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Animal Manure and Waste Utilization Treatment and Nuisance Avoidance for a Sustainable Agriculture 2005 Annual Report

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					      Animal Manure and Waste Utilization, Treatment and Nuisance
              Avoidance for a Sustainable Agriculture:
                        2005 Annual Report
                                     USDA-CSREES Multistate Project S-1000
                                         October 1, 2001 – September 30, 2006

Minutes from 2005 Meeting ......................................................................................... 2
Meeting Agenda (January 5-7, 2004) ........................................................................ 2,4
Meeting Attendees ...................................................................................................... 14
Objectives ................................................................................................................... 16
Justification and Need ................................................................................................. 16
Related, Current and Previous Work .......................................................................... 17
   Land Application .................................................................................................... 17
   Manure and Wastewater Treatment ........................................................................ 18
   Air Quality .............................................................................................................. 18
   Feeding Strategies ................................................................................................... 19
References ................................................................................................................... 19
2005 Summary of Progress by Objective and Task .................................................... 21
   Objective 1 .............................................................................................................. 21
   Objective 2 .............................................................................................................. 24
   Objective 3 .............................................................................................................. 36
   Objective 4 .............................................................................................................. 41
Performance Measures ................................................................................................ 45
   Outputs .................................................................................................................... 45
   Impact summary...................................................................................................... 59
Planned Research 2004-2005 ...................................................................................... 62
   Objective 1 .............................................................................................................. 62
   Objective 2 .............................................................................................................. 62
   Objective 3 .............................................................................................................. 63
   Objective 4 .............................................................................................................. 64




                                                                                                                                     1
Minutes from 2005 Meeting
S-1000 Annual Committee Meeting
Rivercenter Marriott, San Antonio, TX
January 5-7, 2005
   I.      Agenda for January 5, 2005 meeting was as follows:
   8:30 – 8:40 am     Introductions
   8:40 – 8:50 am     Administrative Advisor Comments – Ron Lacewell
   8:50 – 9:00 am     CSREES Representative Comments – Richard Hegg
   9:00 – 9:20 am     Discussion of project progress and reporting
   9:20 – 9:40 am     Discussion of future project – Wendy Powers
   9:40 – 9:45 am     Election of secretary
   9:45 – 10:00 am Planning for next meeting
   10:00 am           Adjourn
    II. Agenda for the remainder of the January 5-7 is included by reference (Appendix A), as
the S1000 Multistate Research Project co-sponsored a Symposium on the State of the Science of
Animal Manure and Waste Management along with the National Center for Manure and Animal
Waste Management.
    Deviations from that agenda were not significant. Other than the S-1000 business meeting
(see item III below), the days’ activities were jointly administered by S-1000 and the Director of
the National Center for Manure and Animal Waste Management, Dr. Frank Humenik (NCSU).
Ad hoc committees established to coordinate the 2005-06 meeting of S-1000 were a Program
Committee (Auvermann, Applegate, and Classen).
   III. S-1000 Business Meeting 5 Jan 2005
        A. Meeting was called to order by Dr. Phil Westerman at 0830h CDT.
        B. Members present (24) were sufficient to constitute a quorum for conducting business.
           A complete list of members attending the Business Meeting is incorporated into these
           minutes, by reference, in Appendix B.
        C. John Classen (NC State Univ.) was nominated for S-1000 secretary-elect. Classen
           accepted the nomination, which was approved by unanimous consent.
        D. W. Powers reported on the progress of the project re-write committee (Powers,
           Classen, Auvermann, Applegate, and Meyer). An outline of what was proposed was
           circulated. Input was requested to be forwarded to the committee by Feb. 15. A draft
           will be circulated in time for full discussion at the next S-1000 meeting. The current
           project is scheduled to end Sept. 2006. R. Lacewell noted that a 1 year extension can
           be requested, but for full review, a final draft should be submitted by late 2005.
        E. Motion was made and seconded to have the executive committee (Auvermann,
           Applegate, and Classen) handle the scheduling and format of the next meeting.
           Motion carried.



                                                                                                 2
F. Committee expressed appreciation to Auvermann, Sweeten, and Lacewell for
   handling local arrangements and to Humenik, Mukhtar, and Nowak for program
   development for the Jan 2005 meeting.
G. Meeting was adjourned by unanimous consent at 1000h CDT.




                                                                                3
                                           Appendix A
    Symposium on the State of the Science of Animal Manure and Waste
                             Management
                                      January 5-7, 2005
                                    San Antonio, Texas
   Meeting Agenda
   WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 5, 2005
   7:00 – 8:00 a.m. - Registration/Continental Breakfast/Poster Setup

  7:45 – 8:30 a.m. – Business meeting of the National Center for Manure and Animal
WasteManagement
   8:30 – 10:00 a.m. - Business Meeting of the S-1000
   10:00 – 10:30 a.m. - Break (Poster Set up)

                                     Moderator: Pete Nowak

   10:30 – 10:45 a.m. - Welcome, Objectives, and Overview of the Symposium
              Director, National Center, and Chair, S-1000
                                     10:45 – Noon, Session 1

   10:45 - 11:15 a.m. - National Coordination: Synergism
              Ronald D. Lacewell, Assistant Vice Chancellor, Agriculture and Life
              Sciences, Associate Director, Texas Agricultural Experiement Station
   11:15 - 11:45 a.m. - Trends in Animal Manure Management Research: CRIS Database
              Richard Hegg, National Program Leader, CSREES
   11:45 a.m. - 12:15 p.m. - Environmental and General Public Concerns
              Suzy Friedman, Staff Scientist, Center for Conservation Incentives at
              Environmental Defense
   12:15 – 1:30 p.m. Lunch - On Your Own
                                    Moderator: Ron Lacewell
   1:30 – 2:00 p.m. - Working the Washington Agenda. Lowell Randel, Meyers and
              Associates, Washington, DC
   2:00 - 2:30 p.m. - Risks of Antibiotics and Endocrine Disrupting Compounds in Animal
                 Waste. Christopher Ohl, M.D., Wake Forest University Baptist Medical
              Center, Winston-Salem, North Carolina


                                                                                          4
2:30 – 3:30 p.m.
                                       Session 2A
                             Moderator: Harold M. Keener
Simultaneous Removals of Nutrient and Organic Matter in Liquid Swine Manure Using a
          Lab-scale Sequencing Batch Reactor
          Jun Zhu, ZhiJian Zhang, and Curtis Miller, University of Minnesota
Evaluating Biostimulant Effects in Swine Production Facility Wastewater
             M.A. Schneegurt, D.L. Weber, S. Ewing, and H.B. Schur, Wichita State
          University
Predicting NH3 Emissions from Manure N for Caged Layer Facilities: A Modified Mass
           Balance Approach
          Harold M. Keener, Frederick C. Michel Jr., Ohio State University


                                       Session 2B
                              Moderator: Larry Jacobson
Abatement Measures to Reduce Ammonia Emissions from Open-lot Feed Yards and
          Dairies
          D. B. Parker, Texas A&M University; N. A. Cole, USDA-ARS; B. H.
             Baek, Texas A&M University; J. A. Koziel, Iowa State University, M. B.
          Rhoades, Z. Perschbacher-Buser, L. W. Greene, P. Sambana and J. M. Sweeten,
          Texas A&M University.
Seasonal Variations in NH3, H2S, and PM10 Emissions from Pig and Poultry Buildings
             from a Multi-state (Aerial Pollutants Emissions from Confined Animal
          Buildings –APECAB) Project
             Larry Jacobson, University of Minnesota; Al Heber, Purdue University; Steve
          Hoff, Iowa State University; Yuanhui Zhang, University of Illinois; John
          Sweeten, Texas A&M University; Dave Beasley, North Carolina State University.
Ammonia and Hydrogen Sulfide Fluxes and Dry Deposition Velocities from a
          Commercial Beef Cattle Feedlot In Texas
          Bok Haeng Baek, Richard Todd, Jacek A. Koziel and Andy Cole, Texas
          A&M University & USDA-ARS
                                         Session 2C
Future Direction for National Collaboration on Educational Outreach
          Rick Koelsch, University of Nebraska
   This session will initiate a discussion on vision and direction for national collaboration


                                                                                                5
   targeting educational programs and outreach. A significant part of this session will focus
   on the direction and interest in developing a national e-extension effort targeting animal
   manure management issues.
3:30 – 4:00 p.m.                 Break (Posters)
4:00 – 5:30 p.m.
                                      Session 3A
                         Moderator: Frederick C. Michel, Jr.
Persistence of Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis and Other Pathogens
          During Composting, Manure Pack and Liquid Storage of Dairy Manure
          Frederick C. Michael, Jr., Sukhbir Grewal and Srinand Sreevatsan, Ohio
          State University
Diversity of Escherichia Coli and Salmonella sp Isolates from Playa Waters and
          Sediments
          William C. Rice and Charles W Purdy, USDA-ARS
Occurrence and Transport of Antibiotics from Manured Fields to Surface Water Bodies
          G. Davis, Kenneth H. Carlson, Clinton C. Truman and James C. Ascough
          II, Colorado State University and USDA-ARS.
Evaluation of the Pathogen Reduction from Plug Flow and Continuous Feed Anaerobic
           Digesters
          Joe Harrison, Dale Hancock, Mike Gamroth, Debbie Davidson, Lindsay
          Oaks, James Evermann and Tamilee Nennich, Washington State
          University and Oregon State University
                                       Session 3B
                                Moderator: Pete Nowak
Lower Cost Options for As-Applied Mapping and Variable Rate Applications of Manure
          Stanley Solomon and Pete Fandel, University of Illinois
Using Spatial Analysis to Optimize Continuous Field Manure Applications Without
   Adverse Environmental Impact
          John H. Grove and Eugenia M. Pena-Yewtukhiw, University of Kentucky
          and James A. Thompson, West Virginia University
Soil Test Phosphorus Sampling Strategies to Optimize Manure Application Within
          Agricultural Fields
          Eugenia M. Pena-Yewtukhiw and John H. Grove, University of Kentucky
Manure Distribution Patterns, Operator Decisions, and Nutrient Management Plans


                                                                                            6
            P.Nowak, P.E. Cabot, K.G. Karthikeyan, University of Wisconsin-
            Madison, F.J. Pierce, Washington State University
                                          Session 3C
Future Direction for National Collaboration on Educational Outreach
            Rick Koelsch, University of Nebraska
5:30 p.m.                 Adjourn, Dinner - On Your Own
THURSDAY, JANUARY 6, 2005
7:00 – 8:00 a.m. Registration/Continental Breakfast
8:00 – 10:00 a.m.
                                       Session 4A
                               Moderator: John Sweeten
A Novel Application of Feedlot Biomass (Cattle Manure) as Reburning Fuel for NOx
            Reduction in Coal-Fired Plants
            S. Arumugam, K. Annamalai, S. Priyadarsan, B. Thien and J. Sweeten,
            Texas A&M University
Development and Application of an Inexpensive Chamber for Analysis of VOCs,
            Greenhouse Gases, and Ammonia Emitted from Livestock Waste
            B.L. Woodbury, D.N. Miller, R.A. Eigenberg and J.A. Nienaber, USDA-
            ARS, University of Nebraska
Improved GC-Olfactometry Based Malodor Assessment of Swine CAFOs Utilizing
            Novel Air Sampling Technologies
            Donald W. Wright, David K. Eaton, Lawrence T. Nielsen and Fred W.
            Kuhrt, Microanalytics (a MOCON Company)
Analytical Requirements for Measuring Trace Gas Fluxes from Cattle Feedlots Using
            Relaxed Eddy Accumulation
            Jay M. Ham and Kristen A. Baum, Kansas State University
Ammonia and Gaseous Nitrogen Emissions from a Commercial Beef Cattle Feed Yard
            Estimated Using the Flux-Gradient Method and N:P Ratio Analysis
               Richard W. Todd, USDA-ARS; N. Andy Cole, USDA-ARS; Lowry A.
            Harper, USDA-ARS; Thomas K. Flesch, University of Alberta; Bok-Haeng Baek,
            Texas A&M University
Control of Particulate Emissions From High Rise Layer Barns Using a Biocurtain
            TM A. J. Heber, T. T.Lim, J-Q. Ni, P.C. Tao, R. Chervil, A. Longman,



                                                                                     7
          Purdue University
                                      Session 4B
                                 Moderator: Al Sutton
The Re-Cycle System for Hog Waste Management
          J.B. Koger, R.P. Burnette, T.A.T.G.van Kempen, North Carolina State
          University
Belt System for Manure Removal
          Mark Rice, Craig Baird, Frank Humenik, John Classen, Sarah Liehr, Kelly
          Zering and Eric van Heugten, North Carolina State University
Managing Potential Pollutants from Livestock Farms: An Economics Perspective
          Kelly Zering , North Carolina State University
Performance of Geotextile Tubes with and without Chemical Amendments to Dewater
          Dairy Lagoon Solids
             Thomas M. Bass, John Worley, University of Georgia; and Ted Tyson,
          Auburn University
Development of Environmentally Superior Technology in North Carolina: The Super Soil
          Project
          B. Vanotti, A.A. Szogi, P.G. Hunt, A.Q. Ellison, P.D. Millner, ARS,
          Florence, S.C.; Frank J. Humenik, North Carolina State University
10:00 – 10:30 a.m.                        Break (Posters)
10:30 – Noon
                                      Session 5A
                              Moderator: Ron Sheffield
Reducing Soil Phosphorus Buildup from Animal Manure Application
          Gerald W. Evers, Texas A&M University
Liquid Animal Manure Application on Drained Cropland: Preferential Flows and
          Concerns
          James J. Hoorman, Ohio State University
Management Manure & Manure Treatment Plant: The Farm School Of Murcia
          University's Veterinary Science Faculty
          J. Mtnez-Almela, A. Muñoz Luna, J. Barrera; SELCO MC. Advanced
          Engineering, Castellón, Spain
Phosphorus Removal on Dairies in the Pacific Northwest



                                                                                       8
           Ron Sheffield, University of Idaho; Joe Harrison, Washington State
           University; Keith Bowers, Multiform Harvest, Inc.


                                        Session 5B
                               Moderator: Todd Applegate
Reduction of Ammonia Emission and Phosphorus Excretion In Laying Hen Manure
           Through Feed Manipulation
              E. Carroll Hale, Rose Acre Farms, IN
Nutritional Means to Lower Trace Mineral Excretion from Swine and Poultry Without
           Compromising Performance
           J. L. Pierce, Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY
Feasibility versus Practicality of Phosphorus Reduction in Poultry: Progress and Future
           Needs
           T.J. Applegate, Purdue University; R. Angel, University of Maryland
Long-Term Studies of Nitrogen Balance in Broiler Production
           J.B. Carey, C.D. Coufal, C. Chavez and P.L. Niemeyer, Texas A&M
           University
                                        Session 5C
                                Moderator: John Classen
Inorganic Phosphorus Forms and Extractability in Anaerobically Digested Dairy Manure
           Kerem Gungor and K.G. Karthikeyan, University of Wisconsin - Madison
Partnership for Abating Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Farms Using a Logic Model to
           Build Consensus and Joint Work
           J. Mark Powell, USDA-ARS Dairy Forage Research Center, Madison,
              Wisconsin; Richard Klemme, Timm Johnson, and Ellen Taylor-Powell,
           University of Wisconsin Cooperative Extension; Larry Bruss, Wisconsin
           Department of Natural Resources; and Thomas Misselbrook, Institute of
           Grassland and Environmental Research, Devon, UK
Challenges in Implementing Phosphorus-Based Nutrient Management Planning
           Douglas Beegle, Penn State University; Andrew Sharpley, USDA-ARS
           PSWMRU; Jennifer Weld, USDA-ARS PSWMRU; Peter Kleinman,
           USDA-ARS PSWMRU
Engineering an Innovative Bioreactor with the Existing Lagoon System for Dairy
           Wastewater Treatment/Reuse – A Pilot Plant Study


                                                                                          9
          Eulsaeng Cho and P.Y. Yang, University of Hawaii


Noon – 1:30 p.m.         Lunch - On Your Own
Noon - 1:30 p.m. National Center Board of Directors Meeting


                                 Moderator: Don Jones
1:30 – 2:00 p.m.
Methodological Challenges to a Systems Approach to the Management of
          Animal Residuals
          Brent Auvermann, Texas A&M University
2:00 – 3:30 p.m.
                                      Session 6A
                             Moderator: Phil Westerman
Effects of Straw, Sawdust and Sand Bedding on Dairy Manure Composting
          Frederick C. Michel, Jr., Harold M. Keener, Jerome Rigot, Tom
          Wilkinson and John Pecchia, Ohio State University
Alternative Policy and Technologies for Manure Management on Wisconsin Dairy Farms
          J. Mark Powell, USDA-ARS; Daniel McCrory, University of Wisconsin-
          Madison; Douglas Jackson-Smith, Utah State University
Interim Final Technical Guidance for the Application of CAFO Manure on Land in the
          Winter
          Stephen M. Jann, US EPA, Region 5
Determinants of the Adoption of Manure Management Practices by Livestock Farmers in
          the Midwest
          Jennifer Nunez and Laura McCann, University of Missouri-Columbia


                                     Session 6B
                             Moderator: Suzy Friedman
National Dairy Environmental Stewardship Council Final Report - Recommended Dairy
          Manure Management Practices
          Kristen Hughes, Sustainable Conservation; Suzy Friedman, Environmental
          Defense, Art Darling, Sunshine State Milk Producers, Ann Wilkie,
          Associate Professor, University of Florida



                                                                                      10
Feeding High Moisture Corn Instead of Dry Rolled Corn Reduces Odor Production in
           Finishing Beef Cattle Manure Without Sacrificing Performance
           S.L. Archibeque, H.C. Freetly, D.N. Miller and C.L. Ferrell, USDA-ARS
           NB
Odor, Dust & Gaseous Emissions from Open-Lot CAFOs: Southern Great Plains
           John M. Sweeten, TAES-Amarillo; David Parker, WTAMU; Brent
           Auvermann, TCE/TAES-Amarillo; Andy Cole, USDA-ARS; Calvin
           Parnell, BAEN, TAMU; Ronaldo Maghirang and J. Pat Murphy, KSU;
           and Ben Weinheimer, Texas Cattle Feeders Association
Manure Concentrations of N, P, Animal Performance, and Blood Urea Nitrogen
           Concentrations of Feedlot Steers Phase Fed Different Levels of Protein
           L.W. Greene, and J.T. Vasconcelos, TAES
3:30 – 4:00 p.m.                 Break (Posters)
4:00 – 5:30 p.m.
                                        Session 7A
                                 Moderator: Mark Risse
Influencing Manure Management Decisions: Extension Implications from a Producer
           Survey
           Jessica G. Davis, Dana L. Hoag and Michael G. Lacy; Colorado State
           University
Using EMSs to Improve Compliance on Livestock and Poultry Operations
           Mark Risse, University of Georgia; Rick Koelsch, University of Nebraska;
           Elizabeth Bird, University of Wisconsin
Lake Okeechobee TMDL – Technologies & Research
           John C. Folks, Florida Department of Agriculture
Applying Alternative Technologies to CAFOs: A Case Study
           Carol Balvanz, Iowa Cattlemen; John George, Agricultural Engineering
           Associates; Rick Koelsch, University of Nebraska; John Nienaber, USDA
           ARS; Ralph Summers, US EPA, Region 7


                                       Session 7B
                                Moderator: Mark Powell
Evaluation of the Survivability of Fecal Coliform in Soil after Winter Application of



