Chollian GRE Study Group Kaplan Vocabulary List [Kap. Voc. 1/30] abase-adulterate abase (v.) cast down, bring low, humble, degrade (applied to the passions, rank, office, and condition in life); disgrace, lower, abassare (to lower) abash (v.) dismay, confound, disconcert, discomfit, make ashamed, chasten. (OFr) estbahir (to make ashamed) abate (v.) (a) decrease, become less in strength or violence, subside, diminish, delcline. (b) beat down, put an end to; lessen, diminish or moderate. (Fr) abattre (to beat down) abdicate (v.) renounce, abandon or relinguish a position, right, power or trust. ab (from, away) + dicare (to proclaim) aberration (n.) wandering, straying from the right way; deviation, esp. from what is right, normal or natural; mental disorder. ab (from, away) + errare (wander) abet (v.) foment, aid, support, be an accomplice or accessory to. (OFr) abeter (to incite, deceive) abeyance (n.) temporary suppression, suspension, delay, interruption. abhor (v.) hate extremely; loathe, detest, abominate. ab (from, away) + horrerre (shrink) abjure (v.) renounce on oath, reject solemnly, abandon formally, recant, retract, forswear. ab (from, away) + jurare (swear) ablution (n.) the washing of one's body or part of it as a religious abnegation (n.) denial, renuciation, act of abjuring, disclaiming. ab (from, away) + ominari (regard as an omen) abominate (v.) hate extremely, abhor, detest, loathe, execrate ab(from, away) + ominari (regard as an omen) aboriginal (adj.) primitive, primeval, primal; native, indigenous, original. ab (from) + origo (origin) abortive (adj.) interrupted, uncompleted; hence, fruitless, vain, futile, bootless. abortio (a miscarriage) abrade (v.) wear away by friction, scrape, erode, grate, rasp, scour. ab (away) + radere (to scrape) abrogate (v.) annul, repeal, invalidate. abscond (v.) depart clandestinely, decamp, steal away. abstemious (adj.) temperate or sparing in appetite or enjoyment of pleasure, sparingly used. ab (away, from) + temetum (strong drink) abstract (v.) (a) extract, separate out; think of a quality apart from particular examples or instances. (b) make a selection, epitomize, reduce to a summary. (c) draw away the attention or interest of. (adj.) (a) thought of apart from any particular example or instance; not concrete. (b) expressing a quality which is apart from any particular example or instance. (c) hard to understand, abstruse. (d) (loose usage) theoretical, not practical. ab (away, from) + trahere (to draw) abstruse (adj.) difficult to comprehend or understand, opposed to what is obvious; mysterious, obscure, recondite. abut (v.) border on, touch at end or side, adjoin, neighbor. (Fr) aboutir (to end) accede (v.) agree, assent, become a party to, as to a proposition or terms proposed by another; attain, as an office or rank; acquiesce, consent, comply, succeed (to), enter upon. ad (to) + cedere (to yield) acclimate (v.) become used to a climate not native, adapt to new environmental or (by extension) social conditions; harden, inure, season. accolade (n.) honor, distinction, award, reward. accost (v.) address, approach; make overtures to. ad(to) + costa (side) accoutrements (n.) equipment, furishings, accessories, esp.for military service. accretion (n.) growth (in size) or increase (in amount), esp. by addition or accumulation. ad (to) + crescre (grow) accrue (v.) to be added, as increase, profit or damage. ad (to) + crescere (to grow) acolyte (n.) one who waits on a person, attendant; in the Roman Catholic Church, the highest of inferior orders of clergy, with duties of assisting in rites; follower, companion, satellite. akolouthos (a follower) acquiesce (v.) submit, yield; assent, concur, agree. ad (to) + quiscere (to rest) acronym (n.) a word formed from the first (or first few) letters of several words. (NOW = National Organization for Women) actuate (v.) put into action or motion; incite, impel, instigate, induce, prompt. actuare (to act) acumen (n.) acuteness of mind, judgment, sagacity, perspicacity, shrewdness, discernment. adage (n.) proverb, axiom, maxim, aphorism, old saying. adduce (v.) present or offer as reason or proof, cite as an example; cite, quote, advance, bring forward, name, mention. ad (to) + ducere (to lead) adjure (v.) charge, bind on command on oath, or under penalty of a curse; entreat earnestly and solemnly; urge, charge. ad (to) + jurare (swear) admonish (v.) (a) warn, caution, reprove, rebuke, reprimand. (b) inform or remind by way of a warning. (c) advise, exhort. ad (to) + monere (to warn). adroit (adj.) dexterous, skillful, adept with te hands or (fig.) mentally; quick, resourceful. adulatory (adj.) excessively flattering, servilely praising, obsequious. auduari (to flatter) adulterrate (v.) corrupt or make impure by adding a poor or improper substance; vitiate, contaminate. ad (to) + alter (another) [Kap.Voc. 2/30] adumbrate - anomall adumbrate (v.) ～의 윤곽을 드러내다. outline in a shadow way, sketch foreshadow vaguely. ad (to) + umbra (shadow) advent (n.) comming, approach, vasitation. ad (to) + venire (to come) adventitious (adj.) 우연의～, added from without, accidental not inherent, casual. advocate (v.) plead in favor of, support, defend. (n.) one who defends a cause : one who pleads the cause of another, counselor, lawyer. ad (to) + vacare (to call) aegis (n.) protection, any power or influence that protects(originally applied to the shield of Zeus); patronage, sponsorship, auspices. affinity (n.) (a) relation by marriage (as distinguished from relation by blood consanguinity). (b) close relationship, conformity, resemblance, connection. (c) mutual attraction between individuals. affinis (realted by marriage) affluence (n.) abundance, specifically of riches ; wealth, opulence, plenty, prosperity. aggrandize (v.) make great of greater in power, wealth or influence exalt, promote, advance. ad (to) + grandire (increase) aggravate (v.) make worse, more severe, less tolerable as a physical condition ; make more inexcusable, aas a crime. (NOTE : Ofter misused in the sense of annoy) ad (to) + gravis (heavy) aggregation (n.) collection, cluster, combination. ad (to) + gregare (to herd) alabaster (n.) 설화석고, a compact mineral, somewhat translucent and usually white; anything having these qualities. alacrity (n.) 기민, eagerness, cheerful willingness, promptness enthusiasm, readiness. aleatory (adj.) 사행적인, of or depending on chance or luck; in law, depending upon a contingency. alea (a game with dice) allay (v.) lessen, ease, assuage, mitigate, alleviate mollify, soothe, clam. alleviate (v.) remove in part, lessen, pacify, appease, allay. allude (v.) refer indirectly (to), hint, suggest, intimate. allusion (n.) an indirect reference to something; casual mention. alluvial (adj.) 충적의, deposited by the actions of waves or water. ad (to) + luere (to wash) altercation (n.) dispute, conflict, quarrel, struggle, contention. altercari (to dispute) altruism (n.) unselfish concern for the welfare of other; charity, philanthrophy, humanitarianism. ambient (adj.) completely surrounding, all-encompassing. ambire (to go around) ambiguity (n.) uncertainty in meaning, display of two or more possible meanings. ambivalent (adj.) 양면가치의, unable to decide between two alternatives; experiencing two opposite emotions at the same time. ambrosia (n.) foods of gods; anything very pleasing to the taste or smell. ameliorate (v.) make better, inprove, meliorate. ad (to) + melior (better) ( ↔ deteriorate) amenable (adj.) (a) willing to follow advices, open to suggestion responsive, submissive. (b) able to be tested by. amenity (n.) (a) pleasantness, attractiveness. (b) (plural) pleasant or attractive features. as of place, climate, etc. (c) manner(s) conductive to pleasantness of smoothness of social intercourse; act(s) or form(s) conventionally observed. amorphous (adj.) having no determination form, shapeless, irregular, vague. (Gr.) a (without) + morphe (form) amortize (v.) 부채를 활부상환하다. liquidate or extinguish an indebtedness or charge. ad (to) + mors (death) ampersand (n.) the name of the character &, meaning "and". amulet (n.) 부적, ornament worn as a charm against evil sprits often inscribedwith a magic incation; talisman. analgegic (n.) something causing insensitivity to pain; painkiller. (adj.) anesthetic, numbing, dulling, deadening an (without) + algesis (pain). anachronism (n.) 시대착오, the representation of something as occuring at other than its proper time, especially an earier time ; anything out of its prpper time. (Gr.) ana (against) + chronos (time) anathema (n.) (a) ban, curse, mediction, imprecation. (b) a person of thing so cursed. (Gr.) anathema (anything devoted to evil) anarchy (n.) absence of government or law; lawlessnessm political disorder. an (without) + archos (ruler) anchor (n.) a device for keeping a ship fixed in place; (v.) fig, a source of stability, fasten, hold in place. ancillary (adj.) 보조적인, accesary, assistantm, auxiliary, adjuvant, suborinate, helping. anneal (v.) 단련하다. (a) to heat, then to cool slowly to render less brittle; to temper by gradually diminishing heat. (b) to strengthen and temper (the mind, will, etc). (OE) an (on) + aelan (to burn) annotation (n.) 주석, note added in comment or explanation (to a test); remark. commentary, educidation. ad (to) + notare (to mark) annuity (n.) an investiment yielding a fixed sum of money payable for a fixed number of years; pension, salary, remuneration. annus (year) anomaly (n.) 예외, 변칙, abnormally, irregularity, deviation from the rule or norm; exception, peculiarity, eccentricity. (Gr.) an (not) + homalos, from homos (the same). [Kap.Voc. 3/30] anomie - assuage anomie, anomy (n.) lack of purpose, identity or ethical values in a person or society (Gr) a (without) + nomos (law) antecedent (adj.) coming before in place, order or time; proir, anterior (signifies occurrence immediately before something else; foregoing, preceding, previous are more genernal). (n.) (a) a person or thing that goes before (b) in grammer, the word, phrase or clause to which a pronoun refers. ante (before) + cedere (to go) antedate (v.) precede in time; date too early. ante (before) + datum, from date (to give) antediluvian (adj) prehistoric, very old, ancient, specifically, before Noah's flood. ante (before) + diluvium (flood) anterior (adj.) before, prior (to), antecedent (to), preceding, previous. ante (before) antipathy (n.) aversion, repugnance, revulsion, abhorrence, detestation, dislike, hatred; alse, that toward which antipathy is felt. (Gr) anti (against) + patheia, from pathein (to feel, suffer) antipode (n.) (a) anything diametrically or directly opposite; antithesis. (b) (plur.) any two places directly opposite on the earth. (c) an opposite or contrary thing. (Gr) anti (against) + podes (feet) antithetic (adj.) opposite, contrary, contradictory, counterposed. (Gr) anti (against) + tithenai (to set) apathetic (adj.) devoid of feeling, listless, indifferent, impassive. (Gr) a (without) + pathein (to feel) aperture (n.) an opening, gap, hole space; the diameter of the opening in a camera, telescope, etc., through with light passes. aphasia (n.) speech abnormality, loss of understanding and use of words from brain damage. (Gr) a (without) + phanai (to speak) aphorism (n.) maxim, short pithy statement, old saying (there's no fool like an old fool). aplomb (n.) self-possesion, poise, self-confidence, composure. (Fr.) a plomb (Lit., on plumb, upright; hence, assured) apocalypse (n.) (a) revelation, discovery, disclosure. (b) the end of the world. (c) any greatly catastrophic event or series of events. (Gr) apo (from, away) + kalyptein (to cover or conceal) apocryphal (adj.) unauthentic, not genuine, spurious, fictitious. (Gr) apo (from, away) + kryptein (to hide) apogee (n.) most distant point in an elliptical orbit; hence, summit, acme, zenith, pinnacle, highest point. (Gr) apo (away) + ge (earth) apostasy (n.) abandonment of one's beliefs; total desertion of principles or faith; renunciation, recantation, disavowal. (Gr) apostasis (defection) apothegm (n.) saying, dictum; a short, instructive remark. (Gr) apo (from) + phtheggesthai (cry out, utter) apotheosis (n.) deification; glorification; a glorified ideal. (Gr) apo (from) + theos (god) appellation (n.) designation, name, title, appellare (to call upon) appendage (n.) (a) an adjunct; something added to a principal or greater thing. (b) extremity or limb of the body, as arms, fingers, flippers, antennai, etc. ad (to) + pendere (to hang) apposite (adj) suitable, fitting, pertinent, appropriate, apt. apprehension (n.) (a) fearful anticipation, dread, misgiving. (b) seizure, capture, arrest (c) understanding, cmprehension, grasp. ad (to) + prehendere (to take hold) appraise (v.) set a value on, valuate, estimate the worth of; also, estimate or judge the quantity of. appretiare (to value, esteem) approbation (n.) approval, commendation, santion, acceptance. approbare (to approve) appropriation (n.) (a) money, property or resources set at the aside for a given purpose. (b) taking of exclusive possession. ad (to) + proptus (one's own) appurtenance (n.) accessory, appendage, adjunct. apropos (adj.) opportune, appropriate, ocurring at the right time, seasonable. by the way (used to introduce a remark appropriate to the occasion but not directly related to the previous subject). (Fr) a propos (to the purpose) aquiline (adj.) eaglelike, hooked, breaked (an ------nose). aquila (eagle) arbitrate (v.) act as judge in a dispute between two parties. arcane (adj.) secret, known only to the initiated, esoteric. arcere (to shut up) argot (n.) slang, jargon or cant used by persons in the same work or way of life, often to conceal meaning from outsiders; often appllied to criminal or "lower-class" speech. (Fr) arrant (adj.) notorious, infamous, vile, flagrant. arrogate (v.) claim or demand unduly, appropriate arrogantly. ad (to, for) + rogare (to ask) ascertain (v.) make certain of, determine, discover, detect. ascribe (v.) attribute to, assign, impute, accredit. askance (adv.) (a) with a side glance, obliquely, from the corner of the eye. (b) with disapproval or distrust, suspiciously, questiongly. asocial (adj.) not social, withdrawn from society or social intercourse; inconsiderate or selfish asperity (n.) harshness, rigor, sharpness, inclemency. asper (rough) aspersion (n.) spreading of disparaging or damaging reports or charges; such charges themselves; slander, calumny, innuendo, false rumors. assay (v.) make an examination of, analyze, test. assonance (n.) (a) rough or inexact correspondence in sound (b) a partial rhyme in which the stressed vowel sounds are the same but the consonant sounds differ (as make, late). assonare (to sound, respond to) assuage (v.) appease, pacify, mitigate, ease, lessen, alleviate, ally. ad (to) + sauvis (sweet) [Kap. Voc. 4/30] astute - benign astute (adj.) wise, shrewd, clever, sagacious, perspicacious astut(craft, cunning) atavism (n.) reversion to an earlier type : reappearance in an individual of characteristics of an ancestor that have been absent in intervening generations; loosely, any throwback to primitive feelings or behaviours. atavus (the father of a great-grandfather), from avus (grandfather) atrophy (n.) a wasting away or failure to grow, esp. of a body tissue, because of insufficient nourishment or use. (v.) to waste away from this cause. (Gr) a (negational) + trephein (to nourish) attenuate (v.) make thin or slender; make less dense or viscid, rarefy; lessen the amount, force or value of; weaken. ad (to) + tenuare, from tenuis (thin) attest (v.) bear witness to, testify, authenticate, stand as proof of. ad (to) + testis (a witness) attrition (n.) (a) abrasion, wearing away by friction or rubbing. (b) the state or process of being gradually worn; any gradual wearing away, weakening, or lessening; specifically, lessening the numbers of workers, soldiers, etc. , by not replacing those who die or retire. audacious (adj.) bold, daring, fearless. audit (n.) (a) examine accounts. (b) sit in merely as a listener. audire (to hear) augment (v.) increase, enlarge, make bigger. augere (to increase) augur (v.) bode, foretell, be an omen, betoken, presage. (n.) one who augurs; soothsayer. (Deriv. uncertain) august (adj.) grand, majextic, magnificent; inspiring awe or reverence. (From Augustus Caesar) aura (n.) (a) invisible emanation or vapor, as the aroma of flowers. (b) an invisible atmosphere supposedly arising from and surrounding a erson or thing. (Gr) aura(air), from aenai(breathe) aural (adj.) relating to the ear ; auditory, auricular, acoustic. auris (ear) auspice (n.) (a) an augury, from birds; sign, augury or omen in general; a prophecy, esp. when favorable. (usu. pl.) (b) patronage, protection, sponsorship. auspicari(take the auspices), alt. from avis(bird) + spicere(to see) auspicious (adj.) (a) having favorable prospects, seeming to promise success; propitious, romising, encouraging. (b) prosperous, fortunate, favorable, kind, advantageous, lucky. austere (adj.) stern, strict; very self-disciplined; without excess or luxury. aver (v.) affirm, declare to be true, avow. ad(to) + verus(true) averse (adj.) disliking, disinclined, unwillingness or reluctance. avertere (turn away) avuncular (adj.) like an uncle, kindly but respected. avunculous (uncle) awry (adj.) turned or twisted to ane side, askew (used of physical objects or lans, events, etc.); amiss. (ME) on wry (turned, twisted) axiom (n.) self-evident truth; proposition whose truth is so apparent that no process of reasoning or demonstration can make it plainer, as "The whole id greater than a part" ; any statement universally accepted as true. (Gr) axioma(authority, an authoritative