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Research Proposal About Turbojet

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Research Proposal About Turbojet document sample

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									                                                                                                                                        INL’s Physical
   New Technologies for Space Exploration:                                                                                               Infrastructure
       Results of Investigations at the                                                                                       Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment
                                                                                                                              Project is managed and operated by

  Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR)                                                                                    BBWI




                                           Steven D. Howe, Ph.D.
                                                        Director
                                                        CSNR



                                              Presented to the OPAG
                                                November 9, 2007                                                                                                                 The Idaho Cleanup Project is managed
                                                                                                                                                                                 and operated by CWI. ICP cleanup efforts
                                                                                                                                                                                 include decommissioning and dismantling
                                                                                                                                                                                 of excess Environmental Management
                                                                                                                                                                                 facilities.




                     INL’s Unique Facilities
                                                                                                                              INL’s Capabilities – Nuclear Energy
                                                                                                                                                                   !   Research and Technology
                                                                                                                                                                       Development for GEN IV
                                                                                                                                                                       Reactor
                                                                                                                                                                   !   Fuels and Materials
                                                                                                                                                                       Development and Testing
                                                                                                                                                                   !   Separations and Actinide
                                                                                                                                                                       Sciences
Advanced Test
                                                                   Space and Security
                                                                                                     Transient Reactor Test
                                                                                                                                                                   !   Modeling and Simulation
                                                                    Power Systems
   Reactor
                           Hot Fuels Examination Facility               Facility
                                                                                                            Facility                                               !   I&C and Intelligent Systems
                                                                                                                                                                   !   RTG assembly and testing
                                                                                                                                                                   !   Fusion safety
                                                                                                                                                                   !   Future System analysis



                                              Zero Power Physics Reactor
                                                                                  Fuel and Storage Facility


                Fuel Cycle Facility
    Idaho currently plays a key late-stage
       role in RPS for space missions
                                                                                          Role of CSNR

                                 !   INL is responsible for final   !   Support the space nuclear
                                                                        research and educational
                                     assembly and testing of            mission needs of the INL
                                     Radioisotopic                  !   Reinvigorate research and
                                     Thermoelectric Generators          education in space nuclear
                                     (RTGs)                             engineering within U.S.
                                      RTGs)
                                                                        universities.
                                 !   The New Horizons mission       !   Be a focus for engaging
                                     to Pluto – the highest-            university scientists in
                                                                        research and development of
                                     priority exploration mission
                                                                        advanced space nuclear
                                     of the decade – depended           systems, including space
                                     on INL fabrication                 power and propulsion systems,
                                                                        and advanced radioisotope
                                                                        power systems at the INL.
                                                                    !   Summer Fellowship Program.




Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS)                                              Radioisotope Powered Flight
    Current RTGs are simple, robust,
!
    and proven technology                                           ! Offers potential for months or years of
!   Pu-238 running out – 24 kgs left                                  continuous aircraft operation
!   CSNR is currently examining
    possible alternative isotopes and                               ! Utilization of radioisotope decay heat
    new materials to ensure
    immobilization in accident                                        instead of combustion allows operation in
    scenarios
!   INL has facilities to fabricate new
                                                                      oxygen-free environment
    RPS systems
                                                                    ! Attractive for unmanned aircraft
!   Current design study:
    Using RPS sources for space                                       exploration missions in Martian
    power and for long duration
    (>2yr) Remotely Piloted Vehicles                                  atmosphere
    for planetary observation
                      Operation Basics                                                                                          CSNR Sumer Fellows Study

    ! Replace combustion chamber in jet                                                                                !   Mars airplane designed in the 2007 CSNR
                                                                                                                           Summer Fellows program under Jon Webb’s
      engines with a radioisotope driven heat                                                                              guidance
      exchanger                                                                                                        !   Webb completing MS at ISU doing Titan airplane
                                                                                                                           thesis
    ! Operates for months to years based on
                                                                                                                       !   Fellows examined
      isotope selection                                                                                                    !   Isotope options
    ! Somewhat throttled                                                                                                   !   Engine type
                                                                                                                           !   Cooling options and heat transfer
    ! Utilizes ~95% of heat generated                                                                                      !   Shielding estimates
                                                                                                                           !   Launch issues
    ! Stable, robust, long-lived
                                                                                                                           !   availability

                                           Image courtesy of http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/news/events/titana/index.cfm                                     Image courtesy of http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/news/events/titana/index.cfm




                                                                                                                       Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG)
                 Mission Requirements                                                                                     have been used since the Apollo days