                                                                                        11
               Dairy Slurry on a Transitional-Organic Grazing-Based Dairy
               T.D. Nennich, J.H. Harrison and D.L. Davidson, Washington State
               University
   Development of an Economically and Environmentally Responsible Technique for
               Decommissioning Anaerobic Swine Waste Lagoons
               C.L. Baird, J.M. Rice, D.W. Hazel, L. Licht, F.J. Humenik; North
               Carolina State University; Ecolotree, Inc.; Nash County Center,
               North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service
   Understanding Manure Management Behavior on Wisconsin Dairy Farms: Lessons from
               Recent On-Farm Research
               Douglas Jackson-Smith, Utah State University; J. Mark Powell, USDA-
               ARS; and Daniel McCrory , University of Wisconsin-Madison
   5:30 p.m.                 Adjourn, Dinner - On Your Own
   FRIDAY, JANUARY 7, 2005
   7:00 – 8:00 a.m. Registration/Continental Breakfast
                                             Session 8
                  Strategies for Continued Funding for a National Science Center
                                   for Sustainable Animal Systems
                                   Moderator: Frank Humenik
   8:00- 8:30 am - North Carolina State University Perspective – Johnny Wynne, Dean,
               College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, North Carolina State University
   8:30 – 9:00 am – Discussion
   9:00 – 9:15 Break – Poster/Exhibit Room
                                             Session 9
                                   Moderator: Frank Humenik
   Stakeholder Perspectives for Continued Funding for a National Coordination of Sustainable
Animal Production/Waste Management Systems
   9:15 – 9:35 a.m. - Carrie Tengman, Director, Environmental Services, National
                      Pork Board
    9:35 – 9:55 a.m. - Roberta Parry, EPA Office of Water, Agricultural Policy
                      Specialist
    9:55 – 10:15 a.m. - Richard Hegg, National Program Leader, CSREES
   10:15 – 10:35 a.m. - Tamara Thies, National Cattleman's Beef Association


                                                                                           12
10:35 – 10:55 a.m. - Eugene DeMichele, Water Environment Federation
10:55 – 11:15 a.m. – Doug Goodlander, Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture
11:15 - 11:35 a.m. - Robynne Anderson, President, Issues, Inc.
11:35 - 11:55 a.m. - David Bossman, President, American Feed Industry Association
11:55 – Discussion
                         Symposium Adjournment




                                                                                    13
S1000 Business Meeting Attendees (Appendix B)
Name                             Institution
Evers, G.                        Texas A&M University
Bickert, B.                      Michigan State University
Lacewell, R. (Admin. Advisor)    Texas A&M University
Applegate, T.                    Purdue University
Powers, W.                       Iowa State University
Burns, R.                        University of Tennessee
Mukhtar, S.                      Texas A&M University
Bundy, D.                        Iowa State University
Newton, L.                       University of Georgia
Keener, H.                       The Ohio State University
Classen, J.                      North Carolina State University
Fontenot, J.                     Virginia Polytechnic and State University
Zhu, J.                          University of Minnesota
Jacobson, L.                     University of Minnesota
Auvermann, B.                    Texas A&M University
Westerman, P.                    North Carolina State University
Risse, M.                        University of Georgia
Koelsch, R.                      University of Nebraska
Karthikeyan, K.G.                University of Wisconsin, Madison
Yang, P.Y.                       University of Hawaii
Wilkie, A.C.                     University of Florida
Davis, J.                        Colorado State University
Koger, J.                        North Carolina State University
Boyd, B.                         NRCS
Smith, M.C.                      USDA/ARS/BARC/ANRI
Simmons, O.D. III                University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill
Rozum, M.A.                      USDA, CREES
Sutton, A.                       Purdue University
McConnell, L.                    USDA/ARS
Grove, J.H.                      University of Kentucky
Name           Institution
Hubbard, B.    USDA/ARS
Szogi, A.A.    USDA/ARS, Florence, SC
Wang, L.       North Carolina State University
Hamilton, D.   Oklahoma State University
Abawi, F.      University of Guam
Tyson, T.W.    Auburn University
Cho, E.        University of Hawaii
Schrock, B.    US-EPA
Powell, M.     USDA/ARS




                                                 15
Project Objectives
   1. Develop management tools, strategies and systems for land application of animal manures
and effluents that optimize efficient, environmentally friendly utilization of nutrients and are
compatible with sustained land and water quality.
   2. Develop, evaluate, and refine physical, chemical and biological treatment processes in
engineered and natural systems for management of manures and other wastes.
    3. Develop methodology, technology, and management practices to reduce odors, gases,
airborne microflora, particulate matter, and other airborne emissions from animal production
systems.
    4. Develop and evaluate feeding systems for their potential to alter the excretion of
environmentally-sensitive nutrients by livestock.
Justification and Need
    The need for advanced science and technology in animal waste management continues as
social and regulatory pressures for safe food and clean environment increase. The regulatory
climate around animal production has changed drastically in the past five years. A great deal of
activity has occurred at the state and local levels on regulations and/or restrictions to control
livestock and poultry production facilities, as well as the management of waste materials from
those facilities. Following the announcement of the Clean Water Action Plan (CWAP) by
President Clinton and Vice President Gore in February of 1998, EPA and USDA jointly
developed and published Unified National Animal Feeding Operation (AFO) Strategy in March
of 1999. The Strategy calls for AFO owners and operators to take actions to minimize water
pollution from confinement animal facilities and the land application of manure. To accomplish
this goal, the Strategy established a national performance expectation that all AFOs should
develop and implement technically sound, economically feasible, and site-specific
comprehensive nutrient management plans (CNMPs) to minimize impacts on water quality and
public health. Coordinated research, technical innovation, and technology transfer and increased
data coordination are among the seven strategic issues that should be addressed to resolve
concerns associated with AFOs. Extending and expanding the concerted and collaborative
research effort of the investigators involved in the regional research project will ensure that the
strategic issues are being addressed in a timely and effective manner. Special efforts are planned
to include economists, microbiologists and others to integrate the component solutions into
strategies that are sustainable for US farms.
    Nearly all the manure from AFOs in the US is currently land-applied (CAST 1996); in order
to sustain production while protecting the environment, increased resources are needed to
develop and transfer technologies to producers. Specific needs are in the areas of site specific
land application; effective manure handling and treatment systems for modifying and improving
the properties of animal manure for optimal nutrient utilization; animal diet modifications for
reducing excretion of nitrogen, phosphorous, and other environmentally sensitive chemical
elements; crop system selection to best use the manure nutrients; and reducing nitrogen loss via
ammonia volatilization. A holistic watershed approach needs to be taken to manage the nutrients
from various sources including animal manure to prevent adverse impacts on surface and ground
water quality (USDA 2001). The development of equipment to quickly determine nitrogen and


                                                                                                16
phosphorus contents of soils and manures, and then accurately change application rates, is
essential to make it possible to supply manure to meet the crop needs (Gilley and Risse 2000).
    Advanced and cost effective technologies are needed to explore the uses of manure as raw
materials for value-added products, such as feed, fuel, and chemicals (Parker 2000). The fate and
transport of pathogens, hormones and other constituents from manures to the various parts of
food chain will require intensive research. Innovative approaches are needed to avoid the
contamination of foods with effluents from animal production facilities (CAST 1996).
    The airborne pollutants from livestock and poultry facilities offend many rural residents,
making it difficult for farmers and homeowners to coexist. Additionally, the air quality within
facilities can have adverse health effects on workers (Thu 1995). Methods are needed to
objectively measure the gaseous and particulate pollutants, and then to reduce emissions from
facilities. Improved animal facility design, manure treatment technologies and management
practices are needed to minimize the generation and emission of odors, gases and particulates
from AFOs (Miner 1995).
    The institutions and individuals participating in the proposed MRF have demonstrated the
capabilities to address all the needs listed. Major benefits of the multistate cooperation will be in
obtaining and comparing results from a broad geographic area, representing different climates,
cropping systems and types of production management.
Related, Current and Previous Work
    A CRIS search revealed only three regional projects closely related to the proposed
replacement project: NCR-183, Utilization of Animal Manure and other Organic Residues in
Agriculture, with a termination date of 9-30-01; NE-132, Environmental and Economic Impacts
of Nutrient Management on Dairy Forage Systems, whose objectives are to study dairy forage
systems primarily in the northern states; and NCR-189, Air Quality Issues Associated with
Animal Facilities, with a termination date of 9-30-01. The more than 1800 individual projects
returned by a search on “manure”, “nutrient management”, and “waste treatment” revealed that a
large proportion of related projects are associated with the terminating project S-275 for which
this proposed project is a replacement; other projects around the US are largely complementary
and do not represent duplication of effort.
Land Application
     The emphasis on potential human health impacts of water runoff from land application sites
is relatively new, and projects across the nation have been initiated to study ways to curtail
movement of zoonotic pathogens and hormones into public drinking water supplies (Sheffield
2000). Work that complements the proposed multistate project includes the microbiology of the
major pathogens and rapid methods of pathogen detection and identification. The multistate
project will use laboratory and field scale experiments to evaluate movement of the pathogens
and best management practices for land application of manure and wastewater to minimize
impacts.
    Prototype variable rate manure spreaders for semisolid manure have been developed and
tested by two of the collaborating institutions. Further work is needed to devise variable rate
spreaders for slurry manure (CAST 1996).




                                                                                                  17
Manure and Wastewater Treatment
    While engineering solutions (such as the “package treatment plant”) to the manure problem
are widely sought by industry as well as academic institutions, the project participants realize the
value of a holistic approach to treatment that includes economics, byproduct utilization and
marketing, the use of low-technology sustainable systems, and gives attention to potential
negative environmental or societal impacts. During the last five years, US commodity prices
have put increasing pressure on producers raising financial risk for the adoption of new practices;
if manure and wastewater solutions are not realistically evaluated for their cost to producers, the
innovations will not be implemented. The project collaborators recognize and include the
extreme regional differences in goals and constraints for manure treatment systems, for example
Minnesota (cold winters and substantial land availability) versus Hawaii (mild weather but
extremely restricted land base).
    Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment have been evaluated over the past ten years
(USEPA 1988). Changes in societal acceptance of wastewater irrigation systems make the
development of wetlands a very attractive alternative. Some success is reported, however more
work is needed to determine the optimum designs, loading rates, plant species etc. to make
constructed wetlands applicable for a wide range of performance in wastewater treatment for
confined animal production. The multistate project will enable wetlands results representing a
wide range of climates and plant species to be compiled into a comprehensive design guide
useful to a large geographic area.
    Anaerobic and aerobic digesters are being studied in several locations (Chynoweth et al
1998). While the biological mechanisms of large-scale anaerobic and aerobic treatment are now
fairly well known, the complexity and expense of systems has prohibited their widespread use.
Effort is being concentrated on devising economical, robust systems applicable to small to
medium sized farm operations, particularly swine and dairy. Economical digesters would play
an important role in energy supplies, odor reduction and manure handling on farms (Moser and
Roos 1997).
    Much work has been and continues to be done on economical separation of liquid and solid
fractions of dairy and swine manure (Zhang and Westerman 1997), since such treatment would
potentially reduce costs, make available value-added manure marketing strategies, reduce
manure odors, etc.
Air Quality
    Much has been learned in the past ten years about air sampling, about health issues related to
work inside facilities, and about characterization of odorous and particulate emissions
(Auvermann et al. 2000). New concerns are now surfacing about greenhouse gas emissions from
confinement facilities, manure storages, and land application areas. Several multiyear projects
within the existing S-275 project are measuring ammonia emissions from buildings and land
application areas. The multistate effort will address conditions across the US, looking at coastal,
semiarid, and temperate climates. Emphasis will be on best management practices and low-cost
technologies for reducing emissions of those gaseous and particulate constituents currently
identified as of most concern.




                                                                                                 18
Feeding Strategies
    A result of the worldwide attention given phosphorus pollution in surface waters is the recent
development of synthetic phytase and low-phytate corn and soybeans (Koelsch et al 2000).
While the feed industry and plant breeders are making great strides in developing these
ingredients, and the technology looks very promising as a way to reduce phosphorus loading on
surface waters, an integrated approach is needed to evaluate the overall impact of these
developments and possible side benefits.
    Another high priority nationwide is dietary manipulation to reduce odors and ammonia
volatilization from livestock and poultry manure (Auvermann et al. 2000).
    Several of the institutions in the existing project S-275 have long term experiments
evaluating sustainable forage systems that utilize animal manure, spread mechanically and/or
under grazing management, as the primary source of fertilizers. The systems are being
extensively modeled to determine optimum forage species, loading rates, runoff characteristics
and best management practices.
References
    Auvermann, B.W., B.W. Shaw, and R.G. Maghirang (eds). 2000. Air pollution from
agricultural operations. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Air Pollution from
Agricultural Operations, Des Moines, IA. ASAE, St. Joseph, MI.
   CAST. 1996. Integrated Animal Waste Management. Council for Agricultural Science and
Technology. Task force report, ISSN 0194-4088; no. 128. Ames, IA
    Chinuyu, A.J., and R. S. Kanwar. 2001. Effects of poultry manure application on the
leaching of NO3-N to subsurface drainage water. In, Preferential Flow, Water Movement and
Chemical Transport in the Environment, Proc. 2nd Int. Symp. 3-5 January 2001, Honolulu,
Hawaii, USA. ASAE, St. Joseph, Michigan: 701P0006. pp. 269-272.
   Chynoweth, D.P., A.C. Wilkie, and J.M. Owens. 1998. Anaerobic processing of piggery
wastes: a review. ASAE Paper No. 984101. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St.
Joseph, MI.
   Gilley, J.E. and L. M. Risse. 2000. Runoff and soil loss as affected by the application of
manure. Transactions of the ASAE. 43(6): 1583-1588.
    Koelsch, R.K., C.T. Milton, D.E. Reese, R. Grant. 2000. Model for estimating manure
nutrient excretion from animal nutrient balance. In, Proceedings of the 8th International
Symposium on Animal, Agricultural And Food Processing Wastes, Des Moines, IA. ASAE, St.
Joseph, MI. pp. 103-110.
   Miner, J.R. 1995. An executive summary; a review of the literature on the nature and
control of odors from pork production facilities. Prepared for the National Pork Producers
Council, Des Moines, IA.
    Moser, M.A. and K.F. Roos. 1997. AgSTAR program: three commercial-scale anaerobic
digesters for animal waste, making a business from biomass. Proceedings of the 3rd Biomass
Conference of the Americas, R.P. Overend and E. Chornet, editors, 1997, Elseveir Science Inc.,
Tarrytown, NY.



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   Parker, D. 2001. Demonstration of biogas production using low moisture content beef cattle
manure. Final report, Western Regional Biomass Energy Program, Grant No. 55008. Lincoln,
NE
    Sheffield, J. (ed.) 2000. Evaluation of comprehensive approaches needed to improve the
handling of farm animal manure and benefit the environment and the farming industry. Joint
Institute for Energy and Environment, Knoxville, TN. JIEE Report 2000-07, August 2000.
   Thu, K. (ed.). 1995. Understanding the impacts of large-scale swine production.
Proceedings from an interdisciplinary scientific workshop, June 29-30, 1995, Des Moines, IA.
The North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, Des Moines.
   USDA. 2001. Confined animal production and manure nutrients. Resource Economics
Division, Economic Research Service, US Dept. of Agriculture. Agriculture Information Bulletin
No. 771.
  USEPA. 1988. Design manual – constructed wetlands and aquatic plant systems for
municipal wastewater treatment. EPA/625/1-88/022.
   Zhang, R.H., and P.W. Westerman. 1997. Solid-liquid separation of animal manure for odor
control and nutrient management. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 13(5):657-664.




                                                                                               20
2004 Summary of Progress by Objective and Task
Objective 1
   Develop management tools, strategies and systems for land application of animal manures
and effluents that optimize efficient, environmentally friendly utilization of nutrients and are
compatible with sustained land and water quality.
Task 1.1. Methods to reduce nutrient movement from land application sites into surface and
          groundwater.


   Reporting Scientists: G. Evers (U. TX-Overton)
   Project: Methods to reduce nutrient movement from land application sites into surface and
ground water.
    Combining commercial nitrogen fertilizer with broiler litter on an annual ryegrass-
bermudagrass hay meadow, enhanced forage growth and phosphorus uptake and reduced the
buildup of soil phosphorus. Substituting a legume (crimson clover), that can remove nitrogen
from the air, for the annual ryegrass, resulted in a similar reduction of soil phosphorus without
the expense of nitrogen fertilizer.
    Impact: Using commercial nitrogen fertilizer or a legume in combination with the
application of animal manure to hay meadows can reduce the buildup of soil phosphorus and
thereby limit the movement of phosphorus to surface water that can cause environmental
problems.

   Reporting Scientists: H.M. Keener, M. Brugger, D.L. Elwell, F.C. Michel Jr., J. Rausch, L.
Zhao, W. Dick, J. Hoorman, L.B. Willett (Ohio State University)
   Project: Preferential Flow.
    Workshop "Liquid Animal Manure Application on Drained Cropland: Preferential Flow
Issues and Concerns" was held in Columbus, Ohio. Goals were to (1) integrate state guidelines
for mitigating liquid manure discharges from artificially drained cropland into regional
guidelines; (2) identify/prioritize research needs related to the downward movement of animal
manure on artificially drained cropland; and 3) identify/prioritize extension and outreach needs
related to manure application and pollution of water resources. Workshop participates
recommended regional guidelines for drained fields include: a)monitoring outlets/inlets;
b)matching manure application rates with soil infiltration rates, water-holding capacity of the
soil, and crop/soil nutrient needs; c)not applying manure when subsurface drains are flowing;
d)avoid applying manure to flood prone fields; e)adjust application rates to environmental
conditions and ability of the soil to store and utilize manure nutrients (based on nitrogen and
phosphorous); and f)apply manure at a uniform rate and volume to avoid ponding and manure
runoff. Research areas prioritize were: a)pathogen transport and fate; b)soil preferential flow
characteristics; c)manure management and application equipment; d)total manure characteristics
(% solids, viscosity, nutrients, pathogens, color); and e)developing liquid manure testing
methods and sensors. Prioritize extension activities included: a)developing simple rules for
manure application and management; b)requiring producer certification/education for manure


                                                                                                    21
application; c)developing web based fact sheets and video clips/photographs of demonstrations
for preventing manure runoff; d)promoting partnerships with agencies and animal industry; and
e)educating agency personnel on manure runoff issues.
    Runoff Studies. Skalak, et al. (2004) presented results from 2003 effluent studies on runoff
from a composting pad using a rainfall simulator (Norton Ladder Design equipped with 6-Veejet
80150 nozzles set at a pressure of 6 psi to give 2 in/hr rainfall). Runoff constituents measured
were total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N),
phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) from dairy cow manure/sawdust composting in windrows.
Initial values for the compost were moisture content of 70, 54 and 64% for the 100, 25 and 5
year storm events, respectively. Initial C/N ratio was 36 and N concentration 1.3% for each test.
The 5 year test implemented a fleece compost cover. Results showed chemical concentrations in
runoff were higher for compost with higher moisture content, 70% vs. 64%. K was the major
nutrient at approximately 1/6 the concentration of TDS. Use of a compost cover lowered
concentrations of pollutants in the runoff significantly (31% for 25 year storm to 97% for 100
year storm). In 2004 runoff studies investigated composting ages of 0, 15 and 30 days on
effluent concentrations. Compost was a dairy manure/sawdust mix (3:1 w/w) and the storm event
was 2 in/hr for 1.5 hrs. Results showed the NH3-N lost was 0.35%, 0.28%, 0.21%, P lost was
0.23%, 0.29% and 0.19%, and K lost was1.07%, 1.57%, 1.17% of initial amounts in compost at
1,15 and 30 days respectively (3 replicates for eact treatment). Results also showed a)water
runoff from composting dairy manure/sawdust mix increases with compost age, b)concentration
of most nutrients decreases in runoff with age, but total amounts showed no definite trend up or
down, and c) the full-scale rainfall simulator provides only a limited data base for predicting
runoff parameters for design of waste treatment facilities for outside composting. Future studies
are needed to look at BOD of runoff , nutrients in runoff from sequential rain events and the
effect of sand or biological filters at edge of composting pad on nutrients in runoff. Also work
should focus on developing a model for predicting runoff parameters for different compost
mixes.
   Impact:
    • Prevent pollution of bodies of water from land applied liquid manure. Workshop will
lead to development of guidance document on management practices that can mitigate
preferential flow.
    • Prevent pollution of bodies of water. Runoff studies will provide data on expected
nutrient loading rates in effluent from an outside composting site. Information important in
design of appropriate treatment structures for controlling runoff nutrients from composting sites.