sentence) Adj. : axiomatic. bacchanalian (adj.) noisily drunken, orgiastic. From Bacchanalia, feasts in honor of Bacchus, the god of wine. baleful (adj.) sinister, harmful, evil, calamitous, deadly, pernicious, destructive. (OE) bealu (an evil), from balw (evil) + full ballistics (n.) the science or art of throwing missiles by means of an engine; the modern science deling with the motion and impact of projectiles, esp. those discharged from firearms ; ballistic, adj. (Gr) ballein (to throw) banal (adj.) unoriginal, stale, trite, hackneyed. bandy (v.) (a) toss back and fotrh, as a tennis ball. (b) swap, exchange, give and take, gossip. (adj.) (a) bent autward; bowed. bane (n.) that which causes death, destruction; the cause of injury, mischief or destriction. (OE) bana(murderer) bastion (n.) fortofication, bulwark, rampart; specifically, a fortification standing out from the main body of a wall to protect it. (Ofr) bastir (to build) beatific (adj.) (a) imparting blessedness, bliss. (b) showing or expressing happeness or blessness. beatus (happy) beguile (v.) (a) deceive, mislead, cheat, deptive by deceit. (b) amuse, charm, delight, relieve weariness by charm or delight; pass time pleasingly; divert, entertain. be (deprivative = away) + guile behest (n.) bidding, injuction, command, order. (OE) behaese, a command behoove (v.) be fitting, necessary for, or advantageous. (OE) behofian (to need) belabor (v.) (a) beat, pound, thrash, pummel, buffet. (b) the same figuratively. (c) to beat with words, attack verbally. bemuse (v.) muddle, confuse, stupefy; plunge in thought, preoccupy. (usu. in passive voice) beneficent (adj.) bringing about or doing acts of kindness or charity; resulting in benefit; charitable, munificent, kindly. bene(well) + facere(to do) benign (adj.) (a) of a gentle disposition, gracious, kindly, showing kindness and gentleness. (b) harmless, innocuous. bene (well, good) [Kap. Voc. 5/30] benighted - capitula benighted (adj.) overtaken by darkness (literally and figuratively); unenlightened. be (involved with) + night benison (n.) blessing, benidiction. bene (well, good) bereave (v.) deprive, strip, leave destitute, as by death or robbery. c.f) bereft(adj.). be(deprivative) + (OE; Old English) reafian(rob) betoken (v.) give evidence of, be evidence of, bespeak, indicate, mean, signify bilious (adj.) (a) pertaining to the bile (fluid produced by the liver) (b) affected with, or characterized by, headache, nausea or other disorders supposed to be associated with the liver. (c) ill-tempered, cross, out of humor, resentful, irascible (the bile having once been thought to be the seat of anger) blatant (adj.) (a) loudmouthed, offensively noisy. (b) obtrusive, too conspicuous, showy, gaudy, in bad taste. blithe (adj.) joyful, gay, merry, cheerful bluster (v.) blow noisily; speak in a noisy, swaggering, boastful or bullying manner; fume with anger. (n.) commotion, turbulence, agitation, boastfulness, empty bombast or threat. ; Middle English) blustern, to rush bombast (n.) high sounding but silly or meaningless language; pomposity, gradiloquence; an inflated style; fustian. From bombasium, a cotton doublet (orig. meaning = cotton stuffing, padding) bona fide (adj.) (orig. L., now Eng.) in good faith, without fraud; genuine. bona fides (good faith) bootless (adj.) fruitless, futile, vain, useless, (OE) bot (advantage) bourgeois (adj.) of pertaining to the middle classes of society, hence, commonplace, conventional, respcetable, smug, etc. (n.) a member of this class. (OFr; Origin of French)burgeis, from bourg (town) ; orig.appl. to the freeman class in the medieval towns bourn, bourne (n.) (a) destination, goal, port, journey's end, terminal, objective, limit, boundary. bonna(boundary, limit) (b) brook, stream burn. (OE) burna(a stream) bowderlize (v.) expurgate to make respctable (from Thomas Bowdler, who in 1818 published an expurgated edition of Shakespeare) brandish (v.) move, wave about, flourish, often with the sense of being done threateningly. (OE) brand (sword) brigand (n.) bandit, highwayman, robber, marauder, outlaw, rover( now poetic of archaic in flavor). (It) briga (trouble) broach (v.) utter, bring up, introduce into conversation ; open, tap, pierce, brocca (a split) bromide (n.) cliche, platitude, truism, commomplace or trite saying. From potassium bromide, Kbr(?), used in medicine as a sedative bucolic (adj.) rustic, rural, pastoral, of the countryside. (Gr) bukolikos from boukolos(herdsman), from bous (ox) burgeon (v.) send forth buds, branches, or any new growth; sprout; (fig) develop, blossom cabal (n.) small group of schemers or conspirators; the intrigues of such a group; plot, conspiracy; loosely, any small, secretive group. cache (n.) place used to store supplies; hiding place. (Fr) cacher (to hide, conceal) cachet (n.) seal or stamp on a letter; mark of authenticity ; any distinguishing mark or character. (Fr) cacher (to hide) cachinnation (n.) loud or unrestrained laughter. cacophony (n.) jarring or disagreeable combination of sounds, words, tone or notes ; any harsh, jarring sound;discord. kakos (bad) + phone (voice) cadaver (n.) corpse, dead body. cadere (to fall) cadre (n.) nucleus (of people); framework, skeleton, basic unit. cajole (v.) flatter, coax, persuade, wheedle, deceive by flattery. (Fr) cajoler(to coax) calamitous (adj.) disastrous, ruinous, catastrophic, cataclysmic. calamitas(misfortune) calligraphy (n.) art of penmanship, writing of decorative art. (Gr) kalos(beautiful) + graphein( to write) calliope (n.) musical instrument composed of whistles and played like an organ. From Greek Kalliope, muse of eloquence callous (adj.) thick-skinned (lit. or fig.); hardened, insensitive, unfeeling. callus(hard skin) callus (n.) a hardened place on the skin: (v.) to develop a callus. callow (adj.) immature, lacking sophistication, puerile calumny (n.) slander, false accusation, libel, defamination, vilification. calumnia (trickery) canard (n.) an untruthful report, false rumor, hoax(often assum to be derogatory, but this is not root meaning). candor (n.) openess or sincerity of speech, frankness. canon (n.) (a) law, rule regulation, dogma of a church. (b) a member of clerical group living according to canon; clergyman serving in a cathedral. (c) authentic works of an author; official list of anything,esp. Roman Catholic list of saints. (d) body of rules, norms,standards; accepted principles; criterion of judgement (e) type of musical composition characterized imitation canonize (v.) to declare a person a saint; to raise to the highest rank of honor. canonizare (put into the catalogue of saints) from Gr kanon(rule) from kane, kanne (reed or rod) cant (n.) (a) secret slang,esp. of criminals; argot, lingo, dialect. (b) jargon; the words and phrases particular to a profession, sect, etc. (c) insincere of hypocritical talk used from convention, social conformity, etc. capacious (adj.) roomy, spacious, large, broad; extensive, comprehensive, wide in scope. capere (to hold, contain) capitulate (v.) yield, submit, succumb completely, give up, cease resistance. [Kap. Voc. 6/30] capricious - cogitate capricious (adj.) subject to caprice, whim, impulse. captious (adj.) inclined to find fault; critical, quibbling, carping, quarrelsome; questioning for the sake of argument ; using sophistry. captio (deceit) careen (v.) tip, tilt, cause to lean to one side. carom (v. or n.) hit and rebound, collision, as in billiards. carnage (n.) slaughter, masscare, butchery, bloodshed. carnis (flesh) carrion (n., adj.) rotting flesh, corpse, carcass; of or pertaining to same. carte blanche (n.) free hand, blank check, full discretionary power. (Fr--white card) casuistry (n.) judgement of the application of ethical principles to specific cases; often signifies subtle and evasive reasoning to avoid responsibility. casus(a case) catalyst (n.) agent which produces or causes change in another substance, esp.that which precipitates an action or reaction. (Gr.) kata(down) + lyein(to loose) catatonic (adj.) characterized by phases of stupor; comatose, listless, dull. (Gr.) kata (down) + tonos(tension) catechism (n.) (a) set of formal questions put orally to candidates ; any such set of questions. (b) maual for religious instruction. catharsis (a) purgation. (b) purification of emotions through art. (Gr.) katharsis (purification) cathartic purgative, purifying, relieving. cavalcade (n.) pageant, procession, parade. caveat (n.) notice to legal authorities to suspend a proceeding until the notifier is granted a hearing; any warning enjoining from certain practices or acts, an admonition. cavil (v.) carp, quible, find fault, raise captious objections. (n.) a quibble, captious objection. cavilla(mocking) celerity (n.) swiftness, speed, promptness. celer(swift) celibate (n.) an unmarried person, esp. one who refrains from sexual activity. cerebrum (n.) the expanded anterior portion of the brain in higher mammals, consisting of cerebral hemispheres and connecting structures; loosely, the brain. chagrin (n.) shame, embarrassment, humilitation, mortification. chary (adj.) watchful, cautions, shy; frugal, stingy. chattel (n.) slave, possession, property, person or thing without freedom or rights. caput (head -- was applied to inanimate, animal and human property and root word of cattle) chauvinism (n.) extreme, belligerent patriotism; jingoism; fanatical devoted to one's nation, race, sex, etc. with contempt for other nations, races, sexes, etc. chicanery (n.) trickery, especially legal; deceit, guile, unfair artifice used in contest or discussion. chimerical (adj.) fanciful, imaginary, visionary, absurd, impossible. chortle (n. or v.) gleeful chuckling, snorting sound; to make this sound. from Lew-is Carroll churlish (adj.) surly, sullen, uncivil, rough in temper, selfish, rude. (OE) ceorl, a countryman of lowest rank circuitous (adj.) indirect, roundabout, oblique, not straightforward. circumlocution (n.) roundabout expression; euphemism; indirect or lengthy manner of expression. circum(around) + locutio(speaking) circumscribed (adj.) encircled, restricted, limited, cramped. circum(around) + scribed (draw, write) circumspection(n.) caution, wariness, descretion, prudence, watchfulness, attentiveness. circum(around) + specere(to look) circumvent (v.) (a) go around; surround, trap(but these senses are not freguent). (b) outwit, gain superiority over. (c) prevent from happening, avoid, stave off. circum(around) + venire(to come) cistern (n.) artificial reservoir, tank to store rainwater. clavicle (n.) collarbone, one of two bones(in mammals) joined to the sternum or brestbone at one end and the scapula or shoulder blade at the other. cleave (v.) (two opposite meanings!) (a) stick, cling, adhere. (b) split, separate, divide. clement (adj.) merciful, lenient, tolerant, mild, benign. clemens (mild, calm) cloy (v.) glut; surfeit by too much of anything, esp. anything too sweet, rich, etc.; satiate. cockade (n.) rosette or similar ornament worn on the hat as a badge. coq(cock, on account of resemblance to the comb of a cock) codicil (n.) a legal instrument made subsequent to a will and amending it; hence, any appendix, postscript, etc. coffer (n.) casket, chest or trunk, esp. one used for valuables; an ornamental recessed panel in a vault or dome; (fig.) treasury. (Gr.) kophinos(a basket) cogent (adj.) forciful, forceful, urgent, compelling, powerful, not easily resisted, having a powerful appeal; usually refers to logical or persuasive force but can refer to physical force. cogitate (v.) think over, reflect, deliberate, reason, ponder, ruminate. cogitare(to think) [Kap. Voc. 7/30] cognate - conversant cognate (adj.) (a) related by a common ancestor (of persons) or by origin (of words, languages, etc.) (b) having the same nature or quality. co (together) + natur, pp. of nasci (to be born) cognizant (adj.) aware, conscious, informed. cognoscere (to know) cognomen (n.) surname; any name, esp. a nickname. collate (v.) (a) compare critically; esp., compare one text, manuscript. etc. (b) collect, integrate and arrange in order. com (together) + latus, pp. of ferre (bring) colloquy (n.) dialogue, conversation, conference, mutual discourse. com (together) + loqui (to speak) collusion (n.) secret agreement for a fraudulent or illegal purpose; specifically, a secret agreement between two parties to defraud a third; conspiracy. comatose (adj.) of, like, or in a coma or stupor; unconscious, senseless, oblivious. (Gr) koma (deep sleep), from koiman (put to sleep) comestible (adj.) edible, fit to be eaten. (n.) food. com (intensive) + edere (eat) commonweal (n.) the common or public good. common + (OE) wela, weala (wealth) compendium (n.) a composition containing, in a brief form, the substance of a larger work or the essential features of a subject ; abstract, summary, synopsis, abridgment. (adj.) compendious complicity (n.) partnership in wrongdoing; state of being an accomplice. com (together) + plicare (fold) = involve comport (v.) (a) accord, conform, agree, suit. (b) act, behave, conduct, acquit. com (together) + portare (bring) compunction (n.) (a) sharp feeling of uneasiness brought on by guilt ; twinge or prick of conscience; remorse. (b) slight feeling of regret for a wrong done and of pity for the injured person. com (intensive) + pungere (prick) concatenate (v.) connect, unite in a successive series, esp. in which each element depends on the next; (n.) concatenation. concatenare (link together) concomitant (adj.) accompanying, attendant, conjoined. con (together) + comitari (to accompany) concupiscent (adj.) strongly desirous, esp. sexually; lustful, lecherous, laxcivious, salacious. con (together) + cupere (to desire) condign (adj.) suitable, appropriate, deserved, merited, esp. in reference to punishment. com (intensive) + digus (worthy) condone (v.) pardon, forgive; overlook, ignore. confluence (n.) meeting of two or more streams; place of or stream formed by a confluence. con (together) + fluentia (flowing) confrere (n.) fellow member of a profession, fraternity, etc; colleague. con + (Fr) frere (bring) confute (v.) disprove, prove false, refute. congenital (adj.) existing since birth; resulting from innate or inborn characteristics; resulting from heredity. com (together) + genus (nature or kind) conifer (n.) a plant that bears cones, as pine, spruce, fir, yew. conus (cone) + ferre (to bear) conjoin (v.) join together, unite, combine. con (together) + join conjugal (adj.) pertaining to marriage, nuptial; matrimonial, marital. from com (together) + jungere (to unite) connotation (n.) implied meaning, suggested significance, implication, as distinct from denotation (q.v.). connote (v.) suggest or convey (associations, overtones, etc.) in addition to the explicit meaning. connubial (adj.) marital, matrimonial, conjugal, wedded, married. con (together) + nubere (marry) consanguine (adj.) related by blood. con (together) + sanguis (blood) consensus (n.) unanimity, agreement, esp. general agreement of opinion or attitude toward any matter; hence, the general opinion. (NOTE: spelling NOT "concensus"; NEVER say "the ----- of opinion" -- this is redundant.) con (together) + sentire (to feel, perceive) consonance (n.) agreement, accord, harmony, congruity, consistency. com (with) + sonare (to sound) consummate (adj.) perfect, complete. (n.) accomplish, perfect, fulfill. con (together) + summa (a sum) contention (n.) (a) struggle, contest; verbal strife, argument, controversy. (b) point or proposition maintained in argument. con (together) + tendere (to stretch) contentious (adj.) quarrelsome, belligerent, discordant, contrary, perverse. contient (adj.) self-controlled. self-contained, temperate, esp. in sexual activity. (often implying complete abstinence). continece (n.) con (together) + tenere (to hold) contingent (adj.) possible; dependent on conditions; pertaining to that which may or may not happen depending on fulfillment of specified conditions; incidental. (n.) (a) allotment, quota. (b) group forming part of a larger one. contrition (n.) sincere repentence, sompuction, regret, penitence, sorrow for one's sins. contrive (v.) (a) devise, plot, scheme, manage. (b) plan, invent, design. contumacious (adj.) stubbornly disobedient, resistant to authority, refractory, unruly, intractable, insubordinate, rebellious, defiant, stubborn, headstong, unyielding. contumax (haughty, stubborn), from con (intensive) + tumere (to swell) contumely (n.) haughtiness, contempt, contemptuous or abusive language or behavior; also, an instance of this. conundrum (n.) (a) a riddle whose answer involves a pun. (b) any question of perplexing nature; riddle, enigma (16th century university Latin slang for pedant, word play). conversant (adj.) intimately acquainted, familiar, versed. con (with) + vertere (to turn) [Kap. Voc. 8/30] cornucopia - demesne cornucopia (n.) (a) a horn of plenty; specifically, a curved goat's horn full of fruit and grain, used as a symbol of abundance. (b) an overflowing fullness, abundance. corpulent (adj.) obese, portly, stout, having a bulky body. corpus (body) coterie (n.) an intimate, often exclusive group of persons with a common interest or purpose; social circle or set; clique. countenance (n.) (a) facial expression. (b) composure, control, self-control. (c) approval, support. (v.) favor, approve, give support to. conterpart (n.) (a) analogue, parallel, a person or thing resembling or corresponding to another. (b) a person or thing which supplies a quality wanting in another. covert (adj.) covered, concealed, hidden;hence, disguised, secret. (OFr) couvrir (to cover) cozen (v.) deceive, cheat, defraud, trick. (OFr) sousiner (to claim a blood