Docstoc

Attitudes to Islam

Document Sample
Attitudes to Islam Powered By Docstoc
					Attitudes to Islam
Positive and Negative Consequences of Various Attitudes

8/22/2008

Martin Accad

1

Fear of “Dialogue” Today
Conservative tendency  Syncretism Liberal/Secular tendency  Polemics BUT Are there any other possible points on this spectrum?
8/22/2008
Martin Accad

2

Assumption
VIEW ATTITUDE APPROACH RESULTS

Your view of Islam will affect your attitude to Muslims. Your attitude will, in turn, influence your approach to ChristianMuslim interaction, and that approach will affect the ultimate results of your missionary work
8/22/2008
Martin Accad

3

8/22/2008

“Syncretistic” Interaction D1

“Existential” Interaction

D2

The SEKAP Spectrum of ChristianMuslim Interaction

Martin Accad

“Kerygmatic” Interaction

D3

“Apologetic” Interaction

D4

“Polemical” Interaction

D5

4

Six Variants
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Religious Worldview View of the Islamic Phenomenon Purpose of Relationship with Islam Methods Used Expectable Outcomes Requirement

8/22/2008

Martin Accad

5

D1 – The Syncretistic Approach
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. “All roads lead to Mecca!” Islam is a socio-political phenomenon Promotion of multiculturalism Pluralistic, non-religious dialogue Superficial influence with no significant impact at the grassroots No profound understanding of Islam is necessary
Martin Accad

6.

8/22/2008

6

John Hick
"Let me then end with a quotation from one of the great revelatory scriptures of the world: 'Howsoever man may approach me, even so do I accept them; for, on all sides, whatever path they may choose is mine'." (from Bhagavad Gita)
Christianity and Other Religions: Selected Readings, p. 190

Pluralism & Syncretism – from passive attitude to active initiative
8/22/2008
Martin Accad

7

D5 – The Polemical Approach
• Polemos in Greek means “war”, “combat”, “conflict” – war strategies

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

Triumphalist Christian attitude Demonization of the Islamic phenomenon Demonstrate that Islam is a deception Sarcasm and aggressiveness Aggressive reactions resulting in intercommunal conflict Knowledge of all of Islam’s weaknesses is necessary
Martin Accad

8/22/2008

8

1.

D2 - The Existential Approach
Goodness and Morality are the purpose of all religions Divine origin of all religions, incl. Islamic Phenomenon Increase inter-community tolerance Dialogue focusing on common ground Improvement of intercommunity relations Knowledge of Islam’s broad lines is necessary
Example: the WCC

2.
3. 4. 5. 6.
•

8/22/2008

Martin Accad

9

Vatican II Council (1965)
"If in the course of the centuries there has arisen not | infrequent dissension and hostility between Christian and Muslim, this sacred Council now urges everyone to forget the past, to make sincere efforts at mutual understanding and to work together in protecting and promoting for the benefit of all men, social justice, good morals as well as peace and freedom".
From the "Declaration on the Relation of the Church to Non-Christian Religions“, in Christianity and Other Religions: Selected Readings, pp.
82-83

8/22/2008

Martin Accad

10

D4 - The Apologetic Approach
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
•

Christ is the only way to salvation Muhammad as well as his followers were misled Demonstrate truth of Christianity & errors in Islam Use of apologetic debates for conversion of Muslims Some positive outcomes but mostly much repetitive argumentation Requires thorough knowledge of defensive Christian arguments
This approach is concerned with clarifying Christianity rather than attacking Islam

8/22/2008

Martin Accad

11

D3 - The Kerygmatic Approach
Variant 1: Religious Worldview
Background understandings: God

is above all “religious systems” & Christ’s salvation is Good News

8/22/2008

Martin Accad

12

Karl Barth
"We begin by stating that religion is unbelief. It is a concern, indeed, we must say that it is the one great concern, of godless man...”
From "The Revelation of God as the Abolition of Religion“, in Christianity and Other Religions: Selected Readings, p. 35