   Reporting Scientists: J. P. Fontenot and G. Scaglia (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State
University)
   Project: Long-term application of broiler litter to pasture.
        During eight years research was conducted to study the relative efficiency of recycling
nutrients in broiler litter by feeding and soil application to pastures. Each year approximately
2,000 kg of broiler litter per hectare were fed to steers or applied to the soil. Inorganic fertilizer
was applied to supply equivalent amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Over eight
years, there has been a gradual increase in soil phosphorus on pastures in which litter was fed or


                                                                                                    22
applied and inorganic fertilizer was applied. This past year no litter was fed or applied and no
fertilizer was applied. The change in soil phosphorus is being monitored with cattle grazing the
pastures. Usually, daily gains were lowest for cattle in pastures on which litter was not fed or
applied and inorganic fertilizer was not used. This trend continued during the past year when
litter was not fed and litter and fertilizer were not applied. An experiment was conducted to
study the effects of feeding different levels of digestible intake protein (DIP) and oscillating two
levels of DIP every 48, 72 and 96 hours. Feeding DIP at 60, 80 and 100 percent of the
requirements did not affect daily gain and feed efficiency. Oscillating 60 and 100 percent of the
DIP requirements did not affect performance, compared to feeding these protein levels every 24
hours.
    Impact: Utilization of poultry litter by feeding cattle on pasture would avoid applying
excessive amounts to the soil. Improvements in nitrogen utilization by feeding certain DIP
levels or oscillating protein levels may lower excretion of nitrogen and subsequently reduce
amounts of nitrogen in lakes and streams.


Task 1.2. Quantify gaseous emissions into the air from land application sites.


   Reporting Scientist: John J. Meisinger (USDA-ARS-Beltsville, MD)
Project: Quantify gaseous emissions from land application):
The dry deposition of ammonia near a 120-cow dairy barn was measured over corn using the
micro-meteorology method of relaxed eddy accumulation. This method estimates the flow of
ammonia onto a unit area of crop surface by sampling the atmospheric concentrations in the
updraft and downdraft motions of the atmosphere as it passes over the corn canopy. The
ammonia in the gas phase were separated using annular denuders followed by Teflon filterpacks
which trapped the particulate phase. The largest emissions of ammonia were observed several
days after fertilizing a young stand of corn with urea-ammonium-nitrate (UAN) fertilizer, total
losses were about 2% of the total N applied. Ammonia measurements over a fully developed
corn canopy showed periods of both deposition and emission that were consistent with a plant
ammonia compensation point of 2 micro-grams per cubic meter of air. The deposition velocity
for ammonia over fully developed corn for all the daytime studies averaged 5.6 cm per second,
which is consistent with the assumption of a near-zero surface uptake resistance for corn leaves.


Impacts: Ammonia emissions from agriculture are an emerging issue. Our results show that
ammonia emissions from a shallow injection of UAN fertilizer amounted to about 2% of the total
N applied. A corn canopy can be either a source, or a sink for atmospheric ammonia. If
atmospheric ammonia-N is above 2 micro-grams per cubic meter the corn absorbed ammonia, if
they were below this value the corn plant emitted ammonia. These data are valuable for
scientists and modelers as they develop an understanding of how ammonia cycles between the
atmosphere and a growing crop, and to policy makers as they evaluate strategies to manage the
fate of ammonia emitted from agriculture.




                                                                                                  23
Task 1.3. Reduce movement of zoonotic pathogens from land application sites.


Task 1.4.    Improve accuracy of manure land application in accordance with best management
            practices for nutrient planning.


   Reporting Scientists: Ted Funk, Prasanta Kalita, Yuanhui Zhang, Michael Ellis (UIUC)
    Project: Improve accuracy of manure land application in accordance with best management
practices for nutrient planning
    An Extension team has worked with commercial manure haulers to identify a low cost
system for as-applied mapping of manure application in crop fields. A manual of forms and
instructions for enabling Illinois producers to fulfill NPDES permit requirements was developed
    Impact: Approximately 1,000 Illinois livestock producers now have a reporting and
recordkeeping tool, the Illinois Manure Management Plan Workbook, that will help them come
into compliance with the new Federal CAFO NPDES regulations.

Objective 2
   Develop, evaluate, and refine physical, chemical and biological treatment processes in
engineered and natural systems for management of manures and other wastes.


Task 2.1. Develop and evaluate innovative applications of engineered biological treatment
          processes to stabilize waste, reduce odor, and manage nutrients.


   Reporting Scientist: P.Y. Yang and E.S. Cho (U. Hawaii)
   Project: Anaerobic EMMC (Entrapped Mixed Microbial Cell) reactor for dairy wastewater
    A pilot plant including two 10 m3 of anaerobic bio-nest reactors with 3.8 m3 of anaerobic
EMMC (Entrapped Mixed Microbial Cell) reactor has been installed and operated in a dairy farm
in order to determine a set of design and operation criteria for potential integration of existing
anaerobic lagoon wastewater treatment/reuse systems. Starting up and evaluation of engineering
design/operation of these bioreactors are in progress.
    Impact: Milk parlor wastewater can be treated and reuse properly via current investigation of
integrating innovative bioreactor with the existing anaerobic lagoon wastewater treatment
system. If successful, most of the dairy farmers in the U.S will be able to integrated their existing
lagoon system to achieve the friendly agricultural production and environmental protection
system

   Reporting Scientists: P.W. Westerman, J. Cheng, J.J. Classen (NC State University)
   Project: Engineered Biological Treatment Processes
   1. Ambient temperature in-ground anaerobic digester (Cheng):


                                                                                                  24
    A full-scale integrated system of ambient-temperature anaerobic digestion, trickling filter
nitrification, and greenhouse tomato production has been evaluated for swine wastewater
management at Barham Farm, a farrow-to-wean swine operation with approximately 4,000 sows
in Zebulon, NC. Organics destruction efficiency was over 92% and average biogas production
rate was 1,383 ft3/h with average methane content of 63.7% in the anaerobic digester in 2003.
The trickling nitrification biofilters achieved as high as 90% nitrification efficiency. Average
tomato production was 1010 lb/day during the production period.
   2. Mesophilic anaerobic digestion (Cheng):
    A mesophilic anaerobic digestion of swine wastewater has been investigated in lab- and
pilot-scale. Floating plastic Ballast rings were used as a medium. Hydraulic retention time (HRT)
was relatively short (10 and 5 days). Removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and volatile
suspended solids (VSS) was 65% and 70%, respectively. Methane yield was 0.23 m3/kg COD
removed.
   3. Anaerobic and intermittent aeration treatment (Cheng):
     Intermittent aeration (IA) process has been investigated for nitrogen removal from
anaerobically pre-treated swine wastewater (APTSW) that contains a high concentration of
ammonium and a low COD/N ratio. Nitrogen removal from the APTSW was achieved through
nitrification and denitrification in a single reactor that was operated with alternation of aeration
and non-aeration at room temperature (23oC). Aeration created an aerobic environment for
nitrification, while non-aeration provided an anoxic condition for denitrification. The IA process
was optimized with different Aeration:Non-Aeration (ANA) ratios. The HRT and solid residence
time (SRT) for the reactors were 3 and 20 days, respectively. Over 90% ammonium was
removed in IA reactors.
   4. Nutrient recovery from wastewater using duckweed (Cheng):
    Nutrient recovery from swine wastewater by growing duckweed has been studied in lab- and
pilot-scale. Three duckweed strains (Spirodela punctata 7776, Lemna gibba 8678, Lemna minor
8627) were identified for their high capacity of nutrient uptake from swine wastewater. These
duckweed strains have been tested for their performance of N and P removal from synthetic and
real swine lagoon liquid under controlled conditions in a laboratory chamber and field conditions
in outdoor tanks. The duckweed has shown a good capability to grow in and to remove N and P
from synthetic and real swine lagoon liquid with high N and P levels. The highest observed
duckweed growth rate was close to 29 g/m2/day in both conditions. Mathematical models have
been developed to describe the duckweed nutrient uptake process.
   5. Upflow aerated fixed media biofilters (Westerman):
    Performance evaluation was completed for the Ekokan® Biofiltration Treatment System
treating flushed waste from about 4,300 finishing pigs. Various problems prevented consistent
operation of the system during fall and winter seasons, but the aerated biofilters demonstrated
potential for greater than 90 % reduction of ammonia in spring season, resulting in relatively
high concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen in biofilter effluent. The overall reduction of
total nitrogen concentration during spring season was about 10 – 20 %. Continuous aeration of
the biofilters resulted in an energy use of about 2,100 kWh/d.
   6. Environmental Renewal Technology ammonia removal system (Westerman):



                                                                                                   25
    Performance evaluation was completed for the Environmental Renewal Technology
ammonia removal system with main components of a stripping tower and condenser. The
ammonia stripping of swine lagoon liquid at pH about 11.2 resulted in about 30 % ammonia loss
through the tower, but only about 1 % of the loss was recovered in the condensate.

   Reporting Scientists: G. L. Newton, University of Georgia, Tifton, GA
     Progress: For the system evaluating a solids removal, anaerobic digestion, and hydroponic
filtration of flushed dairy manure; the solids removal system is complete, the anaerobic digester
is complete except for insulation and gas storage, and perennial vegetation is being established in
the hydroponic trays. Annual crops will also be established in additional trays so that the full
system will be operational when the digester is put on-line.

   Reporting Scientists: James C. Converse, K.G. Karthikeyan, and Kerem Gungor (University
of Wisconsin-Madison)
  Project: Inorganic Phosphorus Forms and Extractability in Anaerobically Digested Dairy
Manure (K. Gungor and K.G. Karthikeyan)
    Effect of anaerobic digestion on P availability from dairy manure was investigated using two
inoculum-to-substrate ratios (ISRs) and two independent water extraction (serial vs. repeated
extraction) methods. Phosphorus extractability was affected only at low water volumes (low
water-to-manure ratios during extraction) and during the initial 2 repeated extraction steps. After
anaerobic digestion, water extractability of manure P increased by 40% at high ISR whereas P
extractability at low ISR decreased by 24-28%.
   Impact: Anaerobic treatment of dairy manure at a low ISR (e.g., 0.3) can provide added
benefits in terms of reducing off-site migration of P for the first few events after land application
and when low runoff volumes are generated.
   Project: Probable Phosphorus Solid Phases and Their Stability in Anaerobically Digested
Dairy Manure (K. Gungor and K.G. Karthikeyan)
    Chemical equilibrium modeling (with Mineql+) was used to elucidate the dominant inorganic
P solid phases in dairy manure and to determine their stability after anaerobic digestion.
Phosphorus solubility appears to be initially (low runoff volumes and first few runoff events after
land application) controlled by more soluble P solids phases, mainly struvite, after which (for
large and later runoff events) sparingly soluble Ca-phosphate phases exert their influence on P
release from anaerobically treated dairy manure.
    Impact: Anaerobic digestion did not significantly alter the nature of predominant inorganic P
solid phases in dairy manure.

   Reporting Scientist:        Dr. Ann C. Wilkie (University of Florida)
   Project: Evaluate fixed-film anaerobic digestion technology for treatment efficiency, odor
reduction and pathogen reduction of flushed dairy manure.
    Further studies were conducted on the application of fixed-film anaerobic digestion
technology for sustainable waste management at dairy farms. A full-scale fixed-film anaerobic
digester has been in continuous operation at the University of Florida since May, 2000.


                                                                                                   26
Research continued in characterizing the volume and concentration of flushed dairy manure after
mechanical separation and sedimentation, monitoring the biogas production levels and treatment
efficiency of the anaerobic digestion process, and evaluating pathogen destruction.
    Studies were conducted to evaluate nutrient removal by floating aquatic macrophytes
cultured in anaerobically digested flushed dairy manure wastewater. Studies were also
conducted to investigate the ability of benthic freshwater algae to recover nutrients from
anaerobically digested flushed dairy manure and to evaluate nutrient uptake rates and dry
matter/crude protein yields in comparison to a conventional cropping system.
    Impact: Fixed-film anaerobic digestion technology is especially suited to dilute wastewaters,
such as flushed dairy manure wastewater, allowing treatment at ambient temperatures and at
much shorter residence times (~3 days) compared to conventional technologies. Model
equations were developed to predict total COD levels in flushed dairy manure wastewater as a
function of fresh flushwater usage per animal unit, providing an important design parameter for
implementation of fixed-film anaerobic digestion systems. In addition, harnessing solar energy
to grow algal biomass or aquatic macrophytes on the digested effluent offers a potential solution
to recover nutrients and further improve water quality.

Task 2.2. Develop and evaluate vegetated or aquaculture-based treatment systems for treating
          wastewater or runoff from concentrated feeding operations or land application sites.


   Reporting Scientist: D.T. Hill (Auburn)
   Project: Long term Constructed Wetlands Treatment
    As information on the overall project, a two cell constructed wetlands treated poultry lagoon
effluent continuously for 10 years (1992 through 2002) at the Alabama Agricultural Experiment
Station’s Poultry Research Unit. This system consisted of three - two cell replications operated in
parallel so that a number of treatment options could be evaluated at the same time over the years.
Last year’s report stated that approximately 30,000 bits of data were involved in this 10 year
project. Actually, more that 37,000 data points have been tabulated. During 2004, continued
progress was made in converting about 15000 more of these data points from raw hand recorded
data into the final data for BOD, COD, NH3, alkalinity and PO4. Because no additional outside
money is available and graduate student programs are not authorized for the department at
Auburn, this progress has been slow. It is anticipated that this data analysis and reporting will
last at least one more year, and possibly into the next. This effort is still not at the stage that
warrants preliminary reporting at present.
        Impact: The analysis of the wetlands data for evaluation of the movement of nutrients in
the soil and accumulation of nitrogen and phosphorus around and below the wetland cells
provides the only such analysis over a ten year period in the U.S. using poultry waste. This data
also includes the actual treatment parameters used to determine the efficiency of the wetlands
system in pollution control and abatement over a ten year period.

   Reporting Scientist: R.K. Hubbard (USDA-ARS, Tifton, GA)




                                                                                                27
    a. The potential for using overland flow vegetated buffers to utilize N and P from swine
lagoon wastewater is being evaluated at a commercial hog producer (Southern Select) located
near Tifton, GA.
    The producer has an inventory of around 2500 hogs at all times. A grass buffer (coastal
bermudagrass [Cynondon dactylon L. Pers “Tifton 85”) 10 m in width was planted upslope of a
mature forest on the south side of a stream and upslope of land planted to cotton on the north
side of the stream. Each plot on the south side is 61 m in width and total length (grass buffer
plus mature forest ) ranges from 98 to 133 m. On the north side of the stream the land in cotton
was planted to pines during the summer of 1998. The experimental design for this study
involves 6 land areas including 2 controls, 2 areas receiving wastewater based on N content, and
2 areas receiving wastewater based on P content. N content of the wastewater averages about
300 mg/L, while P content averages about 30 mg/L. Wastewater is being applied with target
rates of 800 kg N/ha/yr for the areas receiving wastewater based on N content, and 100 kg
P/ha/yr for the areas receiving wastewater based on P content. There are 3 transects of ground
water wells per area and 4 well sites on each transect. These are sampled 2-3 times per year.
Soil samples are also collected on transect on an annual basis. All soil and water samples are
analyzed for N and P species. This project will conclude in 2005.
    b. A study is being conducted on the University of Georgia Ponder Farm in Tift Co., GA, to
determine the effectiveness of grass buffer strips in removing nutrients from surface runoff from
cotton receiving poultry litter.
    The parcel is divided into eighteen plots, which run up and down the slope. They are 45.6 m
in length and 6.4 m wide. Each plot, for the full 45.6-m length, is bounded by plastic borders
inserted into the soil to 0.15 m and extending to 0.15 m high above the soil surface. Borders
were installed to confine runoff within individual plot boundaries. The soil is Tifton loamy sand
with 2.0 to 3.0 % slope.
       The study is testing grass variety (Common Bermuda grass vs. Coastal Bermuda grass)
and buffer length (no buffer, ½ buffer length, or full buffer length). Plots are subdivided at their
midpoints on the lengthwise dimension. The upper half of each is reserved for cotton which
receives poultry litter at the rate of 2 ton/acre. The lower half of 9 plots each was sprigged with
Common Bermuda grass (Cynondon dactylon L. Pers.) or “Tifton 85” Bermuda grass on June
20, 2000. “Tifton 85” is a very productive hybrid with rapid and robust growth. It has excellent
value as a forage crop. Common Bermuda grass is indigenous to most field edges throughout the
Coastal Plain. It is less productive than “Tifton 85” but is easily established and may volunteer
spontaneously, minimizing establishment requirements.
        Plots within the two grass treatments were further subdivided by positioning runoff
collectors at the bottom edge of the cotton crop area, mid-way through the grass filter strips
(11.4-m) and at the bottom edge of the filter-strips (22.8 m). There are three plots of each type.
The overall experimental design consists of two grasses and three grass filter lengths, 0, 11.4,
and 22.8-m. Surface runoff collectors are located at each sampling position. Water samples are
collected after each runoff event and analyzed for N and P species. This project will continue
through 2007.
   c. A study was started in late 2003 involving winter cover crops, conservation tillage, and
application of composted municipal sludge on a Tifton loamy sand. The objective of the study is



                                                                                                 28
to determine the effects of the tillage, cover crop, and municipal sludge treatments on crop
yields, soil structure, soil carbon content, microbial biomass, and microbial respiration.
    The study is randomized complete block including conservation tillage, cover crops (Rye,
Crimson Clover), and composted municipal sludge on a sandy Coastal Plain soil at Tifton, GA.
The composted municipal sludge is from the city of Douglas, GA. This sludge has an N-P-K
rating of 3-3-3. Each plot is 5.5 m X 5.5 m and contains 3 beds 6’ wide. The experimental
design is a 2 X 2 X 2 factorial. The cropping system will be cash crop followed by cover crop.
The cash crops will include cotton and eggplant.
        We are measuring saturated hydraulic conductivity, bulk density, and soil moisture
retention on minimally disturbed soil samples collected three times each year from each plot.
The cores are collected using an impact type sampler which collects a soil core in a 7.6 cm
diameter by 7.6 cm height aluminum ring. The core samples are collected from each replicated
plot both between rows and within the row. Saturated hydraulic conductivity is measured by the
constant head method. Bulk density measurements are made as g cm-3 on oven dry cores. Soil
moisture retention is measured on the replicated cores using tempe cells. We are measuring
microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN) in the top 2 cm of soil four times per year using a
modification of the chloroform fumigation-extraction procedure described by Brookes et al.
(1985). The procedure involves extracting soil sub-samples with 0.5 M K2SO4 with or without
pre-treatment with ethanol-free chloroform to facilitate cell lysis. Chloroformed samples are
maintained in dessicators for 7 days at room temperature. Both sets of samples are filtered
(Whatman GF-F) and filtrates are analyzed for C on a Shimadzu TOC 5000 DOC analyzer.
MBC is set equal to the difference in the mass of C extracted from soil with and without
chloroform fumigation. An extraction efficiency of 0.35 as suggested by Voroney et al. (1991) is
assumed when calculating total MBC. MBN is determined from the same extracts using the in-
line total-N digestion procedure described by Lachat (QuikChem Method 12-107-04-3-B, Lachat
Instruments, Loveland CO). An extraction efficiency of 0.68 as suggested by Brookes et al.
(1985) is assumed when calculating total MBN. Sub-samples collected for microbial biomass
analyses are used to determine total soil C and N content on oven dried and ball-milled samples
using a Carlo Erba Model NA 1500 series 2 carbon-nitrogen analyzer. All data from the study
will be statistically analyzed using PROC GLM procedures (SAS, 1999) for factorial
experiments.
    d. A field test of the feasibility of using floating mats of vegetation on swine wastewater
lagoons is ongoing.
    A replicated tank study testing this concept was completed in 2002 (Hubbard et al., 2004),
and showed that plants can successfully grow and produce biomass in swine lagoon wastewater.
This study will be conducted on a single lagoon at Southern Select farm near Omega, GA.
Southern Select maintains an inventory of around 2500 hogs, with all wastes being flushed into a
single anaerobic lagoon.
        Platforms (1 m2) constructed of PVC pipe covered with chicken wire have been
constructed and various grass, wetland, and horticultural species are currently being tested for
survivability/growth rate in the swine wastewater lagoon at Southern Select Farm. In general,
tests so far indicate that grass species do better than wetland or horticultural species in the high
NH4-N, low oxygen (O2) environment found in the single anaerobic lagoon at Southern Select




                                                                                                   29
Farm. Once we determine which species survive and grow well in this environment, and the
frames are completely covered with vegetation, we will start the study.
         Biomass will be cut on an as needed basis from each set of replicated frames. The
floating mat frames, which are tied by rope to stakes on the side of the lagoon, will be brought to
land and the biomass will be hand harvested using landscape trimming equipment. The cut
biomass will be air dried, weighed, and then placed into replicated compost bins (55 gallon
garbage cans) for composting. When the composting process is complete, the material will be
dried and ground and analyzed for N, P, and K content. Value of the composted material as a soil
amendment will be tested in greenhouse pot studies on horticultural species (may include shrubs,
flowers, and vegetables). Plant growth rates, soil nutrient levels, and soil moisture retention of
the compost amended soil as compared to a control will be determined by the greenhouse study.
    e. A replicated field study determining N mineralization rates of poultry litter in Coastal
Plain soils is ongoing.
    The experimental design is one being used nationally by the ARS mineralization team. One
study on a sandy coastal plain soil was conducted at Tifton during 2004, and a second one on a
clayey soil will be conducted during 2005. Replicated soil cores (96) received poultry litter
which was incorporated into the top 4 cm of soil. The poultry litter was applied at a rate which
supplied 350 kg N per hectare furrow slice. At the bottom of each soil core a mesh bag
containing resin beads was installed to trap N species lost through leaching. Replicate cores
were removed at specified time intervals up to 90 days after incorporation of the poultry litter.
The soil was extracted for measurement of NO3-N, NH4-N, and total N content. The resin beads
were extracted for measurement of NO3-N and NH4-N. Results from this experiment will be
incorporated into the ARS mineralization team data base which includes multiple locations
throughout the U.S. and different animal manures (swine, poultry, dairy, and beef).

