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Modul Pelatihan CCNA 5

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					Cabling LANs and WANs
Semester 1 – Module 5
Module Objectives:
        Identify characteristics of Ethernet networks Identify straight-through, crossover, and rollover cables Describe the function, advantages, and disadvantages of repeaters, hubs, bridges, switches, and wireless network components Describe the function of peer-to-peer networks Describe the function, advantages, and disadvantages of client-server networks Describe and differentiate between serial, ISDN, DSL, and cable modem WAN connections Identify router serial ports, cables, and connectors Identify and describe the placement of equipment used in various WAN configurations

LAN Physical Layer Symbols

Ethernet on a Campus
• First LAN created by:
– Digital, Intel, and Xerox group (DIX)

• There are several ways that Ethernet technologies can be used in a campus network:
– 10Mbps can be used at the user level – Clients or servers that require more bandwidth can use 100-Mbps Ethernet – Fast Ethernet is used as the link between user and network devices. Fast Ethernet can be used to connect enterprise servers. – Fast Ethernet or Gigabit Ethernet should be implemented between backbone devices, based on affordability.

Ethernet Connector Requirements

Connection Media

UTP Implementation
• Use straight-through cables for the following connections:
– Switch to router – Switch to PC or server – Hub to PC or server

• Use crossover cables for the following connections:
– – – – – – Switch to switch Switch to hub Hub to hub Router to router PC to PC Router to PC

UTP Implementation
Patch Panels are used for Organization in Wiring Closets. Sometimes referred to as punch downs.

Note: Only 4 wires being used to T and R

Repeaters and the 5-4-3 Rule
• 5-4-3 rule divides the network into two types of physical segments:
– populated (user) segments – unpopulated (link) segments.

• The rule mandates that between any two nodes on the network:
– maximum of five segments, connected through four repeaters, or concentrators – only three of the five segments may contain user connections.

• Advantages of this Rule
– Decrease transmission Time (latency) – Decreases the number of late collisions

Hubs (mulit-port repeaters or concentrators)
• Passive
– – – – serves as a physical connection point only does not manipulate or view the traffic does not boost or clean the signal does not need electrical power

• Active
– must be plugged into an electrical outlet – Amplifies the signal before it is sent to the other ports

• Intelligent
– sometimes called smart hubs – function like active hubs with microprocessor chips and diagnostic capabilities making them more useful for troubleshooting situations. – more expensive than active hubs

Wireless
• Wireless networks use:
– Radio frequency (RF) – Laser – Infrared (IR) – Satellite – Microwaves

• Advantages
– No Wires – Mobility

Bridges
• Break up LAN Segments • Limit Traffic • Filter based on the Destination MAC

Switches
• switches are popular connectivity solutions because they improve network speed, bandwidth, and performance. • All switching equipment perform two basic operations:
– switch data frames – maintenance of switching operations where switches build and maintain switching tables and search for loops

• operate at much higher speeds than bridges • support new functionality, such as virtual LANs

Host Connectivity
• NICs
– Layer 2 devices – each NIC carries a unique code called a MAC address

• Transceiver
– Layer 1 device – converts one type of signal or connector to another – For example, a transceiver can connect a 15pin AUI interface to an RJ-45 jack

Peer-to-Peer Networks
• All Peers are equal • 10 Host max (recommended) • Advantages
– Easy to create – Each user can manage their own resources – No need for anything to be centralized – No need to for centralized management

Client/Server Environment
• network services are located on a dedicated computer called a server

WAN Physical Layer

WAN Serial Connections
• Signal Clocking (Clockrate) determined by:
– Data Communications Equipment (DCE) – Channel/Data Service Unit (CSU/DSU)

Routers and Serial Connectors

ISDN BRI Connections
• Use NT1 devices
– an intermediate device located between the router and the service provider ISDN switch

• two types of interfaces may be used
– BRI U - BRI interface with an integrated NT1 – BRI S/T - BRI interface without an integrated NT1

• 2 B Channels • Uses PPP

DSL and Cable
• DSL
– Standard telephone lines – RJ-11

• Cable
– Coax – F connector

Console Connections
• Used to manage a device, such as switch or router, locally • Uses a DB-9 to RJ45 adapter • Uses Rollover cable

Labs
5.1.5 Lab Exercise: RJ-45 Jack Punch Down 5.1.7 Lab Exercise: Hub and NIC Purchase 5.1.10 Lab Exercise: Purchasing LAN Switches 5.1.12 Lab Exercise: Building a Peer-to-Peer Network 5.1.13 Lab Exercise: Building a Hub-based Network * 5.1.13 Lab Exercise: Building a Switch-based Network * 5.2.3 Lab Exercise: Building a Basic Routed WAN 5.2.3 Lab Exercise: Troubleshooting Interconnected Devices 5.2.7 Lab Exercise: Establishing a Console Connection to a Router or Switch*


				
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