8/22/2008

Martin Accad

13

Two possible understandings of “Faith in Christ”
1. Faith expressed in the context of a Religious Institution 2. Faith expressed in the context of a Community of the Spirit
John 3.8: “The wind blows wherever it pleases. You hear its sound, but you cannot tell where it comes from or where it is going. So it is with everyone born of the Spirit.”  Jesus called to a “Trans-Institutional” Faith in God!
8/22/2008
Martin Accad

14

Implication of the First View
Islam is a Building and Christianity is a Building Implication: Christian mission to Muslims requires destroying the building of Islam and uprooting its foundations to replace it with the building of Christianity

8/22/2008

Martin Accad

15

Implication of the Second View
Islam is a Building and Christianity is a Spirit-Led Community Implication: Christian mission to Muslims requires inviting the Spirit of Christ to indwell the building of Islam

8/22/2008

Martin Accad

16

D3 - The Kerygmatic Approach (cont’d)
Variant 2: View of the Islamic
Phenomenon

Some truths in Islamic Phenomenon, but can only be fulfilled in Christ

8/22/2008

Martin Accad

17

D3 - The Kerygmatic Approach (cont’d)
Variant 3: Purpose of
Relationship with Islam

Reciprocal witness for mutual enrichment

8/22/2008

Martin Accad

18

D3 - The Kerygmatic Approach (cont’d)
Variant 4: Methods Used Religious/theological dialogue and positive proclamation of the Gospel

8/22/2008

Martin Accad

19

PRACTICAL APPLICATION
What Level on the Dialogical Spectrum?
• • • • • • Depends on Setting & Audience Avoid D1 & D5 – Use D3 Public Setting – D2/D3 Private Setting – D3/D4 Religious Leadership – D2 People – D4

8/22/2008

Martin Accad

20

D3 - The Kerygmatic Approach (cont’d)
Variant 5: Expectable Outcomes
Increased tolerance & avoidance of “extraction” when a Muslim accepts Salvation in Christ

8/22/2008

Martin Accad

21

How do we avoid “extraction”? How does it look like?
C1-C6 Controversy Two Central Questions:
1. How is your testimony best preserved in context? 2. What does “reproducible model” mean in your particular setting?

8/22/2008

Martin Accad

22

QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION
1. Discuss the meaning of “fullness of time” in Galatians 4.1-4 and of “in these last days” in Hebrews 1.1-3: How would you define the authors’ understanding of “time”? 2. Compare the 2 figures of Moses & Muhammad with regard to their contribution in the areas of:
– Religious Message & Reform – Organization of a Social System – Military Methods & Achievements

From a purely human perspective, where do they overlap and where do they differ?

8/22/2008

Martin Accad

23

The “Two-Times” Theory

1. Normative or Galilean Time is ARTIFICIAL 2. Cultural Time is FLUCTUATING

8/22/2008

Martin Accad

24

Religion shapes Cultural Time
1. Religion upholds Morality (BEING) 2. Religion dictates Behavior (DOING) 3. Religion shapes Intellectual Development (KNOWING)

8/22/2008

Martin Accad

25

Christianity & Islam have shaped Cultural Time at different points
PROGRESSIVELY
Golden Age of Islam (8th-10th)

VERSUS
European Enlightenment (16th-18th)

REGRESSIVELY
Islam’s Age of Takfir Today

VERSUS
Europe’s Age of the Inquisition in the Middle Ages
8/22/2008
Martin Accad

26

D3 - The Kerygmatic Approach (cont’d)
Variant 6: Requirements

Requires a thorough, Insider’s knowledge of Islam

8/22/2008

Martin Accad

27

Insider Knowledge: The Example of Paul
The challenge of Law for the early Church (reflected later in Marcion) Paul’s reinterpretation of Law ensured Continuity between Old & New Paul’s embrace of the Sacred Foundation ensured that the early community of believers were rooted
8/22/2008
Martin Accad

28

CONCLUSION: Two Missional Calls
1. Renewed Social Action – Uphold Justice 2. Transformed Mission Methodology – Avoiding Extraction

8/22/2008

Martin Accad

29


				
DOCUMENT INFO