!   Minimum flight time of 7-12 months                                                                                 !   Pu-238
!   Isotope shall provide 20-40 kWt
                                                                                                                              Non-weaponizable
                                                                                                                            ! Non-weaponizable
!   Realistic isotope extraction/production costs
!   Heat source assembly must survive re-entry and impact                                                                   ! 87.7 year half-life
!   Minimal dose to workers during fabrication                                                                              ! Alpha decay plus gamma rays
!   Total mass (including shielding) reasonable for our flight unit and for
    launch into space                                                                                                  !   Heavily encapsulated
                                                                                                                       !   Qualified against accident scenarios- fire, impact,
                                                                                                                           explosion
!   Isotope Properties Considered:                                                                                     !   6-8% conversion efficiency
!        • Half Life
!        • Power Density (including compound form and isotopic                                                         !   No moving parts
           concentration)                                                                                              !                kg/kWe
                                                                                                                           Around 200 kg/kWe
!        • Dose rate / Shielding requirement
!        • Production / Availability / Cost
                                                                                                                       !   Continuous power
    Suitable Isotopes Based on Power Density:
                                                                                      Engines Considered
         100% Isotope          Meltin   Compound        Mass
Isotop      Power     Compoun     g       Power      Compound for   !   Turboprop
  e:       Density:    d Form: Point:    Density:      20 kWt:          !   Used in low power, low speed Earth aircraft
            (W/g)               (ºC)      (W/g)          (kg)
                                                                        !   Most (~90%) of thrust from propeller
Sr-90        0.90       SrO     2530       0.44           45.46
                                                                        !   Propeller efficiency decreases at high flight velocities
Ru-106       9.91       Metal   2334       0.69           28.99
                                                                    !   Turbojet
Ce-144      21.07       CeO2    2400       0.65           30.77
                                                                        !   Used in high speed Earth aircraft
Po-210       9.13       PoO2     500       7.55           2.65
                                                                        !   Thrust generated from expansion of high pressure,
Pu-238       0.55       PuO2    2400       0.39           51.29             high temperature exhaust gases in nozzle
 Cm-
 242
             12.3      Cm2O3    2265       10.05          1.99      !   Ramjet
                                                                        !   Used in supersonic Earth aircraft, missiles
 Cm-
 244
             2.63      Cm2O3    2265       2.15           9.31          !   No moving parts
                                                                        !   Thrust generated from expansion of high pressure,
                                                                            high temperature exhaust gases in nozzle




                    Materials Issues
!   Confine isotopes                                                                        Conclusion
     ! Resist high temperature migration
     ! Launch abort reentry                                         !   Radio-isotope heated engines seem to be
!   Good thermal conductivity                                           viable for long duration flight in non oxygenated
!   High Z for self shielding                                           atmospheres
!   Non-reactive with many fluids                                   !   Relatively easy construction
    One candidate is a tungsten-rhenium cermet
!
                                                                    !   Allows for detailed mapping and scientific
!   Utilize particles of isotope distributed in W-Re matrix             exploration of an entire planet within a few
!   INL LDRD INL, BSU, ISU and UI collaboration awarded grant -         years time frame
    $250K/yr for 3 yrs
     ! Acquired SPS furnace- delivered
                                                                    !   Capable of loitering over specified targets
     ! Basis for joint NSF/EPSRC proposal with SRC in UK            !   Capable of being re-tasked to new targets that
     ! Examine microstructure, gas and liquid diffusion, up to
                                                                        are not in the viewing angle of current trajectory
        70/30 vol fraction, Re fraction                                 with no propellant consumption
!   Potential for electrically heated turbojet using W-Re heat
    exchanger in FY2008 using INL funds
                                                                                                        Image courtesy of http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/news/events/titana/index.cfm
                              backup                                                                                                           Titan Flight Conditions
                                                                                                              !       200 kg craft
                                                                                                              !       Flight Velocity of 10 to
                                                                                                                      50 mph
                                                                                                              !       Lift to drag ratio of 12
                                                                                                              !       CL of 0.63
                                                                                                              !       Required thrust of 8 lbf
                                                                                                              !       Wing planform area of
                                                                                                                      ~10 ft2


                                                                                                                                                                                   Image courtesy of http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/news/events/titana/index.cfm




                RP Jet (How it Works)                                                                                                          Required Input Power

!   Ram atmosphere                                                                                                                                       Input Power vs. Flight Velocity
                                                                                                                                                                 (200 kg Aircraft)


    flows into inlet /                                                                                                               120



    diffuser (!d ~ 0.95)                                                                                                             100


!   Power / Enthalpy is
    added in the heat
                                                                                                                                     80

                                                                                                                  Input Power (kW)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Turbojet 3 in


    exchanger (!he ~ 0.9)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Turboprop 3 in
                                                                                                                                     60
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Turbojet 2 in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Turboprop 2 in


!   Flow is expanded to                                                                                                              40




    ambient pressure in the                                                                                                          20


    nozzle (!n = 0.90)                                                                                                                 0


!   ! total = 72.675 %                                                                                                                     0   20   40              60
                                                                                                                                                         Flight Velocity (mi/hr)
                                                                                                                                                                                      80               100              120




                                  Image courtesy of http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/news/events/titana/index.cfm
Required Isotope Mass vs. Flight Speed
                                     T urboprop Fuel Mass vs. Flight Velocity
                                             (200 kg, 2 inch Diameter)


                 100


                 90


                 80


                 70


                 60
Fuel Mass (kg)




                                                                                                                         PuO2
                 50                                                                                                      SrO 50/50
                                                                                                                         SrO 69/31
                 40


                 30


                 20


                 10


                   0
                       0   20   40                      60                  80                100               120
                                             Flight Velocity (mi/hr)




                                                                       Image courtesy of http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/news/events/titana/index.cfm

								
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