relationship in order to gain advantage; to sponge) crass (adj.) grossly stupid, dense, dull, obtuse. crassus (thick, dense) craven (adj) afraid, cowardly, pusillanimous, base; to cry ----: give up. (ME) cravant (conquered), from (OFr) craventer (conquer) credence (n.) belief, especially in the reports of others; confidency, trust, faith; credential. credere (to believe) credulity (n.) gullibility, readiness of belief, naivete, lack of skepticism or doubt. crepuscular (adj.) of or pertaining to the twilight, dim, dusky, twilit. creper (dusky) crux (n.) critical point or moment, center, heart. crux (a cross) cryptic (adj.) hidden, secret, occult; having a hidden or secret meaning; mysterious, arcane, recondite. (Gr) kryptein (to hide) culinary (adj.) pertaining to the kitchen. culina (kitchen) culpable (adj.) deserving blame or censure; guilty. culpare (to find fault, condemn) cupidity (n.) avarice, greed, covetousness, inordinate greed for wealth or power. cupiditas (desire, wish) from cupere (to desire) cursory (adj.) superficial, lacking attention to or skipping over details, hasty, careless, desultory. cursor (a runner) cybernetics (n.) the comparitive study of the human nervous system and of the complex electronic information systems (computers), aimed at increasing the understanding of the functioning of the human brain. cynical (adj.) distrustful or suspicious of the motives of others. dalliance (n.) (a) act of delaying, lingering or loitering; wasting time (b) play, especially in making love; hence; and interchange of caresses; fondling. (ME) daliance, from dalien (delay) dauntless (adj.) valorous, brave, intrepid, courageous, fearless, not easily discouraged, mettlesome. domitare (tame, subdue) + less dearth (n.) insufficiency, scarcity, paucity. (OE) deore (dear, of great value) debacle (n.) (a) a breakup of ice in a river; a sudden rushing of ice-filled waters (rare) (b) an overthrow, a rout, a sudden great disaster or collapse. (Fr) debacler (to break up) debase (v.) lower or reduce in quality, stature, value; adulterate; degrade or make contemptible; vitiate, corrupt. de (down) + bassus (low) debauch (v.) corrupt, vitiate, suduce from virtue, duty or loyality. (n.) excess, intemperance, lewdness, drunkenness, an orgy. (OFr) des (away from) + baucher (hew, chip) debouch (v.) come out, eberge, issue forth; in military usage, march out of a confined place into open country. (Fr) deboucher (emerge from), from de (from) + bouche (mouth) decadence (n.) deterioration or decline, degeneration, falling away in quality, degradation. de (from) + cadere (to fall out) decamp (n.) make off, skip out, pull up stakes, fly the coop, clear out, take French leave, leave, depart, flee. deciduous (adj.) (a) falling off at certain seasons; esp., shedding leaves annually. (b) short-lived, temporary. de (from) + cadere (to fall) decimate (v.) destroy a large part of; specifically, kill one out of every ten. From decem (ten) decorum (n.) dignity or social correctness. defamatory (adj.) slanderous, calumnious, false and injurious to the reputation. diffamare = dif (opposition) + fama (fame) deferential (adj.) having courteous respect for another; obedient, respectful. defunct (adj.) dead, demised, extinct (of persons, enterprises, etc.) design (v.) condescend, lower oneself, do for an inferior; grant or allow with sondescension. dignari (deem worthy), from dignus (worthy) deleterious (adj.) pernicious, harmful, insalubrious, noxious, destructive. (Gr) deleter (destroyer) from deleisthai (injurey, destroy) delineate (v.) (a) trace the outline or form of, sketch; hence, to draw, depict. (b) describe, depict in words. delineare (mark out, sketch), from linea (a line) demean (v.) degrade, debase, humble, humiliate. (Formed by analogy with debase) demesne (n.) realm, domain, dominion, jurisdiction, department, province, field, sphere, bailwick. (ME) demaine (related to domain), from L. dominium (property) [Kap. Voc. 9/30] demise - dissimulate demise (n.) (a) death, decease. (b) transfer of an estate by will or lease; transfer of sovereignty by death or abdiction. de (down) + mittere (sand) demur (v.) delay (obsolete); hesitate, object, take exception to (with at). de (away, from) + morari (delay) demure (adj.) staid, grave, sober, modest, decorous. (OFr) de murs (of manners) denigrate (v.) blacken, defame, slander, belittle. de (intensive) + nigere (blacken) denizen (n.) inhabitant, naturalized citizen, one granted rights of residence in any society, or region, inhabitant. (OFr) denizen (one living within a city) from LL. de intus (from within) denotaion (n.) the direct, explicit meaning or reference of a word or term, as distinguished from connotation (q.v.) denote (v.) mark, signify, indicate, express, designate, refer to. de (from, down) + notare (to mark), from nota (a mark) denoument (n.) outcome or solution to a complex situation or problem. (Fr) denouer (to untie) depilate (v.) remove hair from. depilare, from de (off) + pilus (hair) deposition (n.) testimony taken outside of court. deponare (to put down) deprecate (v.) express disaproval of, argue strongly against; plead or argue earnestly against. de (off, from) + preciare (tovalue) depreciate (v.) lessen in price or value; undervalue, disparage, belittle in reference to the value or worth of. de(from) + pretiare (to value) derelict (adj.) abandoned, run down; negligent, careless. (n.) a person or thing in such a condition. derelictus, pp. of derelinqure (to leave, relinquish) dscry (v.) detect, discern, look for and discover, spy out, have sight of from a distance. (OFr) descrier, (proclaim) desiccate (v.) (a) dry completely, parch. (b) preserve (as food) by drying. desiccare (to cry) from de (intensive) + siccus (dry) desuetude (n.) disuse, discontinuance (laws fallen into) desultory (adj.) passing from one thing to another in coversation, actions, etc., without apparent order or connection;random, unconnected, unmethodical, cursory, raming. desultor (circus leaper) detente (n.) easing or relaxation of strained relations or tensions. (Fr) detendre (relax, unbend) detractor (n.) one who takes away or impairs the reputation of another; censurer, critic, defamer, derogator. de (from) + trahere (to draw) devolve (v. pass on to or fall upon as a duty or obligation. devolvere (roll down) diaphanous (adj.) filmy, transparent, translucent. (Gr) dia (through) + phainein (see through, show through) diatribe (n.) prolonged, abusive, bitter harangue; invective. dichotomy (n.) division of a thing into two parts or pairs, bifurcation; division into two classes, esp. two opposed or mutually exclusive classes. (Gr) dicha (in tow) + temnein (to cut) dictum (n.) (a) an authoritative assertion; pronouncement. (b) saying, maxim. dictum (saying), from dicere (to speak) didactic (adj.) (a) used for teaching, instructive, illustrative of principles. (b) overly inclined to teach or instruct, pedantic (used in perjorative sense). (Gr) didaskein (teach) diffidence (n.) lack of confidence, hestancy to assert oneself, shyness; hence, bashfulness, modesty, reserve, humility. dis (nagational) + fidere (to trust) dilate (v.) expand, swell, become larger or wider, distend. dis (apart) + latus, pp. of ferre (bring) dilatory (adj.) tending to delay, tardy, slow, procrastinating; tending to promote delay. dilettante (n.) (a) an admirer or lover of the arts. (b) (usually) a superficial dabbler; trifler; one who claims to be a student to devotee but does not seriously pursue the subject. (It) from delectare (to delight) dint (n.) a blow or stroke; hence, force, power. (OE) dynt (blow) disabuse (v.) correct, free from mistake or error, set right, disenchant, put stright. dis + abuse (= deceive, archaic meaning) disaffection (n.) discontent, disloyalty; absence of good will or affection. discernment (n.) ability to judge and understand, wit discomfit (v.) make uneasy or uncomfortable, embarrass, disconcert, thwart. discommode (v.) inconvenience, put out, trouble, disoblige, disadvantage, bother, impose on, put upon. dis (not) + commodere (make suitable) disconcert (v.) throw into disorder, frustrate, disturb, confuse. disconsolate (adj.) unable to be comforted, without comfort or consolation, sorrowful, hopeless, cheerless. dis (not) + consolari (console). discursive (adj.) (a) wandering or rambling from topic to topic, degressive, desultory, aimless. (b) (nearly opposite) in philosophy, going from premises to conclusion in a series of logical steps (distinguished from intuitive). discurrere (to run different ways) disparage (v.) speak slightingly of, deprecate, belittle, discredit. dis (not) + par (equal) disparate (adj.) different in kind, dissimilar, unequal, varied. dis (not) + parere (make equal) dispensation (n.) (a) act of dispensing, distributing or giving out. (b) system by which anything is administered; management. (c) release from obligation, exemption, remission. disport (v.) play, frolic, romp, gambol; amuse, enterain or divert oneself dis + portere (carry) dissemble (v.) spread abroad, disperse, scatter, sow. dis (apart) + seminare (sow) from semen (seed) dissimulate (v.) hide (feelings, motives, etc.) by pretense; pretend the opposite of; feign; pretend; dissemble. dis (not) + similis (like) [Kap. Voc. 10/30] dissonant - effete dissonant (adj.) (a) discordant, harsh, lacking harmony. (b) disagreeing, opposed to, incongruous. dis (from) + sonus (sound) dissuade (v.) convince someone contrary to his or her original intentions; turn aside from a plan or action distaff (adj.) relating to women, female. From distaff, the supply staff in spinning, apparently regarded as a typically female activity. distend (v.) stretch, dilate, swell, original intentions; turn aside from a plan or action. distrait (adj.) preoccupied, pensive, innatentive, abstracted. distraught (adj.) (a) distracted, harassed, bewildered, perplexed. (b) troubled, frantic, wild, beside oneself. distrahere (draw apart) diurnal (adj.) (a) relating to a day or to the daytime; opposed to noctural (b) daily, recurring every day. diurus (daily), from dies (day) diverse (adj.) different, differing, capable of assuming different forms, varied, diversified. divertere (to turn) docket (n.) (a) list of cases to be tried by a court, or list of legal decisions, or abstracts or summaries of the same. (b) any list or summary of things to be done; agenda. doff (v.) take off or remove (usually used with clothing); remove or lift (one's hat) as in greeting. "do off" doggerel (n.) trivial, inartistic or weakly constructed verse, often of a burlesque or comic sort; jingle. dogmatic (adj.) opinionated, fixed in opinion, stating opinion of a forceful or arrogant manner without proof; imperious, authoritaian. doldrums (n.) (a) low spirits; dull, listless, glum feeling; in the ---- = down in the dumps. (b) ocean region of dead calms and light fluctuating winds; the winds of such a region. (By analogy with sense (a).) dolorous (adj.) painful, sorrowful, doleful. dolor (pain, grief) doltish (adj.) stupid, slow-witted. (OE) dol (dull) don (v.) put on, dress in. "do on" dotage (n.) senility, feeblemindedness or childishness of old age; excessive or foolish fondness. doting (adj.) excessively or foolishly fond; fond or loving to excess. doughty (adj.) intrepid, valiant, valorous, brave, courageous, dauntless, undaunted; now semi- humorous. dour (adj.) stern, severe, sullen, gloomy, forbidding. durus (hard) draconian (adj.) cruel, severe, relentless, rigorous, esp. of laws or rules. From Draco, Athenian who devised a severe code of laws, 621 BC. Also, draconic dregs (n.) (a) residue or sediment of liquids; lees. (b) waste or worthless matter; dross, sweepings, refuse; hence, the most worthless part of anything. droll (adj.) humorous, comical, amusing in a comical manner; causing amusement, laughable. dross (n.) (a) the scum or extraneous matter of metals, formed on the surface in the process of melting. (b) waste matter, refuse, garbage, scum, dregs (the bulk of his poetry was mere ----) dudgeon (n.) anger, resentment, ill-will, discord (he exited in high ----). (Welsh) dygan (anger) dupe (v.) deceive, trick, cheat, con, gull, take in. (n.) one easily fooled, deceived or taken in; easy mark. duplicity (n.) double-dealing, deception, dissumulation, deceit, hypocrisy. duplex (double) duress (n.) constraint, imprisonment, restraint, coercion, compulsion, especially to commit wrong. durus (hard) dyspeptic (adj.) (a) having indigestion; having any of the symptoms of indigestion, such as nausea, heartburn, gas and a sense of fullness. (b) analogus in disposition or outlook to the above; sourtempered, gloomy grouchy, etc. (Gr) dys (bad) + peptos, from peptein (to soften, cook, or digest) ebullient (adj.) exhilarated, enthusiastic, effervescent or bubbling in feeling. ebullire (to boil up) eclectic (adj.) selecting or choosing from various systems, doctrines or sources. (Gr) ek (out) + legein (to choose) ecumenical (adj.) general, catholic, universal, particularly with reference to religious matters; used specifically with reference to the Christian Church as a whole. edict (n.) an official public proclamation or order; command, law, fiat, pronunciamento. e(out) + dicere (to say) eddy (n.) a current of air or water moving against the main current and with a circular motion; a little whirlpool or whirlwind. eddying (adj.) rotating, gyrating, spinning, whirling. educe (v.) draw out, elicit; infer. e(out) + ducere (to lead) efface (v.) (a) erase, make illegible; obliterate. (b) withdraw (oneself) from notice. ex (out) + facies (form, appearance) effete (adj.) (a) worn out with age, exhausted, spent; barren, sterile. (b) degenerate, soft, or decadent through lack of mental or moral discipline. ex (out) + fetus (that has brought forth) [Kap. Voc. 11/30] efficacious - epoch efficacious (adj.) capable of producing an intended result;effective, effectual, efficiant. ← afficere (to bring to pass) effigy (n.) representation or likeness of a person;a stuffed doll made to represent a hated person, usually burned of hanged: in---: represented by an effigy. ex (out) + fingers (form, fashion) effluvium (n.) a slight or invisible exhalation of vapor, esp. a disagreeable or noxious one. ex (out) + fluere (to flow) effrontery (n.) temerity, audacity, nerve, gall, impudence, brashness. ex (out) + frons (the forehead; sense is barefaced, as in barefaced lie) effusive (adj.) pouring forth, overflowing, hence, overly demonstrative. ← effundere (to pour forth) egregious (adj.) remarkable, outstanding, noteworthy, especially in negative sens;flagrant, glaring, gross. e (out) + gregis (herd) eke (v.) supplement, make additions to; especially to barely manage to make a living. elan (n.) enthusiasm, vigor, arcor, dash. (Fr.) elancer (to dart) elegy (n.) (a) a poem of lament and praise for the dead. (b) a poem written in a mournful tone. (Gr.) elegos (a lament) elicit (v.) draw out, deduce by reason or argument, provoke, bring forth. e (out) + lucidus (clear) from lux (light) elusive (adj.) evading the grasp, evasive, shy, not easily comprehended or definded, baffling, hard to pin down. e (away) + ludere (to play) emaciated (adj.) skinny, scrawny, gaunt, very thinor lean. e (out) + macere (to be lean) emboss (v.) decorate with designs, patterns, etc., in a raised relief emend (v.) improve upon or correct a literary work. e (out) + menda (fault) emollient (n.) soothing lotion, softening preparation for the skin. e (out) + moliere (to soften) emolument (n.) wages,salary, fee, compensation, remuneration, payment. e (out) + mollire (to exert oneself) empathy (n.) identification with another's feelings of thoughts; sympathetic understanding. (Gr.) en (in) + pathos (feeling) empirical (adj.) depending upon experience and observation, experimental. (Gr.) en (in) + peira (trial) === NOT the same as pragmatic emporium (n.) place of trade, commercial center, large general store. emulate (v.) strive to equal or excel; rival successfully (--- a person who commands your respect) enamored (adj.) charmed, captivated, smitten, fascinated (--- of one's lover's beauty). ← amor (love) enclave (n.) an area or territory enclosed within foreign territory;district set apart for special purposes (--- of claim amidst confusion). (Gr.) enclaver (to enclose) encomium (n.) high commendation, formal expression of praise and recognition, laudatory remarks, panegyric (deliver an ----in her honor) encumbrance (n.) burden, hindrance, block to action (dogmatism is an ---- to learning) endemic (adj.) prevalent in or restricted to a certain region; native, indigenous (sleeping sickness is ---- to tropical Africa). (Gr.) en (in) + demos (the people) endogamous (adj.) tending to marry only within one's social grouping, tribe, etc.,:inbreeding (----tribes). (Gr.) endo (within) + gamos (marriage) endogenous (adj.) developing from within, originating internally (---formation of cells). (Gr.) endo (within) + genes (born) endorse (v.) approve, support;verify or acknowledge, usually by means of signature. enervate (v.) debilitate, weaken, enfeeble, deprive of strenth, sap vitality of (overly hot baths are ---ing) engender (v.) bring about, produce, cause to come into being (the piteous story -----d only laughter). (Gr.) en (in) + genus (birth) enigmatic (adj.) puzzling, inexplicable,obscure,cryptic,mysterious (an ---- clue) enjoin (v.) urge, order, command; in law, prohibit by injunction (the union was ----ed from picketing) ennui (n.) boredom, weariness(the search for new sensation finally engenders ----). enshrined (adj.) cherished, treated as sacred, held in highest esteem (the ballplayer was -----d in the Hall of Fame). eon (n.) period of immense duration;an age, epoch, eternity (If I don't see you again in an ---,it will be too soon). ephemeral (adj.) (a) lasting one day only; diurnal. (b) fleeting, transitory, short-lived (---flush of success) (Gr.) epi (upon)+ hemera (day) epicure (n.) one who enjoys and has discriminating taste for food, liquor or sensuous pleasures generally;gourmet, connoisseur. epigone (n.) successor, heir, descendant, particularly an inferior or unworthy one (Stalin has been called an---of Lenin) epigram (n.) terse, witty thought; bon mot ("An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure") epilogue (n.) closing section of a play, movie, etc. which provides final commentary, interpretation fo information. epithet (n.) adjective or noun descriptive of some characteristic of a personof thing (rosy-fingered dawn, far-darting Apollo); a descriptivename or title of the same type (Ivan the Terrible, THE Yankee Clipper--Joe Dimaggio) epoch (n.) period of time considered in terms of characteristic or noteworthy events, developments, etc. (an ---- of wars and revolutions); the beginning of a new and important period in the history of anything (the invention of the electric light marked a new ---); any major period of time, as a geological ---; age. [Kap. Voc. 12/30] equestrian - extirpate equestrian (arj.) of or pertaining to horses or horsemanship 기수의; mounted (--- act in a circus )말에 탄. equus (horse) equitable (arj.) just, fair, honest, resonable, unbiased, 정당한 impartial(render an --- decision in the dispute). aequus(equal) equity (n.) (a) fairness, impartiality, even-handedness 공평 (---demands that we keep an open mind) (b) the value of property beyond the total amount owned on it. 