Law in Quebec in 1937, the Constitutional Act of 1791. the treatment of Japanese-Canadians during WWII, For each, be sure to explain the use of the War Measures Act during the October Crisis of the events occurring in North America or Europe that caused 1970, and/or Britain to pass the act, the treatment of Aboriginal peoples. the intended objectives of the act, the major terms of the act, and “Minorities have seldom, if ever, felt completely comfortable and/or the historical significance of the act. equal within the Canadian economic, political and social system. Rights and freedoms that should be available to all citizens have “Trade is an important method by which a nation develops wealth. sometimes not been equally enjoyed by minority groups.” With The desire and the need for trade was one of the major reasons for the reference to any one of the following events: union of the British North American colonies in 1867.” In a the Manitoba Schools Question of 1890, or discussion of each of the following issues, explain how the need for the use of the Padlock Law in Quebec in 1937 or trade led to a Canadian Confederation: the expulsion and internment of Japanese-Canadians from 1941- British Free Trade, 45, or Reciprocity Treaty of 1854, and the October Crisis of 1970 Intercolonial Trade. Consider the opening statement by discussing the cause(s) or origins of the event, “Confederation of the regions of Canada in 1867 was the result of how the rights of a minority group(s) were limited or denied, internal and external forces that caused the scattered regions of and British North America to unite into a single country.” Choose any the type(s) of rights and freedoms that were denied as a result of three of the forces that brought about the Canadian union: the event. trade problems with Britain and the US, inter-colonial transport and trade problems, “Many French-Canadians believe that French rights and culture have the military threat arising from the US, and/or not always been respected and protected within Quebec or in the the political problems in Canada East & West. other parts of Canada. As proof they are able to refer to occasions For each problem, discuss when their rights and culture have been threatened, limited, or denied the origins or development of the problem, them.” Referring to at least two Canadian historical events, the difficulties it created for the colonies, and demonstrate your knowledge of each event and assess the effect of how a union of regions would solve it. each event on the French community in Canada. “The Fathers of Confederation, when creating Canada‟s government “Political parties and a free media are essential ingredients of a in 1867, replicated systems that already existed in Great Britain and democratic system.” Discuss this statement by explaining the United States of America.” Explain this statement by defining what is meant by political parties and free media and why each and describing any three of the following as they related to our is necessary in a democracy, national government: the essential differences between left wing and right wing party parliamentary system, ideology (with examples of such parties in Canada and some constitutional monarchy, policies that they promote), and federal system, the role that political parties and the media play in the election, representative democracy, and/or formation and the defeat of governments (i.e. the electoral party system. process). UNIT 4 SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CHANGE 12. The National Policy tariff was designed to protect the Canadian economy by 1. “Merchants engaged in trade and technology based on muscle a) expanding the market for Canadian goods. power” were characteristics of b) encouraging trade with England. a) Industrial Society. b) Pre-Industrial Society. c) sharing Canadian and U.S. natural resources. c) Canada in 1950. d) Manitoba. d) bringing cheap American goods into Canada. 2. In Pre-Industrial Society 13. MacDonald‟s National Policy set out to a) rapid social change was common. a) put tariffs on American made goods. b) most people lived in urban centres. b) encourage development of the West. c) technology was based on steam power. c) complete the CPR. d) trade was usually carried using bartering. d) all of the above. 3. In pre-industrial society 14. Something that was not part of the National Policy, by which a) the population was largely rural. the gov‟t hoped to promote industrial growth in Canada, was b) railways tied society together. a) the building of a trans-continental railroad. c) social groups were constantly changing. b) reciprocity with the United States. d) manufacturing grew very rapidly. c) encouraging greater immigration into Canada. d) enforcing a high tariff rate against imports. 4. Which of the following was not a condition existing in pre- industrial Canada? 15. The tariff was only part of John A. Macdonald‟s National a) The population was largely rural. Policy. Another part of his plan was b) Power was supplied mainly by muscle. a) strict limitations on immigration. c) Most people were self-employed. b) elimination of ties with Britain. d) The majority of people were wage earners. c) a closer relationship with European countries. d) completion of the CPR and, thus, development of the West. 5. An example of a pre-industrial machine is the a) cotton gin. b) mechanized reaper. 16. The National Policy tended to benefit the c) water wheel. d) sewing machine. a) Métis of Manitoba. b) farmers of Western Canada. 6. A characteristic of Industrial Society was c) businessmen of Eastern Canada. a) large factories with many workers. d) labourers in the factories. b) working at one‟s own pace. c) technology based on muscle power. 17. Which of the following was not a change in the work place d) merchants engaged in trade. resulting from industrialization? a) a division of labour 7. Conditions necessary for industrialization in Canada in the 19th b) an improvement in working conditions century were c) assembly lines dictating the work rhythm a) democratic government, large factories, taxes, agriculture d) the reduction of some skilled crafts to repetitive tasks b) labor force, transportation, wealth, favorable government policies 18. The method of manufacturing in which a number of different c) transportation, wealth, taxes, educated public workers each make a different part of a product is called d) population, automation, agriculture, trading partners a) trade unionism. b) supply and demand. c) craftsmanship. d) division of labour. 8. The conditions necessary to make industrialization possible are a) a large population to supply labour and market. 19. “Division of Labour” resulted in b) good transportation facilities. a) the disappearance of many traditional crafts. c) wealth to build the factories. b) work being reduced to repetitive tasks. d) all of the above. c) the growth of a less skilled work force. d) all of the above. 9. The process of industrialization can occur when a) sufficient investment capital exists. 20. In division of labour b) an adequate transportation network exists. a) each worker contributes to a final product by repeating a c) a large population to act as a labour force and as specific task. consumers of goods exists. b) a worker completes a task from start to finish. d) all three of the above conditions exist. c) female employees do lighter work than male employees. d) working hours are set by union and management. 10. At the turn of the century, Canada was a(n) a) Dominion. b) member of the League of Nations 21. During the period of industrialization, “division of labour” c) urbanized nation.d) major exporter of manufactured goods. resulted in I. the disappearance of many traditional crafts 11. The National Policy tariff was designed to protect the Canadian II. work being reduced to a sweries of repetitive tasks economy by III. the growth of a less skilled work force a) encouraging trade with the mother country, England. IV. more plentiful goods for the consumer b) sharing the wealth of Canadian and American natural a) I, II and III b) I, II and IV resources. c) II, III and IV d) I, II, III and IV c) bringing cheap American goods into Canada to weed out weak companies. d) expanding the market for Canadian goods within Canada. 22. In the early years of industrialization, the working poor did not 32. Which of the following is not typical of the evolution of social suffer from conditions in Canada in the twentieth century? a) outdoor toilets. b) tenement housing. a) a trend toward smaller family size c) suburban living. d) a shortened work year. b) a rise in the number of women who are employed full time outside the home 23. In early industrial plants, women were not c) an increasingly rigid class structure a) paid lower wages than men. d) the emergence of a consumer society b) considered inferior to men. c) regarded as easy to discipline. 33. Which of the following statements about the St. Lawrence – d) workers on automobile assembly lines. Great Lakes system is not supported by the Laurentian Thesis? a) It made western development inevitable. 24. Success in farming on the prairies of western Canada was the b) It was the most important factor in Canada‟s development. result of a number of important technological developments. c) It forms an east-west corridor that made economic growth An event that did not help make prairie farming successful was possible. the d) It brought fur and wood to the world and people, goods a) development of new types of wheat such as Red Fife and and ideas to Canada. Marquis which were disease resistant and fast-growing. b) introduction of steel ploughs capable of cutting through 34. A factor that did not contribute to the economic boom in the tough sod of the prairie. Canada around the turn of the century was c) development of reaping and threshing machines to speed a) wheat production. b) foreign investment. up the harvesting of grain. c) manufacturing. d) government planning. d) invention of the telegraph which provided instant communication between different parts of Canada. 35. At the beginning of the 20th century, Canada was enjoying an economic boom due to 25. Which of the following is not a way in which technology a) a rapidly increasing population. affected farm life? b) increasing grain exports. a) railways ended rural isolation c) significant growth in production of mineral resources. b) consumer goods became more affordable d) all of the above. c) homemade products replaced store-bought d) crops were moved quickly to distant markets 36. The main result of conscription in Canada during WWI was a) the re-emergence of a serious split in French-English 26. The “Great Hemorrhage” refers to relations. a) the economic depression of the 1890s. b) a significant increase in the number of troops serving b) the replacement of thousands of workers by machines. overseas. c) the mass exodus of young people from Quebec and the c) a stronger, more unified and patriotic Canada. Maritimes to cities and the U.S. d) strong opposition to the plan in English Canada. d) the threat of overpopulation that has led to a demand for smaller families. 37. The use of conscription during World War I a) caused a split between English and French Canadians. 27. The most critical factor in the growth of the industrial city was b) was due to the pressures from France. a) the railways. b) port facilities. c) increased the number of the volunteers for overseas duty. c) electricity. d) the lumber industry. d) angered the English Canadians. 28. With reference to the early industrial city 38. The main purpose of unions is to a) union recognition was swift and accepted. a) protect and promote the common interests of b) sanitation was not a problem. members. c) the Urban Reform Movement tried to make b) provide athletic clubs for workers. the city safer and healthier. c) oppose high tariffs . d) most immigrants settled in single family dwellings. d) increase company profits for employers. 29. The class of people that enjoyed special status in industrial 39. Which of the following statements about union organizing in society because of their wealth were Canada is not true? a) the landowners. b) the wage earners. a) It began in the 1800s c) the business leaders. d) the professional class. b) It was influenced by developments in England and the United States 30. A distinctive feature of the industrial era was the emergence c) It began as a way to improve wages and working conditions and rapid growth of a relatively new class of people, the d) It was strongly supported by manufacturers and a) merchants. b) wage earning employees. businessmen c) artisans. d) church officials. 40. The response which best describes the motive for the 31. Which of the following statements regarding industrial society development of labour unions is is false? a) working conditions and wage rates in factories and mines. a) Children that worked in mines were tutored before and b) support of the union concept by employers as a means to after their shifts. improve output. b) Consumer goods became more affordable and available to c) government encouragement of workers to organize farmers. unions. c) A relatively new class of wage earning employees d) all of the above. emerged and grew. d) More and more women were employed outside the home. 41. Union organization in Canada was mainly supported and 51. The group of words that best describe the reasons for the promoted by the Winnipeg General Strike are a) federal government. b) provincial governments. a) holiday pay, pension plan, better wages. c) working people. d) public in general. b) police brutality, medical plan, better wages. c) shorter working hours, safer factories, equal wages for 42. Which of the following groups is most likely to be unionized? men and women. a) farmers. b) factory workers. d) better wages, shorter working hours, right to form a union. c) fishermen. d) manufacturers. 