Task 2.3. Develop and evaluate physical and chemical treatments for recovering or stabilizing
          manure solids or manure treatment by-products for improved utilization alternatives.


   Reporting Scientist: D. Hill (Auburn)
   Project: Sludge Removal from Lagoons
    As expected, solids concentration will be greatest within the deepest sludge layers due to the
settling of particles over time. The particle size distribution of these solids shows that the larger
particles will also be found in the deepest sludge layers. These large particles are primarily due
to coagulation of the solids over the settling range. Due to the greater solids concentration, the
nitrogen, phosphorous, and COD concentrations will also be highest at the greatest sludge
depths. The solids, COD, phosphate, and nitrogen concentrations become approximately constant
in the upper 1.0m of the sludge layer. This constant concentration in the upper sludge layer is
due to the fact that little to no degradation of the waste takes place in these upper regions and the
concentration present will be proportional to the lagoon loading rate. Therefore, undiluted
sludge would have a higher agro-economic value, on a volume basis, due to the greater nitrogen
and phosphorous concentrations found in the deepest sludge.
         Impact: The data from the lagoon renovation project reports the analysis of the
stratification of the sludge layers in aged lagoons. The pollutional parameters (COD, nitrogen,


                                                                                                  30
phosphorus and solids) become concentrated greater in the lower sludge depths. The level of
these components also become approximately constant in the upper 1.0m of the sludge layer.
Therefore, undiluted sludge would have a higher agro-economic value, on a volume basis, due to
the greater nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations found in the deepest sludge.

   Reporting Scientists: D. Meyer (Univ. CA-Davis)
    Project: Two separate dairy facilities were studied. Evaluation of chemical and physical
composition of influent and effluent to a mechanical separator was conducted. Effluent from the
separator fed an anaerobic digestion cell designed for a 28 day residence time. Actual loading of
the digester system began in June and will continue. Baseline information of chemical
characteristics will be useful as this cell is studied over the next few years. Samples were taken
at one minute intervals from 06:30 to 09:00 (Jan 04; n=281). Mean (stdev) influent
concentration of total solids (TS) was 1.56 % (.49). Mean effluent TS was 1.49 % (.42). Flush
lane effluent was sampled, acidified, and analyzed for urea-N. Recoverable amounts of urea-N
existed (15 to 300 ppm). Minute sampling of an evening flush (April 04; n=200) had mean
result
mass, little impact was measured on TS loading rate to the anaerobic digestion cell.
    Physical and chemical composition of a dairy manure retention pond with commercial
“aerators” was analyzed. The pond was initially analyzed in 2002. Five locations in the first and
three locations in the second pond were sampled at the surface and at 1.5 m. In the first pond,
mean (stdev) redox and TS were –375 (1) and 1.2 (.2) for surface samples in the first pond and –
343 (25) and 3.7 (2.2) for 1.5 m samples. The pond had significantly more solids in 2004 (depth
approaching 3 m) than in 2002 (depth of 7.3 m).
    Impact: Delay in initial loading of the anaerobic digestion cell was due to bureaucratic
delays associated with the electric company. Significant hurdles existed resulting in numerous
delays and costly unnecessary expenditures for the dairy operator. This digester will continue to
be monitored for nutrient mass balance and well as solids decomposition.
    The “commercial aerator” did not yield anaerobic results. Data clearly indicate that potential
benefits of the technology are not from making the liquid material aerobic or by keeping material
in suspension.

   Reporting Scientists: L. D. Jacobson, K.A. Janni, P.R. Goodrich, D.R. Schmidt, J. Zhu,
(Univ. MN)
   Project: Dairy Milkhouse Wastewater Treatment
    The objective of this project, lead by Kevin Janni, is to evaluate and demonstrate effective
techniques and/or systems to reduce environmental pollution from dairy milkhouse wastewater
and disseminate the results to dairy producers in Minnesota. Several different systems have been
developed for treating milkhouse waste for medium sized dairy farms in Central and Southeast
Minnesota are being demonstrated in cooperation with the Natural Resource Conservation
Service (NRCS).
    Impacts: This will help designers, NRCS staff, and dairy producers identify treatment
systems that perform reliably, meet environmental regulations, fit their management practices,
and are economical to install and operate.


                                                                                                 31
   Reporting Scientists: L. D. Jacobson, K.A. Janni, P.R. Goodrich, D.R. Schmidt, J. Zhu,
(Univ. MN)
   Project: Advancing Utilization of Manure Methane Digester Electrical Generation
    This objective of this multi-year project, lead by Philip R. Goodrich, is to evaluate the
feasibility of fuel cell/microturbine and Sterling engine technology and identify compatible
waste streams from an operating anaerobic digester using an internal combustion engine to
generate electricity on a Minnesota dairy farm. A fuel cell/microturbine has been installed on the
farm and is being brought on line along with the existing engine.
    Impacts: The environmental benefits of methane digester technology are outstanding and
include: 1) reduced odors and emissions, 2) the nutrient properties of the digested manure are
enhanced, which also reduces potential for pollution to waters, and 3) reduced reliance on fossil
fuels as an energy source. Taken all together, this results in the livestock operation becoming a
more sustainable venture.

   Reporting Scientists: P.W. Westerman, J. Cheng, J.J. Classen (NC State University)
   Project: Stabilizing or Recovery of Solids
   1. BEST Solutions, LLC Solids-Liquid Separation Systems and Solids Combustion
(Westerman):
    Performance evaluation was completed for Biomass Energy Sustainable Technology (BEST)
of two different solids/liquid separation systems installed on swine farms. The two solids/liquid
separation systems consisted of: (1) a screw-press separator (FAN® Separator (USA), Inc.)
followed by tangential flow gravity-settling tanks (TFS system) (QED Occtech of Australia), and
(2) a screen and screw-press separator (Filtramat ™ separator made by Denitral of France and
marketed in North America by Environgain of Quebec, Canada) followed by the TFS system.
The separated solids collected from the FAN and Filtramat separators each averaged about 30 %
dry matter, and averaged about 10 % recovery of total solids. Recovery of TKN and TP were
low for both systems, averaging 1 to 4 %, reflecting relatively low recovery from flushed swine
manure with 0.5 to 1 % total solids. Separated swine solids and turkey litter were transported to
Energy Products of Coeur d’Alene, Idaho (EPI) for combustion tests in a fluidized bed pilot-
scale facility.
   2. Environmental Renewal Technology Centrifuge system (Westerman):
    Performance evaluation was completed for Environmental Renewal Technology Centrifuge
system for flushed swine manure and swine lagoon sludge, with and without chemical
amendments. Without chemical amendments, the centrifuge removed 40 % to 50 % of
suspended solids, 60 % of phosphorus, and 20 to 25 % of nitrogen. Adding a coagulant and a
flocculant increased removal to 85 % for suspended solids and phosphorus and 45 % for
nitrogen. The centrifuge cake had 30 % total solids, and averaged 0.75 % nitrogen and 1.0 %
phosphorus (wet basis).
   Impacts: The demonstration and evaluation of alternative swine manure treatment systems
provides information on treatment effectiveness, reliability, and operational requirements. Other
teams of researchers will also provide economics and measurements of odor, pathogens and


                                                                                                32
ammonia emission for the farm-scale projects. This information will allow more complete
evaluation of alternative systems to improve manure management and byproduct utilization, and
reduce environmental effects to air and water.
    The project at Barham Farm has received considerable attention for its energy production,
ammonia, odor and methane emission prevention, air quality improvement, struvite formation
prevention, and nutrient utilization for value-added product. The project was one of three farms
featured in an article in the March 2000 issue of Wildlife in North Carolina entitled "A Cleaner
Hog Industry" as examples of alternatives to the current lagoon system. In October 2002, it was
singled out as a tour location for the SARE National Conference. In June 2003, it became the
only technical tour site for the WEF Anaerobic Digestion Summit Conference. The research
project on growing duckweed to recover nutrients from anaerobically pretreated swine
wastewater has also received considerable recognition. Published papers have been sought by
domestic and international agricultural and environmental researchers. The pilot-scale system at
NCSU Lake Wheeler Road Field Laboratory has attracted many visitors from U.S. and abroad.
The duckweed system has a great potential as a low-cost, environmentally-friendly technology
for nutrient recovery from pretreated livestock wastewater. The intermittent aeration (IA) process
would also provide a promising alternative for N removal from anaerobically pretreated animal
wastewaters. The findings of dominant microorganisms and optimal conditions in the IA process
are significant contributions to the fundamental understanding of the process. The process is
highly efficient and very useful to the animal farms with limited cropland.

Task 2.4. Develop and evaluate biological or thermochemical treatment of animal manures for
           conversion into value-added products.


   Reporting Scientist: Ted Funk, Prasanta Kalita, Yuanhui Zhang, Michael Ellis (UIUC)
   Project: Develop and evaluate biological or thermochemical treatment of animal manures for
conversion into value-added products
   Scale-up and commercialization efforts are underway to enable the thermochemical
conversion of swine manure solids to crude oil product, for added swine production profitability,
energy independence, and environmental quality.
    Impact: Thermochemical conversion of swine manure solids to a crude oil product was
brought closer to commercial reality this year, as the process is now well understood thanks to
extensive laboratory studies; and materials-handling issues are all that stand between the
laboratory scale and farm scale implementation.

   Reporting Scientists: H.M. Keener, M. Brugger, D.L. Elwell, F.C. Michel Jr., J. Rausch, L.
Zhao, W. Dick, J. Hoorman, L.B. Willett (Ohio State University)
   Project: Computer modeling and optimization
    General composting research focused on aeration temperature control strategies. Previous
studies for aeration strategies (one-directional airflow, one-directional airflow with recirculation,
reversed-direction airflow, and reversed-direction airflow with recirculation) published by Ekinci
et al., 2004a. Studies on location of thermocouple(s) to control aeration fans to maximize rate of
decomposition for composting systems were done. Results were developed by simulating system


                                                                                                  33
performance using a two-dimensional finite difference numerical model of the composting
reactor and a two-component first-order kinetic model of decomposition. Results showed that
thermocouple locations significantly affected dry matter loss and energy usage of the system and
that dry matter loss is higher in the middle layers than outer layers when the thermocouple sensor
is placed in the middle layers. Additionally, results showed controlling the temperature at 60 C
requires less energy than controlling the temperature at 50 C (Ekinci et al., 2004b,c; Keener,
2004b).
    Horse Manure: Studies on composting horse manure and a commercial cardboard bedding,
based on full scale, pilot, and simulation experiments done. Chemical, physical, and kinetic data
on composting materials were summarized. Results showed a compost mix of 20.5 kg horse
manure and 4.3 kg bedding had desirable chemical and physical properties for composting. At
the start of the composting process moisture content was 56% and C/N ratio was 33. On day 90,
moisture content was 48% and C/N ratio 17.3. From the full-scale studies with non-aerated
windrows the compost mix was shown to compost without odor. Sizing of composting system
for various horse stable sizes were done using a computer simulation program that incorporated
the pilot scale kinetic data. Composting pad for a 1000 head horse stable found to be 0.33 ha
based on a composting time of 180 days, 28 days windrow composting and 152 days curing.
Compost generated by the facility would be 5.0 t/day at 44% moisture (Keener et al., 2004).
    Dairy Manure: Straw, sawdust and sand bedded dairy manures amended with either sawdust
or straw was composted on multiple occasions (n=4). Results showed that starting windrow
volumes for straw amended composts were 2.1 to 2.6 times greater than for sawdust windrows.
Straw amended composts had lower initial bulk densities and temperatures, higher free air space
values (75-93%), and near ambient interstitial oxygen concentrations during composting as
compared to sawdust amended composts. Sand bedding resulted in greater compost densities,
less weight loss and >50% more final compost on a per cow basis. All sawdust-amended
composts self-heated to >55°C within 10 days and met pathogen reduction guidelines. However,
none of the straw-amended or sand bedded sawdust amended composts met the guidelines. All of
the composts were stable after 100 days and exhibited manure volume and weight reductions
relative to the initial manure. Initial compost C:N ratios ranged from 25:1 to 50:1 and the manure
nitrogen lost during composting ranged from 2% to 38%. There was a negative correlation
between initial compost C:N ratio and nitrogen loss (R2=0.59). An initial C:N ratio of greater
than 40 resulted in nitrogen losses less than 10% during dairy manure composting with all three
bedding types.(Michel et al., 2004,a,b).
    Disease: Study done to compare the persistence of naturally occurring pathogens [Salmonella
spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Mycobacterium avium subsp.
paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of Johne’s disease] during the treatment of dairy
manure by three different commonly used methods; thermophilic composting (55 C.), manure
packing and liquid storage. A comparison was also done between straw and sawdust
amendments used for composting and packing. Manure was obtained from the alleyway of a
large Ohio free stall dairy farm that naturally contained the species described above. The manure
was further inoculated with 106 CFU MAP. For compost and pack experiments, 6.5 kg of the
manure was amended with 1.5 kg of sawdust or straw to give a moisture content of 60% ideal for
composting or packing. One kg aliquots of these mixes were added to 4-liter compost reactors
and incubated at 25 or 55 C in triplicate. For liquid storage, 2.6 kg of water was added to 10.3 kg
of manure (to simulate liquid flushing and storage) and placed in 4-liter Erlenmeyer flasks in


                                                                                                34
triplicate. The treatments were sampled on days 0, 3, 7, 14, 28 and 56 and analyzed for the
presence of the pathogens described above by standard methods and for MAP by PCR product
hybridization assay based on the MAP specific IS 900 integration site. Detection levels were less
than 20 cells/gm. Chemical, physical and biological properties of the samples were also
determined. Results indicated that E.coli, Salmonella, and Listeria were not detectable after 3
days of thermophilic composting but that they persisted up to 28 days in liquid manure and
sawdust pack. MAP was detected by standard culture only on day 0 in the compost and pack
treatments, but was detectable through day 28 in the liquid storage treatment. However, MAP
DNA was detected through day 56 in all treatments. A quantitative analysis is underway to
define MAP loads in each treatment (Michel et al., 2004a)
    Value added products: Stability guidelines for utilization of composts prepared from dairy
and swine manures in potting mixes were developed. Demonstration trials with composted hog
and dairy manures incorporated into container media and field trials with composted dairy
manure underway. Two growth trials were done with composted horse manure/cardboard
bedding (hm/cb) as an amendment in soilless horticultural mixes. A cucumber bioassay
recommended by the US Composting Council was followed. Results determined seventy days of
composting in windrows, and a hm/cb compost amendment rate of 20 percent (i. e. a potting mix
containing 20 % compost, 50 % peat and 30 % Perlite,v/v) was most suitable for production of
cucumber plants if a fertilization rate of 200 ppm N was utilized (Wilkinson et al., 2004).
   Impacts:
    a. Reduced cost of composting animal manures. Studies have documented effects of
controllable factors on kinetics of process, enabling engineers to reduce facility and operating
cost of compost systems. Showed low airflow, regardless of composting system configuration,
was main factor to minimize energy usage, yet achieve a specific rate of decomposition.
Developed Excel computer simulation models of composting process enable farmers to optimize
design and management of facilities, to minimize cost of treatment and enable better
management of composting process.
    b. Reduced cost of manure management, transporting nutrients offsite. Studies on dry matter
and water loss during composting allow economic analysis to be made on process cost and cost
of transporting nutrients offsite. Showed through composting farmers can reduce the volume and
weights of material to be hauled by 50 to 80 % based on equivalent nitrogen values of the
stabilized compost as compared to unamended, uncomposted dairy manure removed from the
barn.
   c. Reduced N losses during composting of animal manure. Composting dairy
manure/amendment mix with C/N above 40 reduces N losses significantly.
    d. Added value to manure compost. Identified and showed through plant growth studies
potential markets and value of composted manure and improve opportunities for coordinated
growth of Ohio’s livestock, nursery and other green industries.

   Reporting Scientists: G. L. Newton, University of Georgia, Tifton, GA
   Project: Soldier fly manure digestion




                                                                                               35
    Adding a layer of foam “packing peanuts” to the surface of a black soldier fly (Hermetia)
culture, swine manure basin was initially successful in allowing larvae to prosper during cold
weather (larval metabolic heat maintained basin at 10-15 C above ambient), but the material
broke down after 3-4 weeks. Two manure basin liquid removal systems were tested under two
pens of six pigs each, where larvae collections were 0.214 kg/pig/day for treatment 1 and 0.153
kg/pig/day (P<.03) for treatment 2 (including the first 4-5 weeks when the larvae population was
being established and essentially no prepupae were collected). Equivalent prepupal collections
would equal to 64,000 kg/year for a 1,000 head finishing house having 2.5 turns of pigs/year. In
laboratory tests, several odorous compounds were either eliminated or greatly reduced when
Hermetia larvae were added to swine manure.
    Impact: The potential impact of using black soldier fly to digest manure and produce a
valuable animal feed is significant, and the demonstration of the potential for Hermetia larval
culture to reduce swine manure odor shows additional benefits for the system.

Objective 3
    Develop methodology, technology, and management practices to reduce odors, gases,
airborne microflora, particulate matter, and other airborne emissions from animal production
systems.


