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									New Roles of Instructors and Students in
  Blended and Fully Online Learning

        Curt Bonk, Indiana University
          President, CourseShare.com
What is happening in
 higher education?
New Roles for Instructors
              Berge Collins Associates
           Mauri Collins and Zane L. Berge
     New Instructor Roles Online?
•   Make learning activities relevant
•   Vary your instructional approaches & activities
•   Provide immediate feedback
•   Build conflict and tension
•   Task structure with clear deadlines
•   Give students choice in activities
•   Creating an open and flexible learning
    Study of Four Classes
        (Bonk, Kirkley, Hara, & Dennen, 2001)

• Technical—Train, early tasks, be flexible,
  orientation task
• Managerial—Initial meeting, FAQs, detailed
  syllabus, calendar, post administrivia, assign
  e-mail pals, gradebooks, email updates
• Pedagogical—Peer feedback, debates, PBL,
  cases, structured controversy, field
  reflections, portfolios, teams, inquiry,
• Social—Café, humor, interactivity, profiles,
  foreign guests, digital pics, conversations,
        Main Role: E-Moderator

• Refers to online teaching and facilitation role.
  Moderating used to mean to preside over a
  meeting or a discussion, but in the electronic
  world, it means more than that. It is all roles
  combined—to hold meetings, to encourage, to
  provide information, to question, to summarize,
  etc. (Collins & Berge, 1997; Gilly Salmon, 2000);

see http://www.emoderators.com/moderators.shtml.
    Personal Learning Trainer

• Learners need a personal
  trainer to lead them
  through materials and
  networks, identify
  relevant materials and
  advisors and ways to
  move forward (Mason,
  1998; Salmon, 2000).

• While one hopes you will not call
  yourself this nor find the need to
  make laws and enforce them, you will
  need some Code of Practice or set
  procedures, and protocols for e-
  moderators (Gilly Salmon, 2000).
                 Other Hats
•   Weaver—linking comments/threads
•   Tutor—individualized attention
•   Participant—joint learner
•   Provocateur—stir the pot (& calm flames)
•   Observer—watch ideas and events unfold
•   Mentor—personally apprentice students
•   Community Organizer—keep system going
      Still More Hats
Assistant          Gardener
Devil‟s advocate   Helper
Editor             Lecturer
Expert             Marketer
Filter             Mediator
Firefighter        Priest
Facilitator        Promoter
 Online Mentoring and
  Assistance Online

Twelve forms of electronic learning
    mentoring and assistance
(Bonk & Kim, 1998; Tharp, 1993; Bonk et al., 2001)
1. Social (and cognitive)
Acknowledgement: "Hello...," "I
agree with everything said so far...,"
"Wow, what a case," "This case
certainly has provoked a lot of
discussion...," "Glad you could join
5. Feedback/Praise: "Wow, I'm
impressed...," "That shows real
insight into...," "Are you sure you
have considered...," "Thanks for
responding to „X‟...," "I have yet to see
you or anyone mention..."
6. Cognitive Task Structuring: "You
know, the task asks you to do...," "Ok,
as was required, you should now
summarize the peer responses that you
have received...," "How might the
textbook authors have solved this
How get to instructors to adopt?

1. Sponsor conferences, lunches, tech
2. Provide technical support
3. Showcase effective ideas (mini conference)
4. Small pockets of money, recognize in annual
   merit, or other award systems
5. Instructor of the month spotlight
6. Peer mentoring programs
7. Laptop programs
8. Staff development, send to conferences
What About Student
     New Student Roles Online?
• Student, colleague, teacher, evaluator, group
  leader, synthesizer, resource finder, etc…
• Present to peers instead of listen to lectures
• Keep in touch with instructor and peers
• Take ownership over material
• Need to pace self
• Self-assessment of work
• Select tasks, explore Web
         Role 1: Starter/Mediator
• Summarizes the key terms, ideas, and
  issues in the chapters, supplemental
  instructor notes, journal articles, and other
  assigned readings and asks thought
  provoking questions typically before one‟s
  peers read or discuss the concepts and
  ideas. In effect, he/she points out what to
  expect in the upcoming readings or
  activities. Once the “start” is posted, this
  student acts as a mediator or facilitator of
  discussion for the week.
    Role 2: Wrapper/Summarizer
• Connects ideas, synthesizes discussion,
  interrelates comments, and links both explicit and
  implicit ideas posed in online discussion or other
  activities. The learner looks for themes in online
  coursework while weaving information together.
  The wrapping or summarizing is done at least at
  the end of the week or unit, but preferably two or
  more times depending on the length of activity.
        Role 3: Conqueror or
• Takes ideas into action, debates with
  others, persists in arguments and never
  surrenders or compromises nomatter
  what the casualties are when addressing
  any problem or issue.
      Role 4: Devil's Advocate or
• Takes opposite points of view for the
  sake of an argument and is an
  antagonist when addressing any
  problem posed. This might be a weekly
  role that is secretly assigned.
             Role 5: Idea
• Squelches good and bad ideas of others
  and submits your own prejudiced or
  biased ideas during online discussions
  and other situations. Forces others to
  think. Is that person you really hate to
  work with.
       Role 6: Optimist/Open-
• In this role, the student notes what
  appears to be feasible, profitable,
  ideal, and "sunny" ideas when
  addressing this problem. Always sees
  the bright or positive side of the
 Role 7: Emotional/Sensitive/Intuitive