52. What is not considered to be a fundamental cause of the 43. Which of the following best describes an effect that a Winnipeg General Strike? depression is likely to have on workers? a) rapid and steep inflation occurring at the time a) increased wages. b) added fringe benefits. b) profiteering by certain groups during WWI c) lower real wages. d) increased profits. c) the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia d) unsatisfactory conditions of labour 44. The union that encouraged all workers of both sexes and of any occupation to join was the 53. Which of the following statements about the Winnipeg General a) T.L.C. b)Knights of Labour. Strike is not true? c) U.M.W.A. d) Canadian Auto Workers. a) It grew out of worker dissatisfaction following WWI. b) It slowed down or halted many businesses and services in In the struggle for union recognition, the government usually the city. a) remained neutral. b) supported employers. c) It was concerned business and government officials in c) let courts decide. d) supported employees. other parts of Canada. d) It involved only organized workers in one industry. 45. “Collective Bargaining” is a) the right to strike. 54. One of the responses of the business community to challenges b) the right to dispute a price. and problems brought about by industrialization was to c) the use of propaganda by a national government. a) organize member-owned cooperatives. d) the right of the union to negotiate workers‟ contracts. b) support union growth to buy labour peace. c) form large corporations to raise money and cartels to 46. The term “collective bargaining” refers to control supply. a) the use of propaganda by a government. d) urge government to take ownership of key industries. b) the right of workers to strike. c) government intervention in the economy on the behalf of 55. Business people who got involved in bringing about mergers workers. and forming cartels hoped to increase profits as a result of d) the right of unions to negotiate contracts for their a) lessening competition among themselves. members. b) boosting exports to foreign countries. c) a government increase in the tariff rate. 47. The main issue in the miners‟ strike in Cape Breton in 1909 d) all of the above. was a) working conditions. 56. The region of Canada which is hurt the most by the Free Trade b) wages. Agreement if branch plants close is c) hours of work. a) the Prairies. b) Central Canada. d) the right to join the union of their choice. c) Atlantic Canada. d) British Columbia. 48. In the 1909 coal miners‟ strike in Cape Breton, what did not 57. Farmers did not respond to problems created by occur? industrialization by a) The miners received increased wages as a result of the a) stockpiling. b) modernizing operations. strike c) joining the CCF. d) forming co-operatives. b) Miners and their families were evicted from their homes c) Electrified fences were built around the mine. 58. With reference to cooperatives, d) Special police were hired to guard the mine. a) the Antigonish Movement set up local study groups to discuss common problems. 49. When a general strike occurs in a country, its organizers hope b) consumer cooperatives provided loans to members at fair that rates. a) all workers will refuse to work c) farmers who bought shares in the Grain Growers‟ Grain b) business will carry on normally company had no say in its policies. c) widespread violence will result from it d) the National Policy provided protection for agricultural d) workers in 1or 2 industries will stop working goods. 50. The 1919 Winnipeg General Strike can best be described as 59. An organization associated with the co-operative movement is a(n) the a) direct result of the 1917 Russian Revolution. a) Bank of Canada. b) attempt to overthrow Canada‟s government. b) Canadian Manufacturer‟s Association. c) attempt to gain union recognition. c) Grain Growers‟ Association. d) response to the West‟s economic depression. d) Federal Government. 60. The Urban Reform Movement was: Old winter is once more upon us, and our inland seas are a) planned urban subdivisions by local government. dreary wastes to the merchant and to the traveller; our rivers b) planned social services by the federal government. are sealed fountains...Around our deserted wharves are c) planned attempts to improve living conditions in cities by huddled the naked spars from which the sails have fallen like local government and individuals. the leaves of the autumn...On the land the heavy stage labours d) planned attempts to improve transportation in cities by the through frost and mud... federal government. 69. The above quotation might have been used as an argument for 61. A leader of the Urban Reform Movement in the early 1900s a) increased emphasis on canal building was b) building roads to link Ontario and New York a) J.S. Woodsworth. b) the Knights of Labour. c) creating year-round work to employ people c) the Union. d) Wilfred Laurier. d) constructing railroads for year-round travel 62. J.S. Woodsworth was a POPULATION OF CANADIAN CITIES 1901-1921 a) premier of Manitoba. b) leader of the Conservative Party in Manitoba. 1901 1911 1921 c) leader of the Urban Reform movement. Montreal 328 172 490 504 618 566 d) leader of the United Farmers of Manitoba. Toronto 209 892 381 833 521 893 Vancouver 29 432 120 847 163 220 63. In Canada the First World War altered public beliefs about Winnipeg 42 340 136 035 179 087 women because they Hamilton 52 634 81 869 114 151 a) served in the army in France. Quebec 68 840 78 710 95 193 b) accepted non-traditional jobs. Ottawa 59 928 87 062 107 843 c) sat in the House of Commons. Calgary 4 392 43 704 63 305 d) encouraged men to serve in the armed forces. Edmonton 4 176 31 064 58 821 Halifax 40 832 46 619 58 372 64. The first province to legislate the right for vote for women was Regina 2 249 30 213 34 432 a) Manitoba b) Quebec Saskatoon 113 12 004 25 739 c) Ontario d) Prince Edward Island Saint John 40 711 42 511 47 166 65. Who helped women to get the vote? 70. Which city gained the most population between 1901 and a) Kim Campbell. b) Jeanne Sauvé. 1911? c) Nellie McClung. d) Audrey Mclaughlin. a) Vancouver b) Winnipeg c) Toronto d) Montreal In 1879, the National Policy of Sir John A. Macdonald established a protective tariff to discourage imports of 71. In 1921, where did Winnipeg rank in size of cities by manufactured goods. This tax on imported goods raised their population? prices, and, as a result, Canadian products remained the a) second b) third c) fourth d) fifth cheapest on the market. I The arrival of many immigrants seeking work and a 66. The statements indicated that the beneficiary of the protective depressed economy led to much unemployment in tariff would have been Toronto in the 1890s. a) a New York manufacturer. b) a Toronto manufacturer. II Although times were hard, most working class families c) a poor Quebec farmer. in the 1890s were just as happy as working class d) a British manufacturer. families today. 67. The National Policy‟s tariff was designed to protect the III In the 1890s, owners often preferred to hire young Canadian economy by children and women as they could get them to work for a) expanding trade with the Far East. less than men. b) Bringing cheap American goods into Canada. c) sharing Canadian and American natural resources. IV In the 1890s, the working day was often from 7:00 am d) expanding the market for Canadian goods. to 7:00 pm for an average wage of about $3.00. I tell you that the nineteenth century has been the century of V It was uncommon for workers in the late 1890s to be United States development…that the twentieth century shall be fined half a day’s pay for being a few minutes late for the century of Canada and Canadian development. For the work. next hundred years…Canada shall be the star towards which all men who love progress and freedom shall come. VI All owners in the 1890s cared nothing for the lives of their workers and merely used them for profit-making. 68. The quotation above is attributed to Canadian Prime Minister: a) John A. Macdonald. 72. Which of the above are most clearly statements of fact? b) Wilfrid Laurier. a) IV only b) III and VI c) Robert Borden. c) I and V d) IV and V d) Mackenzie King. 73. Which of the above are most clearly statements of opinion? a) II only b) II and VI c) I and III d) V and VI It is a serious attempt to overturn British institutions in this 79. Fewer than 50% of the eligible males in the province of Western country and to supplant them with the Russian Ontario volunteered for the armed forces before 1917. Bolshevik system of Soviet rule. d) True b) Cannot be Determined c) False 74. The above quote refers to the (Chart January 2002) a) Dominion Coal Strike of 1909. b) Winnipeg General Strike of 1919. 80. The above table showing World War I Canadian enlistment c) victory of the CCF in Saskatchewan in 1994. and casualty rates for 1917 suggests that volunteer enlistments d) Russian invasion of east European countries after World were War II. a) keeping up with casualties. b) well below the number of casualties. Statistics on Canadian Enlistment, World War I c) well above the number of casualties. d) making conscription unnecessary. Enlistments in Canadian Expeditionary Force to March 15, 1917 (Table January 1996) London, Ontario………………32 770 81. Between 1914 and 1917, Canadian exports Kingston, Ontario…………......45 265 a) increased substantially. Toronto, Ontario………………89 422 b) decreased substantially. Montreal, Quebec…………….39 986 c) remained stable. Quebec City, Quebec………….8 064 d) decreased, then increased. Enlistment by Province up to December 31, 1916 82. The main reason for the change in the Canadian export situation between 1914 and 1917 was Ontario……………………….157 908 a) a world-wide economic boom. Quebec………………………..41 729 b) the need for supplies for World War I. Maritime Provinces…………..34 802 c) a rise in the standard of living. Manitoba & Saskatchewan….77 254 d) world-wide food shortages. Alberta…………………………34 517 British Columbia………………37 575 83. The first year in which Canada exported more to the United States that to the United Kingdom was Enlistment per 1000 Eligible Males to December 31, 1916 a) 1931. b) 1925. c) 1920. d) 1910. Ontario…………………………..…63 86. The table shows a long slump in Canadian exports. This Quebec………………………….…20 occurred during Maritime Provinces……………….38 a) the Roaring Twenties. b) the Great Depression. Manitoba & Saskatchewan……....81 c) World War I. d) the Sifton Migration. Alberta……………………………...92 British Columbia…………………104 “Mobs Start to Make Trouble in Winnipeg.” “Terrorism Not to be Tolerated.” Allotment of Men Asked For From Each Province and “Winnipeg Stands Firm” Percentage of Allotment Filled By Each Province as of “Strike Leaders to be Deported” December 31, 1916 “Round Up of Disturbers Starts in Winnipeg” “Mayor of Winnipeg Will Keep Order at any Cost” Province Requested % Enlisted 87. These headlines dealing with the 1919 Winnipeg General Ontario……………………....170 212…………...93 Strike reflected the viewpoint of the Quebec…………………….. 138 298……………30 a) Bolsheviks. B) Socialist Party. Maritime Provinces………….65 957…………....53 c) United Farmers. D) Conservative Party. Manitoba & Saskatchewan*..70 213…………..110 Alberta………………………...34 517…………..135 (Cartoon January 2003) British Columbia……………..29 787…….…….126 88. The above illustration was most likely drawn to show * includes part of Northwest Ontario a) the need for daycare facilities. b) women replacing men in the workforce. 75. The province of Alberta had the highest percentage of men c) the desire of women to enter the armed forces. enlisting in relation to the allotment requested. d) women‟s demand of equal pay for equal work. a) True b) Cannot be Determined c) False 89. Which of the following statements best expresses the ideas of 76. Quebec City had a smaller population than Kingston. the women‟s suffrage movement? b) True b) Cannot be Determined c) False a) “No woman, idiot, lunatic, or criminal shall vote.” – Election Act of the Dominion of Canada, 1915 77. The province of Ontario had more than four times as many b) “Well, before the ladies sit here with us, I hope a new enlisted soldiers as British Columbia at the end of 1916. style of hats will have been introduced.” –Sir Thomas c) True b) Cannot be Determined c) False Chapais, 1940 c) “If democracy is right, women should have it. If it isn‟t, 78. The province of Quebec provided more men than the allotment men shouldn‟t.” –May Clendenan, 1915 asked for from the province. d) “The world has suffered long from too much masculinity a) True b) Cannot be Determined c) False and not enough humanity.” –Nellie L. McClung I. It is evident that sexual revolution must have its Catherine Cleverdon, The Woman Suffrage Movement in limitations if the human race is to continue. There are Canada (Toronto, 1974) some landmarks of nature which cannot be removed…Women must bear and nurse children; and if III I say the Holy Scriptures, theology, ancient philosophy, they do this, it is impossible that they should compete with Christian philosophy, history, anatomy, physiology, men in occupations which demand complete devotion as political economy, and feminine psychology, all seem to well as superior strength of muscle or brain… indicate that the place for women in this world is not amid Political power has hitherto been exercised by the male the strife of the political arena, but in her home. In sex;…because…in the civilized world the duty of Catherine Cleverdon, The Woman Suffrage Movement in defending the country in war falls on the male sex alone… Canada (Toronto, 1974) Besides the transfer of power from the military to the unmilitary sex involves…national emasculation. 