VIEWS: 7 PAGES: 66 POSTED ON: 8/11/2011
New Roles of Instructors and Students in Blended and Fully Online Learning Environments Curt Bonk, Indiana University President, CourseShare.com email@example.com http://php.indiana.edu/~cjbonk http://CourseShare.com What is happening in higher education? New Roles for Instructors Berge Collins Associates Mauri Collins and Zane L. Berge http://www.emoderators.com/moderators.shtml#mod New Instructor Roles Online? • Make learning activities relevant • Vary your instructional approaches & activities • Provide immediate feedback • Build conflict and tension • Task structure with clear deadlines • Give students choice in activities • Creating an open and flexible learning environment Study of Four Classes (Bonk, Kirkley, Hara, & Dennen, 2001) • Technical—Train, early tasks, be flexible, orientation task • Managerial—Initial meeting, FAQs, detailed syllabus, calendar, post administrivia, assign e-mail pals, gradebooks, email updates • Pedagogical—Peer feedback, debates, PBL, cases, structured controversy, field reflections, portfolios, teams, inquiry, portfolios • Social—Café, humor, interactivity, profiles, foreign guests, digital pics, conversations, guests Main Role: E-Moderator • Refers to online teaching and facilitation role. Moderating used to mean to preside over a meeting or a discussion, but in the electronic world, it means more than that. It is all roles combined—to hold meetings, to encourage, to provide information, to question, to summarize, etc. (Collins & Berge, 1997; Gilly Salmon, 2000); see http://www.emoderators.com/moderators.shtml. Personal Learning Trainer • Learners need a personal trainer to lead them through materials and networks, identify relevant materials and advisors and ways to move forward (Mason, 1998; Salmon, 2000). E-Police • While one hopes you will not call yourself this nor find the need to make laws and enforce them, you will need some Code of Practice or set procedures, and protocols for e- moderators (Gilly Salmon, 2000). Other Hats • Weaver—linking comments/threads • Tutor—individualized attention • Participant—joint learner • Provocateur—stir the pot (& calm flames) • Observer—watch ideas and events unfold • Mentor—personally apprentice students • Community Organizer—keep system going Still More Hats Assistant Gardener Devil‟s advocate Helper Editor Lecturer Expert Marketer Filter Mediator Firefighter Priest Facilitator Promoter Online Mentoring and Assistance Online Twelve forms of electronic learning mentoring and assistance (Bonk & Kim, 1998; Tharp, 1993; Bonk et al., 2001) 1. Social (and cognitive) Acknowledgement: "Hello...," "I agree with everything said so far...," "Wow, what a case," "This case certainly has provoked a lot of discussion...," "Glad you could join us..." 5. Feedback/Praise: "Wow, I'm impressed...," "That shows real insight into...," "Are you sure you have considered...," "Thanks for responding to „X‟...," "I have yet to see you or anyone mention..." 6. Cognitive Task Structuring: "You know, the task asks you to do...," "Ok, as was required, you should now summarize the peer responses that you have received...," "How might the textbook authors have solved this case." How get to instructors to adopt? 1. Sponsor conferences, lunches, tech showcases 2. Provide technical support 3. Showcase effective ideas (mini conference) 4. Small pockets of money, recognize in annual merit, or other award systems 5. Instructor of the month spotlight 6. Peer mentoring programs 7. Laptop programs 8. Staff development, send to conferences What About Student Roles??? New Student Roles Online? • Student, colleague, teacher, evaluator, group leader, synthesizer, resource finder, etc… • Present to peers instead of listen to lectures • Keep in touch with instructor and peers • Take ownership over material • Need to pace self • Self-assessment of work • Select tasks, explore Web Role 1: Starter/Mediator Reporter/Commentator • Summarizes the key terms, ideas, and issues in the chapters, supplemental instructor notes, journal articles, and other assigned readings and asks thought provoking questions typically before one‟s peers read or discuss the concepts and ideas. In effect, he/she points out what to expect in the upcoming readings or activities. Once the “start” is posted, this student acts as a mediator or facilitator of discussion for the week. Role 2: Wrapper/Summarizer Synthesizer/Connector/Reviewer • Connects ideas, synthesizes discussion, interrelates comments, and links both explicit and implicit ideas posed in online discussion or other activities. The learner looks for themes in online coursework while weaving information together. The wrapping or summarizing is done at least at the end of the week or unit, but preferably two or more times depending on the length of activity. Role 3: Conqueror or Debater/Arguer/Bloodletter • Takes ideas into action, debates with others, persists in arguments and never surrenders or