Task 3.1. Develop standard methods of collection, measurement, and categorizing or reporting
          of airborne emissions (odors, gases, particulates, endotoxins, pathogens, and other
          materials) from animal production operations.


   Reporting Scientists: L. D. Jacobson, K.A. Janni, P.R. Goodrich, D.R. Schmidt, J. Zhu,
(Univ. MN)
   Project: Aerial Pollutant Emissions from Animal Confinement Buildings
    The objective of this multi-state, multi-year, federally-funded (IFAFS) project is to measure
air emissions (continuously NH3, H2S, CO2, PM10 and bimonthly values of odor) over the span
of a year from six animal housing systems (pig farrowing, gestation, and two different pig
finishing buildings as well as chicken layer and broiler facilities) that are located in six different
states. Data collection ended in 2004 and analysis of the results are in process.
   Impacts: Information from this research will provide producers, technical assistance
providers, regulators, and compilers of emission inventories at county, state, and federal levels
with accurate information that is consistent with rigorous environmental protection requirements
and rural socioeconomic needs.

   Reporting Scientists: L. D. Jacobson, K.A. Janni, P.R. Goodrich, D.R. Schmidt, J. Zhu,
(Univ. MN)
   Project: Particulate Matter (PM10), Hydrogen Sulfide, Ammonia, and Odor Emissions from
Minnesota Pig Farrowing Facilities




                                                                                                    36
    The objective of this project, led by Larry Jacobson, is to determine dust (PM10), ammonia,
hydrogen sulfide, and odor emissions from deep-bedded and conventional pig farrowing
facilities in Minnesota. Emission data was collected four farrowing cycles from the fall of 2003
to the summer of 2004.
    Impacts: Air emission data from conventional housing (slatted floor) and alternative housing
(deep-bedded) farrowing facilities is needed to provide swine producers in the state with
information for decision-making purposes on the type of facilities to build and if these units will
conform to state and federal air emission standards.

Task 3.2. Determine short and long term impacts of airborne emissions from animal production
          units.


   Reporting Scientists: Saqib Mukhtar, TAMU-College Station
   Project: Measurement of ammonia emissions from dairies.
    During the summer of 2004, using dynamic surface isolation flux chambers at an openlot
dairy, ammonia emissions were measured from different ground level area sources (GLAS)
namely drylots, feeding and watering areas, manure alleys, milking and crowding areas and
lagoons. The data collected were processed to assess relative ammonia emissions from these
sources during summer (high temperature, humidity)
    Impact: Ammonia emissions data from open lot and hybrid (freestall and openlot) dairies
will provide vital information on relative magnitude of ammonia emissions from various sources
on a dairy during warm and cold temperatures. This information will assist with developing
BMPs to reduce and control ammonia emissions from dairy operations.

   Reporting Scientists: : L. D. Jacobson, K.A. Janni, P.R. Goodrich, D.R. Schmidt, J. Zhu,
(Univ. MN)
    Project: Evaluation and implementation of OFFSET (Odor From Feedlots-Setback
Estimation Tool) in selected Minnesota counties
    The objective of this project, led by Larry Jacobson, was to evaluate the OFFSET (Odors
from Feedlot Setback Estimation Tool) method in five Minnesota counties (Carver, Nicollet,
Stearns, Steel, and Winona). Analysis of the data from 309 observations were compared with the
model.
   Impacts: The OFFSET tool remains one of the few useful tools by local government
agencies to assist in the development of setback distances for new or expanding livestock and
poultry facilities. These results will aid in the improvement and use of OFFSET and other tools
used to establish objective setback distances between animal production sites and local residents.

   Reporting Scientists: : L. D. Jacobson, K.A. Janni, P.R. Goodrich, D.R. Schmidt, J. Zhu,
(Univ. MN)
   Project: Air Quality from (Animal) Housing Units




                                                                                                37
    The objective of this project, led by Larry Jacobson, is to measure downwind concentrations
of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and odor from a pig finishing site for evaluation of air dispersion
models that can predict the downwind transport of these two airborne contaminants from a pig
production site H2S and odor concentrations were monitored at distances of 100 and 200 meters
from building in October of 2003 continuously for approximately 30 days using existing MDA
single point monitors while H2S and odor emission were also made during this 30-day
monitoring period.
    Impacts: Results of this project will be used to develop and improve existing odor and H2S
setback estimation tools that can be used by county and state officials to establish science-based
setback distances from neighbors and property lines to meet existing state statues.

   Reporting Scientists: : L. D. Jacobson, K.A. Janni, P.R. Goodrich, D.R. Schmidt, J. Zhu,
(Univ. MN)
   Project: Development of Dispersion Models for Determining Setbacks for Animal
Production Sites Based on Hydrogen Sulfide and Odor
    The common goal of three separate projects, led by Larry D. Jacobson U of MN, Steve Hoff,
Iowa State, and Dennis Schulte, U of NE, is to develop air dispersion models methods or tools
that predict downwind concentration of odor and hydrogen sulfide and evaluate these tools with
measurements of these same airborne contaminants from actual pig housing facilities. Several air
dispersion models, including AERMOD and CALPUFF, have been identified for use to simulate
downwind conditions from selected simulated farms.
    Impacts: Current methods for assessing this potential require individual, site-specific
computer modeling that is often cost prohibitive to many producers. With the current economic
challenges associated with animal agriculture, a low cost, high quality assessment tool is vital for
the maintenance and growth of the country’s livestock industry.

   Reporting Scientists: R.E. Sheffield (Univ. Idaho)
    Project: To quantify the emission rate of gases from manure storage and treatment
basins/lagoons on various confined animal feeding operations in southern Idaho.
    A wind tunnel and continuous SOx and NOx chemiluminescence analyzer system was
installed on a 1,800-head open-lot dairy (7.7 acre wastewater basin) in Jerome, Idaho. Flux
                                                                                    2
rates, between August 26 and Septembe                                                 -s for NH3
and H2S, respectively, equating to an average emission rate, from the 7.7 acre basin, of 602 and
45 pounds/day of NH3 and H2S, respectively. Winter emissions testing of wastewater basin and
open lot study during February and March, 2005.
    Impact: Studies conducted by the University of Idaho during 2003 and 2004 have been
insurmountable in assisting the Idaho Agriculture Odor Advisory Committee in developing a
realistic and effective odor management program for agricultural odors in Idaho.

Task 3.3. Emission control technology development and selection for site-specific cases.

   Reporting Scientists: Ted Funk, Prasanta Kalita, Yuanhui Zhang, Michael Ellis (UIUC)



                                                                                                 38
   Project: Emission control technology development and selection for site-specific cases.
    Innovative moisture control devices and strategies were developed for biofilters used in the
treatment of odorous ventilation air from livestock structures.

   Reporting Scientists: W. Powers (ISU)
   Project: Nitrogen Excretion and Ammonia Emissions from Pigs Fed Reduced Crude Protein
Diets or Yucca Extract
    Two experiments were conducted to quantify the effects of dietary strategies on NH3
emissions of growing-finishing pigs. In Exp 1, nine pigs (initial BW = 47 kg) were fed corn-
soybean meal diets fortified with no amino acids (17.4% CP), Lys (17.0% CP), or Lys, Met, Thr,
and Trp (14.5% CP). In Exp 2, nine pigs (initial BW = 41 kg) were fed the Lys diet with 0, 62.5
or 125 ppm of yucca extract (Alltech®). Two gilts and one barrow were allocated to each of
three indirect calorimeters. Four 1-wk feeding periods, with new diets assigned weekly,
consisted of a 4-d dietary adjustment followed by 72 h of continuous NH3 measurement from
chamber exhaust. Pigs and feed refusals were weighed, urine and fecal samples collected, and
manure pits cleaned after each period. Feed intake (FI) and gain (ADG) were measured each
period. Diets, urine, and fecal samples were analyzed for TKN and NH3-N concentration. In Exp
1 and 2, diet had no effect on FI, ADG, or feed efficiency (P > 0.05). In Exp 1, TKN in feces
(3.97, 3.93, 3.72%; P < 0.001) and urine (1.10, 0.94, 0.93%, P = 0.04) decreased with decreasing
dietary CP. Fecal NH3-N decreased with decreasing dietary CP (0.47, 0.47, 0.42%, P = 0.01)
while urine NH3-N increased (0.10, 0.10, 0.20%, P < 0.001). Weekly NH3-N emissions were
22.25, 19.22, and 11.85 g (± 8.87 SEM; P > 0.05). The fraction of excreted TKN emitted as NH3
during the week was 1.68, 1.52, and 0.91% (± 0.60 SEM; P >0.05). In Exp 2, there was a
significant linear response to increasing yucca content for urine NH3-N (0.14, 0.13, 0.11%, P =
0.05). Fecal TKN (3.59% ± 0.06 SEM), fecal NH3-N (0.48% ± 0.03 SEM), urine TKN (0.94% ±
0.07 SEM), NH3-N emissions (12.02 g ± 2.81 SEM) and the fraction of excreted TKN emitted as
NH3 during the week (1.20% ± 0.24 SEM) were not affected by diet (P>0.05). Reducing diet CP
and including NH3-binding agents can be effective in reducing N content of excretions and NH3
emissions.

   Reporting Scientists: W. Powers (ISU)
   Project: Management Strategy Impacts on Ammonia Volatilization from Swine Manure

    The objective of this study was to measure the potential for reduction in ammonia
volatilization from swine (Sus scrofa domestica) manure by temperature control, stirring,
addition of nitrogen binder (Yucca) or urease inhibitor (NBPT), segregation of urine from feces,
and pH modification. Swine manure (total solids (TS) 7.6-11.2%, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN)
3.3-6.2 g/L, ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N) 1.0-3.3 g/L) was stored for 24, 48, 72, or 96 h in 2-L
polyvinyl chloride vessels. The manure was analyzed to determine pre- and post-storage
concentrations of TS and volatile solids (VS), TKN, and NH4+-N. The concentration of
accumulated ammonia-N (NH3) in the vessel headspace, post-storage, was measured using
Dräger grab sample tubes (Dräger Safety Inc., Pittsburgh, PA). Headspace NH3 concentrations
were reduced 99.3% by segregation of urine from feces (P < 0.0001). Stirring and NBPT (152
μL/L) increased headspace NH3 concentration (119 and 140%, respectively). Headspace NH3
concentration increased by 2.7 mg/m3 for every 1°C increase in temperature over 35°C. Slurry


                                                                                                   39
NH4+-N concentrations were reduced by segregation (78.3%) and acidification to pH 5.3 (9.4%),
and increased with stirring (4.8%) and increasing temperature (0.06 g/L per 1°C increase in
temperature over 35°C). Temperature control, urine-feces segregation, and acidification of swine
manure are strategies with the potential to reduce or slow NH4+-N and NH3 volatilization.

   Reporting Scientists: : L. D. Jacobson, K.A. Janni, P.R. Goodrich, D.R. Schmidt, J. Zhu,
(Univ. MN)
    Project: A field-scale surface aeration system to control manure odor from open storage
facilities
    The objective of this project, which is managed by Dr. Jun Zhu (Zhuxx034@umn.edu) at the
University Minnesota Southern Research and Outreach Center (SROC) at Waseca, was to
demonstrate on an existing manure storage unit the odor reduction capability of a surface
aeration unit consisting of a venturi air injector and a two-horsepower centrifugal pump.
    Impacts: It is desired that upon completion of this project, a practical aeration unit affordable
to swine producers will become available for use in controlling odor from open manure storage
facilities.

   Reporting Scientists: : L. D. Jacobson, K.A. Janni, P.R. Goodrich, D.R. Schmidt, J. Zhu,
(Univ. MN)
   Project: A bench-scale aeration study using batch reactors on swine manure stabilization to
control odor in post treatment storage
    The objective of this project, lead by Dr. Jun Zhu (Zhuxx034@umn.edu), is to investigate the
effect of short-term aeration treatment on manure stabilization and reduction in odor generation
potential based on the analysis of characteristics of organic materials, nitrogen, and VFA during
the 90-day post-treatment storage.
    Impacts: The project is aimed at promoting the use of advanced wastewater treatment
techniques in treating animal wastewaters. Aeration cost can be minimized when odor-free
storage after aeration is maximized. The results from this study will provide information that can
be used to optimize aeration operations.

   Reporting Scientists: : L. D. Jacobson, K.A. Janni, P.R. Goodrich, D.R. Schmidt, J. Zhu,
(Univ. MN)
   Project: Partial Biofiltration of Swine Exhaust Air to Maximize Odor Reduction Potential
    The objective of this project, led by Kevin A. Janni, is to monitor H2S, NM3, and Odor
emissions from a biofiltered barn while varying the airflow rates from the wall and pit exhaust
streams. Semi-continuously emissions of H2S and NH3 weekly odor samples were collected
over a four week period in August and September of 2004.
    Impacts: This information will be helpful when providing biofilter design recommendations
to animal producers to maximize their odor reduction from the biofilter building or storage.

   Reporting Scientists: H.M. Keener, M. Brugger, D.L. Elwell, F.C. Michel Jr., J. Rausch, L.
Zhao, W. Dick, J. Hoorman, L.B. Willett (Ohio State University)


                                                                                                  40
    Project: Emissions from livestock facilities: Research has focused on emissions from caged
layer systems, swine facilities, dairy facilities and VOC emissions during composting of swine
and dairy manures. A comprehensive air quality survey was conducted on six Ohio animal farms
[swine finishing with deep pit, swine farrowing with manure lagoon, swine finishing with
manure lagoon, two free stall dairies and one poultry layer farm.] Air quality spatial distribution
inside and outdoors were studied over cold, warm, and hot seasons. Swine buildings had the
highest level of odor compared with manure storage lagoon, poultry and dairy. Management of
ammonia and particulate emissions were the major challenges for the poultry industry. Manure
holding ponds of large dairies presented their major air emission source. A wet scrubber, based
on results of modeling, is being developed to control dust and ammonia emissions from poultry
laying facilities. Early results of a particulate impaction curtain for reduction of dust emission
from poultry layer houses (5 months) gave dust removal efficiency of 33% to 49% (Sun et al.,
2004; Zhao et al., 2004a,b).
    Emissions during composting: Previous studies on odor control when composting dairy
manures were analyzed using a mixed model ANOVA. Anaerobic aging greatly enhanced the
concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOC)s in manures. Composts that were
maintained aerobically had rapid declines in concentrations of VOCs with 98 to 100% eliminated
within a week. Excessive aeration of composts did not enhance VOC destruction and increased
VOC and ammonia emissions. Generally emissions of VOCs from closed composting vessels
represented less than 0.25% of the VOC odorants in the initial compost mixes (Elwell et al.,
2004). This suggested that the majority of the VOCs quantified were utilized by, rather than
emitted from, the composting mass.
   Impacts:
    a. Generated baseline information on air quality at Ohio animal facilities. Results will help
resolve the rising air quality issue based on scientific finding. The data will also help regulatory
agency develop proper regulation on air quality and air emission from animal feeding operations.
    b. Mitigation technologies evaluated and developed will help livestock industry to abate air
emission and sustain environmental stewardship effectively while maintaining profitability and
sustainability of the productions.
   c. Showed processing fresh dairy manure will require less odor management than aged
manure (1 day vs. 10 day).
   d. Showed aeration during composting results in destruction of odorous compounds (95-
100%) by day eight. Biofilters are only needed for short period of times in properly managed
compost facilities.

Reporting Scientists: Objective 4
   Develop and evaluate feeding systems for their potential to alter the excretion of
environmentally-sensitive nutrients by livestock.
Task 4.1. Develop and evaluate strategies to reduce phosphorus excretion from livestock.


   Reporting Scientist: W. Powers (ISU)



                                                                                                 41
   Project: Use of Low-Phytate Soybean Meal to Reduce Phosphorus Excretion in Swine

    A feeding study was conducted to determine the amount and forms of P excreted by swine
that are fed low-phytate (LP) soybean meal alone and with supplementary phytase. A secondary
objective was to determine if the use of low-phytate soybean meal alone or with supplementary
phytase had any adverse influence on weight gain and feed efficiency. All diets were formulated
based on non-phytin phosphorus. Findings demonstrated no dietary effects on animal
performance. Incomplete excreta analyses show that pigs fed the low-phytate soybeans excreted
less P than pigs fed normal-phytate soybeans. Inclusion of phytase into the LP diets further
reduced total P excreted. The fraction of total P excreted in the form of water-soluble P was
unchanged by diet. This and similar is essential for determining the economic value of low-
phytate soybean meal to swine producers, which in turn will determine the demand for low-
phytate varieties and the amount of resources public and private breeders should invest in
breeding varieties with the trait.

   Reporting Scientist: G. Cromwell (Univ. KY)
   Project: Use of low-phytate feedstuffs and phytase to reduce phosphorus excretion.
   Have assessed the effects of feeding diets containing low-phytate corn and low-phytate soybean
meal without and with added phytase on utilization and excretion of phosphorus by pigs and chicks.
    Impact: Improving the dietary P utilization by non-ruminant animals (swine and chickens),
reduces the excretion of P in their manure, which has important environmental implications.

   Reporting Scientists: G. Cromwell (Univ. KY)
   Project: Model estimates of phosphorus requirements and excretion for swine.
    Have determined the maintenance and accretion rates of phosphorus in whole empty body of
pigs from 20 to 120 kg body weight in order to develop mathematical models to estimate
phosphorus requirements and excretion.
   Impact: The development of mathematical models now allows for more accurate estimates of P
needs and P excretion of growing-finishing pigs.

   Reporting Scientists: A. Sutton (Purdue University)
   Project: Low-nutrient excretion diets and wheat bran on emissions from swine
    For studies were conducted with grow-finish (G-F) pigs (n=576) to determine the effects of
feeding corn SBM based diets (CTRL) or a low nutrient excretion (LNE) diet, formulated with
reduced CP plus synthetic amino acids, low phytic acid corn, and phytase on wean-finish growth
performance, manure generation and composition, building aerial ammonia emissions, and
carcass characteristics.
    In addition, a study was conducted with grow-finish pigs to determine the effect of LNE and
different levels of wheat bran (WB) (0, 5, 10, and 15%) in the diet on growth performance,
manure generation and composition, building aerial ammonia emissions, and carcass
characteristics. Nursery and G-F phase manure volumes, pH, and ammonium-N concentrations



                                                                                                42
were reduced by LNE diets. Aerial ammonia emissions were reduced 60% during the nursery
and 46% at wk 8 of the G-F phase by the LNE diet.
    Manure ammonium N (AmmN; DMB) concentration was decreased by 22.4% with WB
(P<.003). The LNE diets decreased (P<.003) stored manure total P (TP) concentration (as-is
basis) by 38% and TP excreted by 48.2% (4.25 vs. 2.2 g/d; P<.0001) when compared to CTL
diets. Dietary trts did not affect N and P digestibility. LNE diets reduced total AmmN excreted
by 35.5% (3.03 vs. 1.96 g/d; P<.002), fecal TP (5.61 vs. 3.67 g/d; P<.002) by 34.6%, and total
WSP (3.76 vs. 1.74 g/d; P<.0005) by 54%. Last rib and 10th rib backfat (TRBF) linearly
decreased as WB inclusion increased from 0 to 15% (P<.02). The LNE formulation tended to
increase ultrasound TRBF depths (P<.06), carcass loin depth (P<0.08), and carcass yield (P<.10)
compared to the CTRL diets. Inclusions of WB up to 5% of the diet improved pig ADG and
G:F, however, including 15% WB in finisher diets decreased growth performance. The inclusion
of 10% WB decreased N and AmmN excretion, but also decreased pig ADFI which may hinder
growth performance.
    Two studies were conducted to determine the effect of swine manure application on winter
wheat growth and nutrient uptake. Manure was added to soil on an N basis at 224 and 325 kg
plant available nitrogen (PAN)/hectare for Exp. 1 and 2, respectively. Manure treatments
yielded greater wheat growth than the negative control (0 added PAN) and positive control (325
kg PAN from (NH4)2SO4) while also increasing plant tissue N and P content. Manure from pigs
fed WB had minimal effects on wheat growth.
    Impact: Feeding pigs a low nutrient excretion (LNE) diet with reduced CP and phosphorus,
supplemental synthetic amino acids, low phytic corn and phytase sustained productive pig
growth and carcass characteristics, while reducing nutrient excretion (ammonium N, 35.5%; P,
34.6%; water soluble P, 54%) and ammonia emissions (48 - 60%). Manure from pigs fed LNE
and different levels of wheat bran when applied to soil seeded with wheat sustained wheat
growth and increased plant tissue N and P content. Implementing these feed formulation and
agronomic strategies will reduce the impact of the pork industry on the environment, sustain
pork production, and help provide an optimal whole farm nutrient balance for the pork operation

   Reporting Scientists: T.J. Applegate (Purdue University)
   Project: Effects of copper source and concentration on phytate phosphorus hydrolysis by
Phytase in vitro
    Higher concentrations of copper (Cu) in the diet may decrease phytate phosphorus (PP)
hydrolysis because of the chelation of Cu with the phytin molecule. Different sources of Cu may
affect the activity of phytase at different pH conditions. Therefore, five Cu sources (Cu sulfate
(Cu Sul), Cu chloride (Cu CL), tri-basic copper chloride (TBCC), Cu lysinate (Cu Lys) and Cu
citrate (Cu CIT) ) were studied in vitro at pH 2.5, 5.5 and 6.5 to determine how Cu from each of
these sources affects PP hydrolysis by phytase. Five Cu concentrations were used for these
studies (0, 62.5, 125, 250 and 500 ppm), and were incubated at 40-41 0C for 60 min. The values
were expressed by the relative percentage of PP hydrolysis of the 0ppm Cu treatment from
separate assays. At pH 2.5, 500 ppm Cu Sul inhibited PP hydrolysis (P≤0.05), whereas, both 250
ppm and 500ppm Cu from Cu CL inhibited PP hydrolysis. No concentrations of Cu from TBCC,
Cu Lys, or Cu CIT inhibited PP hydrolysis. At pH 5.5, addition of either Cu Sul or Cu CL
between 62.5 and 500 ppm inhibited PP hydrolysis from 23.1 to 78.0%, respectively (Pp≤0.05).