91. In which quotation is an argument made in favour of women‟s voting rights? II. We see little children toiling long hours in factories; we see a) I b) II c) III d) I and II woman paid more poorly than men for doing the same work…We see women imprisoned [for prostitution], while 92. In which quotation is an argument made against women‟s man, her partner in the same sin, is allowed to go free. voting rights? We see delicate women working beyond their strength a) I b) II c) I and II d) II and III while lazy husbands can control every cent of her earnings…We see saloons at every few corners to tempt 93. Nellie McClung presents the view that and ruin the sons we have almost given our life’s blood to a) women have too much housework to do. rear and yet we have no power to close those gates to b) women now have time to take part in politics. hell. We see in this civilized country, thousands of girls c) women should be given jobs in factories. standing ten to fourteen hours a day not allowed to sit d) politics and housework don‟t mix. down in their spare moments…We see these young girls crushed under the wheels of our merciless 94. The main argument against women‟s voting rights given in system…woman must have the power to vote, equally Quotation II is that with men. Man, by inability, or laziness, or ignorance, or a) women are not clever enough to take part in politics. greed, or some other cause, has let these conditions so b) if women took part in politics, they would have fewer intolerable to woman become lawful. children. c) women really don‟t want to take on duties outside their III. Some people…do not believe that women are persons. homes. They have thought of women as “wives,” “mothers,” d) it would cost the country too much money if women got “daughters”; and though they have been obliged to admit the vote. the existence of the female stenographer, shop assistant, clerk, physician, even of the female mayor and city 95. Which of the following statements would have been the most councillor, they cannot as yet fully grasp the fact that in logical to use in disagreeing with the speaker of Quotation II? addition to her private relationship to some man, a woman a) Taking part in politics won‟t prevent women from having is still a social unit, a citizen, a subject, a person…a tax- children. payer. She remains personally responsible for her b) Women are tired of raising large families. observance or non-observance of the law of the land. She c) Women are smarter than men when it comes to politics. is equally affected by war, conditions of climate, finance, d) God wants women to have the right to vote. industry, national prosperity or adversity…women should have the right to help decide all questions of policy for 96. The author of Quotation III would be likely to precisely the same reason that men possess this right. a) support the view expressed in Quotation I. b) support the view expressed in Quotation II. 90. Which of the preceding documents best exemplifies the c) support the view expressed in Quotations I and II. rationale of the social feminists of the early 20th century (those d) oppose the view expressed in Quotation II. who wanted the vote in order to cure the ills of society)? a) I b) II c) III d) all of the above When I hear men talk about women being the angel of the home I always…shrug my shoulders in doubt. I do not want to I The clock of time will not turn back...The old avenues of be the angel of any home; I want for myself what I want for labour are closed. It is no longer necessary for women to other women, absolute equality. spin and weave, cure meats, and make household remedies, or even fashion the garments for their 97. The woman who said these words would almost certainly not household. All these things are done in factories. But have supported there are new avenues for women’s activities, if we could a) women‟s right to become professionals. only clear away the rubbish of prejudice which blocks the b) the Supreme Court‟s decision in the Person‟s Case. entrance. Nellie McClung, In Times Like These (Toronto, c) the right of women to join unions. 1915) d) women‟s suffrage. II A country cannot, without paying the full price, act contrarily to the laws of God and nature. There is an essential distinction between man and woman...And to keep up the birth-rate of Canada we must keep our women within their sphere; we must attract them towards the accomplishment of the duties of their sex, duties specified by the unchangeable laws of nature. In In many ways the Twenties was a watershed period in the reactions to industrialization and the reasons for these women’s history. They began with women winning the reactions, by any one of the following: governments, individual struggle for the vote, the vote that they thought was the workers, farmers, or business people. gateway to achieving many more of the rights they sought. Yet that victory actually slowed down the feminist movement. It “In the 19th century the process of industrialization in Canada pushed had focused so much of its attention and energy on this one the activities of workers and business out of the pre-industrial and goal that once it was won, activism seemed to fade away. into the industrial world.” Considering this statement, explain Then too, women were finding that the vote was not the cure- the factors necessary for industrialization to occur within a all they thought it would be. They found that they did not make country and why these were present in Canada, a difference at the polls. In fact women in general seemed to the differences between the pre-industrial and emerging industrial vote as their husbands did. workplace, and the differences between the working class and business leaders as During the Twenties, women won greater personal freedom to the problems each faced and the actions each took to overcome than they ever had. At least two factors account for this. First, them. World War I had taken large numbers of men out of the society, and women had to take their place. After tasting more “The Age of Industrialization in Canada brought major upheaval to interesting work, higher wages, and greater self-reliance, many various segments of Canadian society.” Discuss how the period of women did not want to go back into a menial role in the home 1870-1914 changed and in society. Second, the Twenties was a boom time. rural lifestyles, Increased wealth created greater opportunities for women to early industrial cities, and go on to higher education Again, they tasted greater freedom class structure in Canada. and had no intention of giving it up. “The average size of the Canadian family has decreased throughout The Twenties was hardly a calm decade. Women protested our history in response to changing economic conditions.” Show the over inequality of job opportunities and wages. They joined validity of this statement by examining families unions and went out on strike. It was indeed a period of during the French colonial period, protests and causes. As one feminist writer has put it, “In a during the pioneer days on the prairies, and very real way the Twenties forecast the Seventies in the rage since the 1970s. of issues which questioned old ways and pointed up social change.” “The Canadian family has changed throughout history in response to changing economic conditions.” Show the validity of the statement 98. It seems that many women in the early Twenties by examining at least four aspects of a) refused to have children. colonial / pre-industrial families, b) were heavily influenced by their husbands‟ opinions. western pioneer / industrial families, and c) preferred to stay at home and raise a family. modern / post-World War II families. d) worked because they couldn‟t get married. “Between 1870 and 1920, Canada was facing major confrontations 99. Women had greater independence in the Twenties partly between the working class and business elite.” Select one such because of confrontation and describe a) economic prosperity. b) activism. c) the vote. d) unions. actions taken by the workers to show their dissatisfaction, actions taken by the business elite to protect their interests, and 100. World War I helped promote the growth of feminism in the how government generally reacted to the confrontation and why Twenties because government reacted this way. a) women had taken over men‟s jobs during the war. b) many babies had been born just after the war. “Industrial workers eventually realized that they would have to c) during the war, women won the vote. organize themselves it they wished to obtain better wages and d) there was a depression after the war. working conditions form their employers. The strike was the final weapon that most unions used to try to force their employers to meet Essays their demands.” Compare the Cape Breton coal miners‟ strike of 1909-10 and the Flin Flon strike of 1934, describing “A number of conditions must be met before industrialization can the issues involved, take place in any given region.” Describe the following government action in the strikes, and requirements and how they were achieved in Canada at the turn of the the results of the strikes. century social, “The Age of Industrialization gave rise to labour movements and technological, demands for the legal recognition of unions, collective bargaining economic, and and strikes as a means of bringing changes to the industrial political. workplace and of improving workers‟ benefits.” Discuss this statement, demonstrating an understanding and giving examples of “Major industrialization in Canada occurred in the late 1800s.” collective bargaining, Expand on this statement by describing strikes, and the major economic activities in pre-industrial Canada (early the changes that occurred in the industrial workplace and in 1800s), workers‟ benefits as a result of the labour movement. the conditions that developed in Canada that allowed industrialization to take place, and UNIT 5 WESTERN CANADA 10. Commercially, the most important animal in the history of the Canadian fur trade has been the 1. The original inhabitants of the western grasslands relied on a) wolf. b) bear. a) the buffalo. b) the beaver. c) buffalo. d) beaver. c) fish. d) caribou. 11. In contrast to the interior fur trade where the beaver was the 2. With the arrival of Europeans in the western interior at the end most valuable pelt, the fur trade on the Pacific coast was based of the 17th century, upon a) the woodland First Nations bartered fur for guns, metal a) the sea otter. b) bear skins. goods and cloth. c) the walrus. d) sea lions. b) the woodland First Nations began to make pemmican for fur traders. 12. With reference to the Western fur trade, c) the grassland First Nations were able to find remedies for a) the North West Company provided little competition to smallpox and measles. the Hudson‟s Bay Company. d) the grassland First Nations welcomed the introduction of b) the French Canadian voyageurs‟ experience with the dogs into the buffalo hunt. Aboriginal peoples made them valuable to the Nor‟Westers. 3. What contributed to lack of settlement in the West until the late c) the North West Company had the advantage of a short 19th century? haul from fur country to depot. a) inaccessibility of the region d) the Hudson‟s Bay Company‟s York boats were easy to b) hostility of the Aboriginal peoples portage. c) availability of free land in Eastern Canada d) none of the above 13. An advantage that the Hudson‟s Bay Company had over its competitors was 4. Exploration of the western interior (prairies and mountains) a) its York boats were easy to portage. was carried out mainly by b) it had been founded earlier than the NWC. a) government surveyors. c) its employees were skilled canoeists. b) CPR employees looking for potential rail routes. d) it had a shorter, less expensive interior transportation route. c) fur traders seeking new sources of furs and shorter access routes to the open seas. 14. The Hudson‟s Bay Company gained a monopoly in the western d) settlers making their way across the country to British fur trade when Columbia. a) prices for beaver pelts plummeted in London. b) the North West Co. went into bankruptcy. 5. By the 1770s, HBC competition in the fur trade c) the North West Company merged with it. a) forced merchants in Montreal to form the North West d) the Nor‟Westers‟ post, Fort Gibraltor, burned. Company. b) ended trade in British North America. 15. The amalgamation of the Hudson‟s Bay Company and the c) hurt the economy of New France. North West Company in 1821 occurred because d) drove the French out of North America. a) the union was ordered by the British government. b) of the Seven Oaks Massacre. 6. The most important role of the HBC and NWC. in the c) bankruptcy was threatening the HBC. development of Western Canada was to d) of hostility of the Natives toward both of the companies. a) establish vibrant companies. b) provide settlers for the region. 16. With the merger of the North West Company and the Hudson‟s c) explore the Western lands. Bay Company in 1821, d) encourage and develop agriculture. a) the Hudson‟s Bay Company hired more people to handle the fur trade. 7. The Nor‟Wester who finally succeeded in finding a navigable b) private fur trading increased due to the lack of other job river route from the interior mountains to the Pacific Ocean prospects in the Red River area. was c) the Hudson‟s Bay Company lost its influence over legal a) Louis Lafontaine. b) David Thompson. and political affairs in Western Canada. c) George Simpson. d) Alexander Mackenzie. d) mixed-bloods were able to attain important positions in the Hudson‟s Bay Company. 8. David Thompson was a) the first European to sign a treaty with the Plains First 17. Originally, the French word “Métis” meant Nations. a) a person who did not live on a reserve. b) the first European to find an interior water route through b) a person who was always on the move. the Rockies to the Pacific Ocean. c) a person of mixed Indian & European blood. c) the European who discovered Vancouver Island. d) a person whose ancestors did not sign treaties with the d) the European who discovered the Mackenzie River. Canadian government 9. Which was not an effect of the horse on the life of the Plains 18. The Métis First Nations? a) identified themselves as French-Canadians. a) an increase in the number of buffalo killed b) identified themselves as First Nations peoples. b) an increase in territory and, thus, conflict c) saw themselves as a separate group of people, “a new c) new equality in the tribe due to ownership nation.” d) an increase in tribal wars due to horse theft d) all of the above. 