재산, 물건의 순수한 가격 equivocal (adj.) doubtful, vague, midleading, ambiguous, (--- answer); uncertain, undecided, suspicious, questioning, vacilllating(---attitude). aequus (equal) + vox (voice) equivocate (v.) prevaricate, evade, hedge, vague; express oneself ambiguously, in order to mislead, deceive or stall (--- on one's past work experience). 모호한, 불분명한. aequus (equal) + vox (voice) erudite (adj.) learned, scholarly, 학식있는 ersatz (adj.) substitute, often of an inferior quality (magarine is --- butter). 대용의 eschatology (n.) branch of theology dealing with last or final things, as death, judgement, etc. 종말론 (Gr.) eschatos (furthest) + logos(discourse). See scatology eschew (v.) avoid, abstain from(Job feareth God and ---eth evil). escrow (n.) a deed, bond or receipt held in care of a third party until certain conditions are met; in --- : the condition of being so held(payments placed in --- during a rent strike). 조건부 날인증서 esoteric (adj.) taught only to a select few, designed and meant only for the initiated; recondite (--- rites of Freemasonry). (선택된 소수에게만 전해지는) 秘儀의, 심원한, 난해한 (Gr.)esos (within). espouse (v.) (a) advocate, support, adopt(--- the cause of justice). (주장을) 신봉하다. (b) betroth 약혼시키다, wed 결혼시키다. esthetic (adj.) (=aesthetic) pertaining to or appreciative of the beautiful (Ruskin's writings deal mainly with -- - questions); artistic, showing good, taste. (Gr) aisthetos (perceptible) 심미적인, 미학의 estrange (v.) alienate, keep at a distance, separate(husband and wife were ---d). extraneus (foreign) 떼어놓다, 이간하다. estuary (n.) arm of the sea, inlet (the Thames --- is one of the world's busiest waterways). estus (tide) 강어귀, 후미 ether (n.) imaginary substance formerly supposed to fill interplanetary space. (Gr.) aither(upper air) 대기밖의 정기, 영기 ethereal (adj.) spiritual, celestial, not earthly; airy, delicate. 영적인, 하늘의, 천체의; 가벼운, 연약한, 섬세한. etiology (n.) (= aetiology) (a) determination of the cause of something. 원인의 추구 (b) science of causes or origins. (Gr.) aitia (cause) + logia (description) 인과관계학, 병인 eugenic (adj.) relating to improvement of the race, pertaining to the bearing of healthy offspring. 우생학의 (Gr.) eu (well) + genos (race) euphemism (n.) use of a word or phrase that is less direct or exprssive than another but less offensive, distasteful, etc. (Gr.) eu (good) + oheme (voice) + from phanai (to speak) 완곡 어법 euphonious (adj.) harmonius, pleasant-sounding. 음조가 좋은, 듣기 좋은 (Gr.) eu (good) + phone (voice) euphoria (n.) feeling of well-being, esp. an abnormal feeling of happiness, buoyance, spritedness, etc. 행복감, 도취감 (Gr.) eu (god) + pherein (to bear) euthanasia (n.) mercy killing; intentional, easy and painless death. 안락사 (술) (Gr.) eu (good) + thanatos (death) evanescent (adj.) fleeting, momentary, transitory, ephermeral, short-lived 일시적인, 순간적인, 지극히 미미한 evince (v.) show clearly, manifest, signify. (to conquer) 명시하다, (감정 등을) 나타내다. e (out) + vincere eviscerate (v.) disembowel, gut; devitalize. 창자를 빼내다, (의논 등의) 골자를 빼내다. e (out) + viscera (gut) exacerbate (v.) aggravate, make more intense, worsen. 악화시키다, 격분시키다. ex (intensifier) + acerbus (bitter) exchequer (n.) funds, finances, purse, treasury, assets, resources. 재력, 재원, 국고 (영)재무부 excoriate (v.) (a) flay, strip, chafe, abroad. 피부를 벗기다 (b) denounce strongly. 통력히 비난하다. ex (out) + corium (skin) exculpate (v.) clear from blame, vindicare, declare quiltless, absolve, enonerate. 무죄로 하다, 죄를 면하게 하다. ex(out) + culbare(to blame) execrable (adj.) detestable, abominable, hateful, deserving to be cursed; very inferior, of very poor quality. execrare (to curse) 저주할, 밉살스러운 exhort (v.) encourage, incite, urge, admonish, goad. 간곡히 타이르다. ex (out) + hortari (to urge) exogamous (adj.) tending to marry only outside of one's social grouping,tribe, etc.; tending to outbreed. 이족 결혼의 (Gr.) exo (out)+ gamos (marriage) exogenous (adj.) developing from without, originated externally. 外因性의, 外生의 (Gr.) exo (out) + genes (born) exonerate (v.) exculpate, free from blame, vindicate, acquit. 면제가 되게하다. ex (out) + onerare (to burden) expatiate (v.) (a) roam, wander freely. 돌아다니다. (b) enlarge or elaborate in conversation or writing. ex (out) + spatiari (to roam) 상세히 설명하다 expedient (adj.) apt and suitable, convenient, advantageous, politic, utilitarian. 적당한, 편리한, 이로운 expedite (v.) hasten, quicken; accelerate, facilitate, do quickly 진척시키다, 촉진시키다. expiate (v.) atone for, make amends or reparation for, pay the penalty of. 속죄하다. expostulation (n.) reasoning with (someone) in opposition to given conduct; protest, remonstrance, objection, admonition. 충고 expound (v.) set forth in detail, explain, interpret, examine. ex (out) + ponere (to put) 상세히 설명하다. extant (adj.) in existence, not extinct. 현존하는 extemporaneous (adj.) unrehearsed, without prior preparation,impromptu, improvised; also, extemporary. 즉흥적인 ex (out) + tempus (time). extirpate (v.) root up, root out, destroy totally, eradicate, exterminate, annihilate, abolish. ex (out) + stirps (root) 근절하다, 摘出하다. [Kap. Voc. 13/30] extol - fraught extol (v.) praise highly, applaud, glorify, commend, eulogize, laud, celebrate. ex (up) + toilere (to raise) extrinsic (adj.) not inherent (opposed to intrinsic), not essential, extraneous; coming from without. extrude (v.) trust out, expel, force outward. ex (out) + trudere (to thrust) exudate (n.) discharge, matter discharged through pores or small openings, such as pus. ex (out) + sudare (to sweat) exurbia (n.) region past a city and its suburbs, especially a semi-rural, wealthy, exclusive area of residence. fabulous (adj.) a) fabled, legendary, imaginary, devised. b) unbelievable, incredible, exceedingly great. facade (n.) a) exterior or front part of a building. b) a front in general, implying concealment. facies (face) facetious (adj.) lightly joking, jocular, especially at an inappropriate moment; not seriously intended. fecetus (witty) facsimile (n.) duplicate, replica, copy. facere (to make) + simile (like) factitious (adj.) artificial, not genuine or spontaneous. factotum (n.) person who does all kinds of work; handyman. facere (to do) + totum (all) fallow (adj.) uncultivated, left untilled, unused. faux pas (n.) literally, false step, esp. against social convention; indecorous action, unwitting remark. fawn (v.) court favor, servilely flatter, cringe to gain favor, grovel. fealty (n.) allegiance, loyalty to a feudal lord, deity, etc. feasible (adj.) workable, practicable, possible. (OFr) faisable (that may be done) from faire (to do) fecund (adj.) fertile, producing offspring in abundance, prolific; productive. fecundus (fruitful) fell (adj.) cruel, fierce, deadly, furious. feral (adj.) wild by nature, untamed, existing in a natural state; savage fierce. ferus (wild) festoon (n.) chain of flowers, foliage, ribbon, etc., suspended in curves. decorate with a festoon, drape. fetid (adj.) putrid, stinking, having a noxious smell. fetere (to stink) fetter (v.) shackle, chain, bind, confine; hamper, impede, encumber, clog. fiat (n.) edict, sanction, decree. fiat (let it be done) fiduciary (n.) one who holds something in trust; a trustee. (adj.) of a trustee; held in trust; valuable only because of public confidence and support. filial (adj.) pertaining to a daughter or son. fillip (n.) light blow or tap; stimulus, anything that arouses or gives impetus to. finesse (n.) skill, ability, cunning, adroitness; artifice, manoeuvre, deception. (v.) bring into being through use of such. (Fr) finesse (delicate) firmament (n.) heavens, vault or arch of the sky. flagging (adj.) decreasing in force, waning in strength, drooping. flagrant (adj.) glaring, notorious, flaming into notice. flagrare (to burn) flair (n.) aptitude, natural ability or talent, keen sense for something. flagare (to emit an odor) flare (v.) a) blaze up brightly. b) signal by means of flares. c) curve or spread outwards, as the sides of a ship; bulge. flatulent (adj.) a) gaseous, marked by gases in the digestive tract. b) empty of windy in speech; vain, puffy. flare (to blow) flay (v.) abrade, skin, strip off flesh. flippant (adj.) impertinent, saucy, impudent, disrespectfully frivolous. flotsam (n.) goods lost by shipwreck and floating on the sea (distinguished from jetsam); any wrecked or drifting person or thing. flout (v.) treat with scorn, scoff at. foible (n.) failing, fault, frailty, vice, usually petty. foist (v.) pass off as genuine, palm off, put forth fraudulently. Prob. (Dutch) vuist (a fist, in sense of something concealed in the fist, palmed off) fop (n.) in vain, affected man who pays too much attention to clothes and appearance; coxcomb, dandy, Beau Brummel forage (v.) wander in search of food, search for what one wants or needs. food, provisions, fodder. forbearance (n.) patience, tolerance, resignation, equanimity. forensic (adj.) pertaining to legal argumentation or proceedings; pertaining to debate or rhetoric. ---- medicine; medicine pertaining to criminal law. fortnight (n.) two weeks. (ME) fourteen night (fourteen nights) fortuitous (adj.) accidental, by chance. fortis (chance) foster (v.) promote, encourage; bring up, rear. fractious (adj.) unruly, rebellious, refractory, irritable, unruly, perverse, cross. fratricide (n.) murder of one's sibling; one who does this. fratris (brother) fraught (adj.) laden, charged (a mission ---- with danger). (ME) fraught (cargo, freight) [Kap. Voc. 14/30] freebooter - heliocentric freebooter (n.) pirate, privateer, buccaneer, plunderer. (Same root as filibuster -- can you guess why?) frenetic (adj.) frantic, frenzied, hectic. al fresco (adj.) open air. al fresco (in the freshness, coolness) frieze (n.) painted or sculpted decoration forming a band around a wall. frivolous (adj.) trivial, not worth notice; not serious, silly, giddy. fructify (v.) make fruitful, render fertile, fertilize; (intrans.) become fruitful. fruition (n.) success, fulfillment, realization. fulminate (v.) (a) explode with sudden violence; detonate. (b) inveigh against, rail at, denounce violently, fume at. fulmen (lightning) fulsome (adj.) offensive, disgusting, esp. because of excess or insincerity. furor (n.) (a) fury, rage, frenzy. (b) enthusiastic outburst, craze, rage. gainsay (v.) deny, contradict, refute, dispute, controvert, contravene. (OE) gegn (against) + seggen (say) gall (n.) (a) the bitter secretion of the gall bladder, hence, anything bitter or distasteful. (b) (from this) bitterness of mind; rancor; malignity. (c) impudence, brazen assurance, audacity, chutzpah. (d) a sore or irritation caused by rubbing, hence, any soreness or irritation or a cause of this. (v.) (a) make sore by rubbing or chafing. (b) vex, irritate, annoy, injure, harass. gamut (n.) range, scale, from one end to the other. gargoyle (n.) a waterspout in the form of a fantastic creature projecting from the gutter of a building, as on Gothic cathedrals; anything resembling such a carving or creature. garish (adj.) gaudy, showy, flashy but worthless, tawdry. garner (v.) gather up and save, store up, accumulate. garrulous (adj.) talking much, esp. about unimportant things; loquacious, talkative, chatty. gaucherie (n.) tactlessness, awkwardness; a tactless or awkward act or expression. (Fr) gaucher (to become crooked) genocide (n.) the systematic killing or extermination of a whole people or nation. (Gr) genos (kind, race) + cide (killing) genre (n.) kind, sort, category, type, species; style, manner, nature. genus (kind) genuflect (v.) (a) bend the knee, as in worship. (b) figuratively, to bow down, worship, show exaggerated deference to any person or thing. genu (knee) + flectere (to bend) geriatrics (n.) branch of medicine concerned with old age, its processes, diseases, etc.; anything relating to old people. germane (adj.) appropriate, relevant, pertinent. germanus (akin) gibe (v.) scoff, taunt, jeer, sneer, deride. (n.) expression of sarcastic scorn a scoff or sneer. DON'T CONFUSE WITH "JIBE". glean (v.) collect, gather in small amounts, cull, winnow, sift, reap. gloaming (n.) twilight, dusk of approaching night. (Scot.) glower (v.) stare angrily, scowl, glare. gossamer (n.) a filmy cobweb; gauze-like fabric; anything like this. grandee (n.) nobleman, aristocrat, important personage. (Sp) grande (great) gratuitous (adj.) free, voluntary, done without obligation or payment; not justified, done without sufficient cause or reason. gratia (favor) grimace (n.) a facial expression of pain, dislike, or contempt; distortion of the features. (v.) to make such an expression. grist (n.) (a) grain that is to be or has been ground. (b) figuratively, anything turned to one's advantage. gross (adj.) (a) too fat, corpulent, overfed, course, not fine or delicate; rough, indelicate, obscene; very wrong, flagrant, glaring; insensitive in perception or feeling. gull (v.) cheat, trick, deceive. gyrate (v.) revolve round a central point, spin in a circle, revolve, whirl. (Gr) gyros (a circle) habituate (v.) accustom, make familiar, esp. by repetition; visit often, frequent. (habitue; person who frequents a certain place) halcyon (adj.) calm, quiet, peaceful, tranquil. hapless (adj.) unlucky, ill-fated, unfortunate. harangue (n.) long, blustering or pompous speech; tirade. (v.) preach, sermonize, declaim. harbinger (n.) forerunner, precursor. hauteur (n.) haughtiness, snobbery, pride, snootiness. (Fr) haut (high, proud) heath (n.) open wasteland, moor; plants peculiar to such land. hector (v.) threaten, bully, tease sadistically, torment, treat insolently (from Hector in the Iliad; in early English drama, Hector became the stereotypical braggart and bully). hegemony (n.) leadership, authority, dominating influence, usuallyapplied to the domination of one country or government over others. (Gr) hegemon (a leader) heinous (adj.) hateful, atrocious infamous, wicked. heliocentric (adj.) of or pertaining to the sun as the center. (Gr) helio (sun) + kentron (center) [Kap. Voc. 15/30] hermetic - improvident hermetic (adj.) tightly sealed to prevent the escape or entrance of air or gases, air-tight; as if sealed in this manner. heterodox (adj.) unorthodox, not accepted as dogma, not traditional, inclining toward heresy. (Gr) heteros (other) + doxa (opinion) heterogeneous (adj.) dissimilar, differing, varied, composed of unlike elements. (Gr) heteros (other) + genos (kind) heyday (n.) period of greatest health, vigor, prosperity, etc.; prime. hiatus (n.) an opening, gap, chasm, hiare (to gape) hidebound (adj.) narrow and rigid in opinion, especially, clinging to old opinions, unwilling to change; narrow-minded, bigoted, prejudiced. hinterland (n.) remote region, area far removed from urban centers; back country, inland region. (Ger.) hinter (back) + land hirsute (adj.) pertaining to or consisting of hair; hairy, shaggy, set with bristles. histrionics (n.) dramatics, theatrics; insincere emotions; artificial manners, speech, etc. histrio ( a stage player) hoary (adj.) white, whitish or gray; having white or gray hair from age, hence, aged, ancient, very old. holograph (n.) document written in the handwriting of its author. (Gr) holo (whole) + graphein (to write) homogeneous (adj.) similar, uniform, of the same character or structure, composed of like or similar elements. (Gr) homos (same) + genos (kind) homologous (adj.) having the same relative position, structure, character, proportion, etc.; having a counterpart or analogue. (Gr) homos (same) + legein (to speak) honorarium (n.) a payment to a professional for services on which no fee is set or legally obtainable. hortatory (adj.) encouraging, inciting, exhorting, urging to some course or action. husbandry (n.) management of a house, land etc.; farming. hyperbole (n.) purposeful exaggeration for effect, not meant to be taken as true. (Gr) hyper (beyond) + ballein (to throw) iconoclast (n.) literally, a destroyer of images; one who attacks traditional or cherished beliefs; dissenter, rebel. (Gr) eikon (a figure) + klan (to break) idiosyncrasy (n.) mannerism, temperament or habits peculiar to a particular person, group, etc. (Gr) idio (one's own) + syn (together) + kerannynai (to