compromises nomatter what the casualties are when addressing any problem or issue. Role 4: Devil's Advocate or Critic/Censor/Confederate • Takes opposite points of view for the sake of an argument and is an antagonist when addressing any problem posed. This might be a weekly role that is secretly assigned. Role 5: Idea Squelcher/Biased/Preconceiver • Squelches good and bad ideas of others and submits your own prejudiced or biased ideas during online discussions and other situations. Forces others to think. Is that person you really hate to work with. Role 6: Optimist/Open- minded/Idealist • In this role, the student notes what appears to be feasible, profitable, ideal, and "sunny" ideas when addressing this problem. Always sees the bright or positive side of the situation. Role 7: Emotional/Sensitive/Intuitive • Comments with the fire and warmth of emotions, feelings, hunches, and intuitions when interacting with others, posting comments, or addressing problems. Role 8: Idea Generator Creative Energy/Inventor • Brings endless energy to online conversations and generates lots of fresh ideas and new perspectives to the conference when addressing issues and problems. Role 9: Questioner/Ponderer/Protester • Role is to question, ponder, and protest the ideas of others and the problem presented itself. Might assume a radical or ultra-liberal tone. Role 10: Coach Facilitator/Inspirer/Trainer • Offers hints, clues, supports, and highly motivational speeches to get everyone fired-up or at least one lost individual back on track when addressing a problem or situation. Role 11: Controller/Executive Director/CEO/Leader • In this role, the student oversees the process, reports overall findings and opinions, and attempts to control the flow of information, findings, suggestions, and general problem solving. Role 12: Slacker/Slough/Slug/Surfer • In this role, the student does little or nothing to help him/herself or his/her peers learn. Here, one can only sit back quietly and listen, make others do all the work for you, and generally have a laid back attitude (i.e., go to the beach) when addressing this problem. Blended Learning: Sample Synchronous and Asynchronous Activities (David Brown, Syllabus, January 2002, p. 23; October 2001, p. 18) Sample Asynchronous Activities 1. Social Ice Breakers: intros, favorite Web sites 2. Learner-Content Interactions: self-testing 3. Scenario-Based Simulations 4. Starter-Wrapper Discussion 5. Anonymous Suggestion Box 6. Role Play: Assume the Persona of a Scholar 7. Online Experiments and Demonstrations 8. Case-Based Learning 1. Social Ice Breakers a. Introductions: require not only that students introduce themselves, but also that they find and respond to two classmates who have something in common (Serves dual purpose of setting tone and having students learn to use the tool) b. Favorite Web Site: Have students post the URL of a favorite Web site or URL with personal information and explain why they choose that one. 2. Learner-Content Interactions: Self- Testing 3. Scenario-Based Simulations 4. Discussion: Starter-Wrapper (Hara, Bonk, & Angeli, 2000) 1. Starter reads ahead and starts discussion and others participate and wrapper summarizes what was discussed. 2. Start-wrapper with roles--same as #1 but include roles for debate (optimist, pessimist, devil's advocate). Alternative: Facilitator-Starter-Wrapper (Alexander, 2001) Instead of starting discussion, student acts as moderator or questioner to push student thinking and give feedback 5. Formative Feedback Anonymous Suggestion Box George Watson, Univ of Delaware, Electricity and Electronics for Engineers: 1. Students send anonymous course feedback (Web forms or email) 2. Submission box is password protected 3. Instructor decides how to respond 4. Then provide response and most or all of suggestion in online forum 5. It defuses difficult issues, airs instructor views, and justified actions publicly. 6. Caution: If you are disturbed by criticism, perhaps do not use. 6. Role Play A. Assume Persona of Scholar – Enroll famous people in your course – Students assume voice of that person for one or more sessions – Enter debate topic or Respond to debate topic – Respond to reading reflections of others or react to own 7. Online Co-laborative Psych Experiments PsychExperiments (University of Mississippi) Contains 30 free psych experiments • Location independent • Convenient to instructors • Run experiments over large number of subjects • Can build on it over time • Cross-institutional Ken McGraw, Syllabus, November, 2001 8. Case-Based Learning: Student Cases 1. Model how to write a case 2. Practice answering cases. 3. Generate 2-3 cases during semester based on field experiences. 4. Link to the text material—relate to how how text author or instructor might solve. 5. Respond to 6-8 peer cases. 