19. The Métis 29. Robert Semple was associated with a) saw themselves as a new nation. a) the 1st Riel Rebellion of 1869-70. b) identified with the European way of life. b) the Battle of Seven Oaks. c) refused to help the North West Company in their struggle c) the exploration of the mountains of the Western Cordillera. with the Selkirk settlers. c) the development of the mining industry in Western Canada. d) followed the laws of the Hudson‟s Bay Company during the buffalo hunt. 30. When Louis Riel was born in the 1840s in the Red River Settlement, the area belonged to 20. The Métis‟ main role in West‟s fur trade was to a) Canada. b) the United States. a) supply pemmican to the fur traders. c) Britain. d) the Hudson‟s Bay Co. b) trap the furs. c) plant crops to supply food for the traders. 31. The Canadian government became interested in the western d) man the barges on the Red River. interior after 1850 because a) most of the good available land in Ontario had been taken. 21. In 1811, Lord Selkirk started on a settlement near the present b) business people saw the West as a potential market. city of c) there were large areas of fertile land in the West. a) Vancouver. b) Calgary. d) all of the above. c) Winnipeg. d) Regina. 32. An important reason why Canadian politicians at the time of 22. The Selkirk settlers left their native land in the early 19 th Confederation were anxious to gain control of the area west of century to live in Canada because the Great Lakes was a) of the failure of the potato crop and the resulting famine. a) to open imports from Asia to the Canadian market. b) they lost their land through Clearances. b) a growing fear that the US might annex the West. c) Scotland was overpopulated. c) a concern for the plight of the starving Aboriginal peoples d) the Dominion Government of Canada was opening the in the west. western plains. d) a fear that otherwise the fur trade would not survive. 23. Thomas Douglas was the leader of 33. In 1867, the newly formed government of Canada was anxious a) the Canadian government troops in the Red River to take over the area west of the Great Lakes because Rebellion. a) the United States might annex the region. b) the Canadian government troops in the Northwest b) French Canadians needed a homeland. Rebellion. c) it wanted to develop the West‟s energy resources. c) the Selkirk settlers. d) Aboriginal peoples in the region were starving and in need d) the Canadian party. of help. 24. The greatest opposition to Lord Selkirk‟s plan for a settlement 34. Before 1869, most of the land in what is now the Prairie at Red River was shown by provinces was owned by a) the government of Upper Canada. a) the North West Company. b) France. b) the North West Company. c) the Hudson‟s Bay Company. d) Great Britain. c) full-blooded Indians. d) Scottish land owners. 35. Rupertsland was sold to Canada by the Hudson‟s Bay Company because 25. The main clash of interests between the First Nations and the a) the HBC no longer had a monopoly. 18th century settlers concerned b) the HBC was bankrupt. a) ownership of hunting and trapping rights. c) the Métis were rebelling against the HBC. b) using land for farming versus hunting and trapping. d) Natives were no longer supporting the HBC. c) the many languages spoken in the West. d) the use of liquor in the fur trade. 36. What most annoyed the Métis about the transfer of the North West to Canadian control? 26. Because the Selkirk settlers could not raise sufficient food, a) It was done without Métis consent. Governor Miles Macdonell b) It was done too slowly. a) imported foodstuffs from St. Paul, Minnesota. c) No payment was made for Métis land. b) forbade colonists to export pemmican. d) No discussions were held with Plains Indians. c) accompanied the Métis on their buffalo hunts. d) signed a treaty of friendship with the Cree. 37. The Métis resisted the transfer of Rupertsland from the Hudson‟s Bay Co. to Canada because 27. The 1814 Pemmican Proclamation a) they didn‟t want to join Canada. a) increased the Métis trade with the United States. b) they wanted to join the United States. b) led to the execution of Louis Riel. c) they had been included in the discussions. c) allowed the Métis to export pemmican to York Factory. d) they were afraid of losing their traditions. d) banned the export of pemmican from the Red River Colony. 38. The Métis resistance to the land transfer of Rupertsland from the Hudson‟s Bay Company to Canada consisted of 28. Deteriorating relations between North West Co. and the Selkirk a) stopping a survey team from Canada. settlers resulted in the Battle of b) stopping Lieutenant-Governor William McDougal from a) Lundy‟s Lane. entering the colony. b) Bloody Creek. c) declaring a provisional government. c) Seven Oaks. d) all of the above. d) Frog Lake. 39. Louis Riel‟s first provisional government was set up to 48. The construction of a transcontinental railroad was necessary a) overthrow the Canadian government. a) to provide access to the Prairie region and encourage b) prevent the West from being settled by Europeans. settlement there. c) establish a separate Aboriginal nation. b) to convince British Columbia to join Confederation. d) protect Aboriginal land rights. c) to ensure that the Dominion of Canada could maintain authority and control over the West and prevent US 40. Who was Thomas Scott? expansion. a) a man executed by Louis Riel for his opposition to the d) all of the above Métis provisional government b) one of Louis Riel‟s English supporters in the 1869-70 49. In the early 1870s, the Conservative government wanted to Rebellion build a railway across Canada to c) one of the leaders of the Rebellion in Upper Canada in a) provide jobs for Ukrainians on the Prairies. 1837 b) give Western Aboriginals access to the East. d) one of the men who helped achieve responsible c) transport manufactured goods West to East. government for Canada d) attract BC into Confederation and promote settlement from sea to sea. 41. Thomas Scott is remembered as the man who: a) led the Rebellion of 1837 in Upper Canada. 50. William Cornelius Van Horne was associated with b) was executed by the Provisional Government at Red River. a) exploring the western mountains. c) supported the establishment of a provisional Government at b) constructing the CPR. Red River. c) encouraging immigration to the West. d) was the first premier of Manitoba. d) the Second Riel Rebellion . 42. During the Red River Rebellion, the leading spokesman for the 51. The so-called “miracle” that saved the CPR in the spring of Canadian Party was 1885 was the a) John A. MacDonald. b) John C. Shultz. a) Red River Rebellion. c) Bishop Tache. d) Gabriel Dumont. b) Klondike Gold Rush. c) Métis uprising in Saskatchewan. 43. Which of the following statements is false? d) increase in land grants it received. a) In 1869, the Métis prevented the newly appointed lieutenant-governor, William McDougall, from entering 52. With reference to the building of the Canadian Pacific Railway, the colony of Red River. a) the long prairie section was the most expensive to build. b) Louis Riel set up a provisional government at Upper Fort b) John A. Macdonald wanted the government to build the Garry in 1869. entire system c) Thomas Scott was tried and executed by the Métis for c) the CPR Company was granted $25 million and 10 million conspiring against them. hectares of land. d) Louis Riel was tried and executed by the Orangemen for d) it was instrumental in moving troops west during the Red leading the Red River Rebellion. River Rebellion. 44. To ensure peace and order on the Prairies after the first Riel 53. After 1880, many of the Métis Rebellion, the government created the a) found that their way of life was in danger of extinction a) Canadian army. b) Hudson‟s Bay Police. because times had changed. c) British militia. d) North West Mounted Police. b) depended upon government rations after the disappearance of the buffalo. 45. The main reason for the formation of the North West Mounted c) were given title deeds to land in the Saskatchewan River Police was to area. a) preserve the Aboriginal peoples‟ way of life. d) bought land from speculators in the Red River area. b) prevent an American invasion of the West. c) protect people taking part in the fur trade. 54. The one grievance in common among the Métis, First Nations d) control smuggling along the American border. and white settlers in the Saskatchewan area in the 1880s was a) transportation problems. b) the disappearance of the buffalo 46. Of the reasons given below, the best one for the formation of c) government neglect. d) the land surveyors. the North West Mounted Police was to a) preserve the Aboriginals peoples‟ way of life as wandering 55. The chief concern of the Métis in 1884-85 was hunters. a) that the advance of settlement would take away their land b) keep Eastern settlers out of the West. and distinctive way of life c) make the West secure for Canadian development. b) that Aboriginals on surrounding plains would blame them d) provide jobs for unemployed Canadians. for declining buffalo and attack c) that their settlements were about to become part of the 47. A transcontinental railroad was built because United States a) there was a need for a transportation link between Canada d) that they were not allowed representation in the federal and the West. Parliament or jobs on the CPR b) British Columbia wouldn‟t join Confederation without the transportation link. c) it was necessary to bring settlers to the West. d) all of the above. 56. In 1884, Métis living on the South Saskatchewan River sent for 66. Of the following, the best description of the Manitoba Schools Louis Riel to lead a protest against the Canadian government Question is that it involved because he a) the question of whether to fund private schools with public a) successfully represented them in Parliament. money. b) helped Red River Métis achieve some goals. b) the process of creating a dual school system. c) promised to lead them to better U.S. land. c) the issues of French language rights and the dual school d) agreed to help them get control of the railway. system. d) a dispute over language rights in Manitoba. 57. The Métis of Saskatchewan sent for Louis Riel in the mid 1880s to lead their protest against the Canadian government 67. The Manitoba Schools Question was because a) a dispute between private and public schools. a) of his ability as a military leader. b) a debate on funding schools from taxes. b) he was on friendly terms with the Macdonald government. c) a dispute concerning French language rights. c) he had a knowledge of both French and English. d) a debate on educating girls. d) he had successfully represented the Métis in 1869-70. 68. The Manitoba Schools Question was basically settled in 1896 58. The Métis military leader who favoured the use of guerilla by the tactics in the Northwest Rebellion of 1885 was a) Clifford Sifton Treaty. a) Gabriel Dumont. b) Thomas Scott. b) Macdonald-Laurier Compromise. c) Louis Riel. d) Cuthbert Grant. c) Macdonald-Greenway Compromise. d) Laurier-Greenway Compromise. 59. The decisive battle of the Northwest Rebellion was fought at a) Seven Oaks. b) Batoche. 69. What was not a reason for immigration to the Canadian West at c) Fish Creek. d) Battleford. the turn of the century? a) the Canadian government offered free farm land 60. What happened in the Northwest in 1885? b) overcrowding and poverty in Europe a) Riel helped the Métis and was elected by them to c) little cheap farm land available in the U.S. Parliament. d) a new life could be started without difficulty b) Riel established a provisional government, which became the basis of Saskatchewan‟s government. 70. A gold rush occurred in Canada in the later 1890s: c) Riel was arrested after leading a short, unsuccessful a) in the Cariboo region. b) in northern Manitoba. rebellion, but was pardoned to avoid friction between the c) on Vancouver Island. d) in the Klondike region. French and English. d) Riel led a short, unsuccessful rebellion, the federal 71. Which of the following immigrant groups did not settle in the government took control and he was hanged. Prairie region? a) Ukrainians b) Selkirk Settlers 61. Louis Riel was considered c) Doukhobors d) Loyalists a) a rebel. b) the leader of the Métis. c) a patriot. d) all of the above. 72. Settlers on the Canadian Prairies in the early 1900s faced many common problems, except 62. Louis Riel has been regarded by many as a hero in Canadian a) a constant danger of attack by hostile Indians. history because he b) a shortage of trees, forcing them to live in sod houses. a) founded the first settlement in the West. c) the distances between homesteads, resulting in isolation b) fought for a more centralized Canadian government. and loneliness. c) stood up for the rights of a minority group d) the difficulty of getting proper medical treatment in case d) forced the federal government to improve reserves. of accident or illness. 63. The execution of Louis Riel was widely interpreted in French 73. The task which a settler on the Prairies in the early 1900s Canada as would probably do last was a) a just act, since he himself had killed a man. a) construct a shelter for his family. b) an attack upon their culture and religion. b) take his first crop of grain to the railway. c) a blow to the interests of English Canada. c) begin ploughing his land. d) an event that had little to do with them. d) dig or drill a well as a source of water. 