• Comments with the fire and warmth
  of emotions, feelings, hunches, and
  intuitions when interacting with
  others, posting comments, or
  addressing problems.
    Role 8: Idea Generator Creative
• Brings endless energy to
  online conversations and
  generates lots of fresh ideas
  and new perspectives to the
  conference when addressing
  issues and problems.
Role 9: Questioner/Ponderer/Protester

• Role is to question, ponder,
  and protest the ideas of others
  and the problem presented
  itself. Might assume a radical
  or ultra-liberal tone.
             Role 10: Coach
• Offers hints, clues, supports, and
  highly motivational speeches to get
  everyone fired-up or at least one lost
  individual back on track when
  addressing a problem or situation.
     Role 11: Controller/Executive

• In this role, the student oversees
  the process, reports overall
  findings and opinions, and
  attempts to control the flow of
  information, findings,
  suggestions, and general
  problem solving.
  Role 12: Slacker/Slough/Slug/Surfer
• In this role, the student does little or nothing
  to help him/herself or his/her peers learn.
  Here, one can only sit back quietly and
  listen, make others do all the work for you,
  and generally have a laid back attitude (i.e.,
  go to the beach) when addressing this
    Blended Learning:
 Sample Synchronous and
 Asynchronous Activities

(David Brown, Syllabus, January 2002,
p. 23; October 2001, p. 18)
     Sample Asynchronous Activities
1.   Social Ice Breakers: intros, favorite Web sites
2.   Learner-Content Interactions: self-testing
3.   Scenario-Based Simulations
4.   Starter-Wrapper Discussion
5.   Anonymous Suggestion Box
6.   Role Play: Assume the Persona of a Scholar
7.   Online Experiments and Demonstrations
8.   Case-Based Learning
         1. Social Ice Breakers
a. Introductions: require not only that
  students introduce themselves, but also
  that they find and respond to two
  classmates who have something in
  common (Serves dual purpose of setting
  tone and having students learn to use the
b. Favorite Web Site: Have students post the
  URL of a favorite Web site or URL with personal
  information and explain why they choose that one.
2. Learner-Content Interactions: Self-
3. Scenario-Based Simulations
4. Discussion: Starter-Wrapper
          (Hara, Bonk, & Angeli, 2000)

1. Starter reads ahead and starts discussion and others
   participate and wrapper summarizes what was
2. Start-wrapper with roles--same as #1 but include roles for
   debate (optimist, pessimist, devil's advocate).

Alternative: Facilitator-Starter-Wrapper
    (Alexander, 2001)
Instead of starting discussion, student acts as moderator or
    questioner to push student thinking and give feedback
      5. Formative Feedback
        Anonymous Suggestion Box
George Watson, Univ of Delaware, Electricity
  and Electronics for Engineers:
1. Students send anonymous course feedback (Web
   forms or email)
2. Submission box is password protected
3. Instructor decides how to respond
4. Then provide response and most or all of suggestion
   in online forum
5. It defuses difficult issues, airs instructor views, and
   justified actions publicly.
6. Caution: If you are disturbed by criticism, perhaps do
   not use.
           6. Role Play

A. Assume Persona of Scholar
  – Enroll famous people in your course
  – Students assume voice of that person
    for one or more sessions
  – Enter debate topic or Respond to
    debate topic
  – Respond to reading reflections of
    others or react to own
   7. Online Co-laborative Psych Experiments
    (University of Mississippi)
 Contains 30 free psych
 • Location independent
 • Convenient to instructors
 • Run experiments over
    large number of subjects
 • Can build on it over time
 • Cross-institutional

Ken McGraw, Syllabus,
November, 2001
8. Case-Based Learning: Student Cases

1. Model how to write a case
2. Practice answering cases.
3. Generate 2-3 cases during semester based on
   field experiences.
4. Link to the text material—relate to how how text
   author or instructor might solve.
5. Respond to 6-8 peer cases.
6. Summarize the discussion in your case and
   a peer case.
  (Note: method akin to storytelling)
        Sample Synchronous
1. Webinar, Webcast
2. Synchronous Testing and
3. Sync Guests or Expert
4. Threaded Discussion Plus
   Expert Chat
5. Collaborative Online
6. Online Mentoring
1. Webinar
2. Synchronous Testing & Assessment
(Giving Exams in the Chat Room!, Janet Marta, NW Missouri
           State Univ, Syllabus, January 2002)