                                                                                              43
Increasing pH to 6.5 increased the extent of inhibition for Cu Sul and Cu CL treatments such that
62.5 ppm to 500 ppm caused a 89.8 to 95.4% inhibition, respectively (P≤0.05). 500 ppm Cu from
TBCC inhibited PP hydrolysis at pH 2.5, 5.5 and 6.5 by 0%, 13.4% and 51.5%, respectively
(P≤0.05). Cu Lys did not affect PP hydrolysis at both pH 2.5 and 5.5, however, increasing pH to
6.5 caused around 39.7 to 48.6% inhibition (P≤0.05). Cu CIT did not affect PP hydrolysis at
pH2.5, but it inhibited PP hydrolysis at pH5.5 (P≤0.05). Increasing pH to 6.5 greatly increased
the inhibition such that 500 ppm Cu inhibited PP hydrolysis by 92.1% (P≤0.05). In conclusion,
pH had an important effect on how Cu affects PP hydrolysis in that inhibition occuredoccurred
much more at pH5.5 and pH6.5 than at pH2.5; Among five Cu sources, TBCC and Cu Lys and
Cu CIT inhibited PP hydrolysis much less than Cu Sul and Cu CL
    Impact: The solubility differences between different Cu sources at different intestinal pH
partially explains why CuSul, but not TBCC or CuLys, inhibits phosphorus utilization in the
small intestine of poultry.

   Reporting Scientists: T.J. Applegate (Purdue University)
   Project: The effect of supplemental phytase sources on the sparing effect of phosphorus in
Pekin ducks.
    Phytate phosphorus (PP) is relatively unavailable to the duck and therefore the majority of
the PP that is fed to ducks is excreted. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the
effect of supplemental phytase on the sparing effect of phosphorus (P) in Pekin ducks. Drakes
were fed 0, 250, 500, 750, or 1000 U/kg phytase (6-15 d) from OptiPhos™. Two reference diets
were included that contained 500 U/kg from one of two commercial phytases (A and B) derived
from Aspergillus and Peniophora. Four additional reference diets were also fed (6-15 d) with no
supplemental phytase and increasing concentrations of non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) (0.22,
0.29, 0.36, or 0.43 %) to determine P equivalency values of phytase supplementation from
improvements in bone mineralization (6 replicate cages per diet, 4 birds per cage). The nine
phytase diets were formulated with 0.22 % nPP and 1.0 % calcium (Ca) (8 replicate cages per
diet, 4 birds per cage). Supplementation with 500 U/kg of OptiPhos™ improved the P
equivalency value based on body weight (BW) gain by 0.147 %. Supplementation with 500
U/kg of phytase B and OptiPhos™ improved the P equivalency value based on tibia ash (%) by
0.072, and 0.121 %, respectively. Supplementation with 500 U/kg of phytase B and OptiPhos™
improved the P equivalency value based on tibia ash weight by 0.06, and 0.068 %, respectively.
    Impact: When apparent P retention was determined from excreta collected from 13 to 15 d
of age, 500 U/kg of phytase B and OptiPhos™ improved P retention by 0.048 and 0.092
percentage units, respectively.

Task 4.2. Evaluate and quantify excretion of non-nutrient pollutants from animal agriculture.


   Reporting Scientists: T.A. McCaskey (Auburn)
   Project: Control of E. coli in cattle bedding with oxides.
    A strategy to control zoonotic, enteric, bacterial pathogens in cattle housing environments
has been demonstrated in a field trial to be a promising intervention strategy in the USDA farm-
to-fork foodborne pathogen control continuum plan. Studies have demonstrated 5-6 log


                                                                                                44
   reductions of E.coli and other enteric bacteria in cattle bedding treated with oxides of alkaline
   earth metals.
       Impact: Study shows promise to control zoonotic, enteric, bacterial pathogens on cattle
   farms.

       Reporting Scientist: Z. Wu (Penn State University)
       Project: Dietary protein and nitrogen excretion in dairy cows.
       Analyses have been completed for a study consisting of 4 trials that varied in the proportion
   of alfalfa and corn silage in the forage part of the diet to determine the effect of dietary protein
   amount on milk production and nitrogen utilization.
       Impact: Dietary protein at 17% was sufficient for cows producing 38 kg/d of milk and fed
   diets containing various proportions of alfalfa and corn silage. Reducing protein to this amount
   can reduce N excretion, especially environmentally labile urinary N, without affecting milk
   production.

   Performance Measures
   Outputs
   Journal Articles
1. Bicudo, J.R., Clanton, C.J., Schmidt, D.R., Jacobson, L.D., Powers, W.J., and Tengman, C.L.
   2004. Geotextile Covers To Reduce Odor And Gas Emissions From Swine Manure Storage
   Ponds. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. Vol. 20(1): 65-75.
2. Carey, J. B., Lacey, R. E and S. Mukhtar. 2004. Review of Literature Concerning Odors from
   Broiler Production Facilities: 2. Flock and House Management. JAPR 13:509-513.

3. Cheng, J., T. E. Shearin, M. M. Peet, and D. H. Willits. (2004) Utilization of treated swine
   wastewater for greenhouse tomato production. Water Sci. Technol. 50(2), 77-82.
4. Ekinci, K., H. M. Keener, D. L. Elwell, F. C. Michel, Jr . 2004a. Effects of aeration strategies
   on the composting process. Part I - Experimental studies. Transactions of ASAE. 47(5): 1697-
   1708.
5. Ekinci, K., H. M. Keener; F. C. Michel, Jr.; D. L. Elwell. 2004b. Modeling composting rate as a
   function of temperature and initial moisture content. Compost Science and Utilization.
   12(4):356-364.
6. Ekinci, K., H.M. Keener, Akbolat D. 2004c. Effect of Thermocouple Location on the Optimum
   Composting Rate Biosystems Engineering 89(3):345-353.
7. Elwell, D.L., D.C. Borger, D.V. Blaho, J.V. Fahrni, H.M. Keener and L.B. Willett. 2004.
   Changes in concentrations of malodorous compounds during controlled aeration composting.
   Compost Science and Utilization. 12(2):102-107
8. Funk, T.L., R. Hussey, Y. Zhang, M. Ellis. 2004. Synthetic Covers for Emissions Control from
   Earthen Embanked Swine Lagoons Part I: Positive Pressure Lagoon Cover. Applied
   Engineering in Agriculture: 20(2). 233-238.


                                                                                                       45
9. Funk, T.L., A. Mutlu, Y. Zhang, M. Ellis. 2004. Synthetic Covers for Emissions Control from
   Earthen Embanked Swine Lagoons Part II: Negative Pressure Lagoon Cover. Applied
   Engineering in Agriculture: 20(2). 239-242.

10. Green, S., Michel Jr, F. C., Hadar, Y., and Minz, D. 2004. Similarity of bacterial communities in
    sawdust- and straw-amended cow manure composts. FEMS Microbiology Letters 233(1):115-
    123
11. Guo, H., L.D. Jacobson, D.R. Schmidt, R.E. Nicolai, and K.A. Janni. 2004. Comparison of five
    models for setback distance determination from livestock sites. Canadian Biosystems
    Engineering. Vol.46, (p.6.17-6.25).
12. Hanselman, T.A., Graetz, D.A. and Wilkie, A.C. (2004). Comparison of three enzyme
    immunoassays for measuring 17β-estradiol in flushed dairy manure wastewater. J. Environ.
    Qual. 33(5):1919-1923.

13. Hubbard, R.K., G.J. Gascho, and G.L. Newton. 2004. Use of floating vegetation to remove
    nutrients from swine lagoon wastewater. TRANS of ASAE 47(6):1963-1972

14. Hubbard, R.K., G.L. Newton, and G.J. Gascho. 2003. Nutrient removal by grass components of
    vegetated buffer systems receiving swine lagoon effluent. J. Soil Water Conserv. 58(5):232-242.

15. Hubbard, R.K., G.L. Newton, and G. Hill. 2004. Water quality and the grazing animal. J.
    Anim. Sci. 82(E. Suppl.):E255-E263.

16. Hubbard, R.K. J.M. Sheridan, R. Lowrance, D.D. Bosch, and G. Vellidis. 2004. Fate of
    Nitrogen from Agriculture in the Southeastern Coastal Plain. J. Soil Wat. Conserv. 59(2):72-86.

17. Kalbasi, M. and K.G. Karthikeyan. 2004. Phosphorus Dynamics in Soils Receiving Chemically
    Treated Dairy Manure. J. Environmental Quality. 33:2296-2305.

18. Lacey, R. E., S. Mukhtar, J. B. Carey and J. L. Ullman. 2004. Review of Literature Concerning
    Odors from Broiler Production Facilities: 1. Odor Concentration and Emissions. J. Appl. Poult.
    Res. (JAPR) 13:500-508.

19. Meyer, D., J.P. Harner, E.E. Tooman, C. Collar. 2004. Evaluation of weeping wall efficiency of
    solid liquid separation. Applied Engineering in Ag 20: 349-354.

20. Michel Jr., F.C., J.A. Pecchia, J. Rigot, H.M. Keener. 2004d. Mass and nutrient losses during
    the composting of dairy manure amended with sawdust or straw. Compost Science and
    Utilization. 12(4):323-334.




                                                                                                   46
21. Mukhtar, S, A. Rose, S. Capareda, C. Boriack, R. Lacey, B. Shaw, and C. Parnell Jr. 2003.
    Assessment of Ammonia Adsorption onto Teflon and LDPE Tubing Used in Pollutant Stream
    Conveyance. Agricultural Engineering International: the CIGR Journal of Scientific Research
    and Development”. Manuscript BC 03 012. Vol. V. Paper 29, 1-13.

22. Mukhtar, S., J. L. Ullman, B. W. Auvermann, S. E. Feagley, and T. A. Carpenter. 2004. Impact
    of Anaerobic Lagoon Management on Sludge Accumulation and Nutrient Content for Dairies.
    Transactions of the ASAE 47 (1) 250-257.

23. Mukhtar, S., J. L. Ullman., J. B. Carey and R. E. Lacey. 2004. A Review of Literature
    Concerning Odors, Ammonia and Dust from Broiler Production Facilities: 3. Land Application,
    Processing and Storage of Broiler Litter. JAPR 13:514-520.

24. Newton, G.J., J.K. Bernard, R.K. Hubbard, J.R. Allison, R.R. Lowrance, G.J. Gascho, R.N.
    Gates, and G. Vellidis. 2003. Managing manure nutrients through multi-crop forage production.
    J. Dairy Sci. 86(6): 2243-2252.

25. Paul, S., P. K. Haan, M. D. Matlock. S. Mukhtar, S. D. Pillai. Analysis of the HSPF Water
    Quality -Parameter Uncertainty in Predicting Peak In-Stream Fecal coliform Concentrations.
    Transactions of the ASAE 47 (1) 69-78.
26. Ponce, K.H., M. M. Peet, J. Cheng, C. Harlow, D.H. Willits. (2004) Assessment of swine waste
    bioremediation using greenhouse tomatoes. Acta Hort. (ISHS) 633, 415-423.
27. Priyadarsan, S., Annamalai, K., Sweeten, J., Mukhtar, S. and Holtzapple, M. 2004. Fixed Bed
    Gasification of Feedlot and Poultry Litter Biomass. Transactions of the American Society of
    Agricultural Engineers. 47(5): 1689-1696.

28. Sooknah, R.D. and Wilkie, A.C. (2004). Nutrient removal by floating aquatic macrophytes
    cultured in anaerobically digested flushed dairy manure wastewater. Ecol. Eng. 22(1):27-42.

29. Trask, J.R., P.K Kalita, M.S. Kuhlenschmidt, R.D. Smith, and T.L. Funk. Overland and Near-
    surface transport of Cryptosporidium parvum from vegetated and nonvegetated surfaces. J.
    Environ. Qual. 33:984:993 (2004).

30. Ullman, J. L., S. Mukhtar, R. E. Lacey and J. B. Carey. 2004. A Review of Literature
    Concerning Odors, Ammonia and Dust from Broiler Production Facilities: 4. Remedial
    Management Practices. JAPR 13:521-531.

31. Vellidis G., R. Lowrance, P. Gay, R.W. Hill, and R.K. Hubbard. 2003. Nutrient transport in a
    restored riparian wetland. J. Environ. Qual 32:711-726.




                                                                                                  47
32. Wilkie, A.C., Castro, H.F., Cubinski, K.R., Owens, J.M. and Yan, S.C. (2004). Fixed-film
    anaerobic digestion of flushed dairy manure after primary treatment: wastewater production and
    characterisation. Biosystems Eng. 89(4):457-471.

33. Wang, X., Y. Zhang, T.L. Funk, L. Zhao and G.L. Riskowski. 2004. Effect of ventilation system
    on particle spatial distribution in ventilated rooms. ASHRAE Transactions. 110 (2): 258-266.

34. Wilkie, A.C., Smith, P.H. and Bordeaux, F.M. (2004). An economical bioreactor for evaluating
    biogas potential of particulate biomass. Bioresour. Technol. 92(1):103-109.

35. Zhang, Z. and J. Zhu. 2005. Effectiveness of Short-Term Aeration in Treating Swine Finishing
    Manure to Reduce Odour Generation Potential. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 105(1-
    2): 115-125.

36. Zhang, Z., J. Zhu, K. J. Park. 2004. Effect of Aeration Length and Intensity on Solids
    Decomposition in Swine Manure for Odour Control. Biosystems Engineering 89(4): 445-456.


   Conference Proceedings and Abstracts
   1. Angel, R., W. Powers, and T.J. Applegate 2004. Air emissions in poultry production:
      current challenges and future directions. Poultry Sci. 83(Suppl. 1):123.

   2. Applegate, T.J., K.M. Banks, Y. Pang. 2004. Copper in poultry diets: benefits and
      consequences. California Anim. Nutr. Conf. pp. 246-254.

   3. Applegate, T.J. and R. Angel. 2005. Feasibility versus practicality of phosphorus reduction
      in poultry: progress and future needs. Symp. State of the Science of Animal Manure and
      Waste Management. 6 pgs.

   4. Applegate, T.J., and R. Angel. 2004. Use of mass balance techniques for nutrient excretion
      modeling. Poultry. Sci. 83(Suppl. 1):402-403.

   5. Applegate, T.J.. 2005. The nutritional value of dehulled-degermed corn for broiler chickens
      and its impact on nutrient excretion. Poultry Sci. 84(Suppl. 1): S24.

   6. Banks, K.M., K.L. Thompson, P. Jaynes, and T.J. Applegate. 2004. The effects of copper
      on the efficacy of phytase, growth, and phosphorus retention in broiler chicks. Poultry Sci.
      83:1335-1341.

   7. Banks, K.M., K.L. Thompson, J.K. Rush, and T.J. Applegate. 2004. The effects of copper
      source on phosphorus retention in broiler chicks and laying hens. Poultry Sci. 83:990-996.



                                                                                                     48
8. Boriack, C. N., S. C. Capareda, R. E. Lacey, A. Mutlu, S. Mukhtar, B. W. Shaw, C. B.
   Parnell. 2004. Uncertainty in Ammonia Local Measurement Systems Using Dynamic
   Isolation Flux Chambers. ASAE Paper No. 04-4111.

9. Burkett, J.L., K.J. Stalder, C.R. Schwab, T.J. Baas, D.W. Newcom, J.L. Pierce, W.J. Powers
   and J.W. Mabry. Comparisons of inorganic and organic trace mineral supplementation in
   grow-finish swine. Journal of Animal Science, Volume 82, Supplement I:406.


10. Capareda, S.C., C. N. Boriack, A. Mutlu, N. Mameshev, S. Mukhtar, B.W. Shaw, R.E.Lacey,
    and C.B. Parnell. 2004. Recovery of Gaseous Emissions from Low –Level Area Sources of
    Ammonia and Hydrogen Sulfide Using Dynamic Isolation flux Chambers. ASAE Paper No.
    04-4113.

11. Cheng, J.J., M. M. Peet, and D. H. Willits. (2004) Swine Wastewater Treatment and
    Reclamation. Proceedings of the 2004 CIGR International Conference, 11-14 October 2004,
    Beijing, China.


12. Cheng, J.J. and Jason G. Fleming. (2004) Anaerobic Digestion of Swine Manure at Ambient
    Temperature. Proceedings of the IWA Anaerobic Digestion 10, 29 August - 2 September
    2004, Montreal, Canada.

13. Christopherson, S.D., D. Schmidt, K. Janni. Evaluation of Aerobic Treatment Units in
    Treating High Strength Waste From Dairy Milk Houses. In the On-Site Wastewater
    Treatment X, Conference Proceedings, 21-24 March 2004 (Sacramento, California, USA),
    ed. Richard Cooke. ,21 March 2004 . pp 172-177. ASAE Pub #701P0104

14. Davis, J.A., Farrah, S.R. and Wilkie, A.C. (2004). Enhanced selectivity of mannitol salt agar
    for Staphylococcus aureus using acriflavine for examining flushed dairy manure wastewater.
    Abstr. 104th Gen. Meet. Am. Soc. Microbiol. 2004, Q-104. American Society for
    Microbiology, Washington, DC.

15. Davis, J.A., Farrah, S.R. and Wilkie, A.C. (2004). Bacterial indicator decimation in flushed
    dairy manure wastewater by ambient temperature fixed-film anaerobic digestion. In:
    Anaerobic Digestion 2004 – Anaerobic Bioconversion for Sustainability, Proceedings of the
    10th World Congress, vol. 3, 1734-1736. International Water Association.