64. In 1890, the Manitoba provincial government passed a new 74. In the western provinces education law which set up a) the increase in workers‟ wages matched rising prices after a) religious schools for Catholics. World War I. b) Protestant and Catholic schools. b) women contributed very little to the war effort during c) a dual education system. World War I. d) one education system under a Minister of c) World War I created an increased demand for Education. manufactured goods. d) most farmers enjoyed a great deal of prosperity in the 65. The Manitoba Schools Question of 1890 resulted from a 1920s. decision of the Manitoba government to a) introduce a dual school system in the province. 75. The Stock Market Crash of 1929 was caused by b) allow Franco-Manitobans to organize their own schools. a) the collapse of the banking system. c) abolish the existing dual school system in the province. b) too many rich people. d) enforce compulsory school attendance. c) overspeculation. d) unemployment. 76. What was a cause of the Great Depression? 86. All but one of the following show Western Canadian a) production was greater than consumption leadership in areas of social reform. The exception is b) farm production declined greatly a) the Free Trade Agreement. b) female suffrage. c) the banking system collapsed c) Medicare. d) prohibition. d) industry was not expanding quickly enough 87. With reference to the welfare state, 77. The seriousness of the Great Depression in Western Canada a) prior to the 1930s, most people believed that the was largely due to government should help them in their time of need. a) an insufficient number of work camps for the b) it greatly reduced the gap between the rich and the poor. unemployed. c) the federal government refused to introduce family b) the lingering effects of the Winnipeg General Strike. allowances during World War II. c) dependency in many areas on primary products. d) it did not get rid of poverty in Canada. d) Prime Minister Bennett‟s refusal to pass unemployment insurance. 88. Separatism in Western Canada is a) not economically viable 78. With respect to the Great Depression, b) a new and recent movement a) railways continued to carry a great deal of freight. c) mainly a reaction against a perception of Eastern b) unemployed men usually stayed in their home areas to look domination of the rest of the country for work. d) promoted by the needs of Western Canadians for adequate c) the start of World War II brought about its end. resources d) unemployed workers deliberately started a riot in Market Square in Regina in 1935. I would be quite willing, personally, to leave the whole country a wilderness for the next half-century, but I fear if Englishmen 79. The “On-to-Ottawa Trek” was a result of do not go there, Yankees will. a) the completion of the CPR. b) Louis Riel‟s provisional governments. 89. The Prime Minister who is quoted above is: c) the movement of people from farms to cities. a) Macdonald b) Laurier d) relief-camp workers who wanted better wages in the 1930s. c) Borden d) Tupper 80. With regards to the Great Depression in Canada, which of the (Sketch January 2003) following statements is true? a) It was caused by a decline in farm production in the West. 90. The event depicted in the sketch above had a major effect on b) It was caused by an overdependence on the export of Canadian history. It was drawn many years after the event to natural resources. show the execution of c) People who lived in Eastern manufacturing areas suffered a) Louis Riel. b) Thomas Scott. the most. c) Abraham Lincoln. d) Thomas D‟Arcy McGee. d) People who lived in work camps were so grateful to the government that they embarked on an “On-to-Ottawa” Shall the atrocious injustice be committed of permitting the Trek to thank Prime Minister Bennett. artful rebel to go free while his dupes and tools – the unfortunate, untutored and misled Indians – were hanged for 81. During the Depression of the 1930s, provincial voters in participation in acts which they regard as praiseworthy and Alberta showed their displeasure with the system by electing heroic instead of criminal? The people of Canada will require the unequivocal answe4rs to these straightforward questions, if a) Progressive Party. b) CCF Party. Riel be reprieved; and the only rule in the Dominion c) Reform Party. d) Social Credit Party. Parliament, and have vowed that not a hair of Riel’s head shall be harmed. Was it to this end, then, that our gallant volunteers 82. After other attempts to solve Depression problems, Prime sprang to arms and laid down their lives at their country’s call? Minister R.B. Bennett Shall Frenchmen who sympathize with the rebels be allowed to a) tried to set up reciprocity with the US. undo their work? If so, let it known throughout this land. Let it b) borrowed heavily from the US. be proclaimed that the rights and liberties of Britons in an c) supported a trade embargo with the US. English colony hang only on the breath of an alien race. But d) borrowed ideas from President Roosevelt‟s “New Deal” English Canadians will no longer suffer the galling bondage; program. and the day may not be far distant when the call to arms will again resound throughout the dominion. Then, indeed, our 83. What is true about the Great Depression? soldiers profiting by the lessons of the past must complete a a) Railways continued to prosper economically work throughout the whole land only begun in the North-West. b) Job hunters remained in their local areas c) It ended with the onset of World War II 91. The passage most likely represents d) There were riots by unemployed people across the country a) an extremist English Canadian viewpoint. b) an extremist French-Canadian viewpoint. 84. Which of the following helped end the Great Depression? c) a British government official‟s viewpoint. a) the outbreak of World War II. b) the Cold War. d) a moderate viewpoint. b) bank foreclosures on Prairie farms. d) all of the above. 92. The author of the passage argues that 85. As a result of the Great Depression, the federal government a) Riel should go home. formed a welfare state that provided Canadians with b) Riel should not go free. a) rent controls. b) the Canadian Wheat board c) that the Aboriginal peoples were justly hanged. c) unemployment insurance. d) Medicare. d) French-Canadian rights were being violated. “Riel was fairly tried, honestly convicted, laudably condemned , d) “There is a struggle going on between Britain and the United and justly executed.” States for the possession of the northern portion of this Continent. Happily it is not one of guns and bayonets, but 93. The above statement would most likely have been made by of ideas and national progress.” (The Hamilton Spectator, a) a Cree from Manitoba. 1868) b) a Métis leader from Saskatchewan. c) a French Canadian Catholic from Quebec. (Drawing, Begbie 210) d) an English Canadian Protestant from Ontario. 101. The drawing above commemorates the fiftieth anniversary of a) Confederation. I believe by what I suffered for 15 years, by what I have done b) industrialization. for Manitoba and the people of the North-West that my words c) the Canadian Pacific Railway. are worth something... d) the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. 94. The speaker in the above quote was ...the pioneers, including women and children, worked as a a) Thomas Scott at his execution. group, planting the grain, which was done by hand...In the fall, b) Louis Riel at his trial. the men cut the grain with a sickle, a handful at a time. The c) W.C. Van Horne upon the completion of the CPR. women followed, picking up the grain and with a few stems of d) Clifford Sifton upon his retirement from politics. straw bound it into sheaves and then stoked it. After it was dry they collected the sheaves from the fields and carried them ...By killing Riel, Sir John has not only struck our race at the into the barnyard where they threshed it with flails. The heart but also struck the cause of justice and humanity which, women then collected the chaff and grain in pails and poured it represented in all languages and sanctified by religious beliefs, on a large tarpaulin on the ground. The wind blew the chaff demanded mercy for the prisoner of Regina, our poor brother away and the grain being heavier fell on the canvas. of the North-West... In the face of this crime, in the presence of Quoted in Jean Bruce, The Last Best West (Toronto, 1976) these failings, what is our duty? We have three things to do: unite ourselves in order to punish the guilt; break the alliance 102. The work written about in this passage was that our deputies have made (with the English) and seek, in a a) highly skilled, done by hired professionals. more natural and less dangerous alliance, the protection of our b) physically hard, shared by entire families. national interests...” c) done by complicated machinery. d) easy, done in the pioneer‟s spare time. 95. This quote would most likely have been made by a(n) a) Quebec nationalist. 103. Pioneer women were expected to b) Fenian. a) remain in the home doing household chores. c) Orangeman. b) do all the same jobs done by men. d) Member of the Canadian Party at Red River. c) do all the hard jobs while the men relaxed. d) share the tasks of planting and harvesting. 96. In the above passage, the speaker is claiming that the death of Riel was the result of 104. Children in prairie families were most likely a) failure of the government to intervene. a) regarded as needless expenses. b) a violation of Riel‟s citizenship rights. b) seen as useful workers. c) misuse of legal procedure. c) encouraged to play games. d) racial and religious prejudice. d) encouraged to get a formal education. 97. The speaker is inclined to take the view that: (Ad Begbie 45) a) the Métis and the French are brothers b) the Métis and the English are brothers 105. With which event in Canadian history is the accompanying c) all religions are opposed to the death penalty advertisement most likely associated? d) the French alliance with Sir John should be a) the Winnipeg General Strike. strengthened b) the Great Depression. c) the On-to-Ottawa trek. 98. Today, the speaker would most likely support d) World War II. a) bilingualism. b) Quebec separation. c) federalism. d) the NDP. We received no cash in relief, and for the first year no clothing 100. The following quotations deal with what is now western whatever was supplied. Relief vouchers covered food, fuel, Canada. Which one best explains the meaning of the term and rent, and nothing else. But we needed other things – “manifest destiny”? many other things like tobacco and cigarette papers, a) “It was the American purchase of Alaska…which helped to toothpaste, razor blades, lipstick, face powder, the odd bottle unleashed the forces which would ensure its [B.C.‟s] entry of aspirin, streetcar fare, a movie once a week, a pair of into Canadian Confederation.” (David Joseph Mitchell) women’s stockings once a month, a haircut once a month, and b) “I believe that if anything under the heaven be fated, it is a permanent twice a year. Most people tried to find twenty-five that the American flag shall wave over every foot of this cents a week, every week, for a newspaper. American Continent in the course of time."”(Senator Alexander Ramsey) Unexpected needs continually cropped up, like needles and c) “The immediate destiny of this colony [B.C.] is either that of thread, darning wool, a bit of cloth for fancy work, a pattern for an important province of a great and successful British remaking a dress, a half-dollar every other month for a American Empire, or a state of the powerful Republic.” cooperative half-keg of beer for a neighbourhood party… (The British Colonist, 1870) …morale was built by taking the children to the zoo to feed the Essays bears, by taking a streetcar ride downtown to wander through Eaton’s and the Bay, as women did by the hundreds just to get “It is rare that an incorporated company can have a significant impact away from their rooms for an hour or two. on a nation‟s history.” Show the impact of the Hudson‟s Bay Company on 106. This article was written by New France, a) a Canadian soldier during World War I. the North West Company, and b) a Canadian during the Depression. the Red River Colony. c) a pioneer settler in the Canadian West. d) a feminist. “Two major fur trade companies emerged in Canada in the period 1670 to 1821: the Hudson‟s Bay Company and the North West 107. According to this article, relief payments were Company.” Discuss a) restricted to cover the costs of bare essentials only. the origins and formation of each company, b) Generous enough to cover the cost of some luxuries. their methods of operation, and c) Non-existent the results of the competition between them. d) The responsibility of the federal government. “Louis Riel has often been called the „Father of Manitoba.