6. Summarize the discussion in your case and a peer case. (Note: method akin to storytelling) Sample Synchronous Activities 1. Webinar, Webcast 2. Synchronous Testing and Assessment 3. Sync Guests or Expert Forums 4. Threaded Discussion Plus Expert Chat 5. Collaborative Online Writing 6. Online Mentoring 1. Webinar 2. Synchronous Testing & Assessment (Giving Exams in the Chat Room!, Janet Marta, NW Missouri State Univ, Syllabus, January 2002) 1. Post times when will be available for 30 minute slots, first come, first serve. 2. Give 10-12 big theoretical questions to study for. 3. Tell can skip one. 4. Assessment will be a dialogue. 5. Get them there 1-2 minutes early. 6. Have hit enter every 2-3 sentences. 7. Ask q‟s, redirect, push for clarity, etc. 8. Covers about 3 questions in 30 minutes. 3. Electronic Guests & Mentoring 4. Threaded Discussion plus Expert Chat (e.g., Starter-Wrapper + Sync Guest Chat) 5. Collaborative Online Writing: Peer-to-Peer Document Collaboration 6. Online Mentoring (e.g., GlobalEnglish) Blended Learning Ideas (Margaret Driscoll, March 2002, e-learning Magazine, p. 54) • Put assessment online • Put threaded discussions (community) online • Make reference materials available for depth • Deliver preclass materials electronically • Provide online office hours • Extend class with an online coach or mentor • Life discussions with experts • Create a lifeline for learners outside of class • Use email and messaging Hold Online Discussions/Community More Blended Ideas (Bonk, 2003) • Take to lab for online group collaboration. • Take to computer lab for Web search. • Take to an electronic conference. • Put syllabus on the Web. • Create a class computer conference. • Require students sign up for a listserv. • Use e-mail minute papers & e-mail admin. • Have students do technology demos. Posted Resources (e.g., cases, Glossary) So What Happens to Instructors and Students in the Future??? “We are evolving out of the era of the Lone Rangers…faculty members can choose to be involved in the design, development, content expertise, delivery, or distribution of course…” (Richard T. Hezel) Sarah Carr, (Dec 15, 2000, A47), A Day in the Life of a New Type of Professor, The Chronicle of Higher Education Track 1: Technical Specialist • Help critique technical aspects of media and materials built into online courses. Here one would be part of a course development team or instructional design unit. Freelance learning object evaluator. Here one would likely operate alone or as part of a consulting company. Track 2: Personal Guide • Provide program or course guidance to students on demand or preplanned. Becomes more of a generalist across university offerings. For example, one might help students see how different learning objects or modules fit together into a degree. Track 3: Online Facilitator • Offers timely and informed support to students struggling to complete an online course or inserting questions and nudging development of students who are successfully completing different modules. This is the most similar to college teaching positions today. Track 4: Course Developer • Help develop specific courses or topic areas for one or more universities. In many institutions, this will move beyond a course royalty system to a paid position. Track 5: Course or Program Manager • Supervisor or manager of an entire new program or courses, most often leading to certificates or master‟s degrees. Similar in stature to a development head or chairperson. Track 6: Work for Hire Online Lecturer • Is a freelance instructor for one course or a range of course. May work on just one campus or on a range of campuses around the world. While this will be highly popular and rejuvenate careers, institutional policies are yet to be sorted out. Track 7: High School Teacher • As universities begin to offer secondary degrees, some college faculty with online teaching experience and teaching degrees will find positions in those classes. Some may view such positions as being demoted to the minor leagues. Track 8: Unemployed • If one does not find a niche in one or more of the above tracks or roles, he or she will likely be unemployed or highly unsuccessful. Student Differences in 2020 • Live Longer • More Educated – Multiple Degrees – Accustomed to Multiple Learning Formats – Design own programs and courses • Specialists AND Generalists • Courses/Degrees for unknown occupations • Expect to Take Courses Where Live • Cyber-students (various digital aids attached to appendages) Possible Scenarios in Year 2020 • Virtual U‟s and Traditional U‟s Coexist • Traditional Univ‟s buy stake in Virtual U‟s • Traditional Univ‟s form Consortia • Some Trad U‟s Move Ahead, Some Don‟t • Other Technology arise well beyond Web • Large Virtual U‟s Buy Competing Traditional U‟s and shut them down What Uses for Old Institutions of Higher Learning??? • Museums • Historical Monuments • Bomb Shelters • Resorts and Apartment Complexes • Nostalgic Retirement Homes • Green Space • Prisons Some Final Advice… Or Maybe Some Questions???
Pages to are hidden for
"blend"Please download to view full document