Meat by cuiliqing

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Beef, Pork, and Lamb

―It’s what’s for Dinner‖
Red Angus
                      Texas long horn

 • Hereford

• Beef comes from mature cows over 12 months
  old. It should be a bright, cherry red with creamy
  white fat.
• Carcasses are classified according to age and
• Steers are young castrated males.
• A heifer is a young cow that has never had a
• A side is when the carcass is cut into two equal
  lengthwise pieces.
• Sides are then cut into quarters.
• Quarters are cut into wholesales cuts.
• Wholesale cuts are cut into retail cuts and sold
  at the grocery store.
• Fresh beef has cream-colored fat and
  bright red meat. The best beef is marbled
  with fine strands of fat, which bastes the
  meat as it cooks and makes it tender and
• Lower grades of beef have thicker
  marbling or no marbling, so the meat's
  tougher after you cook it.
Location of the meat in the animal
      indicates tenderness
            Tender Cuts
        •    Rib
        •    Short Loin
        •    Sirloin
             Less Tender Cuts
        •    Shoulder
        •    Leg/Round
        •    Brisket
Tender cuts may be cooked by dry heat
 methods like broiling and roasting. Look
 for T-bone, rib bone, flat bone, or wedge
Less tender cuts need to be cooked by moist heat
  methods like stewing or braising. Look for blade
  bone, arm bone, or breast bone.
             Ground Beef
• Ground beef contains only the fat originally
  attached to the meat before grinding
• Hamburger can have extra fat added to it
  during grinding
• Fat content can be more than 30% of the
  total weight
• Always look for the fat percentage when
  buying ground beef (lower fat is better for
• Veal is very young beef. It comes from
  cattle that are less than three months of
  age. It has very little fat and all of it is
  considered to be tender.

• The meat is light pink and delicate in
       Pork—The other white meat

Pork cuts are very
similar to beef. All
cuts are
considered lean.
Lamb is the meat of
sheep less than one
year old. It is tender
with a delicate flavor

      Yearlings are sheep
      between one to two
      years of age. Mutton is
      sheep over two years old

                  Lamb should be pinkish-red in
                  color with white fat. All cuts are
                  considered tender.
Beef Tripe    Variety Meats
                Chitterlings        Lamb Kidney

 Beef Heart          Beef Liver
    Variety Meats Continued…
                 Pork Snout
(Thymus gland)

Pork Ears                     Pork Feet

                 Pork Jowls
      Zinc 39% Daily Value
Beef is the number one source of zinc in
your diet. Zinc is vital to the body’s growth
and development, maintenance of the
immune system, would healing and
appetite control. Studies also show that
zinc plays a beneficial role in cognitive
development and function.
       Iron 14% Daily Value
Iron helps in the production of red blood
  cells and helps carry oxygen from the
  lungs to the blood cells an tissue, including
  your muscles. Without iron, your muscles
  wouldn’t work. Iron is also important for
  brain development, intellectual
  performance, healthy pregnancies, and it
  supports the immune system.
     Protein 50% Daily Value

You need protein to support growth and
 maintenance of your bones, muscles and
 tissue, and to regulate metabolism.
 Vitamin B 12 37% Daily Value

Vitamin B12 aids in the formation of red
  blood cells and helps maintain normal
  functioning of the nervous system. With
  folate, vitamin B12 may reduce the risk of
  Alzheimer's disease and cardiovascular
    Niacin 18% Daily Value

Niacin helps produce energy in the body’s
cells and helps release energy from food.
Niacin also promotes healthy skin, nerves,
and digestive system and fosters normal
   Vitamin B6 16% Daily Value
 Vitamin B6 is vital in maintaining brain
 function and forming red blood cells. It
 supports the immune system and aids
 metabolism of amino and fatty acids.