16. Fisher, D.S., M.B. Jenkins, R.R. Lowrance, R.K. Hubbard, T.C. Strickland, G. Vellidis, and
    G.L. Newton. 2003. In vitro disappearances of E.coli and enterococci related to light,
    predation, and sedimentation. Agronomy Abstracts. (A05-fisher927072-oral) On CD-Rom.
    (Abstract #52). P. 295 in program.



                                                                                               49
17. Hanselman, T.A., Graetz, D.A. and Wilkie, A.C. (2004). Immunoassay quantification of
    steroidal estrogen hormones in manure, soil, and water. In: Program and Abstracts,
    Sustainable Land Application Conference, January 4-8, 2004, Lake Buena Vista, Florida,
    p.100. University of Florida/IFAS, Gainesville, Florida.

18. Hinson, R. B., B. E. Hill, M. C. Walsh, D. M. Sholly, S. A. Trapp, J. S. Radcliffe, A. L.
    Sutton, A. P. Schinckel and B. T. Richert. 2004. Effect of feeding a low nutrient excretion
    diet on wean-finish pig growth performance, carcass characteristics, manure composition,
    and building aerial ammonia. J. Anim. Sci. 82(Suppl 2): 83. (Abstr. 222)

19. Hinson, R. B., D. M. Sholly, M. C. Walsh, B. E. Hill, S. A. Trapp, J. S. Radcliffe, A. L.
    Sutton, A. P. Schinckel and B. T. Richert. 2004. Effect of feeding a reduced crude protein
    and phosphorus diet on grow-finish pig performance, carcass characteristics, manure
    concentration, and building aerial ammonia. J. Anim. Sci. 82(Suppl 2): 84. (Abstr 224)

20. Hoff, S.J., D.S. Bundy, M.A. Huebner, B.C. Zelle, L.D. Jacobson, B.P. Hetchler, V.J.
    Johnson, R.E. Nicolai, D.R. Schmidt, P.R. Goodrich, A.J. Heber, J.Q. Ni, T.T. Lim, P.C.
    Tao, Y. Zhang, J. McClure, S. Jerez, M. Roberts, J.A. Koziel, B.H. Baek, A. Balota, J.P.
    Spinhirne, J.M. Sweeten, D.B. Beasely, G.R. Baughman, and R. Munilla. 2004. Real-Time
    Ventilation Measurements from Mechnacially Ventilated Livestock Buildings for Emission
    Rate Estimations. ASAE Paper No. 044178. St. Joseph, Mich.: ASAE.

21. Honeycutt, W., B. Wienhold, B. Eghball, S. Albrect, M. Powell. K. Sistani, G. Brink, B.
    Woodbury, R. Eigenberg, R. Hubbard, A. Torbert, R. Wright, and M. Jawson. USDA-ARS
    nationally coordinated research to predict N mineralization from animal manure. 2004.
    Sustainable Land Application Conference, Lake Buena Vista, FL. p. 103.

22. Hoorman, J.J., J. N. Rausch, T.M. Harrigan, W.G. Bickert, M.J. Shipitalo, M.J. Monnin, S.
    R. Reemer, F.E. Gibbs, M.I. Gangwar, L. C. Brown. 2005. Liquid Animal Manure
    Application on Drained Cropland: Preferential Flow Issues and Concerns Workshop
    Summary. Symposium on the State of Science of Animal Manure and Waste Management.
    1/5-7. Marriott River Center, San Antonio, TX. Published on CD


23. Hubbard, R.K., G.J. Gascho, and G.L. Newton. 2003. Use of floating vegetation to remove
    nutrients from swine wastewater lagoons. Southern Ag. Workers Meeting, Mobile, AL. p. 26
    (Abstract #53).

24. Hubbard, R.K. and G.L. Newton. 2004. Evaluation of an Overland Flow Vegetated Buffer
    Treatment System for Swine Lagoon Effluent. Sustainable Land Application Conference,
    Lake Buena Vista, Florida. Jan. 4-8, 2004. p. 103.

25. Hubbard, R.K. G.L. Newton, and G. Hill. 2003. Water quality and the grazing animal. J.
    Anim. Sci. Vol 81, Suppl. 1/J. Dairy Sci. Vol 86, Suppl. 1 Abstract 507 page 128.


                                                                                                 50
26. Hubbard, R.K., S.C. Phatak, R. Reed, and T. Strickland. 2004. The effects of conservation
    tillage and cover crops on physical properties of coastal plain soils. Agron. Abs. (CD-ROM).

27. Hubbard, R.K., J.M. Sheridan, and D.D. Bosch. 2003. Total solids and suspended sediment
    loads in Coastal Plain streamflow–A derived distribution approach to total daily loads.
    SWCS National Meeting, Spokane, WA. (Abstract #54).

28. Jacobson, L.D, L.J. Johnston, B.P. Hetchler and V.J. Johnson. 2004. Gas and PM Emissions
    from Deep-Bedded and Slatted Floor Farrowing Buildings. ASAE Paper No. 04411155. St.
    Joseph, Mich.: ASAE

29. Jacobson, L.D., Hetchler, B.P., Johnson,V.J., Nicolai, R.E., Schmidt, D.R., Goodrich, P.R.,
    Heber, A.J., Ni, J.Q., Lim, T.T., Tao, P.C., Hoff, S.J., Bundy, D.S., Huebner, M.A., Zelle,
    B.C., Zhang, Y., McClure, J.W., Jerez, S., Su, J., Koziel, J.A., Baek, B.H., Balota, A.,
    Spinhirne, J.P., Sweeten, J.M., Beasley, D.B., Baughman, G.R., and Munilla, R. 2004.
    Preliminary NH3, H2S, and PM10 Data from Pig and Poultry Buildings from Six-State
    Project. ASAE Paper No. 044156. St. Joseph, Mich.: ASAE.

30. Keener, H.M. 2004b. Opportunities and challenges in composting organic waste. pp. 27-46.
    Proceedings International Symposium on Organics Recycling (ISOR). October 5-7. Akita,
    Japan.


31. Keener, H.M., D.L. Elwell, K. Winbush, R. James. 2004. Evaluation of approaches for
    composting horse manure and commercial cardboard bedding. ASAE Paper 044068.
    Presented at 2004 ASAE/CSAE Annual International Meeting. 8/1-4. Fairmont Chateau
    Laurier, The Westin, Government Centre, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Published on CD
    (search at asae.frymulti.com)

32. Kennelley, E.D., Mylavarapu, R. and Wilkie, A. (2004). Initial assessment of a unique soil
    phosphorus determination method as a tool for field estimation of P-index. ASA-CSSA-
    SSSA Annual Meetings Abstracts 2004.

33. Kennelley, E.D., Wilkie, A.C. and Mylavarapu, R. (2004). Soil phosphorus determination in
    the field: A quick and easy new method. In: Program and Abstracts, Sustainable Land
    Application Conference, January 4-8, 2004, Lake Buena Vista, Florida, p.106. University of
    Florida/IFAS, Gainesville, Florida.

34. Leader, J.W., Reddy, K.R. and Wilkie, A.C. (2004). Optimization of low-cost phosphorus
    removal from wastewater using co-treatments with constructed wetlands. In: 9th International
    Conference on Wetland Systems for Water Pollution Control, vol. 2. Avignon (France),
    September 26-30, p.683-691. International Water Association.



                                                                                                  51
35. Lilburn, M.S. and T.J. Applegate. 2004. Digestible phosphorus nutrition in broiler breeder
    pullets and hens. Poultry Sci. 83(Suppl. 1):S30.

36. Losordo, T. M., D. P. Delong and P. W. Westerman. 2003. Appropriate designs for the on-
    site treatment and utilization of wastes in rural, farm-based, freshwater recirculating systems:
    An overview of critical considerations with emphasis on economic viability. Aquaculture
    Europe 2003, August 8-12, Trondheim, Norway. European Aquaculture Society (EAS) and
    Aquaculture Engineering Society (AES). 4 pg. Abstract

37. Lowrance R., R.K. Hubbard, D.D. Bosch, L.T. West, G. Vellidis, and R.L. Potter. 2003.
    Soils control nutrient filtering in coastal plain riparian ecosystems. Agronomy Abstracts.
    (S07-lowrance6000341-oral) On CD Rom. P. 260 in program.

38. Maguire, R.O., J.T. Sims, W.W. Saylor, B.L. Turner, R. Angel, and T.J. Applegate. 2004.
    Influence of phytase addition to poultry diets on phosphorus forms and solubility in litters
    and amended soils. J. Environ. Qual. 33:2306-2316.

39. Maguire, R.O., J.T. Sims, W.W. Saylor, B.L. Turner, R. Angel, and T.J. Applegate. 2004.
    Phosphorus and phytase in poultry diets: environmental implications. Midwest Poultry Fed.
    Conv. Proc. pp. 170-174.

40. Maguire, R.O., J.T. Sims, and T.J. Applegate. 2004. Supplementing phytase and decreasing
    phosphorus in turkey diets reduces phosphorus in litters and in runoff from amended soils.
    Agron. Abstr..

41. Meyer, D. and E. Tooman. 2004. A Survey of Central Valley Dairy Ponds. Proceedings
    44th annual Dairy Cattle Day, U.C. Davis. March 23, Modesto, CA. P. 40-42.

42. Michel Jr, F. C. 2004a. Animal Health and Nutrition Impacts on Production and Viability of
    Animal Pathogens in the Environment. In: Workshop Report: Pathogens In The
    Environment, February 23-25, 2004, Kansas City, Mo. pp. 23-26.


43. Michel, Jr., F.C., H. M. Keener, J. Rigot, T. Wilkinson, J. Pecchia. 2004c. Effects of straw,
    sawdust and sand bedding on dairy manure composting. ASAE Paper 044030. Presented at
    2004 ASAE/CSAE Annual International Meeting. 8/1-4. Fairmont Chateau Laurier, The
    Westin, Government Centre, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Published on CD (search at
    asae.frymulti.com)


44. Mota, C.R., J.A. Ridenoure, J. Cheng, F.L. de los Reyes III. (2004) Effects of Aeration
    Cycles on Populations of Nitrifying Bacteria and Nitrogen Removal in Intermittently-Aerated



                                                                                                   52
   Reactors. Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation 77th Annual Conference &
   Exposition, October 2-6, 2004, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.


45. Mukhtar, S. M. L. McFarland, C. Gerngross, and F. Mazac. 2004. Efficacy of using dairy
    manure compost as erosion control and revegetation material. ASAE Paper No. 04-4079.

46. Mullins, G. L., Fontenot, J. P., Alloush, G. A., Johnson, G., Allen, V. G., and Scaglia, G.
    2005. Effect of long-term nutrient management strategies for pastures on phosphorus in
    surface runoff and soil quality. Proc. XX Internatl. Grassl. Congr. (In press).

47. Mutlu, A., S. Mukhtar, S.C. Capareda, C. N. Boriack, C. B. Parnell, R.E. Lacey, B. W.
    Shaw. 2004. A Process-Based Approach for Ammonia Emission Measurements at a Freestall
    Dairy. ASAE Paper No. 04-4110.

48. Newton, G.L., G.J. Gascho, J.K. Bernard, J.R. Allison, R.K. Hubbard, R.N. Gates, and G.
    Vellidis. 2003 Multi-cropped forages for nutrient management. ADSA Southern Branch
    Symposium. Potential for Dairying in the Southeast–Challenges and Opportunities. Abstract
    # 470.


49. Pang, Y. and T.J. Applegate. 2004. Effects of copper source and concentration on phytate
    phosphorus hydrolysis by phytase in vitro. Poultry Sci. 83
    (Suppl. 1):107.


50. Panetta, D., W.J. Powers, H. Xin, B.J. Kerr, and J.C. Lorimor. 2004. Nitrogen excretion and
    ammonia emissions from pigs fed reduced crude protein diets. J. Anim. Sci. 82(Suppl 1):223.


51. Panetta, D., W.J. Powers, J.C. Lorimor. 2004. Direct measurement of management strategy
    impacts on ammonia volatilization from swine manure. Presented at the 2004 ASAE Annual
    International Meeting Aug 1-4, Ottowa, Canada, Paper No. 044107. ASAE, 2950 Niles
    Road, St. Joseph, Ml 49085-9659 USA.


52. Powers, W.J. 2004. Air quality regulations: what you need to know. Cornell Nutrition
    Conference, Syracuse, NY, October 19-21.


53. Priyadarsan, S., K. Annamalai, J. M. Sweeten, M. T. Holtzapple and S. Mukhtar. 2004. Co-
    gasification of Blended Coal with Feedlot and Chicken Litter Biomass. In proceedings of the
    30th International Symposium on Combustion. July 25-30, Chicago, IL. The Combustion
    Institute. Pittsburgh, PA.



                                                                                                  53
54. Ridenoure, J.A., M.A. Head, C.R. Mota, F.L. de los Reyes III, and J. Cheng. (2004)
    Optimization of Intermittent Aeration for Nitrogen Removal from Swine Wastewater.
    Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation 77th Annual Conference & Exposition,
    October 2-6, 2004, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.
55. Rush, J.K., K.M. Banks, K.L. Thompson, and T. J. Applegate. 2004. The effect of
    supplemental phytase sources on the sparing effect of phosphorus in Pekin ducks. Poultry
    Sci. 83 (Suppl. 1):399.

56. Schmidt, D.R., L. Koppolu, G. Pratt, L.D. Jacobson, D.D. Schulte, S.J. Hoff and M. Moscato.
    2004. Comparison of measured and modeled ambient hydrogen sulfide concentrations near a
    4000 head swine facility. ASAE Paper No. 044200. St. Joseph, Mich.: ASAE.

57. Schwartz, Liliana, R. Don Wauchope, Robert K. Hubbard, Joseph M. Sheridan, Clint C.
    Truman, David D. Bosch, and Deborah A. Abrahamson. 2003. Water and chemical runoff:
    an anomalous wheel track effect. (A field test of the Root Zone Water Quality Model
    (RZWQM) for multiple-crop fertilizer fate and transport in a coastal plain field. SWCS
    National Meeting, Spokane, WA. Abstract #39.

58. Sheffield, R.E., M. Thompson, B. Dye and D. Parker. 2004. Evaluation of Field-based Odor
    Assessment Methods. Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation and the Air and
    Waste Management Association Conference on Odor and Air Quality. March 19-21, 2004.
    Bellevue, WA.

59. Sheffield, R. E., M.W. Thompson. 2004. Odor Assessments o Idaho Livestock
    Farms. 2004 ASAE/CSAE Annual International Meeting. Sponsored by
    ASAE/CSAE. Fairmont Chateau Laurier, The Westin, Government Centre. Ottawa,
    Ontario, Canada. 1 - 4 August 2004 ASAE Paper Number: 044123.

60. Sheffield, R.E. 2004. Dairy Odor Management. Proceedings of the Tri-State Dairy Short
    Course. Washington State University. Boise, ID. March 24-25, 2004.


61. Shanklin, R., Scaglia, G., and Fontenot, J. P. 2004. Effect of different levels and oscillating
    digestible intake protein on performance and blood urea nitrogen concentration of beef
    calves. Am. Soc. Anim. Sci. So. Sect. Abstr. p. 26.

62. Sholly, D. M., M. C. Walsh, R. B. Hinson, K. L. Saddoris, L. M. Wilson, A. L. Yager, B. T.
    Richert and A. L. Sutton. 2004. Effect of basal diet formulation and wheat bran inclusion on
    growth performance and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 82(Suppl 2):
    80 (Abstr 209)

63. Sholly, D. M. M. C. Walsh, B. C. Joern, A. L.Sutton and B. T. Richert. 2004. Effect of
    swine manure application on winter wheat tissue growth and nitrogen, phosphorus and
    potassium content. J. Anim. Sci. 82(Suppl. 1):37.


                                                                                                 54
64. Sholly, D. M., S. L. Hankins, M. C. Walsh, A. L. Sutton and B. T. Richert. 2004. Effects of
    reduced crude protein and fiber supplementation on nitrogen and phosphorus digestibility
    and manure generation. J. Anim. Sci. 82(Suppl. 1):457.

65. Skalak, K.M., T.F. Wilkinson, D.L. Elwell, H.M. Keener, F.C. Michel Jr. and L.C. Brown.
    2004 Using a rain simulator to evaluate leaching from compost windrows-preliminary
    results. NABEC Paper 040040. Presented at 2004 NABEC Conference. 6/27-30. Nittany
    Lion Inn, University Park, PA. www.oardc.ohio-state.edu/ocamm/


66. Sooknah, R.D. and Wilkie, A.C. (2004). Evaluating floating aquatic macrophytes in
    improving the water quality of anaerobically digested flushed dairy manure wastewater. In:
    Anaerobic Digestion 2004 – Anaerobic Bioconversion for Sustainability, Proceedings of the
    10th World Congress, vol. 4, 2170-2173. International Water Association.

67. Sun, H., Zhao, L., Brugger, M. F., and Michel Jr, F. C. 2004. Use of Particle Image
    Velocimetry (PIV) Data to Validate Three Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamic
    (CFD) Models for Animal Housing. ASAE Paper 044130. Presented at 2004 ASAE/CSAE
    Annual International Meeting. 8/1-4. Fairmont Chateau Laurier, The Westin, Government
    Centre, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.


68. Tamim. N. M., R. Angel, T. J. Applegate, W. J. Powers, and M. Christman. 2004. Effect of
    non-phytin phosphorus and phytase on total and water soluble phosphorus in broiler, turkey
    and swine excreta. International Poultry Scientific Forum, Jan. 26-27, 2004, Georgia World
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69. Ullman, J. L and S. Mukhtar. 2004. implications on ammonia emissions from dairy facilities
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70. Ullman, J. L and S. Mukhtar. 2004. Management Practices and Remedial Activities to
    Reduce Atmospheric Pollutants from Animal Feeding Operations: A State-of- the-Art
    Review. 2004 CIGR International Conference, Beijing, China, October 11-14.
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    in agriculture. Bioresource Technology 96(2):215-221. Special Issue of the 10th
    International Conference on Recycling of Agricultural, Municipal and Industrial Residues in
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72. Westerman, P. W. and J. Arogo. 2004. On farm performance of two solids/liquid separation
    systems for flushed swine manure. ASAE Paper No. 044073. Written for presentation at the
    2004 ASAE/CSAE Annual International Meeting, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, Aug. 1-4. 19
    pg. ASAE, St. Joseph, MI.




                                                                                              55
   73. Westhead, E., Pizarro, C., Mulbry, W. and Wilkie, A.C. (2004). Recycling of manure
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       10th World Congress, vol. 3, 1785. International Water Association.

   74. Wilkie, A.C. (2004). Biogas and Anaerobic Digestion: Fundamentals and Applications.
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   75. Wilkie, A.C. (2004). Fixed-film Digesters. AgSTAR Program Conference on Anaerobic
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   76. Wilkinson, T.F., H.A.J. Hoitink and H.M. Keener. 2004. Evaluation of approaches for
       composting hunt club bedding/horse manure - Phase II: Plant growth in compost mixes. Dec
       10. FABE, OSU/OARDC, Wooster, OH.
   77. Zhao, L. Y., M. Brugger, G. Arnold. 2004. Air quality spatial and temporal distribution on a
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       Mich.: ASAE.

   Book Chapters and Other Publications
1. Bormann, K.J., W.J. Powers, and J.R. Russell. 2004. Effects of Forage Maturity on Phosphorus
   Digestion in Beef Cows. 2004 Iowa State University Animal Industry Report. ASL-R1880.


2. Evers, G. W., M. J. Parsons, and N. B. Melson. 2004. Yield response of annual ryegrass-
   Coastal bermudagrass to broiler litter plus nitrogen fertilizer. p. 19-20. Research Center
   Technical Report No. 2004-01.

3. Evers, G. W., M. J. Parsons, and N. B. Melson. 2004. Phosphorus uptake by ryegrass-
   bermudagrass fertilized with broiler litter and nitrogen. p. 21-22. Research Center Technical
   Report No. 2004-01.