mix) idyll (n.) (a) any simple description in prose or poetry of rustic life, pastoral scenes, etc. (b) the scene, location or type of life so referred to. igneous (adj.) of, containing or having the nature of fire, fiery; in geology, type of rock formed by cooling of molten rock (magma), such as granite. ignis (fire) ignoble (adj.) not honorable in character or quality; base, degraded, shameful. ignominious (adj.) shameful, dishonorable, disgraceful, contemptible. in (without) + nomen (name) illicit (adj.) unlawful, illegal, improper, unauthorized. imbibe (v.) drink, drink in; consume, absorb, inhale in body or mind. in (in) + bibere (to drink) imbroglio (n.) complicated or confusing situation, embroilment, entanglement, misunder- standing, disagreement, embarrassment. (It) imbrogliare (to confuse) immanent (adj.) being or coming from within, inherent, in theology, present throughout the universe (said of God). in (in) + maners (to remain) immure (v.) (a) enclose within or as within walls; shut up, confine, imprison. (b) seclude or isolate (oneself). in (in) + murus (wall) immutable (adj.) unchangeable, invariable, inalterable. in (negational) + mutare (to change) impeach (v.) accuse or charge (an official) with a crime; challenge, call in question. impeccable (adj.) without fault, blameless, flawless, free from blemish or error. in (not) + peccare (to sin) impecunious (adj.) having no money, indigent, poor, esp. constantly poor. in (without) + pecunia (money) impervious (adj.) incapable of being pierced or penetrated; hence, not affected or influenced. im (not) + per (through) + via (way) imply (v.) (a) indicate without saying openly or directly; hint, suggest, intimate. (see infer) (b) have as an integral part; involve or contain as natural or necessary result. in (in) + plicare (to fold) impolitic (adj.) not politic, unwise, unexpedient, imprudent. imponderable (adj.) unable to be weighed or measured; unable to be mentally weighed. im (not) + ponder (to weigh) importunate (adj.) demanding, insistent, troublesomely urgent, annoyingly persistent. impotent (adj.) lacking physical strength or vitality; weak, feeble, powerless, ineffective, unfit, helpless. in (without) + potens (power) imprimatur (n.) (a) license to publish or print a book, pamphlet, etc. (b) the mark or stamp indicating such license (the Random House ----). impromptu (adj.) extemporaneous, without previous preparation, off-hand, spur-of-the- moment. in (in) + promptus (ready, prompt) improvident (adj.) without foresight or plan, failing to take the future into proper account; negligent, short- sighted, unthrifty, careless, rash, incautious. im (not) + providere (to foresee) [Kap. Voc. 16/30] impugn - inveterate impugn (adv.) assail by words or argument, call into question, make insinuations against, gainsay, cast reflections on. in (against) + pugnare (to fight) impute (v.) attribute (something, esp. a crime or fault) to another; ascribe. inadvertent (adj.) unintentional, careless, accidental, negligent, due to oversight, not attentive or observant. inchoate (adj.) existing in first stages only; rudimentary, unformed. incisive (adj.) cutting, sharp, penetrating, acute, piercing, trenchant. in (into) + caedere (cut) incommodious (adj.) causing inconvenience; uncomfortable, troublesome, inconveniently small, cramped, narrow, confined. in (negative) + commodus (convenient) incommunicado (adj.) unable to or not allowed communication with others; deprived of means of communication. (Sp) incongruous (adj.) lacking agreement or harmony, incompatible; having inconsistent or inharmonious parts, elements, etc.; inappropriate, unsuitable. in (not) + congruus (consistent) inculcate (v.) teach by frequent repetition; insistently urge; impress (upon), instill, implant. indenture (n.) contract binding one to work for another for a given period of time. indigenous (adj.) native, aboriginal; inborn, innate, inherent. in (within) + gignere (to produce) indigent (adj.) poor, needy, destitute, penurious, poverty-stricken. in (in) + egere (need) indolent (adj.) habitually idle, lazy, slothful. ineffable (adj.) too overpowering to be expressed, indescribable, inexpressible; too sacred or awesome to be spoken, not to be uttered. in (negative) + effari (utter) inert (adj.) unable to move or resist; tending towards inaction, slow, dull; without active properties, neutral. in (negative) + artis (skill, art) inexpiable (adj.) unable to be atoned for or expiated, unpardonable, unforgivable; unable to be lessened or mollified. in (negative) + expiare (to atone) infer (v.) induce, draw a conclusion, conclude from fact or assumption, derive by reasoning. (See imply) inferre (bring in) ingenious (adj.) originally, having genius; now, clever, resourceful, talented, skillful, inventive, original. ingenuous (adj.) (a) frank, open, candid, straightforward, guileless. (b) naive, simple, unsophisticated. inherent (adj.) inborn, inbred, innate, natural, basic, by nature. inherere (to stick to ) inimical (adj.) unfriendly, hostile, adverse, antagonist. in (not) + amicus (friend) iniquitous (adj.) unjust, not righteous, sinful, wicked, malicious, evil. in (negative) + aequus (equal) innate (adj.) inborn, native, inherent, natural. in (in) + nasci (to be born) innovative (adj.) novel, introducing something new; causing change. in (in) + novare (to make new) innuendo (n.) indirect and subtle criticism; hint, insinuation, derogatory reference. innuere (hint) insensate (adj.) lacking sensation, inanimate; lacking reason, foolish; lacking regard or feeling, insensitive. insidious (adj.) characterized by treachery or slyness, operating in a slow or not easily apparent manner. insouciant (adj.) unconcerned and gay, carefree, light-hearted, happy-go-lucky. (Fr) in (not) + soucier (to care) instigate (v.) urge, incite, foment. insular (adj.) isolated, detached, removed; narrow in opinion, prejudiced. insula (island) insuperable (adj.) insurmountable, unconquerable in (not) + superare (overcome) insurgent (adj.) insubordinate, rebellious, rising in opposition to the established government or authority. in (upon) + surger (to rise) intangible (adj.) not able to be touched or grasped; indefinable, vague, impalpable, insubstantial. in (not) + tangere (touch) integument (n.) an outer covering of a body or plant; skin, shell, husk. interdict (v.) forbid, prohibit authoritatively, restrain. inter (between) + dicere (speak) internecine (adj.) mutually destructive; deadly to both sides. inter (between) + necare (to kill) interregnum (n.) an interval between successive reigns or governments; any break in continuity. inter (between) + regnum (reign) interstice (n.) an intervening space between closely-fitting parts or things; small chink, cranny, crevice or opening. interstitium (a space between) intransigent (adj.) refusing to come to agreement; uncompromising, irreconcilable. in (not) + transigere (to settle) intrepid (adj.) fearless, bold, resolute, valiant, undaunted, audacious. in (not) + trepidus (alarmed) intrinsic (adj.) involved in the essential nature of a thing; inherent, immanent, real, genuine, native, internal, true. intra (within) + secus (besides) inure (v.) harden, accustom, habituate, cause to become used to. invective (n.) violent denunciation, angry accusation, vituperation, inveighing. invehere (scold) inveigh (v.) rail, revile, vilify, execrate (use with against). inveterate (adj.) confirmed, deep-rooted, established, settled in habit. in (in) + vetus (old) [Kap. Voc. 17/30] abase-adulterate invidious (adj.) likely to provoke ill will, offense or envy, esp. by discriminating unfairly. ← invidia (envy) inviolate (adj.) not violated, kept sacred, unprofaned, unimpaired. ← violare (to injure) irascible (adj.) prone to anger, choleric, testy, cranky, irritable. ← ira (anger) irony (n.) sarcastic or humorous expression in which the opposite of the intended meaning is used; result that is directly contrary to what was intend, expected or considered appropriate. (Gr.) eiron (a dissembler) iterate (v.) repeat; utter or do a second time, recapitulate. (See reitera ← iterare (to repeat) itinerant (adj.) wandering, not settled, traveling from place to place. ← itinerari (to journey) jejune (adj.) not nourishing, barren; hence, not satisfying, uninteresting, dull, insipid, flat, banal, inane. ← jejunus (empty, dry, barren) jetsam (n.) cargo thrown overboard to lighten a ship in danger; hence, discarded things (see flotsam). ex) flotsam and ____; floating or washed up wreckage; worthless people (pejorative) jettison (v.) throw cargo overboard to lighten a ship in danger; hence, cast off as an encumbrance, discard. ← jactare (to throw) jibe (v.) be in accord, agree, match, harmonize. jocular (adj.) jovial, merry, jesting, humorous, playful, facetious. judicious (adj.) showing good judgment, sensible, prudent. juxtapose (v.) place side by side; compare by doing this. ken (n.) mental perception of recognition; range of knowledge; familiarity, cognizance, awareness, purview. (OF) cunnan (know) kinetic (adj.) pertaining to motion, producing or arising from motion. (Gr) kinein (move) kismet (n.) fate; predetermined fortune; appointed lot; doom ← (Turkish) knell (n.) sound of a bell rung at funeral, hence, an omen of death, failure, etc. : any mournful sound. kudos (n.) fame, honor, glory, prestige, credit, recognition. (Gr) kydos (glory) labial (adj.) pertaining to, or formed with, the lips. ← labrum(a lip) labyrinth (n.) maze; figuratively, any complex, intricate puzzle, situation, etc. (Gr) labra (alley, lane) lacerate (v.) tear, mangle, wound one's body or emotion. ← lacerare (to tear) laconic (adj.) those outside of a certain profession; non-specialists. (Gr)laikos (of the people) lament (v.) mourn, bewail, bemoan, grieve, regret. (n.) an expression, esp. in writing of music, of the above. languor (n.) lethargy, lack of energy, listlessness, sluggishness. ← languore (to be weary or faint) lascivious (adj.) lewd, wanton, exhibiting of inciting sexual desire. ← laxus( loose) lassitude (n.) languor, sluggishness, lethargy, inaction. ← lassus (faint, weary ) latent (adj.) hidden, unrevealed, lying dormant but capable of developing. ← latere (to lurk) latitude (n.) (a) breath, freedom from restriction, opportunity, elbow room. (b) geography : angular distance of any place north or south of the equator, measured in degrees (as distinct from longitude, the distance east or west of an arbitrary line). ← latitudo (breadth, width) laudatory (adj.) commending, praising, eulogistic, expressing approval. ← laudere (to praise) lave (v.) wash, bathe. ← lavare (wash) laxity (n.) lack of precision of strictness; looseness. ← laxus (loose, slack) lethargy (n.) languor, inactivity, lassitude, abnormal drowsiness, great indifference, apathy; unnatural sleep. (Gr) lethargos (forgetful) levity (n.) frivolity, lack of seriousness, gaiety, flippancy, hilarity. ← levis (light) lexicon (n.) wordbook, dictionary, index, glossary, thesaurus, vocabulary. (Gr) lexis (a word) licentious (adj.) unrestrained, profligate, dissolute, immoral, loose. ← licentia (license) lissome (adj.) lithe, limber, supple, agile, nimble. ← lithesome litigation (n.) act of process of carrying on a suit in court; also, a lawsuit. ← litigatio (a dispute) littoral (adj.) coastal, on the seaboard. ← littus (seashore) livid (adj.) discolored by a bruise, black and blue; lead colored, grayish-blue. loam (adj.) rich soil of clay, sand and organic matter. loath (adj.) unwilling, reluctant, hesitant, averse, disinclined(+ to). (OE) lath (odious) loathe (v.) hate, despise, feel disgust, dislike greatly. (OE) lath (odious) locution (n.) word, phrase of expression; manner or style of speaking. ← loqui (to speak) lode (n.) source, mine, ore bed, quarry, vein, abundant store. loquacious (adj.) garrulous, talkative, chatty. ← loqui (speak) laconic (adj.) brief, terse. pithy, concise. (Gr) after the manner of the Laconians or Spartans, supposed to be terse in speech laity (n.) (a)people not of the clergy; laymen (b)those outside of a certain profession; non-specialists. (Gr) laikos (of the people) [Kap. Voc. 18/30] lucid - modicum lucid (adj.) (a) clear, shining, transparent. (b) sane, mentally alert and sound. (c) easily understood, clear, rational. lucere (to shine) lucrative (adj.) profitable, gainful, producing wealth. lucrari (gain) lucre (n.) riches, money, wealth, gain (esp. disreputable). ludicrous (adj.) ridiculous, absurd, laughable. ludere(to play) lurid (adj.) glowing through a haze; (fig.) sensational, starting, characterized by violence or passion. luridus(ghastly) macabre (adj.) gruesome, ghastly, grim, horrible, hideous. macerate (v.) soften by soaking; cause to waste away or grow thin; (intrans.) waste away, grow thin. macerare(weaken, make soft; related to emaciate) Machiavellian (adj.) scheming, plotting, unscrupulous, deceptive, artful, cunning, duplicitous. (Niccolo Machiavelli, Florentine statesman who advocated such methods in statecraft) machination (n.) plot, scheme, conspiracy. maelstrom (n.) whirlpool; turmoil of wide-reaching influence; confused, disturbed, agitated state of mind or emotions, etc. mainstay (n.) main support, staple, chief prop. maladroit (adj.) clumsy, awkward, inept, bungling; lacking tact or grace. (Fr) mal (bad) + adroit (skillful) malapropism (n.) ridiculous misuse of word, especially through a confusion caused of similar sounds. (After Mrs. Malaprop, in Sheridan's The Rivals, who makes such slips) malefic (adj.) malicious, malevolent, malignant, harmful evil, destructive. male(evil) + facere (to do) malinger (v.) pretend illness to avoid duty, goldbrick; shirk responsibility; stall or delay in order to avoid work. malleable (adj.) capable of being flattened or shaped by hammering or by pressure; fig., adaptable, easy to mold. manifestation (n.) display, clear evidence; public demonstration by a political or other organization. manifold (adj.) numerous and varied, having many forms, parts, features, etc.; comprised of many parts. (OE) manig(many) + fealf(fold) manumission (n.) delivery from slavery or servitude, liberation, emancipation, manumittere(to let go from the hand) martinet (n.) strict disciplinarian, stickler for regulations. masticate (v.) chew, gnaw, grind with the teeth or other instrument. matriarchy (n.) society or social grouping governed by women(often applied to societies that trace descent through the female line, but matrilineage is more accurate). matri(mother) + arch(ruler) matrix (n.) (a) that within which, or within and from which, something originates or develops. (b) a mass in which something is enclosed or embedded. (c) (Math.) any rectangular arrangement of symbols. matrix( womb) from mater(mother) mawkish (adj.) overly sentimental, maudlin, gushy. meander (v.) wander aimlessly, ramble, peregrinate. megalopolis (n.) urban region, especially one comprised of adjoined large cities and suburbs. memento (n.) anything serving as a reminder, warning or souvenir; keepsake. meminisse (to remember) mendacious (adj.) dishonest, lying, untruthful, deceitful, false, prevaricating. menial (adj.) belonging to or fit for a servant; hence, low, servile. mentor (n.) wise and faithful teacher, instructor, educator, guide, adviser, counselor. (From Mentor, counsellor of Odysseus) mercurial (adj.) having the qualities of the Roman god Mercury; i.e. eloquence, cleverness, shrewdness, thievishness; having the qualities of the element mercury, i.e. quickness, volatility. metaphor (n.) figures of speech in which two things are likened by speaking of one as if it were the other; implied comparison in which a term commonly applied to one thing is applied to another. (See simile) metaphysical (adj.) (a) pertaining to the essential nature of being or reality. (b) abstract, abstruse, subtle(often derogatory) (c) beyond the physical or material; spiritual, supernatural. mete (v.) allot, distribute, esp. with details; fastidious, scrupulous. metier (n.) the work for which one is particularly suited; strong point. miasma (n.) poisonous vapor, noxious or infectious air. Also fig. mien (n.) look, air, external appearance, way of carrying oneself, manner. (It) mina(look) militate (v.) operate, work or be directed(against or, rarely, for); said of facts, action, evidence, etc. millenium (n.) period of a thousand years; period of great happiness, peace, etc; golden age. mille(thousand) + annum(year) minion (n.) a favorite person, esp. a servile follower; pejorative miscreant (n.) wrongdoer, villain, reprobate, recreant, degenerate. misnomer (n.) incorrect designation, misnaming. misprision (n.) misconduct or neglect of duty, esp. by a public official; misdemeanor, transgression, crime. (OFr) mesprender (to take wrongly) mnemonic (adj.) designed to assist the memory, esp. by association with something easy to remember. (Gr) mnemon(mindful) modicum (n.) small amount, quantity or portion. [Kap. Voc. 19/30] mogul - occlusion mogul (n.) any powerful, dominant person, esp. one with autocratic powers. moiety (n.) part, portion, fraction, division, segment, section, tithe. mollify (v.) appease, allay, pacify, calm. moot (adj.) debatable, subject to argument or discussion; often misused to mean impossible to decide. moraine (n.) ridge, mound or mass of boulders, gravel, sand, mordant (adj.) biting, caustic, sarcastic, scathing, incisive. mordere (to bite) moribund (adj.) dying, nearing death, decaying. mori (die) mosque (n.) an Islamic place of public worship. motley (adj.) diverse, variegated, heterogenous. mufti (n.) civilian dress. mummery (n.) hypocritical or pretentious show or ceremony. mundane (adj.) worldly, earthy; dull, commonplace. mundus (the world) munificent (adj.) liberal, generous, boutiful, lavish. munis (gift) + facere (make) mutable (adj.) changeable, variable, alterable, unstable. mutare (change) myopia (n.) nearsightedness, literally or figuratively. (Gr) myops (shortsighted) myriad (adj., n.) very many; an extremely large number of persons or things; orig., ten thousand. (Gr) myrios (countless) nadir (n.) point directly beneath the observer, hence, lowest point in any course, in a life or career, etc. naive (adj.) unsophisticated, credulous, inexperienced in the ways of the world. narcissism (n.) self-love, self-importance, execessive interest in one's own affairs, extreme vanity. (From Narcissus, who drowned trying to embrace his reflection in the water). nascent (adj.) coming into existence, starting to develop. nasc (to be born) nebulous (adj.) cloudy, misty, hazy, undefined, vague, obscure. necrology (n.) a list of persons who have died at or within a certain time; death notice, obituary. necropolis (n.) burial ground; graveyard; cemetary, esp. one belonging to a very old city. (Gr) nekros (dead body) + polis (city) nefarious (adj.) very wicked, abominable, villainous, heinous. ne (not) + fas (lawful) nemesis (n.) just punishment or retribution; one who inflicts retribution. (Greek goddess of retributive justice) neophyte (n.) a new convert in a religious order, hence, any beginner, tyro, novice. (Gr) neos (new) + phyein (to produce) nether (adj.) lower or under. nettled (adj.) irritated, peeved, miffed, vexed, angered, choleric. nexus (n.) connection, link, interconnection. noisome (adj.) fetid, stinking, putrid. nonentity (n.) state of not existing; something without existence; hence, (usually) person of little importance, influence or individuality, cipher. nonesuch (n.) person or thing without equal; paragon; model of excellence. nonpareil (n.) person or thing of unsurpassed excellence. (Fr) non (not) + pareil (equl) nonplus (n.) condition of perplexity in which one is unable to go on, speak or act further. (v.) to produce such a state. noxious (adj.) harmful, unwholesome, noisome, pernicious. nocere (hurt) nuance (n.) subtlelty, shade of meaning, hint. nubile (adj.) marriageable, hence, attractive, sexy. nubere (to marry) nugatory (adj.) trifling, futile, worthless; of no force, in operative. obduracy (n.) quality of being hard-hearted, harsh, unyielding, unmoved, stubborn, instransigent. durare (harden) obeisance (n.) gesture of respect, reverence, homage or deference. (OFr) obeir (to obey) obfuscate (v.) confuse, muddle, confound, obscure. fuscus (dark) oblation (n.) offering of sacrifice or thanksgiving. oblatio (an offering) oblique (adj.) (a) not upright; slanted, inclined. (b) not to the point, indirect, not straightforward; evasive, equivocal. ob (against) + liquis (awry) obloquy (n.) verbal abuse, vitupertion, invective; condition of bad repute,shame, disgrace. ob (against) + loqui (to speak) obsequies (n.) funeral rites or ceremonies. obstreperous (adj.) troublesome, unruly, vociferous, boisterous, riotous ob (intensifier) + strepere (to roar) obtrude (v.) thrust forward, push out; intrude, force (oneself) upon others. obviate (v.) make unnecessary, prevent, avert, preclude, forestall. occasion (v.) cause, induce, bring about, effect. occident (n.) the west, part of the world where the sun sets. occlusion (n.) blockage, closure, hindrance, stopping. ob (before) + claudere (shut) [Kap. Voc. 20/30] odious - pecuniary odious (adj.) hateful, abhorrent, abominable, obnoxious, offensive. officious (adj.) meddlesome, intrusive, obtrusive, offering unwanted assistance. oleaginous (adj.) having the quality of oil, oily, unctuous; (fig.) unctuous, sanctimonious, hypocritically fawning. oliarchy (n.) rule of the few; form of government in which power is vested in a few people. oligos (few) + arche (rule) omniscient (adj.) all-knowing, infinitely wise. omni (all) + scientia (knowledge) onerous (adj.) difficult, burdensome, oppressive, laborious. onus (burden) onomatopoeia (n.) formation of words by imitating the sound of the thing named, as hiss, buzz, tinkle. onus (n.) burden, obligation, difficult responsibility, blame opaque (adj.) not transparent, not allowing light to pass through; not reflective, dull, dark; hard to understand, obscure. opacus (shady) opprobrium (n.) odium, ignominy, disrepute, infamy, shame, disgrace, ob (upon) + probum (disgrace) optimum (adj.) most favorable, best, most conducive for a given purpose. (NOTE : optimal is NOT correct.) optimus (best) opulent (adj.) wealthy, rich, affluent; abundant, profuse, plentiful. opes (wealth) opus (n.) composition, work. opus (a work) ordinance (n.) directive or command of an authoritative nature; statute enacted by a city or legislative. ordnance (n.) (a) cannon or artillery (b) military weapons of all kinds; ammunition; equipment or supplies for servicing weapons. orotund (adj.) full, strong, resonant, mellow of voice; pompous or showy in speech or writing. oris (the mouth) + rotundus (round, smooth) ossified (adj.) apparent, evident, seeming, declared. ostentatious (adj.) boastful, showy, gaudy, pretentious. overt (adj.) open to view, readily discernible, apparent, public, unconcealed. overweening (adj.) conceited, overconfident, arrogant, presumptuous. oxymoron (n.) figure of speech in which opposites are combined. (Gr) oxys (sharp) + moros (dull, foolish) paean (n.) song of rejoicing, triumph, praise, etc. palaver (n.) parley, conference, debate; chatter, esp. profuse or silly talk (somewhat perjorative). (Port) palavre (a word) palliate (v.) mitigate, alleviate, ease, lessen the severity of without curing; excus, extenuate, make appear less serious. pallium (a cloak) palpable (adj.) tangible, able to be touchied; perceptible, noticeable; clear, obvious, apparent. palpare (to touch) panacea (n.) medicine or treatment supposedly able to cure all ills; cure-all. (Gr) pan (all) + akeisthae (to cure) panegyric (n.) formal speech or writing of praise; laudation; eulogy. panoply (n.) entire equipment, complete armor, as in military equipment; any complete or magnificent covering or array. (Gr) pan (all) + hopla (arms) paradigm (n.) pattern, model, example. (Gr) para (alongside) + deigma (example) paradox (n.) (a) a contradictory, absurd or unbelievable statement that may in fact be true. (b) a self-contradictory and hence false statement. (c) a person or thing with inconsistent or contradictory qualities. (Gr) para (beyond) + doxon (opinion) paragon (n.) a model of superior excellence or perfection. parenthetical (adj.) giving qualifying information or explanation; incidental, episodic, interjected. (Gr) para (besides) + entithenai (to insert) parity (n.) (a) state or condition of being the same; equality, equivalence. (b) resemblance, similarity. (c) monetary equivalence in a foreign currency. par (equal) parochial (adj.) (a) of or pertaining to a church parish. (b) of very limited or narrow scope or outlook; provincial. paroxysm (n.) any sudden, violent outburst; fit of violent action or emotion; spasm, throe, convulsion, seizure, outburst, fit. parry (v.) ward off, avoid, evade, deflect. (n.) a motion or action with this effect. parare (keep off) parsimonious (adj.) stingy, miserly, penurious, niggardly, frugal to excess, unreasonably economical. parcere (to spare) partisan (n.) a supporter of a party, cause, etc. (adj.) partial to a particular party, cause, etc. parturition (n.) childbirth; act of delivering or birth; genesis, nativity. pastiche (n.) artistic, musical or literary composition comprised of selections from several works; eclectic selection, potpouuri, hodgepodge. patent (adj.) open to all, evident, plain, obvious. patere (to be open) pathological (adj.) morbid, due to disease. pathos (n.) feelings of pity, sympathy, compassion; something which arouses such feelings. (Gr) pathos (suffering) peccadillo (n.) slight offense, petty fault, foible. peccatum (a sin) + (Sp) illo (diminutive ending) pecuniary (adj.) monetary, involving money. pecunia (money) from pecus (cattle) [Kap. Voc. 21/30] pedant - plenipotentiary pedant (n.) person or teacher who overrates trival or nonessential points, lacking a sense of proportion and perspective in learning; one who belabors minor points while missingthe essence; teacher who insists on arbitrary rules. pejorative (adj.) worsening; disparaging or depreciating. perjorare (to make worse) pellucid (adj.) transparent; translucent, not opaque, hence, easily understood. pel from per (intensifier) + lucids (bright penance (n.) voluntary suffering or punishment to show repentance for a wrong; penitence. contirition, punishment. pendulous (adj.) hanging or swinging freely or loosely. pendere (to hang) penultimate (adj.) next to last. pene (almost) + ultima (last) penury (n.) lack of money or poverty, destitution, indegence. punurious (adj.) stingy, miserly, nean (NOTE difference in meaning from penury) peon (n.) in Latin America, (a) a laborer, (b) formerly, a person performing labor to discharge a prison sentence or a debt. percipient (adj.) perceiving; keenly and readily discerning; having insight, acumen; penetrating. perdition (n.) complete and utter loss; ruin perdurable (adj.) very durable, lasting, enduring, permanent. per (through) + durare (to last) peregrination (n.) wandering, traveling from place to place, roaming. per (through) + ager (country) peremptory (adj.) unchallengeable, categorical, undeniable; decisive, not subject to appeal; arbitrary, dictatorial. perfidious (adj.) faithless, disloyal, treacherous, characterized by betrayal, untrustworthy. per (away from) + fides (faith) perforce (adv.) by force of circumstance or necessity; necessarily. perfunctory (adj.) done routinely or superficially; without care or concern, indefferent. percipatetic (adj.) walking about, itinerant, ambulatory. (Gr) peri (about) + patein (to walk) periphery (n.) perimeter; surrounding area or space; environs; boundary area. perpetrate (v.) to do, used in pejorative sense; be guilty of, commit. perpetuate (v.) make perpetual, preserve, cause to endure, save from oblivion. per se (L.) by itself, inherently, as such. perspicacious (adj.) astute, sagacious, keen-witted. perspicuous (adj.) clear in expression; lucid; eaily understood; unambiguous. peruse (v.) read carefully and critically; study, examine closely, scrutinize. pettish (adj.) peevish, fretful, irrirable, petulant, snappish, testy. petulant (adj.) pettish, impatient, bad-tempered, querulous. petere (to attack) phalanx (n.) (a) body of heavily-armed infantry formed in close and deep ranks and files. (b) massed arrangement of persons or things. (c) group of persons with a common purpose. (Gr) phalanx (battle array) phantasmagoria (n.) constantly shifting, complex sucession of things seen or imaginned;scene that constantly changes or fluctuates. philanthropy (n.) love of humanity; generosity to the needy or to worthy causes. philippic (n.) tirade, diatribe, jeremiad, invective, denunciation. From Demosthenes prations against Philip of Macedonia. philistine (n.) person smugly narrow and conventional in views, tastes, etc.;person lacing in or indefferent to cultural and esthetic values; a Babitt. (adj.) having these qualities. philology (n.) study of words; linguistics, etymology. (Gr) philein (to love) + logos (word) pied (adj.) of different colors, variegated, mottled, spotted. piquant (adj.) agreeably stimulating to the taste; pungent; provocative. pique (n.) resentment, displeasure, hurt pride. (v.) offend, irritate, diplease, stimulate. (Fr) piquer (to sting) piroutte (v., n.) in dancing, to whirl on the toes; a motion of the this type. (Fr) piscatorial (adj.) relating to fishing or fishers. piscis (fish) pitch (v.) (a) set up, erect. (b) throw, toss. (c) set at a certain level. (d) plunge, fall forward. (e) rock forward and backward. (n.) (a) relative point or position (b) angle of incline. (c) highest point. (d) height or depth of audible tone; musical note. (e) the act of throwing a baseball. (f) tar. placate (v.) pacify, conciliate, appease, mollify. placere (to please) placebo (n.) preparation containing no medicine but given for its psychological effect. placebo (I will please) platitude (n.) trite, overworked, banal expression; commonplace, cliche. plebeian (adj.) common, coarse, vulgar, lower-class, ignoble. plebius (of the common people) plebiscite (n.) direct vote in regard to some political question, such as national sovereignty; see referendum. plebus (the common people) + scire (to know) plenary (adj.) (a) complete, full, entire, absolute. (b) attended by all members. plenus (full) plenipotentiary (n.) person invested with full authority to act as representive of a government; envoy, emissary, delegate. (adj.) containing or conferring full power; invested with full power. plenus (full) + potens (powerful) [Kap. Voc. 22/30] plethora - prodigious (1) plethora (n.) excess, overabundance, superfluity. (Gr.) plethos (fullness) ply (v.) (a) bend, twist, fold. (b) employ, work with, use. (c) work at, practice. (d) address urgently. (e) keep supplying. (f) sail back and forth across. (adj.) having a single thickness, fold or layer. pneumatic (adj.) relating to air, wind or gases; filled with or worked by compressed air. polemic (n.) contrversy, dispute. (adj.) of or involving controversy; intended to maintain one opinion as against another. Also, polemical. (Gr.) polemos (war) poltergeist (n.) ghost which manifests its presence by noises, etc. (Ger.) noisy ghost polyglot (adj.) having, containing, speaking or writing many languages. (n.) one who speaks or writes several languages. (Gr.) poly(many) + glotta (tongue) polymorphous (adj.) having or occuring in several forms. Also polymorphic (Gr.) poly(many) + morphe(shape) portly (adj.) stout, corpulent, large, obese, rotund. potable (adj.) safe to drink, drinkable. potare(to drink) potentate (n.) sovereign, monarch or ruler having great power. potens (powerful) portentous (adj.) ominous, foretelling evil, foreboding. pragmatic (adj.) (a) practical; also, busy, active. (b) in philosophy, a system which tests the validity of concepts by their practical results, or considers as valid that which yields socially or morally desirable results. pragmatism (n.) (a) quality of being practical. (b) in philosophy, a system which tests the validity of concepts by their practical results, or considers as valid that which yields socially or morally desirable results. precarious (adj.) uncertain, insecure, hazardous, dubious. preciosity (n.) affectation, great fastidiousness, overreflnement, especially in language. precipitous (adj.) very steep; hence, rash, overhasty. preclude (v.) prevent, avert, hinder, obstruct, stop in advance. pre (before) + currare (to run) precocious (adj.) exceptionally early in development, esp. in intelligent, talents, skills, etc. pre (before) + coquere (to mature) precursor (n.) forerunner, one who or that which comes before; predecessor; herald, messenger. pre (before) + currare (to run) predilection (n.) preference, partiality, prepossession, taste, liking. pre (before) + diligere (to prefer) predisposition (n.) state of being receptive in advance; proclivity, proneness, inclination, leaning, bias, prejudice. preeminent (adj.) superior in excellence; distinguished above others; prominent, surpassing. prefatory (adj.) introductory, preliminary. prehensile (adj.) seizing, adapted to grasping. prehendere (to talk) premise (n.) assumption taken as the basis for further development, argument, etc. preponderance (n.) majority in number, force, influence. etc.; dominance, hegemony. pre (before) + ponderare (to weigh) prepossessing (adj.) attractive, engaging, appealing, alluring, winning. prerogative (n.) exclusive right or privilege; priority, precedence; superior advantage. presage (n.) sign of a future event; omen, augury, portent, forewarning. (v.) indicate in advance, augur, foretell, predict. pre (before) + sagire (to perceive) prescient (adj.) having foresight, able to predict the future. pre(before) + scire(to know) presumptuous (adj) rude, forward, impatient, improperly bold. pretentious (adj.) pretending to importance, distinction, etc.; showy, ostentatious. prevaricate (v.) equivocate, quibble, evade the truth, temporize. pre (before) + varicus (strdding) primordial (adj.) existing from the beginning; primitive; primeval; original. primus (first) + ordiri (to begin) pristine (adj.) characteristic of the earliest, or an earlier, period or state; original; still pure, untouched, uncorrupted. privation (n.) state of having lost some quality or thing; lack of usual necessities or comforts. privare(to deprive) proboscis (n.) trunk; snout; nose, esp. a long one. proclivity (n.) tendency, inclination, leaning, propensity, predisposition, bent. pro (before) + clivus (slope) procrastination (n.) postponement, delay, deferment, esp. when continual and unjustified. pro(for) + cras(tomorrow) procrustean (adj.) designed to secure strict conformity by violent methods; involving drastic enforcement. (From Procrustes in Greek myth, who stretched or chopped away at travelers to make them fit his iron bedstead) prodigal (adj.) wasteful, squandering, extravagent, lavish. prodigious (adj.) amazing, miraculous, astonishing, extraordinary, huge, enormous, monstrous, vast. prodigium(portent) [Kap. Voc. 23/30] profligate - rail (1) profligate (adj.) given to dissipation; dissolute, corrupt, depraved, degenerate. profusion (n.) a lavish, liberal or wasteful pouring forth; abundancy, plenty. pro (forth) + fundere (to pour) progenitor (n.) ancestor in a direct line; forebear, forefather. pro (forward) + gignere (to beget) prognosticate (v.) predict future events; forecast, foretell, predict, prophesy. pro (before) + gignoskein (know) proletarian (adj.) pertaining or belonging to the proletariat, the working or unpropertied class which lives by selling its labor power. (n.) a member of this class; worker, wage-slave. prolix (adj.) wordy, verbose, long and tedious. promulgate (v.) make known publicly or officially, proclaim, publish, make widespread. prone (adj.) (a) lying or leaning face downward; lying flat (opposed to supine); grovelling (b) inclined, disposed to, having a propensity toward. propensity (n.) proclivity, inclination, penchant, tendency, bent. propitiate (v.) influence to be favorably inclined; win over; appease, conciliate. proponent (n.) advocate, defender, supporter. ← proponere (set forth) propound (v.) set forth, propose, offer for consideration. ← proponere (to put forth publicly) propriety (n.) good or proper behavior. prosaic (adj.) lacking eloquence, banal, trite, commonplce, dull, ordinary, tedious. ← prosa (prose) proselyte (n.) person persuaded from one beliefto another, convert. protagonist (n.) leading character in a play, novel, etc. ; hero; hence, person who plays a leading role. (Gr) protos (first) +agonistes (actor) protracted (adj.) prolonged, drawn out, extended. pro (forward) + trahere (to draw) provenance (n.) source, origin, derivation, rise, beginning, inception, root. (Fr) provident (adj.) characterized by foresight; hence, prudent, frugal. pro (before) + videre (see) providential (adj.) occuring as if by intervention of providence; oppurtune, lucky, fortuitous. provincial (adj.) of or like the province; hence, rustic, narrow, limited in scope. ← provincia (a province) prurient (adj.) lustful; exhibiting lewd desires; salacious, lascivious. ← prurire (to itch, be lecherous) puerile (adj.) childish, immature, jevenile, infantile; silly, foolish, ← pure( a boy) puissant (adj.) potent, strong, mighty, powerful. (Fr) pulchritude (n.) physical beauty, comeliness, good looks. ← pulcher (beautiful) puntilious (adj.) careful in observing rules of behavior or ceremony; meticulous, scrupulous, very exact. ← (Sp)puntillo(small point), from punctum(a point) pundit (n.) person of great learning, an authority, often used humorously. pungent (adj.) having a sharp or acrid taste or smell. purblind (adj.) partially blind;slow in understanding or perceiving. (Me) pur (quite) + blind purloin (v.) steal, pilfer. purport (n.) meaning, sense, tenor; intention, object. (v.) profess or claim as its meaning;give the appearance, often falsely, of being, intending, etc. purveyor (n.) supplier, one who provides or furnishes. purview (n.) extent or range of control, activity or concern; province, bailiwick; range of knowledge. pusillanimous (adj.) irresolute, faint-hearted, cowardly, half-hearted, timid; resulting from or demonstrating the same. putative (adj.) supposed, reputed, commomly accepted as such. ← putare (to suppose) qualm (n.) (a) fit of nausea, sickness, pain. (b) scruple, misgiving, feeling of uneasiness, attack of conscience. (OE) cwealm (pestilence, destruction, death) quandary (n.) dilemma, difficulty, predicament, uncertainty,doubt. ← quando(when) querulous (adj.) inclined to find fault, complaining, peevish, fretful. ← queri (to complain) quiescent (adj.) inactive, in repose, resting, still. ← quiescere( to repose) quietus (n.) release from obligation, debt, etc. ; release from life; anything that serves to quiet or end an activity or state. ← quietsu est (he is quit) quintessence (n.) pure concentrated essence of anything; most perfect embodiment of a quality or thing; most typical example. ← quinta essentia (fifth essence, in ancient and medieval philosophy the substance of which the avenly bodies were thought to be composed, as distinguished from the four elements, fire, air, earth and water) quisling (n.) traitor, person who undermines a cause from whihin, fifth columnist. ← Vidkun Quisling, Pro- Nazi leader in Norway in World War II.) quixotic (adj.) idealistic, visionary, utopian, impratical. ← Don Quixote quondam (adj. ) former rack (v.) (a) torture, torment, as on the ---, medieval torture instrument. (NOTE correct spelling : "Wrack with pain" is wrong) (b) oppress by unfair demands, esp., charge exorbitant rents. rail (v.) speak bitterly or reproachfully, complain violently, revile or scold in harsh language, rant. [Kap. Voc. 24/30] abase-adulterate raillery (n.) banter, teasing, good-humored joking or satire, joshing. raiment (n.) clothing, garments, vestments, dress, attire. rakish (adj.) (a) having a trim, neat appearance suggesting speed; dashing, jaunty, sporty. From rake (to slant) ramification (n.) offshoot, consequence, result, side effect. ramus (a branch) rampant (adj.) widespread, rife, unchecked, uncontrolled. (OFr) rampere (climb) rampart (n.) embankment for defense, bulwark, quard, defense; anything that defends or protects. (Fr) remparer (fortify) rancor (n.) continuing, bitter hate; ire, malice, ill-will, spite, enmity. rankle (v.) fester, cause bitterness, smolder, irritate, gall. rapacity (n.) voracity, greed, ravenousnss, desire or taste for plunder. rapere (to seize) rapprochement (n.) establishment or, esp., restoration of friendly or harmonious relations; concord, agreement. (Fr) rapprocher (approach again) rara avis (L.) a rarity; unusual person or thing. (strange bird) rarefy (v.) make thinner, purer or more refined. (NOTE spelling -- rarify is wrong) raucous (adj.) harsh-sounding, hoarse, disagreeable, strident. recalcitrant (adj.) resistant, defiant, stbborn, refusing to obey, refractory, noncompliant; (n.) one who has these qualities. recalcitrare (to kick back) recant (v.) repudiate, retract, renounce, disavow, deny, disclaim. recidivism (n.) tendency to relapse into antisocial or crimnal behaviour. recidivus (a falling back) reciprocity (n.) mutual exchange, give-and-take. recluse (n.) hermit, person who keeps apart from social intercourse. recondite (adj.) beyond ordinary understanding, profound, abstruse; obscure, concealed, arcane. reconditus (hidden) recoup (v.) get back an equivalent, make up for, recover, make good. rectory (n.) (a) the benefice or income, (b) the house or rooms occupied by a rector. recreant (adj.) crying out for mercy; cowardly, craven, unfaithful to duty, disloyal, false, treacherous, apostate, faithless. (n.) one who begs for mercy in combat; coward, traitor, etc. redress (v.) corect, compensate for, adjust. (n.) correction, compensation. (Fr) redresser (straighten) redundant (adj.) unnecessarily repetitive; in excess. refectory (n.) place of refreshment, esp., a dining hall in a college or monastery. referendum (n.) submission of a law, proposed or in effect, to direct popular the vote itself. refractory (adj.) (a) stubborn, obstinate, perverse, unruly, recalcitrant. (b) resistant to heat; hard to work or melt (said of metals) (c) resistant to disease. refute (v.) prove something to be false, prove someone to be wrong. regimen (n.) regulated system of diet, exercise, etc., designed to improve health; any system of dite, exercise, etc., designed to be beneficial. regere (to rule) reiterate (v.) repeat; say or do again and again. respite (n.) pause, delay, break, suspension, postponement, interval of relief. [Kap. Voc. 25/30] resplendent - sedulous resplendent (adj.) splendid, full of splendor, bright, lustrous, brilliant. re (again) + splendere (shine) reticent (adj.) taciturn, not given to speaking, uncommunicative, reserved. retinue (n.) train of attendants; escorts; band of followers of an important personage on a journey. retinere (to retain) retrograde (adj.) moving backward, retrogressive, backsliding; (astron.) moving opposite to the direction of the signs of the zodiac or the earth's motion around the sun. reverie (n.) state of being lost in thought; state or process of musing or daydreaming. (Fr) rever (dream, be lightheaded) ribaldry (n.) coarse or vulgar joking; offensive or irreverent language, esp. humorous; mockery. riposte (n.) in fencing, a returning thrust following a parry; hence, a swift or witty retort. rococo (adj.) 18th century art style, elaborately ornamented, hence, anything highly ornamental or florid. roil (v.) stir up, disturb; hence, vex, displease. roseate (adj.) rose-colored, rosy; made of roses; bright, optimistic rote (n.) fixed, mechanical way of doing something; a routine. (OFr) rotine (routine) roughhewn (adj.) coarsely hewed, cut or syled, crudely formed. rubric (n.) heading, title, superscription, caption. rudiments (n.) basics, fundamentals, first principles, beginnings. rudimentum (a first attempt) rue (v.) regret, bemoan, bewail, deplore. ruminate (v.) chew the cud; rechew; hence, muse, ponder, reflect upon, turn over in the mind. sagacious (adj.) wise, whrewd, discerning, farsighted, sagacis (wise) sage (n.) (a) a wise, venerable person. (b) a herb. (adj.) very wise, sagacious. salacious (adj.) licentious, lascivious, lewd, lecherous, wanton, obscene. salient (adj.) prominet, conspicuous, striking, important. (n.) secton of a battle line, fort, etc., that projects furthest toward the enemy. sally (n.) (a) a rushing forth, jaunt, sortie. (b) a quick witticism, quip, bon mot. (c) an excursion or unusual side trip, jaunt. salubrious (adj.) beneficial, healthful, salutary, wholesome. salus (health) salutary (adj.) healthful, wholesome, salubrious, advantageous, useful. salus (health) sanctimonious (adj.) saintly; pretending to virtue or piety. sanctus (holy) sang-froid (n.) composure, equanimity, coolness. sanguinary (adj.) bloody, murderous, cruel, bloodthirsty. sanguis (blood) sanguine (adj.) of the color of blood, ruddy; cheerful, optimistic, confident, warm, lively, ardent. sanguis (blood) sapient (adj.) wise, sage, discerning, knowing. sapere (to taste, know) sardonic (adj.) sarcastic, mocking, bitterly ironical. (Gr) sardanios (bitter) satiate (v.) gorge, sate, fill, glut. satis (sufficient) satire (n.) literacy work using ridicule, sarcasm, irony, etc., to expose the follies, vices, or stupidities of individuals or society; the art of writing such works; humors which uses techniques generally. satrap (n.) petty tyrant; despotic subordinate official, usually applied to an agent of another ruler. saturnine (adj.) grave, somber, gloomy, heavy, phlegmatic. (from the supposed qualities of the Roman god Saturn) scabrous (adj.) (a) scabby, blistered, scaly. (b) full of difficulites. (c) improper, risque, salacious. scrabrosus (rough) scathing (adj.) burning, damaging, injurious, harsh. scatology (n.) study of or obsession with excrement. (Gr) skatos (dung) + logia (discourse) schema (n.) disgrammatic representation, schematic arrangement, outline, summary, plan. (Gr) schema (form, appearance) schism (n.) split or division in an organized group, society, party, etc. scintilla (n.) spark; (fig.) particle, trace; soupcon, iota, jot, tittle. scintillate (v.) sparkle, flash; be brillant, witty. scion (n.) a sprout or shoot, hence, descendant, offspring, progeny. scullion (n.) kitchen helper whose chief task is washing; dishwasher, kitchenmaid; hence, a wretch; low, miserable person (pejorative extensions). scurrilous (adj.) vular, low, indecent, ribald, coarse, obscenely jocular, gross, vile. scruple (n.) doubt, qualm, hesitation to act or decide because of questions of conscience. (v.) hesitate or refuse to act for such reasons. secular (adj.) (a) wordly, temporal, not pertaining to religious or spiritual matters. (b) occuring once over a long period; extending over a long period. seculum (generation, age) sedentary (adj.) inactive, settled, stationary, characterized by sitting. sedere (to sit) sedulous (adj.) diligent, assiduous, industrious, untiring. [Kap. Voc. 26/30] seine - stalagmit seine (n.) a large net for catching fish, buoyed along the top edge and weighted at the other. senescent (adj.) growing old, aging; at the onset of old age. (NOTE : NOT synonym for senile). senex (old) sensual (adj.) gratifying or stimulating the senses or appetites; esp., sexual. sensuous (adj.) perceived by, derived from, or, esp., pleasing to the senses. sententious (adj.) expressing little in many words; fond of using maxims, proverbs, etc., often to little purpose; ponderously trite; moralizing. sententiosis (full of meaning) sentient (adj.) aware, conscious, capable of perceiving. sentire (perceive bye the sense) sepulchral (adj.) of or pertaining to tombs, graves or burials; tomblike, dismal, gloomy. sepelire (bury) sequester (v.) set apart, separate, segregate, seclude; confiscate, seize by authority. sequestrare (lay aside) seraphic (adj.) angelic, sublime. (Hebrew; Seraphim, the highest order of angels) sere (adj.) withered, desiccated, dried up. serendipity (n.) an apparent aptitude for making fortunate discoveries accidentally. serraed (adj.) notched, edged with teeth, saw-toothed. serrare (to saw) servile (adj.) subservient, fawning, obsequious, abject, slavelike. servire (serve) sextant (n.) navigational instrument for determining latitude and longitude while at sea. shibboleth (n.) slogan characteristic of a group, party, etc.; catchword, esp. one without real meaning; any password. (In the Bible, a test word used by the Gileadites to detect the Ephraimites, who could not pronounce the initial sh, Jud. xii 6.) shoal (n.) (a) a shallow; sandbar or other shallow place in water . (b) a large number assembled, throng, crowd; specifically, a large number of fish; school. sidereal (adj.) pertaining to the stars; stellar, astral. sidus (star) sidle (v.) move sideways, esp. in a stealthy, shy or fearful manner. simian (adj.) pertaining to apes. simile (n.) figure of speech in which in which one thing is explicitly likened to another by the use of "like", "as" etc. similis (like) simper (v. or n.) smile in a silly self-conscious way. simulated (adj.) false, counterfeit, sham, not genuine. simulare (feign) sinecure (n.) paid position without much work or responsibility. sine (without) + cura (care) sinuous (adj.) winding, wavy, curvin, crooked, devious. sinus (bent) skeptic (n.) a person who questions the validity or things supposed to be true; a doubter (also spelled sceptic: both spellings have appeared on the GRE in recent years) slake (v.) allay, satisfy, appease, quench. slough (v.) discard, cast off, shed (used with off). (n.) place of deep mud or mire; quagmire; hence, deep dejection or discouragment. slovenly (adj.) disorderly, unkempt, messy, untidy. sober (adj.) not under the influence of alcoho; serious, solemn; quiet, sedate subdued. sobriquet (n.) nickname, assumed name, pseudonym. sojourn (n.) visit, stay. (v.) visit, dwell for a time. solarium (n.) sun porch, room in which one suns oneself. solecism (n.) violation of conventional usage in languuage; breach of decorum or etiquette. solicitude (n.) concern, care. somaitic (adj.) corporeal, pertaining to the body. (Gr) soma (body) somniferous (adj.) sleep-inducing, soporific. somni(sleep) + ferre(bring) sonorous (adj.) resonant; deep, full, rich sounding. sonus (sound) sophism (n.) a false argument, esp. one made with skill or seeming validity; casuistry; also, sophistry. sophomoric (adj.) self-assured, brash, opinionated, etc., though immature and inexperienced; from the supposed traits of college sophomores. (Gr) sophos (wise) + moros (foolish) -- an oxymoron soporific (n.) a drug to bring on sleep; sleeping pill; opiate; narcotic. (adj.) somniferous, drowsy-making, dull. sopor (sleep) + facare (make) sortie (n.) a sudden attack by troops of a besieged place upon the besiegers; any sudden attack or raid. (Fr) sortir (go out) specious (adj.) apparently true, correct, just, fair, right or proper but not actually so. species (look, apearance) spiel (slang) (n.) a speech or talk, esp. by an actor or vendor; pitch. (Ger) spiel (play, game) spontaneous (adj.) unplanned; occurring naturally. spurious (adj.) false, counterfeit, not genuine, fictitious, apocryphal, bastard (in the sense of not genuine), nonauthenic. spurious (bastard) staid (adj.) sober, sedate, settled, steady; sober or demure to the point of dullness. (Archaic past tense of stay.) stalacitite (n.) a mineral deposit, shaped like an icicle, hanging from the roof of a cave and formed by the dripping of mineral-laden water. stalagmit (n.) a similar deposit rising from the floor of a cave and formed by the deposits of minerals from dripping water. (mnemonic device; stactites hang from the ceiling, stalagmites rise from the ground) [Kap. Voc. 27/30] stalwart - symposium stalwart (adj.) resolute, sturdy, stout, strong, daring, firm, unyielding. steellar (adj.) (a) pertaining to stars; sidereal; astral. (b) outstanding, excellent. stella (star) stentorian (adj.) extremely loud or powerful. (From Stentor, herald in the Iliad who, according to Homer, had a voice as loud as fifty men.) stigma (n.) distinguishing mark, esp. a mark of disgrace, dishonor, abnormality, inferiority, etc. (Gr) stigma (a prick with a point instrument) stile (n.) steps to climb a wall or fence; turnstile. (OE) stigan (to mount) stinct (n.) (a) a limited, fixed amount. (b) an assigned task; a defined quantity or term of work. (v.) restrain within certain limits; limit, bound, confine. stoical, stoic (adj.) impassive in the face of joy, or good or bad fortune; comosed, collected, indomitable. (From the Stoic sect, follower of Zeno, who taught these quantities as proper in the face of the divine will and unavoidable necessity by which all is governed.) stricture (n.) adverse criticism, censure. strident (adj.) rasping, grating, harsh. stridere (to creak, rasp) stripling (n.) a youth just passing into manhood; grown boy; lad. stultify (v.) cause