1. Post times when will be available for 30
   minute slots, first come, first serve.
2. Give 10-12 big theoretical questions to
   study for.
3. Tell can skip one.
4. Assessment will be a dialogue.
5. Get them there 1-2 minutes early.
6. Have hit enter every 2-3 sentences.
7. Ask q‟s, redirect, push for clarity, etc.
8. Covers about 3 questions in 30 minutes.
3. Electronic Guests & Mentoring
4. Threaded Discussion plus Expert
Chat (e.g., Starter-Wrapper + Sync Guest Chat)
  5. Collaborative Online Writing:
Peer-to-Peer Document Collaboration
 6. Online Mentoring
(e.g., GlobalEnglish)
              Blended Learning Ideas
    (Margaret Driscoll, March 2002, e-learning Magazine, p. 54)

•    Put assessment online
•    Put threaded discussions (community) online
•    Make reference materials available for depth
•    Deliver preclass materials electronically
•    Provide online office hours
•    Extend class with an online coach or mentor
•    Life discussions with experts
•    Create a lifeline for learners outside of class
•    Use email and messaging
Hold Online Discussions/Community
        More Blended Ideas
                 (Bonk, 2003)
•   Take to lab for online group collaboration.
•   Take to computer lab for Web search.
•   Take to an electronic conference.
•   Put syllabus on the Web.
•   Create a class computer conference.
•   Require students sign up for a listserv.
•   Use e-mail minute papers & e-mail admin.
•   Have students do technology demos.
Posted Resources (e.g., cases, Glossary)
  So What Happens to
Instructors and Students
     in the Future???
“We are evolving out of the era of the Lone
 Rangers…faculty members can choose to
 be involved in the design, development,
 content expertise, delivery, or distribution
 of course…” (Richard T. Hezel)

Sarah Carr, (Dec 15, 2000, A47), A Day in the Life of a New Type of Professor,
   The Chronicle of Higher Education
   Track 1: Technical Specialist

• Help critique technical aspects of
  media and materials built into online
  courses. Here one would be part of a
  course development team or
  instructional design unit. Freelance
  learning object evaluator. Here one
  would likely operate alone or as part
  of a consulting company.
     Track 2: Personal Guide

• Provide program or course guidance
  to students on demand or
  preplanned. Becomes more of a
  generalist across university
  offerings. For example, one might
  help students see how different
  learning objects or modules fit
  together into a degree.
    Track 3: Online Facilitator

• Offers timely and informed support
  to students struggling to complete
  an online course or inserting
  questions and nudging development
  of students who are successfully
  completing different modules. This
  is the most similar to college
  teaching positions today.
    Track 4: Course Developer

• Help develop specific courses or
  topic areas for one or more
  universities. In many institutions,
  this will move beyond a course
  royalty system to a paid position.
    Track 5: Course or Program
• Supervisor or manager of an entire
  new program or courses, most often
  leading to certificates or master‟s
  degrees. Similar in stature to a
  development head or chairperson.
    Track 6: Work for Hire Online
• Is a freelance instructor for one
  course or a range of course. May
  work on just one campus or on a
  range of campuses around the world.
  While this will be highly popular and
  rejuvenate careers, institutional
  policies are yet to be sorted out.
  Track 7: High School Teacher

• As universities begin to offer
  secondary degrees, some college
  faculty with online teaching
  experience and teaching degrees will
  find positions in those classes.
  Some may view such positions as
  being demoted to the minor leagues.
       Track 8: Unemployed

• If one does not find a niche in one
  or more of the above tracks or
  roles, he or she will likely be
  unemployed or highly
       Student Differences in 2020
• Live Longer
• More Educated
    – Multiple Degrees
    – Accustomed to Multiple Learning Formats
    – Design own programs and courses
•   Specialists AND Generalists
•   Courses/Degrees for unknown occupations
•   Expect to Take Courses Where Live
•   Cyber-students (various digital aids attached to
    Possible Scenarios in Year 2020

•   Virtual U‟s and Traditional U‟s Coexist
•   Traditional Univ‟s buy stake in Virtual U‟s
•   Traditional Univ‟s form Consortia
•   Some Trad U‟s Move Ahead, Some Don‟t
•   Other Technology arise well beyond Web
•   Large Virtual U‟s Buy Competing Traditional
    U‟s and shut them down
    What Uses for Old Institutions of
         Higher Learning???
•   Museums
•   Historical Monuments
•   Bomb Shelters
•   Resorts and Apartment Complexes
•   Nostalgic Retirement Homes
•   Green Space
•   Prisons
  Some Final Advice…

Or Maybe Some Questions???

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