*Based on a 3-oz serving of lean beef

  Facts retrieved January 17, 2005 from:
Comparison of Fat Content
          Cuts of Beef

               Rib   Short
                             Sirloin Round

  # 1 Chuck ( Moist Heat)
                  Chuck Arm Roast
              Chuck Shoulder Pot Roast
               Chuck 7-Bone Pot Roast
                   Cross Rib Roast
                     English Roast
                  Chuck-Eye Roast          Top Blade Steak
                  Top Blade Steak,
               Boneless Flat Iron Steak*
Chuck Roast           Book Steak
                      Butler Steak
                       Lifter Steak
                       Petit Steak
                    Top Chuck Steak
                 Boneless, Blade Steak
                    Chuck Eye Steak
                     Short Ribs
                  Flanken Style ribs
#2 Rib (Dry Heat)
                      Rib Roast
                    Rib Eye Roast
                    Ribeye Steak       Rib Roast
                  Boneless Rib Steak
                      Rib Steak
Delmonico Steak     Beauty Steak
                   Delmonico Steak
                     Market Steak
                    Spencer Steak
T-Bone Steak   #3 Short Loin (Dry Heat)
                     Tenderloin Roast
                       T-Bone steak
                     Tenderloin Steak
                        Filet Mignon
                        Fillet Steak
                      Top Loin Steak,
                   boneless Strip Steak
                    Kansas City Steak
                   New York Strip Steak
                    Ambassador Steak
                   Boneless Cub Steak,    Filet Mignon
                     Hotel-Style Steak
                       Veiny Steak
                      Top Loin Steak
                    bone-in Strip Steak
                    Sirloin Strip Steak
                     Chip Club Steak
                        Club Steak
                   Country Club Steak,
                     Delmonico Steak
                        Shell Steak
                   # 4 Sirloin
                   (Dry Heat)
                    Tri-Tip Roast
                     Sirloin Steak
                Top Sirloin Cap Steak   Sirloin Steak

                   Flat-Bone Steak
Tri Tip Roast      Pin-Bone Steak
                 Round-Bone Steak
                      Beef Loin
                  Bottom Sirloin Butt
                Flap Steak* Flap Meat
                                    #5 Round
                              (moist/dry heat)
                Bottom Round Roast
                 Eye Round Roast
                 Pikes Peak Roast
                  Round Tip Roast
Boneless Rump
Roast               Rump Roast
                  Tip RoastRound
                     Tip Steak,
                                         Bottom Round Roast
                Beef Sirloin Tip Steak
                  Breakfast Steak
                   Knuckle Steak
                  Sandwich Steak
                    Minute Steak
#6 and # 7 Shank & Brisket
       (moist heat)
  Brisket Whole Brisket Flat Cut
     # 8 Plate (moist/dry heat)
                   Skirt Steak
                  Fajita Meat
               Inside Skirt Steak
Skirt Steak
              Outside Skirt Steak
              Philadelphia Steak
#9 Flank (moist/dry heat)
                    Flank Steak
                 Flank Steak Fillet
                   London Broil
                 Round SteakTop
               Round London Broil
                 Shoulder Steak,
               BonelessCold Steak         Flank Steak
                     English Steak
                       Long Broil
London Broil   Shoulder Steak Half Cut
                   Arm Swiss Steak
                     Chuck Steak
               Chuck Steak for Swissing
                 Round Bone Steak
                 Chuck-Eye Steak
                    Boneless Steak
                     Bottom Chuck
               Boneless Chuck Slices
                  Chuck Fillet Steak
                       Fish Steak
                Chuck Tender Steak
          Cuts of Beef

               Rib   Short
                             Sirloin Round

        Location and Bones
• T-shaped bone come from short loin or
  back region

• Flat bones and wedge bones come from
  hip bones

• Round bones come from arm and leg cuts

• Blade bones come from shoulder area
Shape of Bone and Cooking Method
• T-bone, rib bone, flat bone and wedge
  bone are tender
• Blade bone, breast bone and round bones
  are less-tender
        Beef Entrées Leading Sellers

Top 10 list of beef entrée best sellers:

   1.   Strip Steak
   2.   Prime Rib
   3.   Filet Mignon/Tenderloin
   4.   Sirloin/Top Butt Steak
   5.   T-Bone/Porterhouse Steak
   6.   Rib/Rib Eye Steak
   7.   Barbecued Beef/Ribs
   8.   Roast Beef
   9.   Chicken Fried Steak
   10. Meat Loaf                   Source: Cahners, Menu
                                   Census Report, 2003
                                                          Sandwich Consumption
       Beef sandwiches account for nearly half of all sandwiches.
                                           Steak Sandwich
                                                 3%      Roast Beef Sandwich
                    Fried Fish Sandwich 2%
                         Turkey Sandwich 5%
                                                                    Burgers 40%
       Fried Chicken Sandwich
                                                                             Share of sandwich servings
       Broiled Chicken Sandwich                                              in commercial restaurants
                  5%                                                         in 2003

                           Hot Dog
                                                                                  BBQ Beef/Pork 1%
                                                                                  Tuna 1%
                             Breakfast                                            Grilled Cheese 1%
                               13%                                                BLT 1%
                                                                                  Veggie 1%
Source: NPD FoodWorld,                Cold Cut/                  All Other        Chicken Salad 1%
CREST Research, 2003                 Combo 4%                    10%              All Other 4%
                                                  Ham Sandwich
                                                                                    Lean Beef
There are 19 cuts of beef that meet the government
           labeling guidelines for lean*.

