Introduction to Networking Semester 1 – Module 1 Module Objectives: Understand the physical connection that has to take place for a computer to connect to the Internet. Recognize the components that comprise the computer. Install and troubleshoot network interface cards and/or modems. Use basic testing procedures to test the Internet connection. Demonstrate a basic understanding of the use of web browsers and plug-ins. Internet Connection Requirements Internet is the largest data network on earth Consists of many large and small networks that are interconnected Individual computers are the sources and destinations of information through the Internet Connection to the Internet can be broken down into three parts: Physical connection – device such as NIC Logical connection – protocols such as TCP/IP Applications – software that interprets and display data Computer Basics Electronic Components Transistor, Integrated circuit (IC), Resistor, Capacitor, Connector, and Light emitting diode (LED) PC Subsystems Printed circuit board, CD-ROM drive, Central processing unit (CPU), Floppy drive, Hard drive, Microprocessor, Motherboard, Bus, Random-access memory (RAM), Readonly memory (ROM), System unit, Expansion slot, Power supply, Backplane components Network interface card (NIC), Video card, Audio card, Parallel port, Serial port, Mouse port, Power cord Network Interface Card A NIC, or LAN adapter, provides network communication capabilities to and from a PC These considerations are important in the selection of a NIC: Protocols – Ethernet, Token Ring, or FDDI Types of media – Twisted-pair, coaxial, wireless, or fiber-optic Type of system bus – PCI or ISA NIC’s & Modems A NIC provides a network interface for each host Situations that require NIC installation include the following: Installation of a NIC on a PC that does not already have one Replacement of a malfunctioning or damaged NIC Upgrade from a 10-Mbps NIC to a 10/100/1000-Mbps NIC Change to a different type of NIC, such as wireless Installation of a secondary, or backup, NIC for network security reasons A modem, or modulator-demodulator, has two main functions: provides the computer with connectivity to a telephone line converts data from a digital signal to an analog signal that is compatible with a standard phone line Internet Connections for Consumers Requires use of a Modem Dial-up – slow Always on High Speed Connections DSL – Verizon Cable – Comcast TCP/IP TCP/IP is a set of protocols or rules that have been developed to allow computers to share resources across a network The operating system tools must be used to configure TCP/IP on a workstation Testing Connectivity with Ping Ping is a basic program that verifies a particular IP address exists and can accept requests. Ping stands for Packet Internet or Inter-Network Groper. How can ping be used? ping 127.0.0.1 - loopback test. It verifies the operation of the TCP/IP stack and NIC transmit/receive function. ping host computer IP address - verifies the TCP/IP address configuration for the local host and connectivity to the host. ping default-gateway IP address - verifies whether the router that connects the local network to other networks can be reached. ping remote destination IP address - verifies connectivity to a remote host. Web Browsers and Plug-ins A Web browser is software that interprets HTML, which is one of the languages used to code Web page content. Two of the most popular Web browsers are Internet Explorer (IE) and Netscape Communicator Plug-ins are applications that work with the browser to launch the programs required to view special files: Flash – Plays multimedia files created by Macromedia Flash Quicktime – Plays video files created by Apple Real Player – Plays audio files Troubleshooting Connectivity 1. Define the Problem 2. Gather the Facts 3. Consider the Possibility 4. Create an Action Plan 5. Implement the Plan 6. Observe the Results 7. Document the Results 8. ntroduce Problems and Troubleshoot Labs 1.1.2 Lab Exercise: PC Hardware - This lab introduces the basic peripheral components of a PC computer system and PC connections including network attachment. 1.1.6 Lab Exercise: PC Network TCP/IP Configuration - In this lab, the student will identify tools used to discover a computer network configuration with various operating systems. 1.1.7 Lab Exercise: Using ping and tracert from a Workstation - In this lab, the student will learn to use the ping command and the Traceroute (tracert) command from a workstation. 1.1.8 Lab Exercise: Web Browser Basics - In this lab, the student will learn how to use a web browser to access Internet sites and become familiar with the concept of a URL. 1.1.9 Lab Exercise: Basic PC/Network Troubleshooting Process - In this lab, the student will learn the proper sequence for troubleshooting computer and network problems and become familiar with the more common hardware and software problems. Binary Presentation Computers work with and store data using electronic switches (binary or bits (b)) that are either ON (1b or +5v) or OFF (0b or 0v). The 1s and 0s are used to represent the two possible states of an electronic component in a computer. Keyboarding uses ASCII Transfer uses raw bits Bits and Bytes Base 10 numbering system Decimal - 10 possible (0,1,2,3….9) 104=10,00 103=1,00 102=10 101=1 100= 0 0 0 0 1 Base 2 numbering system Binary - 2 possible (0&1) 27=128 26=6 4 25=32 24=1 6 23=8 22=4 21=2 20=1 Converting Decimal to 8-bit Binary 247 27=128 26=6 4 1 1 25=32 24=1 6 1 1 23=8 22=4 21=2 20=1 0 1 1 1 Converting Binary to Decimal 10111010 27=128 26=6 4 128 0 25=3 24=1 23=8 22=4 21=2 20=1 2 6 32 16 8 0 2 0 18 6 IP Addresses Currently, addresses assigned to computers on the Internet are 32-bit binary numbers. To make it easier to work with these addresses, the 32-bit binary number is broken into a series of decimal numbers. Hexadecimal Hexadecimal 16 possibilities (0,1,2,3,… .9,A,B,C,D,E,F) In hex. Binary octects are represented with just 2 digits. 161=2 160=1 Number Systems Comparison Chart Boolean Logic IP Addresses and Network Masks Performing a Boolean AND of the IP address 10.34.23.134 and the subnet mask 255.255.0.0 produces the network address of this host: 00001010.00100010.00010111.10000110 11111111.11111111.00000000.00000000 00001010.00100010.00000000.00000000 10.34.0.0 Labs 1.2.5 Lab Exercise: Decimal to Binary Conversion - In this lab, the student will learn and practice to convert decimal values to binary values. 1.2.6 Lab Exercise: Binary to Decimal Conversion - In this lab, the student will learn and practice the process of converting binary values to decimal values. 1.2.8 Lab Exercise: Hexadecimal Conversions - In this lab, the student will learn the process to convert hexadecimal values to decimal and binary values.