to appear foolish or ridiculous; make worthless or useless. stultus (foolish) + facere (make) stymie (v.) hinder, obstruct, block, offer opposition to. (From golf, the ba? of the opponent on a green when it is directly between the player ball and the hole) subaltern (n.) a person ranked below another, usually in a military or bureaucratic hierarchy; inferior, subordinate. (adj.) inferior, subordinate, of lower rank. subcutaneous (adj.) situated or lying under the skin, as a tissue or body. sub (under) + cutis (skin) subjoin (v.) add at the end, as of something said or written; amend, affix, annex. subliminal (adj.) too slight to be perceived; impercetible; existing or function outside the area of conscious awareness. sub (under, beneath) + limen (threshold) subsidy (n.) financial support from a government. subterfuge (n.) device or tactic for escaping censure, evading an issue, etc.; artifice, trick subter (under) + fugere (to escape) succint (adj.) terse, brief, concise, pithy, compact, pointed. succor (v.) aid, assist, comfort, relieve the suffering or condition of, deliver. (n.) aid, assistance, comfort. suffuse (v.) overspread with liquid, light, color, etc.; fill up or cover, as with fluid. sully (v.) soil, stain, tarnish, befoul, besmear, debase, taint, pollute. sundry (adj.) various, miscellaneous; also used as n. superannuated (adj.) too old or warn for futher work, service, etc.; obsolete, old-fashioned, outdated; pensioned or discharged from service due to old age. super annum (beyond a year) supercilious (adj.) arrogant, haughty, condescending, overbearing, disdainful, supercilium (eyebrow, i.e., raised) superfluous (adj.) more than sufficient or necessary; extra superfluus (overflowing) supernal (adj.) (a) of, from, or being in the sky or heaven; celestial, ethereal, heavenly, divine. (b) high in rank, power, merit, etc.; lofty, exalted, promnient. super (above) + natura (nature) supersede (v.) (NOTE SPELLING -- supercede is wrong) replace, take the place or office of, succeed (in sense of coming after); supplant. super (above) + sedere (to sit) supine (adj.) lying on the back (opposed to prone); hence, sluggish, torpid, listless, passive supplant (v.) replace, take the place of, supersede, esp. through force, scheming or trickery. supplantere (put something under foot, trip up) supplicate (v.) make a humble entreaty; pray beseechingly; appeal, entreat, beg, petition, plead, implore. supplicare (kneel down, pray) surreptitious (adj.) underhanded, secret, covert, stealthy, furtive, clandestine. surrogate (n., adj.) substitude, duputy, one sent in place of another. sub (in place of) + rogare (to ask) sustenance (n.) means of livelihood, support, subsistence, maintenance; nourishment, food. swarthy (adj.) dark in color, complexion or cast; dusky. (OE) swart (black) swath (n.) a tack, row or string made or cut by someone or something; specifically, the cutting made by a scythe; (fig.) sweep or reach of someone or something that cuts like a scythe. swathe (v.) wrap (a bandage, etc.) around something; surround, envelop, enclose. (n.) bandage, wrapping (often fig.). sybaritic (adj.) luxurious, voluptuous, sensuous, fond of luxury or pleasure. sycophant (n.) flatterer, toady, parasite, one who seeks favor by flattering the wealthy or influential, yes- man. sylvan (adj.) woody, wooded; of or living in the woods. Silvanus (the forest grom silva (wood) symbiosis (n.) (a) living together of two dissimilar organism in a mutually beneficial relationship; distinguished from parasitism. (b) mutual helpfulness, cooperation. symposium (n.) conference bringing together a number of points of view; a publication coontaining a number of contributions on a given subject; in ancient Greece, an entertainment including drinking, music and intellectual discussion (Gr) symposion (a drinking party), from syn (together) + pinein (to drink) [Kap. Voc. 28/30] synchronous - travail (1) synchronous (adj.) happening at the same time; concurrent, simultaneous; having the same period between movements, occurrences, etc. (Gr) syn (together) + chronos (time) synesthesia (n.) summary, condensation, abridgement. syntax (n.) (a) arragement of words in a sentence to show their logical relationship. (b) the branch of grammar dealing with this. (Gr) sys (with) + taxis (order) synthesis (n.) (a) composition or formation of a whole from parts. (b) deductive reasoning from simple elements of thought to a complex whole, from causes to their effects, ect. (Gr) syn (together) + tithenai (to place) tachometer (n.) an instrument used for measuring the velocity of machines, the revolutions per minute of a revoling shaft, or the velocity of a current in a river, the blood stream, etc. tacit (adj.) unspoken; not expressed or declared openly, but understood; implied. tacitus (silent) taciturn (adj.) habitually silent; not given to talk; reticent, reserved. uncommunicative. talisman (n.) charm bearing engraved figures or symbols, supposed to ward off evil or bring good luck; any charm; amulet, fetish. tam;tam o'shanter (n.) cap with a round flat top and, often, a center tassel. tandem (adj.) having two parts one behind the other; having parts in a line. tantamount (adj.) equivalent in force, value, amount or signification. tantus (so much) + (OFr) amounter (increase, ascent) teetotaier (n.) one who abstains totally from liquor. (From total, doubling the initial syllable for emphasis) temerity (n.) rashness, recklessness, imprudence, heedless audacity, foolish boldness. temere (rashly) tempestuous (adj.) stormy, raging, furious, violent, tumultuous, turbulent (of weather, moods, actions, etc.); blowy, gusty (weather only). temporal (adj.) (a) temporary, transitory, transient, lasting only for a time. (b) earthly, wordly, secular, political, civil. tempus (time) tenet (n.) doctrine, dogma, principle, belief, precept. tenere (hold) tensile (adj.) of, undergoing, or exerting tension; capable of being extended or stretched without permanent distortion; elastic, resilient, flexible. tendere (stretch) terminus (n.) final goal of a journey or endeavor; end, limit, target. terse (adj.) free of superfluous words; succinct, concise, brief, pithy, compact, to the point. tertian (adj.) occuring every other day. (n.) a form of fever occuring every other day. thespian (adj.) having to do with the drama, especially tragedy. (n.) actor, tragedian. (From Thespis, poet often considered the originator of Greek tragedy) thrall (n.) (a) slave, bondman, serf; one in moral psychological bondage. (b) slavery, bondage, servitude. titular (adj.) in title or name only; nominal, honorary. toady (n.) flatterer, parasite, obsequious hanger-on, sycophant, yes-man. (Short for toad-eater, orig. a quack doctor's assistant who ate supposedly poisonous toads to demonstrated his employer's ability to expel poison). -----ish, subservient, servile, obsequious, sycophantic, truckling, cringing. (v.) act as a today, truckle, grovel, kow-tow, flatter, fawn. torpor (n.) dormancy, inactivity; temporary loss of all or part of the power of motion or sensation, as a hibernating animal; stupor; dullness, laziness, apathy, lethargy, lassitude. totalitarian (adj.) pertaining to a highly centralized government under the rigid control of one political party and allowing no democratic rights; any methods, beliefs, or actions similar to these. (n.) one characterized by such beliefs or methods. tractable (adj.) docile, easily led. traduce (v.) slander, calumniate, vilify, defame, asperse, malign, disparage. traducere (lead along, exhibit as a spectacle) trammeled (adj.) caught, confined, shackled, imprisoned (from tammel, a kind of fishnet). transcendent (adj.) (a) surpassing, excellent, extraordinary. (b) beyond the limits of possible experience. transgress (v.) pass over or beyond, as a limit, boundary, law or rule; violate, break (a law or rule), infringe. trans (across) + gradi (step) transient (adj.) fleeting, ephemeral, transitory, short-lived, temporary. (n.) one who remains only a short time. trans (across) + ire (to go) translucent (adj.) partially transparent. transmogrify (v.) transform or change completely, especially in a grotesque or strange manner. (humorous pseudo-L.) transubstantiation (n.) chaging of one substance into another, transformation, metaphosis, transfiguration. trauma (n.) (a) an injury or wound violently produced, or the condition resulting from this. (b) an emotional experience or shock which has a lasting, esp. harmful, effect. travail (v.) work very hard; toil, labor, drudge. (n.) (a) hard, esp. painful, physical or mental work or exertion; labor, toil, drudgery. (b) agony, torment, painful struggle. (Only this sense is really common.) tripalium (a three- pronged torture instrument) from tria (three) + palus (a stake) (hypothetical derivation) [Kap. Voc. 29/30] trepidation - vernacular trepidation (n.) (a) tremor, qualm. (b) fear, anxiety, alarm, trepidus (disturbed) tribulation (n.) great distress or misery; suffering; affliction; trial; vexation. tribulare (thrash, beat) trident (n.) three-pronged fish spear; any three-pronged instrument. tri (three) + dens, dentis (tooth) truckle (v.) be servile; cringe, today, kow-tow, grovel; (adj.) -----ing; acting in such a manner. truculent (adj.) (a) fierce, ferocious, cruel, savage. (b) rude, harsh, mean. truism (n.) a self-evident truth, esp. one rendered trivaial or trite by over-familarity; platitude, commonplace. trumpery (n.) (a) that which deceives by false show;/ anything externally splendid but actually worthless; worthless finery; trifle; rubbish; twaddle. (adj.) (b) deceit, fraud, double-dealing. showy but worthless; trifling, flash, paltry, tawdry, pinchbeck, catchpenny. tryst (n.) agreement (as between lovers) to meet; appointed meeting, rendezvous, assignation; place of a tryst. tumid (adj.) swollen, enlarged, distended, bulging, protuberant, inflated; swollen or pretentious in style, bombastic. tumere (to swell) turbid (adj.) dark, obscure, gloomy, muddy, murky. turgid (adj.) swollen, inflated; pompous, bombastic, tumid.turgere (to swell) turpitude (n.) notoriety, baseness, vileness, shameful wickedness. turpis (base) tyro (n.) beginner, novice, learner, greenhorn, neophyte. tiro (a young soldier) ubiquitous (adj.) present everywhere at the same time; omnipresent. ubique (everywhere) ulterior (adj.) (a) lying beyond, further; later, subsequent, future (rare). (b) further or more remote in meaning; especially, beyond what is expressed, implied or evident; undisclosed, concealed. ulter (beyond) ululate (v.) howl, hoot; wail or lament loudly; bay. ululare (howi) umbrage (n.) (a) shade; that which affords shade, esp. foliage (rare) (b) offense, resentment, displeasure. umbra (a shade) unbridled (adj.) unrestrained, uncontrolled, ungoverned;by extension, vehement, excessive, immoderate. uncanny (adj.) (a) mysterious, unfamiliar, esp. in such a way as to frighten or make uneasy; eerie, weird. (b) so acute in any characteristic as to seem preternatural. undulating (adj.) (a) moving in waves; moving up and down or to and fro with a wavy motion; having an irregular but wavy motion. (b) having a form or outline resembling that of a wave or series of waves. unexceptionable (adj.) not liable to any exception; ordinary, usual, average. unfettered (adj.) unrestricted, free of inhibitions, rules or prohibitions, liberated. ungainly (adj.) awkward, clumsy, ungraceful. unimpeachable (adj.) unchallengeable, irreproachable, unquestionable, unexceptionable. untoward (adj.) inconvenient, unfortunate, unfavorable, unlucky; vexatious; hard to manage, perverse, stubborn, unruly. untrammeled (adj.) free, unconfined, untouched by civilization. (See trammeled.) unwitting (adj.) unconscious, unknowing, unaware, ignorant; unintentional. (OE) witan (know) usurp (v.) take into possession without right or by force; seize, assume, preempt. usus (use) + rapere (seize) vacuous (adj.) empty, void, vacant either physically (rare) or in mental capacity or content; showing lack of intelligence, stupid; charaterized by lack of purpose, idle. vacuus (empty) vagary (n.) eccentric action or notion; caprice, whim, oddity. vagari (wander) vanguard (n.) advanced guard, the leading position in a military formation or a movement; those leading a movement. (OFr.) avant (before) + garde (guard) vapid (adj.) bland, flat or tasteless; empty of content, dull. vapidus (stale) vaunted (adj.) boasted or bragged of. vanus (vain, useless) vehement (adj.) very ardent or urgent; furious; deeply felt. venal (adj.) readily bribed or corrupted; greedy, mercenary. venus (sale) venerate (v.) revere, respect, worship, adore. venerari (worship) venial (adj.) pardonable, forgivable. venia (grade, favor) ventral (adj.) pertaining to the belly; abdominal; being or located near the lower surface of an animal as opposed to the upper (dorsal) surface. venter (belly) veracious (adj.) truthful, honest; true, accurate. verus (true) verbose (adj.) wordy, prolix, rambling. verbum (word) verdant (adj.) green; covered with plant life; raw, immature or inexperrienced. verity (n.) (a) truthfulness, quality of being factual. (b) belief, principle, etc., taken as fundamentally true and enduring. verus (true) vernacular (adj.) using the native language of a country, as in writing; of or pertaining to a native language; pecular to region or county. (n.) native language; the commonly spoken language or dialect of a particular people, as opposed to literary or formal language. verna (a homeborn slave) [Kap. Voc. 30/30] vernal - zephyr (1) vernal (adj.) pertaining to spring. ver (spring) verve (n.) vigor, energy in expressing ideas, enthusiasm. verstage (n.) (a) trace, remnant, mark of something that has ceased to be. verstigium (footprint) (b) a degenerate, atrophied or rudimentary organ or part, once more fully developed or functional, as the appendix in humans. viable (adj.) able to live, succeed, grow or take root. vita (life) vicarious (adj.) substitute, surrogate; performaed by one person in place of as the deputy of another; experienced by one person by imaginary participation in another's experiences. vicis (change, alteration) vicissitude (n.) (usually plural) changes in fortune, health, etc., esp. when unpredictable or frotuitous; ups and downs. vignette (n.) (a) an ornamental picture or design used as an inset, headpiece or tailpiece on a printed page; a photograph or protait having no defined border. (These senses rare.) (b) a short literary composition characterized by subtlety, compactness and delicacy; a literary sketch. virile (adj.) (a) having the nature or properties of an adult; specifically, capable of procreation; manly, manlike, masculine, male. (b) in conventional usage, masterful, forceful. vir (man) viscous (adj.) glutinous; thick; syrupy and sticky. vitiate (v.) (a) make ineffective, faulty or impure; spoil, corrupt, weaken, debase physically or morally. (b) make ineffective, invalidate. vitreous (adj.) glassy; resembling glass, as in transparency, hardness, brittleness. vitrum (glass) vitriolic (adj.) biting, caustic, sharp, bitter, sarcastic (of chemicals, but more usually of language, tone, etc.). vituperation (n.) bitter, abusive languge; berating, censuring, upbraiding volition (n.) the act or power of choosing, determining, or willing; free choice, free will. velle (to will) voracious (ajd.) ravenous, greedy in eating, devouring large amounts, insatiable; eager or insatiable in any pursuit. vorare (devour) vortex (n.) mass of fluid having a circular motion; eddy, whirlpool; any situation or state of affairs similar to a vortex in its effect, as having inevitable and irreversible results, etc. vorary (n.) one bound by a vow; devoted worshipper; disciple, follower, adherent. votere (to vow) vying (adj.) competing, contending, striving against another. wanton (adj.) undisciplined, unrestrained, lavish, luxuriant; senseless, unprovoked, malicious; without regard for consequences, reckless, unthinking; lewd, lascivious. waspish (adj.) like a wasp in form, slightly built; (more freq.) like a wasp in behavior, easily irritated, snappish, testy, irritable, petulant. wassail (n.) drinking bout, or a toast given at the same. (v.) engage in same, esp. at Christmas. (OE) wes hal (be healthy) whet (v.) sharpen by rubbing; make sharp, keen or eager; excite, stimulate. whittle (v.) (a) carve by cutting off chips. (b) pare, reduce, destroy gradually. wizened (adj.) dried, shriveled, withered, wrinkled, no longer fresh or vigorous. wont (n.) custom, habit, usual practice. (adj.) accustomed, habituated. wrack (n.) ruin, destruction; wreckage, weeds, (NOTE: NOT a verb --"wrack with pain" is incorrect for "rack with pain") wraith (n.) (a) ghost, specter, esp. the spectral image of a person supposed to be seen just before or after death. (b) anyone excessively thin, slight or shrunken. xenophobia (n.) fear or hatred of strangers or foreigners. yawp (n. or v.) a loud, harsh call or cry; to utter the same; noisy and stupid talk; yap. yeoman (n.) (a) formerly, a man possessed of a small estate in land, or a freeman owning and working his own land; also, an attendant or manservant in a royal household. (b) in the U.S. Navy, a petty officer who performs the duties of a clerk, typist or stenographer. yoke (n.) (a) a frame for harnessing animals together; also, the animals so harnessed. (b) any mark of servitude or boundage. zealot (n.) a person with great zeal; a person ardently devoted to a cause. zenith (n.) vertical point of the heavens, point directly above the viewer; (fig.) highest point, summit, peak. zephyr (n.) (a) the west wind. (b) any soft, light, airy breeze. (c) something light, airy or insubstantial.