       Eye Round                                                  Rib Eye Steak, Small End
       Top Round                                                  Rib Steak, Small End
       Shank Crosscuts                                            Top Sirloin
       Mock Tender Steak                                          Top Loin

       Shoulder Pot Roast, Boneless                               Tenderloin
       Arm Pot Roast                                              T-Bone Steak
       Brisket, Flat Half                                         Tri-Tip Roast
       Round Tip                                                  Flank Steak
       Shoulder Steak, Boneless                                   Bottom Round
       95% Lean Ground Beef
                                                                                     Source: U.S. Department of
                                                                                     Agriculture, Agricultural
*Less than 10 grams of total fat, 4.5 grams or less of saturated fat, and            Research Service, 2003.

 less than 95 milligrams cholesterol per 3 ounce serving.
                Choice Breeds



  Black Angus
  USDA Beef Grades

 Prime         Choice        Select
Usually in    High Quality   Leaner than
restaurants   with good      Choice
and hotels    marbling       meats
                      Signs of Quality
All meat crossing state        Based on four factors:
lines must be inspected for    Marbling—flecks of fat
wholesomeness and              throughout the lean
sanitary processing
conditions. A purple seal is   Maturity—younger animals are
placed on each wholesale       more tender
cut.                           Texture– Fine texture qualifies
                               for higher quality
                               Appearance—Meat color
                      Meat Labels
                       Meat Department

           Weight                        Price per pound
           Lb. Net                             $1.79

  Beef                   Chuck           Blade Roast

                                           retail cut
kind of meat            wholesale cut
   How much meat should I buy?
                         Amount per person:

                         Boneless         ¼ to 1/3 lb
Serving size depends
Number of people         Small Bone       1/3 to ½ lb
Amount of bone
Do you want leftovers?
                         Many Bones ½ to ¾ lb
• Keep fresh meats refrigerated at temperatures of 38° to
  40°F for as much time as possible. It is best to select
  fresh meat items last when shopping.
• Once home, store fresh meats in the coldest part of the
  refrigerator. Leave the meat in its original wrapping if it is
  to be used within two days. For longer storage, rewrap
  the meat in freezer wrap or foil and freeze. Always label
  and date packages.
• It is important to allow free circulation of cold air around
  meat products. An airy, uncluttered refrigerator will keep
  all foods fresh longer. In addition, meat should never be
  washed prior to storage or use as the added moisture
  enhances the chance for bacterial growth.
Food Science Principles of Cooking