‟” Show 108. The writer suggest that his leadership by explaining a) the period was one of total misery and deprivation. three ways the Métis resisted the takeover of Red River prior to b) people built up morale by doing things that cost little or the transfer date, no money. how Riel‟s List of Rights influenced the Manitoba Act, and c) government relief programs were generous. what he stood for in the North West in 1885. d) cash had disappeared from society. “The Métis saw themselves as a people set apart – a new nation. All roads lead to Winnipeg. It is the focal point of the three They feared potential large-scale settlement in southern Manitoba transcontinental lines of Canada, and nobody…can pass from because it threatened their way of life. Their reaction was the Red one part of Canada to another without going through Winnipeg. River Rebellion of 1869-70.” Using the following outline, explain the impact of the Métis peoples on the province of Manitoba: 109. The quote above refers to Winnipeg during the problems in Red River in the 1860s, a) Northwest Rebellion. b) NWC fur trade. the Red River Rebellion, and c) On-to-Ottawa Trek. d) early 20th century. the passage of the Manitoba Act in 1870. (Soup Song, Begbie 191) Discuss the idea that many basic features of Western Canada were created in the period between 1869 (the Red River Rebellion) and 110. The soup song was likely written during the 1911 (end of the Sifton Migration). In your answer, explore a) twenties. b) thirties. the political and economic conflicts between the West and c) forties. d) fifties. Eastern Canada, the character of the West as affected by events such as the The air cools. migrations, the Manitoba Schools Question, the construction of Kerosene lamps are filled and lit in dusty windows. the CPR and the Riel Rebellions. Tired bodies crave to lie in bed forever. Chores are done at last. “As Manitoba, British Columbia, Alberta and Saskatchewan joined A thin horse neighs drearily. Confederation, Canada and the West underwent tremendous change.” The chickens drowse, Explore the tumultuous relationship between Western and Eastern Replete with grasshoppers that have gnawed and scraped Canada form 1869-1911 by looking at any three of the following: Shriveled garden leaves. No sound from the gaunt cows. the Red River Rebellion, the Northwest Rebellion, 111. The poem above is describing a scene from the Manitoba Schools Question, a) Scotland during the Clearances. the Sifton Migration, and/or b) Western Canada during the Depression. the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway. c) Western Canada during the recession of the early 1930s. d) Ireland during the potato famine. “The Great Depression was a major economic disaster that struck Canada and the rest of the world during the 1930s. If affected the (Telegram January 2002) whole country, but especially Western Canada.” Describe the Great Depression in terms of 112. The telegram above likely deals with the its causes, a) consciption crisis. B) Winnipeg General Strike. the conditions that existed in the west, and b) On-to-Ottawa trek. D) founding convention of the CCF. the reactions of government and the unemployed. “The distance from Vancouver to Ottawa is 3,000 miles, but “The Great Depression was a major economic disaster that struck from Ottawa to Vancouver it is 3,000,000 miles.” (An Canada and the rest of the world during the 1930s. It affected the anonymous British Columbian) whole country, but was especially Western Canada.” Describe the Great Depression in terms of: 113. The above statement illustrates the economic factors involved, a) nationalism b) colonialism. the relief (work) camps, and c) regionalism d) imperialism. the On-to-Ottawa trek. “The growing and changing make-up of the population of Canada, UNIT 6 CANADA’S EXTERNAL RELATIONS ever since its discovery, has produced tensions and rivalries between established groups in regions of Canada and the newcomers to the 1. For all intents and purposes, Canada was a colony from region. This is especially true in the West. These tensions have a) 1497-1867. b) 1497-1931. affected the relations between residents, immigrants and c) 1534-1763. d) 1867-1982. governments.” Considering this statement, choose any one of the following immigrant groups to write on and use the outline to guide 2. With the adoption of free trade by Britain in the 1840s, your response. a) colonial products received special preference in the British market. Métis vs. Selkirk settlers b) rapid British industrialization opened British markets to Explain why the Selkirk settlers came to Red River and how manufactured goods from British North America. they came to choose the Red River area in which to settle. c) the loss of colonial preference pulled British North Present the cultural differences between the inhabitants of Red America out of an economic depression. River and the Selkirk settlers. d) Canadian industry and transportation suffered heavy Explain the causes and results of the tensions arising between financial losses. the competing groups at Red River. 3. When Britain abandoned mercantilism and adopted free trade Métis vs. Hudson‟s Bay Co. in the 1840s it meant that Explain the cultural differences between the residents of Red a) the Canadas were independent of Britain. River and the new immigrants. b) the Canadas lost preferential treatment in the British Explain how the trade system and question of land market. ownership/use were causes of concern to both groups. c) Britain wanted to trade manufactured goods for Canadian Describe the sequence of events from the barring of Lt.Governor raw materials. McDougall to the arrival of Colonel Wolseley in Red River and d) the Canadas no longer had products Britain wanted. the long term results of the Rebellion. 4. In 1846 Canada‟s trade privileges with Great Britain came to British Columbians vs. Japanese an end, thus Explain the origin and activities of the Japanese in the economy a) Canadian businessmen were forced to trade with British of BC colonies. b) Canadian businessmen had to find new markets for their Discuss the reaction of the natives to the increasing number of products, like the U.S. Asians on the West Coast and the reasons for their actions. c) Canada reduced her imports of lumber and grain. Explain the treatment of the Japanese after the bombing of Pearl d) Canada increased her tariff on American farm products. Harbour in 1941 and its long-term effects. 5. When the Dominion of Canada was created in 1867, the British “The West has been angered and felt isolated by several events in government retained the responsibility for Canadian history.” Discuss Western alienation with reference to any a) foreign policy. three of the following: b) defence. control of natural resources, c) negotiating treaties with foreign nations. the 1897 Crow‟s Nest Pass Agreement, d) all of the above. federal government survey of Rupertsland, the proposed reciprocity agreement of 1911, 6. The document that best illustrates Canada‟s dilemma of and/or the senate. external affairs controlled by Britain while living along side of the US is the a) Treaty of Washington. b) Ogdensburg Agreement. c) Treaty of Versailles. d) North American Free Trade Agreement. 7. The issue that best illustrates Canada‟s dilemma of having external affairs controlled by Britain while as the same time living alongside the US is the a) Alaska Boundary Dispute. b) Naval Issue of 1910. c) Royal Assent of the Canada Act, 1982. d) Halibut Treaty. 8. Which of the following statements about the Alaska Boundary Dispute is false? a) The British commissioner sided with the US. b) The American claim was legally stronger. c) Canada got control of Skagway & sea access . d) Canadians were angry at both Britain and the US for the decision. 9. An important result of the Alaska Boundary Dispute was that 19. A cause of the War of 1812 was a) Canadians realized it was necessary to pursue a more a) British harassment of American shipping. independent foreign policy. b) American Manifest Destiny. b) Canadian-American relations worsened for decades to c) British incitement of the Indians to violence in the Ohio come. Valley. c) Britain took a more active role in negotiations on behalf of d) all of the above. Canada. d) Canada was free to pursue its own foreign policy. 20. With reference to the War of 1812, a) Britain was able to send sufficient troops and supplies to 10. When Canada was a Dominion, Britain had control over all of help the British North American colonies. the following, except b) Isaac Brock‟s early victories turned the tide of battle in a) foreign policy. b) laws. favour of the British. c) elections. d) amending the BNA Act. c) Upper Canada‟s American-born population was sympathetic towards Britain. 11. The event that united Canada as a nation distinct from Britain d) The British colonies had a larger population than the was United States. a) the Great Migration. B) NAFTA. c) World War I d) Official Languages Act. 21. Canadians did not view the War of 1812 as a) an American defeat. 12. The first treaty that Canada signed on its own, without British b) an American victory. approval, was the c) a victory for the Loyalist cause. a) Treaty of Paris. b) Treaty of Versailles. d) an event which helped develop Canadian identity. c) Halibut Treaty. d) Washington Treaty. 22. What was not a result of the War of 1812? 13. The Colonial Laws Validity Act was repealed by the a) a limit was placed on the number and kind of warships a) Treaty of Ghent. b) Statute of Westminster. permitted on the Great Lakes. c) Halibut Treaty. d) Canada Act. b) a growing sense of nationalism based on anti-American feelings flourished. 14. The legislation which granted Canada the greatest degree of c) there was a significant increase in the flow of immigrants independence was the from the US. a) Constitutional Act. b) Statute of Westminster. d) the 49th parallel was established as the US-Canada c) Quebec Act. d) British North America Act boundary from the Lake of the Woods to the Rockies. 15. Which of the following was not a step along the road to 23. Which of the following was not a result of the War of 1812? Canadian autonomy? a) Official British policy favoured immigrants from the a) the Statute of Westminster British Isles b) the Manitoba Schools Question b) American immigration to Upper Canada increased. c) membership in the League of Nations c) There was a growth in Canadian nationalism. d) the creation of the Canadian flag d) The US-BNA border was set at the 49th parallel between the Lake of the Woods and the Rockies. 16. Of the following responses, the one that best describes the process of autonomy in Canada is 24. After the War of 1812, the peace negotiations summarized in a) independence gained by voting. the Treaty of Ghent b) independence gained by rebellion. a) clarified a major portion of the boundary between the c) a gradual lessening of political ties to Britain. USA and British North America. d) a unilateral, or one-sided, declaration of independence b) settled the boundary dispute between the Indians and the from Britain. Americans in the Ohio Valley. c) provided the colonies in British North America with an 17. With reference to the American Revolution, which one of the independent government. following statements is false? d) created the autonomous nation of Canada. a) The American experience became an inspiration for people fighting against political oppression. 25. The 1854 Reciprocity Treaty b) The arrival of the Loyalists resulted in the creation of two a) established the Canada – U.S. border. new British colonies. b) set up NORAD. c) The Loyalists had little effect on the government structure c) allowed fish and grain to move freely across the US border. of Quebec. d) increased the tariffs between Canada and the US. d) American anger would focus on the British North American colonies. 26. The 1854 Reciprocity Treaty a) established the present-day Canada – United States border 18. “Manifest Destiny” usually refers to at the 49th parallel. a) Great Britain‟s colonial empire. b) set up the North American Air Defence Command b) the desire of French Canada to separate. (NORAD). c) the 19th century belief that the US should take over all of c) allowed fish and grain to move freely between British North America. North America and the U.S.A. d) the 19th century belief that Canada should take over all of d) increased the tariffs between British North America and North America. the United States. 27. The Reciprocity Agreement reached in 1854 between Britain 35. American business overcame the restrictions of the National and the United States Policy tariff by a) increased trade between Britain and the US. a) withdrawing their products from Canada. b) changed the trade pattern from east-west to north-south. b) establishing branch plants in Canada. c) hurt the economy of the BNA colonies. c) hiring Canadians to work in US factories. d) was needed by the United States. d) selling their products at the same price as Canadian goods. 28. The USA allowed the 1854 Reciprocity Agreement to lapse 36. The 1871 Treaty of Washington signed by Britain and the because of the United States a) St. Albans incident. b) Alabama incident. I. gave the United States access to Nova Scotia‟s fishing c) Trent Affair. d) all of the above. grounds II. reduced tensions between Canada and the United States 29. The American Civil War (1861-1865) III. was regarded by John A. Macdonald as a sell-out. a) led to the formation of the United States. IV. prompted Britain to withdraw its troops from Canadian b) led to a demand for a union with the US. soil. c) was one of the causes of the Union of the 4 colonies into the a) I and II b) III and IV Dominion of Canada. c) I, II and IV d) I, II, III and IV d) had no impact on the colonies in British North America. 37. The 1871 Treaty of Washington signed by Britain and the 30. Fenian invasions in the 1860s made some Canadians think the United States colonies should unite for defence purposes. The Fenians were a) gave the US access to NS‟s fishing grounds. a) American fur traders who moved into the Canadian west to b) reduced tensions between Canada and the US. sell whiskey and trade illegally with the Aboriginal c) was regarded by Macdonald as a sell-out. peoples. d) all of the above. b) Native Americans who tried to relocate in Canada after they were driven out of the United States. 