4. Evers, G. W., M. J. Parsons, and N. B. Melson. 2004. Residual soil phosphorus after fertilizing
   ryegrass-Coastal bermudagrass with nitrogen fertilizer and broiler litter. p. 23-24. Research
   Center Technical Report No. 2004-01.

5. Evers, G. W., M. J. Parsons, and N. B. Melson. 2004. Clover-bermudagrass production
   fertilized with broiler litter and commercial nitrogen fertilizer. p. 25-26. Research Center
   Technical Report No. 2004-01.


                                                                                                  56
6. Evers, G. W., M. J. Parsons, and N. B. Melson. 2004. Phosphorus uptake by crimson clover-
   bermudagrass fertilized with broiler litter and nitrogen fertilizer. p. 27-28. Research Center
   Technical Report No. 2004-01.

7. Evers, G. W., M. J. Parsons, and N. B. Melson. 2004. Residual soil phosphorus after fertilizing
   crimson clover-Coastal bermudagrass with broiler litter and nitrogen. p. 29-30. Research Center
   Technical Report No. 2004-01.

8. Giesy, R., deVries, A. and Wilkie, A. (2004). Advantages and disadvantages of using manure
   digesters to generate electricity on Florida dairy farms. Hoofprints in the Sand 10(8):3.
   University of Florida/IFAS Extension Service.

9. Haan, M. M., J. R. Russell, W. Powers, J. Boehm, S. Mickelson, R. Schultz, J. Kovar, and 2004.
   Impacts of Cattle Grazing Management on Sediment and Phosphorus Loads in Surface Waters.
   2004 Iowa State University Animal Industry Report. ASL-R1921.


10. Hawkins, Gary, Dalila Sierra, and Robert K. Hubbard.    2003. Phosphorus and Nitrogen
    Leachability on Agricultural Fields Used for Land Application of Poultry Waste. ASAE
    Meeting Paper Number 032252.

11. Hill, G.M., R.N. Gates, R.K. Hubbard, and C. Blalock. 2003. Integration of winter grazing and
    irrigated cotton production. Final Report (UGA 47FY03RF) (Final Report for Year 2 of 4)
    Account #25-21-RF329-097, (July 1, 2002-June 30, 2003).

12. Hill, G.M., R.K. Hubbard, R.C. Lacy, and C. Blalock. 2003 (Issued in 2004). Integration of
    Winter Grazing and Irrigated Cotton Production. 2003 Georgia Cotton and Research Extension
    Reports. P. 40-45.

13. Hubbard, Robert, Joseph Sheridan, and David Bosch. 2003. A derived-distribution approach to
    estimating daily loads of sediment in Coastal Plain streamflow. In. Renard, Kenneth G.,
    McElroy, Stephen A., Gburek, William J., Canfield, H. Evan and Scott, Russell L., eds. First
    Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds. October 27-30, 2003, U.S. Department
    of Agriculture, Agriculture Research Service. P. 595-600.

14. Michel Jr, F. C., and Hoitink, H. A. 2004b. Trends in solid waste management through
    composting in the U.S. In: Resource Recovery and Reuse in Organic Solid Waste Management.
    P. Lens, B. Hamelers, H. Hoitink and W. Bidlingmaier (eds). IWA Publishing, Allliance House,
    12 Caxton Street, London SW1H 0QS, UK. Pgs. 278-289.




                                                                                                57
15. Mukhtar S. 2004. Poultry Production: Manure and Wastewater Management. In:
    Encyclopedia of Animal Science, W. Pond and A. Bell, Editors, Pages744-747. Marcel Dekker,
    Inc., New York, NY 10016.

16. Newton, G.L., J.K. Bernard, R.K. Hubbard, J.R. Allison, G. Vellidis, R.R. Lowrance, G.J.
    Gascho, and R.N. Gates. 2004. Managing dairy nutrients through forage production. AWARE
    NEWS Editors Dr. L.M. Risse & T.M. Bass, Spring/Summer 2004 volume 9 number 1. p. 5-10.

17. Newton, L., C. Sheppard, and W. Watson. 2004. Using the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens,
    as a value-added tool for the management of swine manure. Univ. of Georgia, College of Agric.
    & Environ. Sci., Dept. of Anim. & Dairy Sci. Annual Report.

18. Powers, W.J. and S. Bastyr. 2004. Downwind Air Quality Measurements From Poultry and
    Livestock Facilities. 2004 Iowa State University Animal Industry Report. ASL-R1927.
19. Powers, W.J. 2004. Practices to Reduce Odor from Livestock Operations Iowa State University
    Extension PM 1970a
20. Powers, W.J. 2004. Practices to Reduce Odor from Livestock Operations Flowchart Iowa State
    University Extension PM 1970b
21. Powers, W.J. 2004. Practices to Reduce Ammonia Emissions from Livestock Operations Iowa
    State University Extension PM 1971a
22. Powers, W.J. 2004. Practices to Reduce Ammonia Emissions from Livestock Operations
    Flowchart Iowa State University Extension PM 1971b
23. Powers, W.J. 2004. Practices to Reduce Hydrogen Sulfide from Livestock Operations Iowa State
    University Extension PM 1972a
24. Powers, W.J. 2004. Practices to Reduce Hydrogen Sulfide from Livestock Operations Flowchart
    Iowa State University Extension PM 1972b
25. Powers, W.J. and J.C. Lorimor. 2004. Practices to Reduce Dust and Particulates from Livestock
    Operations Iowa State University Extension PM 1973a
26. Powers, W.J. 2004. Practices to Reduce Dust and Particulates from Livestock Operations
    Flowchart. Iowa State University Extension PM 1973b
27. Powers, W.J. 2004. The science of smell, part 1: odor perception and physiological response.
    Iowa State University Extension PM 1963a
28. Powers, W.J. 2004. The science of smell, part 2: odor chemistry. Iowa State University
    Extension PM 1963b
29. Powers, W.J. 2004. The science of smell, part 3: odor detection and measurement. Iowa State
    University Extension PM 1963c
30. Powers, W.J. 2004. The science of smell, part 4: principles of odor control. Iowa State
    University Extension PM 1963d




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31. Sheffield, R.E. and M.W. Thompson. 2004. Odor Assessments for Idaho Livestock Farms and
    Manure Application Practices. University of Idaho, College of Agricultural and Life Sciences
    Research Bulletin: RES164. Moscow, ID.

32. Westerman, P. W. and J. Arogo. 2004. Environmental Renewal Technologies project
    evaluation. Final Report, 9/30/04. A&PWMC, NC State University, Raleigh, NC. 29 pg.

33. Westerman, P. W. and J. Arogo. 2004. Biomass energy sustainable technology performance
    verification (solids/liquids separation). In: Development of Environmentally Superior
    Technologies: Phase I Report for Technology Determination per Agreements Between the
    Attorney General of North Carolina and Smithfield Foods, Premium Standard Farms and
    Frontline Farmers, Appendix A.2. 88 pg. A&PWMC, NC State University, Raleigh, NC.

34. Westerman, P. W. and J. Arogo. 2004. EKOKAN biofiltration technology performance
    verification. In: Development of Environmentally Superior Technologies: Phase I Report for
    Technology Determination per Agreements Between the Attorney General of North Carolina and
    Smithfield Foods, Premium Standard Farms and Frontline Farmers, Appendix A.6. 85 pg.




                                                                                               59
Summary of Impacts
    Utilization of poultry litter by feeding cattle on pasture avoids applying excessive
     amounts to the soil.
    Ammonia emissions from a shallow injection of urea-ammonium-nitrate fertilizer
     amounts to 2% of the total N applied. A corn canopy can be either a source, or a sink
     for atmospheric ammonia depending on the amount of absorbed ammonia.
    Milk parlor wastewater can be treated and reused properly via integrating an innovative
     bioreactor with the existing anaerobic lagoon wastewater treatment system.
    Trickling nitrification biofilters achieved a 90% nitrification efficiency from a 4000
     sow operation’s effluent. When put in-line with greenhouse tomato production, yields
     were 1010 lb/day.
    Nutrient recovery from swine wastewater by growing duckweed demonstrated
     duckweed growth of 29 g/m2/day.
    Anaerobic treatment of dairy manure at a low inoculum to substrate ratio can provide
     added benefits in terms of reducing off-site migration of P after land application and
     when low runoff volumes are generated.
    Anaerobic digestion did not significantly alter the nature of predominant inorganic P
     solid phases in dairy manure
    Fixed-film anaerobic digestion provides reduced residence times for flushed dairy
     manure wastewater. Harnessing solar energy to grow algal biomass or aquatic
     macrophytes on the digested effluent allows for recovery of nutrients.
    The pollutional parameters (COD, nitrogen, phosphorus and solids) stratified within the
     sludge layers in aged lagoons become concentrated greater in the lower sludge depths.
    The environmental benefits of methane digester technology include: 1) reduced odors
     and emissions, 2) the nutrient properties of the digested manure are enhanced, and 3)
     reduced reliance on fossil fuels as an energy source.
    Intermittent aeration (IA) provides an alternative for N removal from anaerobically
     pretreated animal wastewaters. Findings of dominant microorganisms and optimal
     conditions in the IA process allow for fundamental understanding of the process.
    Thermochemical conversion of swine manure solids to a crude oil product was brought
     closer to commercial reality. All that stands between the laboratory scale and farm
     implementation are materials-handling issues.
    Reduced cost of composting animal manures can occur through documenting kinetics
     of the process. Low airflow, regardless of composting system configuration, is the
     main factor to minimize energy usage.
    Farmers can reduce the volume and weights of material to be hauled by 50 to 80 %
     based on equivalent nitrogen values of the stabilized compost as compared to
     unamended, uncomposted dairy manure removed from the barn.




                                                                                             60
   Composting dairy manure/amendment mix with C/N above 40 reduces nitrogen losses
    significantly.
   Using black soldier flies to digest manure and also produces a valuable animal feed.and
    can reduce swine manure odor shows additional benefits.
   Air emission data from conventional housing (slatted floor) and alternative housing
    (deep-bedded) farrowing facilities has provided swine producers with information for
    decision-making purposes on the type of facilities to build.
   Ammonia emissions from open lot and hybrid (freestall and openlot) dairies provide
    vital information on relative magnitude of ammonia emissions from various sources on
    a dairy during warm and cold temperatures.
   The Odor From Feedlots-Setback Estimation Tool is a useful tool for government
    agencies determining setback distances for new or expanding livestock and poultry
    facilities.
   Reducing diet crude protein and including NH3-binding agents in diets for grow/finish
    pigs can be effective in reducing N content of excretions and NH3 emissions.
   Temperature control, urine-feces segregation, and acidification of swine manure are
    strategies with the potential to reduce or slow NH4+-N and NH3 volatilization.
   Early results of a particulate impaction curtain for reduction of dust emission from
    poultry layer houses (5 months) gave dust removal efficiency of 33% to 49%.
   Composted dairy manure requires less odor management than aged manure, as aeration
    during composting results in destruction of odorous compounds (95-100%).
   The development of mathematical models now allows for more accurate estimates of P
    needs and P excretion of growing-finishing pigs.
   Feeding pigs a low nutrient excretion diet with reduced crude protein and phosphorus,
    supplemental synthetic amino acids, low phytate corn and phytase sustained productive
    pig growth and carcass characteristics, while reducing nutrient excretion and ammonia
    emissions.
   The second generation of phytase products derived from E. coli are twice as efficacious
    as current commercial products for ducks.
   Cattle bedding treated with oxides of alkaline earth metals demonstrated 5-6 log
    reductions of E.coli and other enteric bacteria.
   A 17% protein diet was sufficient for cows producing 38 kg/d of milk, thereby reducing
    N excretion without affecting milk production.




                                                                                        61
Planned Research 2004-2005
Objective 1
   Reporting Scientist. G. Evers, TAMU-Overton
    Obj. 1. Task 1. A new research project will be initiated applying broiler litter to reclaim
surface mine land. The present practice is to apply 57 kg ha-1 of N, P, and K to establish forages.
This practice will be compared to applying 2.25, 4.5, and 9 Mg ha-1 of broiler litter when
establishing Coastal bermudagrass.

   Reporting Scientists: J. P. Fontenot and G. Scaglia (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State
University)
  Feeding or soil application of poultry litter has been discontinued and soil P will be
monitored for one more year.

   Reporting Scientist: Ted Funk, Prasanta Kalita, Yuanhui Zhang, Michael Ellis (UIUC)
    Obj. 1. Task 4. The Illinois Manure Management Plan Workbook will be used throughout
the state to help producers submit permit applications and begin plan writing and
implementation. Commercial manure haulers, consultants, and others will be taught manure
system management techniques

   Reporting Scientist: John J. Meisinger (USDA-ARS-Beltsville, MD)
    Work in 2005 will summarize data on ammonia emissions from broiler production as
affected by litter acidification with either alum or sodium bisulfate. This work utilizes replicated
treatments in six individual 400 sq. foot environmental chambers at the Univ. MD Eastern Shore.
Ammonia emissions are measured continuously in each chamber with cross-sectional sampling
of the exhaust ducts connected to acid scrubbers. A nitrogen budget will also be constructed for
each chamber considering feed input, nitrogen content of mature broilers, and the change in litter
nitrogen in order to provide a second independent estimate of ammonia emissions.

Objective 2
   Reporting Scientist: Ted Funk, Prasanta Kalita, Yuanhui Zhang, Michael Ellis (UIUC)
   Obj. 2. Task 4. Pilot scale thermochemical conversion will be further pursued, while
exploring various models for commercialization of the process at farm scale or larger plants.

   Reporting Scientist: D. T. Hill (Auburn)
    Work will continue during 2005 on the analysis of the wetlands data for evaluation of the
movement of nutrients in the soil and accumulation of nitrogen and phosphorus around and
below the wetland cells. This will proceed at an excruciatingly slow pace due to the volumes of
data collected over the 10 year operating period and the lack of analysis personnel to perform the
work. This data also includes the actual treatment parameters used to determine the efficiency of
the wetlands system in pollution control and abatement. This will be a continuing effort and will



                                                                                                 62
not be completed for at least two more years. Final conclusions and recommendations for the
deep sludge pumping renovation system of aged lagoons will be made.

   Reporting Scientist: P.Y. Yang and E.S. Cho (U. Hawaii)
   Monitoring the process performance based on the removal of organic, nitrogen and
phosphorus and production of methane gas for the developed bioreactors. Evaluation of
engineering /operation criteria for the developed bioreactors. Evaluation of the potential of
developing sustainable agricultural production and environmental protection system integrating
both the developed bioreactors with the existing lagoon system.

   Reporting Scientist: L. D. Jacobson, K.A. Janni, P.R. Goodrich, D.R. Schmidt, J. Zhu,
(Univ. MN)
    Several different systems have been developed for treating milkhouse waste for medium
sized dairy farms in Central and Southeast Minnesota are being demostrated in cooperation with
the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS).
   Monitoring of the demonstration sites will continue through 2005. Extension publications
and information will be released and field days held at some of the demonstration sites.

   Reporting Scientists: L. D. Jacobson, K.A. Janni, P.R. Goodrich, D.R. Schmidt, J. Zhu,
(Univ. MN)
   Project: Advancing Utilization of Manure Methane Digester Electrical Generation
  A sterling engine will be installed at the dairy farm near Princeton, MN and will be
monitored for energy output and other parameters.

   Reporting Scientists: P.W. Westerman, J. Cheng, J.J. Classen (NC State University)
   Future research will focus on thermophilic anaerobic digestion of animal manure: the energy
production and inhibition effect. Optimization of intermittent aeration fro nitrogen removal from
anaerobically treated animal wastewater will also be studied in the future.

   Reporting Scientists: G. L. Newton, University of Georgia, Tifton, GA
   Collect data from the dairy waste treatment/water renovation system and develop a full scale
Hermetia manure digestion system on a swine farm.

   Reporting Scientist:      Dr. Ann C. Wilkie (University of Florida)
   Research will continue on the development of fixed-film anaerobic digestion technology for
waste stabilization, energy production and pathogen destruction.

Objective 3
   Reporting Scientists: Ted Funk, Prasanta Kalita, Yuanhui Zhang, Michael Ellis (UIUC)
   Obj. 3. Task 3. The biofilter moisture monitoring system will be field tested on swine and
poultry farms, and it will be refined for commercial production and application.


                                                                                                63
   Reporting Scientists: Saqib Mukhtar, TAMU-College Station, TX

    Ammonia emissions will be measured at the openlot dairy during the winter of 2005. A
comparison of ammonia emissions affected by the season and contribution from various sources
during summer and winter will be made.

   Reporting Scientists: : L. D. Jacobson, K.A. Janni, P.R. Goodrich, D.R. Schmidt, J. Zhu,
(Univ. MN)
   Project: Aerial Pollutant Emissions from Animal Confinement Buildings
    A final report and presentation of results at professional (A&WMA) meeting will be
completed in 2005. No further emission data is planned for this project although similar projects
are being discussed for these and other animal species.
    Project: Evaluation and implementation of OFFSET (Odor From Feedlots-Setback
Estimation Tool) in selected Minnesota counties
    More validation and implementation of this science-based tool is needed to eliminate or at
least minimize local controversies that have developed due to odor emissions from animal
production facilities, which will enhance future growth of the livestock and poultry industries in
the state.
   Project: Air Quality from (Animal) Housing Units
   Further work is being planned for collecting more of this type of data from this particular site
and others from other projects.
   Project: Development of Dispersion Models for Determining Setbacks for Animal
Production Sites Based on Hydrogen Sulfide and Odor
    The work will continue both on develop of dispersion tools using several existing models
along with evaluation of these models with the collected monitoring data from actual pig
production sites. This will be packaged in a way that is user friendly so it can be implemented by
personnel at the local level (township and county) of government as well as consultants and other
planners of animal production operations.
    Project: A field-scale surface aeration system to control manure odor from open storage
facilities
    Improving aeration efficiency is needed to reduce time to reach expected treatment result for
odor control. The air injection design will be revised with additional venturi air injectors added
to the system to enhance aeration efficiency.

   Reporting Scientists: R.E. Sheffield (Univ. Idaho)
The 2004 and 2005 research programs will focus on t evaluating dairy and livestock manure
      management and land application Practices on odor and Air Quality. The University of
      Idaho in cooperation with the Idaho Department’s of Environmental Quality and
      Agriculture are working collaboratively to fund and evaluate the odor (detection



                                                                                                64
       threshold and odor intensity) and air quality (NH3, H2S, VOC, PM10) emissions of the
       following manure management practices:

                1. Installation of an anaerobic digester ;
                2. Effect and fate of solid, slurry and liquid manure application and soil
                   incorporation;
                3. Evaluation and optimization of sprinkler irrigated wastewater performance;
                4. Evaluation of open-lot manure handling and management practices;
                5. Evaluate the effect of porous geo-textile lagoon covers ; and,
                6. Effect of manure management and removal frequency from dairy freestall
                   barns.

Objective 4
   Reporting Scientists: T. McCaskey (Auburn)
   Continued work on reduction of zoonotic, enteric, bacterial pathogens in cattle housing
environments.



   Reporting Scientists: G. Cromwell (Univ. KY)
    Refine the estimates of P accretion in various tissues in order to further develop mathematical
models to estimate P requirements and P excretion of pigs of different genotypes under varying
dietary and environmental regimens.

   Reporting Scientists: T.J. Applegate (Purdue University)
   a. Determination of nutrient mass balance in turkeys with W.Powers (ISU) and R. Angel
      (U. MD)
   b. Influence of phytase source and copper concentration on phosphorus utilization in broilers
   c. Influence of phosphorus level and phytase source on egg production and phosphorus
   utilization in W98 hens
   d. Calcium concentration and phytase source on and hosphorus utilization in W36 hens
   e. Determination of nutrient mass balance in W36 laying hens with W. Powers (ISU)
   f. Diet as a source reduction methodology for ammonia emissions in laying hens with W.
   Powers (ISU)




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