•   Cooking destroys harmful bacteria
•   Cooking improves flavor
•   Cooking makes it easier to digest
•   Cooking makes some meat more tender
Meat consists of two tissues:
Elastin which is very tough and elastic. Cooking
  can not soften it. It can be broken down by
  pounding grinding, or chemical methods.
  Chemical methods include marinating (soaking
  in a solution containing an acid)
Collagen which is also tough and elastic, but
  cooking can soften and tenderize it.
During cooking the heat coagulates protein. Low
  temperatures and careful timing are needed for
              Cooking Losses
Meat shrinks when cooked decreasing size
  and weight. Losses include:
• Fat
• Water
• Other volatile substances
Pan dripping retain some of the losses.
*Meat should be cooked at a low temperature, but not
  below 325* to prevent bacterial growth.
This cooking method is suitable for small or thin meats,
fish and poultry.
To pan-fry, first dry the meat pieces with kitchen paper
so that they brown properly and to prevent spitting during
cooking. If required, the meat can be coated in seasoned
flour, egg and breadcrumbs, or a batter. Heat oil or a
mixture of oil and butter in a heavy frying pan (skillet).
For meats, turn only once. Drain well on kitchen paper
before serving.
 Pieces of meat are cut into small pieces of equal size,
either strips, small cubes or thin slices. This ensures that
the meat cooks evenly and stays succulent. Preheat a
wok or saucepan before adding a small amount of high-
smoking point oil. When the oil starts to smoke, add the
meat and stir-fry with your chosen flavorings for 3-4
minutes until cooked through. Other ingredients can be
cooked at the same time, or the meat can be cooked by
itself, then removed from the pan while you stir-fry the
remaining ingredients. Return the meat to the pan briefly
when the other ingredients are cooked.
This method is ideal for smaller, thinner pieces of meat,
firm fleshed fish, or small birds such as baby chickens. It
can be combined with braising (see below), when the
meat is first sauteed then cooked in stock or other liquid.
Heat a little oil or a mixture of oil and butter in a heavy
frying pan (skillet). Add the meat and fry over a moderate
heat until golden brown, turning often during cooking to
brown allover. Add stock or other liquid, bring to the boil,
then cover and reduce the heat. Cook gently until the
meat is
cooked through.
  Casseroling (Pot Roasting)
Casseroling is a method that is good for cooking larger
pieces of meat and is particularly good for "pot roasts".
The slow cooking produces tender meat with a good
flavor. Brown the meat in butter or hot oil or a mixture of
both. Add some stock, wine or a mixture of both with
seasonings and herbs. Cover and cook on top of the
stove or in the oven at 325 to 350 degrees until the meat
is tender (this could take quite a few hours for a large
beef blade or shoulder roast). Add a selection
of vegetables 40 to 60 minutes before the end of the
cooking time.
This method does not require liquid, and is used
for tender cuts of meat. Heat some oil in an
ovenproof, flameproof casserole and gently fry
the meat until golden all over. Remove the meat
and fry a selection of vegetables until they are
almost tender. Replace the meat. Cover tightly
and cook very gently on the top of the stove or in
a low oven (325 degrees) until the meat and
vegetables are tender.
Broil tender beef steaks, lamb, and pork chops, ham
slices, ground beef and ground lamb. Meat should be at
least 3/4 –inch thick. Broiling is done under direct heat.
The closer to the heat source the faster the meat cooks.
Meat cooks best on a cold broiler pan with the rack
adjusted to the desired distance from the heat
source. Meat should be turned when half-cooked. Do not
pierce to retain juices. Do not slat before broiling.
• Roasting is a dry heat cooking method which is often used for large,
  tender meat cuts. The best cuts for roasting are obtained from the
  loin and the rib. In order to properly roast a cut of meat, it should be
  placed on a rack in a roasting pan that is not too deep and then
  placed, uncovered, in a preheated oven to cook.
• Meats should be cooked to a doneness of no greater than medium,
  to retain moisture.
• Some meat cuts are seared before they are roasted. Searing is a
  process in which the meat is browned quickly on all sides in a skillet
  on top of the stove before it is roasted. Searing meat with high heat
  helps to brown the surface of the meat and to seal in the natural
  juices, which helps to maintain the flavor and tenderness of the
•   Stewing is a moist heat cooking process much like braising except that the
    meat is totally immersed in liquid rather than being only partially immersed
    as it is with braising. Another difference is that the meat used for stewing is
    usually cut into smaller pieces rather than being left as one large piece.
    Many of the same cuts that are suitable for braising are ideal as stew meat.
    meat cuts from the round, flank, and plate are often used and in addition,
    meat from the shank, which is very tough, is best when it is cooked in
•   The chunks of meat are browned on all sides in a large pot using a small
    amount of oil. After the meat is browned, it is removed from the pan and
    chopped vegetables, such as carrots, onions, celery and potatoes are
    added and quickly seared. Herbs and spices are added and a generous
    quantity of water. The browned pieces of meat are returned to the pan. As
    the ingredients cook, the liquid becomes thicker and very flavorful from the
    combination of the various ingredients. Any vegetables should not be added
    until the last few minutes of the cooking process. Fat and impurities are
    skimmed from the surface to ensure that the stew is not too high in it's fat
    content and to provide for better flavor.
          Cooking Meat Safely
• Store at or below 40°F.
• Cook within 1 to 2 days for ground meat and 3 to 4 days
  for non-ground meat
• Wash hands in hot soapy water before and after
  handling meat
• Wash cutting board thoroughly after handling meat
• Marinate meat in the refrigerator. Discard any unused
• Brush sauces only on cooked surfaces of meat
• Do not set the oven below 325°F
• Cook ground meats to an internal temperature of 160°F
  and nonground meat to at least 145°F.
• Reheat leftover meats to 165°F
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