38. The Treaty of Washington signed in 1871 by Britain and the c) Former slave owners from the southern United States who United States entered Canada illegally to track down fleeing slaves. a) brought Canada and the US to the brink of war. d) Irish-Americans who hoped to promote Ireland‟s b) led to Canadian control of our own foreign policy within a independence form England by attacking the British North decade. American colonies. c) led to a free trade agreement between the US and Canada the next year. 31. When the American Civil War ended in 1865, some people in d) was regarded by many Canadians as a sell-out of our BNA were afraid that the victorious Northern army would interests. invade their colonies. As a result a) the British built fortresses along the border to defend the 39. What was not a cause of tension between the US and Canada colonies from a possible American invasion during the 19th century? b) the British built the Welland and Rideau canals to move a) Fenian raids. b) Alabama Affair. troops more easily. c) Boer War. d) Alaska Boundary Dispute. c) the colonial governments conscripted able young men to form an army. 40. What is not considered a reason for American investment in d) there was increased support for a political union of the Canada in the early 20th century? colonies to help resist a possible American invasion. a) Canada had abundant natural resources b) Canada welcomed foreign investment 32. With reference to the defence of British North America c) Canada could not find investment elsewhere a) an efficient railway system would make defence harder. d) Canada was in close geographic proximity b) Britain would allow Union troops to enter Canada to capture Confederate raiders. 41. Laurier thought Canadians would support the Reciprocity c) A Confederation could mean a stronger militia for defence. Treaty in 1911 because it would d) The American government wanted to expand northward a) increase trade with Britain & bring prosperity. following the Civil War. b) increase trade between the USA and Canada. c) increase tariffs, protecting Canadian businesses. 33. The National Policy was designed to protect the Canadian d) increase trade with the Far East. economy by a) expanding the market for Canadian goods 42. What event in Canadian-American relations was instrumental b) encouraging trade with England in Laurier‟s defeat in 1911? c) sharing Canadian and American resources a) the Boer War. b) the Reciprocity Agreement. d) bringing cheap American goods into Canada b) the Treaty of Washington. d) the Alaska Boundary Dispute 34. The National Policy 43. With reference to Canadian-American relations following a) lowered tariffs on foreign products entering Canada. World War I, b) was meant to build up an American market for Canadian a) Americans believed it was easier to deal with Canada than products. it was with Britain. c) brought a great deal of prosperity to Canada. b) American consumer goods increasingly crossed the border d) forced Canadian consumers to pay higher prices for their into Canada. manufactured goods. c) American trade unions were forced to leave Canada. d) the United States supported a separate seat for Canada in the League of Nations. 44. The United States opposed Canadian membership in the 54. As a result of World War I League of Nations after World War I because a) national pride increased in Canada. a) Canada was not an industrialized nation. b) Canada gained international recognition. b) Canada had refused to participate in World War I. c) Canada‟s economy expanded. c) they preferred to have Britain act on Canada‟s behalf. d) all of the above. d) Canada had opposed the American war effort. 55. Which of the following circumstances came about as a result of 45. Which did not involve both the US and Britain in Canadian Canada‟s participation in the First World War? (BNA) affairs? a) Women retained their traditional roles in Canadian a) Trent Affair b) Alaska Boundary Dispute society. c) Washington Treaty d) Statute of Westminster b) Canada achieved increased status in international affairs. c) Canada became increasingly dependent on agriculture as 46. The cooperation between Canada and the United States during the basis of its economy. World War II was evident in d) Canadian society experienced a greater degree of a) the Ogsdenburg Agreement. cooperation between French-speaking and English- b) the construction of the Alaska Highway. speaking groups. c) the Hyde Park Agreement. d) all of the above. 56. The event resulting directly from Canada‟s participation in the First World War was 47. In 1956 Canada and the United States signed the Auto Trade a) membership in the League of Nations. Pact. For Canada, one long-term result of this Pact has been b) the signing of the Treaty of Versailles. a) increased investment in Canadian automobile research and c) the rise of isolationism in the US. development. d) the appointment of Arthur Currie as Commander of the b) Canadian specialization in the manufacture of automobile Canadian Corps. parts for the Canadian and American market. c) the reduction of foreign car imports, particularly from 57. After World War I, Canada‟s independent status Japan. a) was enhanced. d) increased export of Canadian-made cars to European b) diminished. countries. c) remained the same as before the war. d) formally recognized by the United States. 48. Which of the following did not weaken the “special relationship” that existed between Canada and the United 58. Income tax was introduced after this war to help pay the debt States between 1945 and 1965? that it had caused: a) a 10% surcharge on imports to the United States a) World War I b) World War II b) an American supertanker‟s trip through Canadian Arctic c) the Korean War d) the Cold War waters c) the establishment of the NORAD defence alliance 59. Canada became an industrial nation because of d) the Garrison Dam project a) World War I b) World War II c) the Cold War d) the DEW line 49. A Canadian who supports the North American Free Trade Agreement would also likely have supported 60. In the period between the two world wars, Canada‟s foreign a) John A. Macdonald‟s National Policy. policy can best be described as b) a protective tariff on American imports. a) a peace-keeping role. c) closer trade relations with the mother country. b) isolationist. d) reciprocity with the United States. c) one of total involvement in world affairs. d) one promoting a close partnership with the USA in world 50. Under the Free Trade Agreement with the United States, affairs. Canada should get a) more branch plants. 61. How did Canada become involved in WW II? b) fewer branch plants. a) we were legally at war as soon as Britain was c) the support of Canadian nationalists. b) PM Mackenzie King declared war unilaterally d) a closer relationship with European countries. c) Parliament voted to declare war d) we were allied with the US, who were at war 51. Canada‟s most important trading partners are a) Britain and France. b) the US and Japan. 62. When was World War II fought? b) Korea and Mexico. d) China and Germany. a) 1914-1918 b) 1939-1945 b) 1950-1953 d) 1946-1990 52. Canada became involved in WW I because a) we were legally at war as soon as Britain was. 63. What effect did World War II have on Canadians? b) we wanted to become more independent. a) Japanese Canadians had their property confiscated and c) Parliament voted to declare war. were interned in camps in BC. d) we were allied with the US, who were at war. b) French Canadians were conscripted despite their opposition to it. 53. When was World War I fought? c) Women did many jobs that were previously considered to a) 1914-1918 b) 1939-1945 be for men only. c) 1950-1953 d) 1946-1990 d) all of the above 64. The main result of conscription during World War I and World 74. Lester Pearson won the Nobel Peace Prize for helping to end War II was this: a) a more unified and stronger Canada. a) the Cold War b) the Suez Crisis b) tremendous opposition in Ontario. c) the Holocaust d) Apartheid c) a serious rift in French -English relations. d)a major increase in the number of Canadians serving 76. A country‟s foreign policy deals with overseas a) what is happening within the country b) defence spending 65. How did Canada become involved in the Cold War? c) how taxes should be spent a) we were legally at war as soon as Britain was d) relations with other countries b) PM Mackenzie King declared war unilaterally c) Parliament voted to declare war 77. Because we are part of the global community, Canada‟s foreign d) we were allied with the US, who were at war policy includes all but one of the following planks. Select the exception: 66. Canada and 11 other Western nations formed this in 1949: a) foreign aid to Third World countries a) NORAD b) the Warsaw Pact b) the principle of sustainable development c) NATO d) the United Nations c) trading with any sovereign nation in the world d) tying discussion of human rights to trade 67. The formation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was in direct response to a perceived military threat 78. Since World War II, Canada‟s foreign policy can best be from described as being focused on a) Germany. b) China. a) French – English relations. c) Third World Countries. d) The Soviet Union. b) isolationism. c) peacekeeping and Third World aid. 68. The term “Cold War” refers to the period from 1946-1990 in d) total involvement with American policy. which a) the US and USSR competed for supremacy in the Arctic. 79. In recent years, Canada‟s armed forces have mainly taken on b) the US and USSR cooperated in the Northern Hemisphere. the role of c) the US and USSR were engaged in armed conflict. a) feeding the starving nations of the world. d) the US and USSR engaged in espionage and a nuclear arms b) keeping peace in war-torn countries. race. c) providing medical supplies to needy nations. d) assisting in the overthrow of illegal governments. 69. The loose association made up of Britain and her former colonies is known as 80. Canada has been involved in peacekeeping operations in all but a) CIDA. b) the United Nations. one of the following countries c) the Warsaw Pact. d) the Commonwealth. a) Egypt. b) Bosnia. c) Ireland. d) East Timor. 70. With reference to the Commonwealth of Nations, a) the majority of the Commonwealth‟s population today Inhabitants of Canada!…The army under my Command has consists of African and Asian peoples. invaded your Country…I come to find enemies not to make b) the British monarch id the actual head of the them, I come to protect not to injure you. Commonwealth with the power to make decisions. …you have felt her (Great Britain’s) Tyranny, you have seen c) Canada believes that the Commonwealth should be a her injustice, but I do not ask you to avenge the one or to formal alliance with a common foreign policy redress the other…I tender you the invaluable blessings of d) the Commonwealth fully supported Britain‟s invasion of civil, political and religious Liberty…that liberty which gave the Suez. decision to our counsels and energy to our conduct in our struggle for INDEPENDENCE… 71. The statement that best describes the role of the That Liberty which has raised us to our elevated rank among Commonwealth is: the Nations of the world… a) The members speak with a united voice on foreign affairs. …Had I any doubt of eventual success I might ask your b) The members have a common approach to economic assistance but I do not. I come prepared for every issues. contingency. I have a force which will look down all opposition c) The members are united by commitment to military and that force is but the vanguard of a much greater. If security. contrary to your own interest and the just expectation of my d) The organization provides a forum for discussion and country you should take part in the approaching contest you cooperation. will be considered and treated as enemies and the horrors, and calamities of war will Stalk before you. 72. At the present time, Canada is a member of all of the following If the barbarous and Savage policy of Great Britain be organizations, except: pursued, and the savages are let loose to murder our Citizens a) the United Nations. b) the Warsaw Pact. and butcher our women and children, this war will be a war of c) NORAD. d) NATO. extermination. …No white man found fighting by the Side of an Indian will be 73. The Canadian who won the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to taken prisoner. Instant destruction will be his Lot… resolve the 1956 Suez Crisis was The United States offers you Peace, Liberty, and Security. a) Louis St. Laurent. b) Mackenzie King. Your choice lies between these and War, Slavery, and c) Lester Pearson. d) John Diefenbaker. Destruction… - Brigadeer General Hull on July 12, 1812 81. General Hull I know that Nature designs that this whole continent, not a) wished Canadians to welcome his troops as an army of merely these thirty-six states, shall be, sooner or later, within liberation. the magic circle of the American union. b) is in dire need of Canadian reinforcements to help fight - William H. Seward, US Secretary of State, at the time of Great Britain. Confederation (Quoted in N.Sutherland and E.Deyell, Making c) is promising Canada complete independence from both Canadian History, Book II[Toronto, 1967]) Great Britain and the United States. d) is not sure who Canadians will side with – the British or 87. Seward seems to think that the Americans. a) Canadians want to join the US. b) the US ought to be made up of 36 states. In days of yore, from Britain’s shore, c) the US and Great Britain should share control of the Wolfe, the dauntless hero, came, continent. And planted firm Britannia’s flag on Canada’s fair d) BNA will eventually become part of the US. domain. Here may it wave, our boast, our pride, 88. As a result of speeches like Seward‟s, most Canadians decided And joined in love together a) Confederation was a mistake that would make American The Thistle, Shamrock, Rose entwine expansion easier The Maple Leaf forever. b) political union was necessary to cope with the threat of American takeover 82. The main reason why “The Maple Leaf Forever” did not c) each colony should raise and equip an army to defend itself become our national anthem was that d) their colonies should follow “Nature” and seek union with a) it was too patriotic for Canadian tastes. the United States b) it refers to the flag of the United Kingdom. c) it reminds French Canadians of an English victory. (Map January 2002) d) the maple leaf was not considered to be an appropriate national emblem. 89. Which boundary shown on the map did Canada claim in the Alaska Boundary Dispute of 1903? Canada entered the war a colony, she emerged from it close to a) 1 b) 2 c) 3 d) 4 an independent state. (Arthur R.M. Lower, Colony to Nation) Living next to you is in some ways like sleeping with an 83. The war referred to in the above statement was elephant; no matter how friendly and even-tempered the beast, a) the Boer War. b) World War I. one is affected by every twitch and grunt. c) World War II. d) the Korean War. 90. Which Canadian Prime Minister is most likely to have made I am for it, because I hope to see the day when the American the above comment about the United States? flag will float over every square foot of the British North a) John A. Macdonald b) Lester B. Pearson American possessions clear to the North Pole. b) Pierre E. Trudeau d) Brian Mulroney - Champ Clark, 1911 We are opposed to further enlistments for the war in Europe, 84. “It” in the above statement refers to whether by conscription or otherwise, for the following reasons: a) reciprocity. b) conscription. (1) Canada has already made a military display, in men and c) confederation. d) annexation manifesto. money, proportionately superior to that of any nation engaged in the war; (2) any further weakening of the man-power of the I am for it, because I hope to see the day when the American country would seriously handicap agricultural production and flag will float over every square foot of the British North other essential industries; (3) an increase in the war budget of American possessions clear to the North Pole…I do not have Canada spells national bankruptcy; (4) it threatens the any doubt whatever that the day is not far distant when Great economic life of the nation and, eventually, its political Britain will joyfully see all her North American possessions independence; (5) conscription means national disunion and become a part of this Republic. This is the way things are strife, and would thereby hurt the cause of the Allies to a much tending now. greater extent than the addition of a few thousand soldiers to their fighting forces could bring them help and comfort...Opposition to conscription and war-madness in 85. The quote above would most likely be made by a(n) Canada is not anti-patriotic; it is essentially patriotic and a) American who believed in Manifest Destiny. b) Fenian seeking the capture of Canada. clearsighted. - Win the War and Lose Canada Le Devoir July 12, 1917 c) Loyalist fleeing the recently formed USA. d) English imperialist seeking expansion of the Empire. 91. This editorial opposes conscription because a) Canada had already done more than its share in the war We are a Fenian brotherhood, skilled in the art of war, b)conscription would hurt Canada‟s agricultural And we’re going to fight for Ireland, the land that we adore; production Many battles have we won, along with the boys in blue, c) conscription would cause division in Canada And we’ll go to capture Canada, for we’ve nothing else to do. d) all of the above 86. The Fenians referred to in the above passage attacked Canada 92. According to this editorial, further war efforts because a) would have no effect on Canada. a) they wished to strike at Great Britain by attacking Canada. b) would help Canada‟s economy. b) Canadians mistreated Irish immigrants. c) would harm only Canada‟s economy. c) they were ordered by the US President to attack. d) would harm both Canada‟s economy and its independence. d) they were unemployed after the American Civil War. (In Flanders Fields) Canadian development has been defensive in character. It has been part of a general strategy of containing the 93. The poem shown above was written in the trenches near Ypres, expansionism of the stronger and more aggressive economy Belgium during of the United States and in preserving a distinct political a) the Napoleonic Wars. b) the Boer War. sovereignty over the territory north of the present international c) World War I. d) World War II. boundary. Each phase of expansion in Canada has been a tactical move designed to forestall, counteract. or restrain the 98. The poem is a good example of a northward extension of American economic and political a) primary source. b) unreliable source. influence. Primary responsibility for maintaining and c) secondary source. d) second-hand source. strengthening this policy of defensive expansionism has fallen on the state. - Defensive Expansionism: The State and “By the accident of geography and history we find ourselves Economic Growth in Canada, 1959 squarely between the two greatest powers on earth. We have no fortresses facing either. We want to live at peace with our 105. The article above suggests that: northern neighbours, as we have lived so long at peace with a) Canadian governments have allowed the US free access to our southern neighbours.” (John Diefenbaker, in a speech to the Canadian system the United nations on September 26, 1960) b) Canadian governments are worried only about foreign controls on the economy 99. Diefenbaker‟s speech was likely made during c) the business community is responsible for resisting a) World War II. b) the Cold War. growing American influence c) the Korean War. d) the Vietnam War. d) the Canadian government has deliberately developed policy to protect economic & political interests It is the duty of the parental government to protect the home brood against the encroachments of the intruder...It is the duty Once in force...it will add significantly to economic growth, of those who bear the flag - who represent the power and the incomes and employment in Canada. Canadian business will glory of the Empire - to protect those who might be entitled to become more competitive in the Canadian and world markets. protection. It is equally the duty of government to protect the Canada will become a stronger and more confident country in industries of the people of the country against the the world trading community. It will mean a richer Canada, a encroachment of the people of any other country. Canada which can afford to maintain and enhance the quality of life through, and for, Canadian cultural endeavours. A richer 100. According to the article above, protection of Canadian industry Canada will allow governments to stimulate economic is the responsibility of development in Canada’s poorer regions and maintain a safety a) the US government. b) the Canadian government. net of social programs for all Canadians. c) labour unions. d) business leaders. Canada-US Free Trade Agreement 101. The writer of this article would likely support 106. According to this reading, the 1987 Canada-US Free Trade a) high tariffs. b) reciprocity. Agreement will c) free trade. d) immigration. a) help Canada‟s economy b) make Canada more competitive 102. This article most likely represents the views of c) both a) and b) a) a factory worker. b) a business leader. d) neither a) nor b) c) a government official. d) a recent immigrant. 107. The writer claims the FTA will Canada cannot be a hermit nation. -Lord Jellicoe, 1910 a) protect Canada‟s culture and social programs b) harm Canada‟s culture and social programs May I be permitted to add that in this Association of Mutual c) protect culture, but harm social programs Insurance against Fire [the League of Nations], the risks d) harm culture, but protect social programs assumed by the different States are not equal? We live in a fire-proof house, far from inflammable materials. A vast ocean A small power is in a sense by its very smallness relieved from separates us from Europe. - Raoul Dandurand, 1924 much of the responsibility which participation in decisions involves, and which the implementation of such decisions 103. The above quotations suggest that Lord Jellicoe and Raoul requires. At the other extreme the great powers can protect Dandurand disagreed fundamentally over the concept of their positions with the veto. Canada is in a different position. a) isolationism. b) militarism. Its economic strength and political influence are of importance, c) imperialism. d) protectionism. and its prestige is high. The material and moral contribution with Canada can make to collective action, …, is significant. Canada followed in the trail of its big neighbour like a wobbly- kneed puppy after a Great Dane. Canadian stock-exchanges 108. The argument above is one in favour of Canada‟s status as a did proportionately as much business as those in the United a) member of NATO. States. Most of those issues were favoured by speculators b) member of the United Nations. across the line…everybody made money, on paper… c) middle power. d) peacekeeper for the United Nations. 104. The quote above refers to a) a complaint of the Urban Reform Movement. b) the Great Depression of the 1930s. c) the reckless financial dealings common in the 1920s. d) American ownership of Canadian primary industry. It is high time that Canada had a government which will not “Autonomy has been a goal of many government leaders and citizens knife Canada’s best friends in the back. -Howard Green, of Canada since Confederation in 1867. Achievement of that goal speaking at the time of the Suez Crisis in 1956 between 1867 and 1982 has dramatically altered our relationship with Great Britain.” Expand on this statement with reference to any three 109. The “best friends” referred to above, who had invaded Egypt, of the following: were The Washington Treaty 1871, a) the United States and the USSR. The Alaska Boundary Dispute 1903, b) France and the USA. World War I 1914-1919, c) Great Britain and France. The Boer (South African) War 1899-1902, d) Great Britain and the USA. The Naval Bill 1911, The Halibut Treaty 1923, …In the long run the overwhelming threat to Canada will not The Balfour Report 1926 & The Statute of Westminster 1931, come from foreign investments, or foreign ideologies, or The Constitution Act 1982, even…foreign nuclear weapons. It will come instead from the For each, be sure to explain two thirds of the people of the world who are steadily falling the terms/circumstances of the event itself, and farther and farther behind in their search for a decent standard how it helped Canada move towards autonomy from Britain. of living. -Pierre Elliot Trudeau “Canada moved from a strong British-Canadian relationship in 1870 110. In an effort to make a greater commitment to foreign aid, to a strong Canada-US relationship by 1950.” Agree or disagree with Canada created this agency in 1968: this statement, using specific examples to support your position. a) CIDA b) UNICEF c) the Columbo Plan d) the WHO “The American Civil War, which threatened to destroy the American Union, was instrumental in creating the Canadian union in 1867.” FOREIGN AID AS A PERCENT OF GNP Discuss the issues that arose from the United States Civil War and which fostered Confederation, including Algeria 0.06 France 0.62 Saudi Arabia 1.44 British support of the Southern states, Australia 0.38 Italy 0.30 Sweden 0.92 revocation of the Reciprocity Treaty, and Austria 0.34 Japan 0.32 Switzerland 0.36 American feelings of “manifest destiny.” Belgium 0.42 Netherlands 0.08 United Kingdom 0.32 Canada 0.45 New Zealand 0.25 United States 0.20 “Canada and the United States share a history in North America that Denmark 0.96 Norway 1.14 may, at times, be described as one filled with anger and hatred, concern, and cooperation.” For any three of the following: 111. According to the table above American Revolution (1776), d) Canada is the leading donor of foreign aid in the world. Reciprocity Treaty (1854), e) Canada donates $45 million a year in foreign aid. American Civil War (1861-65), f) The United Kingdom and the United States spend an Washington Treaty (1871), equal amount of money on foreign aid. World War I (1914-18), d) Canada does not donate as much of its GNP to countries Hyde Park Agreement (1941), that need help as the Scandinavian countries do. Bomarc Missile Issue (1962), and/or 112. Using the table above, which of the following statements can Free Trade Agreement (1989). be verified? Discuss a) Canada contributes more foreign aid in percent of GNP the event, than other Commonwealth nations. its effect on Canada-US relations at the time, and b) Australia spends more money on foreign aid than Austria its effect on the development of Canada‟s history following the does. event. c) There are 17 members of the United Nations. d) Saudi Arabia requires recipients of its foreign aid to “Canadian-American relations have always been unequal and one- purchase oil from Saudi oil companies. sided.” Discuss this statement, outlining the various stages the relationship has gone through, Essays major historical events within each stage, and where things stand today. “The Confederation of Canada in 1867 was caused by external pressures from Britain and the United States.” Explain how the “Relations between Canada and the United States have been greatly following issues contributed to the decision of the British North affected by the personal relationships that various prime ministers American colonies to unite: have had with American presidents.” For any three of the following: the adoption of free trade, Hyde Park Agreement (1941), the revolution in transportation, and Bomarc Missile Issue (1962), the threat of invasion. Foreign Investment Review Agency (1974), Free Trade Agreement (1989), and/or “The process by which Canada has become independent of Great Immigration Act (2002) Britain has occurred over many decades.” Show how each of the Describe following made Canada more independent of Britain: who the prime minister and president were at the time, Confederation, how their personalities, ages and/or political views affected their the Alaska Boundary Dispute or the Halibut Treaty, and relationship, and the Statute of Westminster. how this relationship impacted Canadian-American relations at the time.