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									                           INSECT PEST CONTROL NEWSLETTER

No. 58                                                                                                               January 2002

A. TO THE READER............................................................................................................ 2

B. STAFF .............................................................................................................................. 4

C. FORTHCOMING EVENTS.............................................................................................. 6

D. PAST EVENTS (2001) ..................................................................................................... 8

E. TECHNICAL CO-OPERATION PROJECTS.................................................................. 14



H. SPECIAL NEWS AND REPORTS ................................................................................. 35

I. ANNOUNCEMENTS ...................................................................................................... 41

J. PUBLICATIONS (2001).................................................................................................. 45

S:\Documents\Newsletter\NEWSLETTER 58\Newsletter 58 Finala.doc                                                         2002-01-17 17:52
          A. TO THE READER

The year 2001 has again been a very intense and interesting period for all of us at the Insect
Pest Control Sub-programme of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division. As you can see from the
content of this newsletter, there are many exciting things to report in terms of normative,
development and application aspects of SIT.

I would like to take this opportunity to highlight a few aspects. In terms of normative
activities the development of a draft international standard to facilitate the transboundary
shipment of sterile insects stands out. This was developed in response to requests from
Member States and the private sector for regulation of the shipping of sterile insects. The
draft standard will be considered, reviewed and hopefully endorsed over the next years by the
Interim Commission on Phytosanitary Measures (ICPM), the governing body of the
International Plant protection Convention (IPPC). Also of significance are the Fruit Fly
Trapping Guidelines that have been developed to support the harmonization of monitoring
procedures for these pest insects in view of the increasing fruit fly related transboundary
interactions resulting from the rapidly growing trade in agricultural commodities, as well as
travel, transport and tourism.

An upcoming event also in the normative area is an FAO/IAEA Expert Meeting on “Risk
Assessment of Transgenic Arthropods” to be held at FAO, Rome from 8-12 April, 2002. The
objective of the meeting are to a) assess current status of transgenesis in pest arthropods; b) to
assess biosafety concerns for transgenic arthropod release; c) to provide guidance for future
risk assessment protocols for case by case analysis; and d) to assess the possibility of
establishing a working group under IPPC for setting guidelines for development and use of
transgenic insect technology. Transgenic technology is now almost routine in many insect
species and improvements are continually being made. Genetic vectors are functional in
many insect orders and there is no technical reason why this technology cannot be applied for
any pest or biocontrol agent. However, a major technical concern is the genotypic and
phenotypic stability of the transgenic strains and their ability to express the transgene in a
reliable and predictable way. A second area of concern is the biological fitness of transgenic
strains. In addition to these technical questions, the whole area of trangenesis and the release
of transgenic organisms will require a thorough risk assessment protocol, moving from the
laboratory through field cages to open field release. There are currently four main areas
where transgenic arthropod technology is being developed: a) improving strains for SIT; b)
developing refractory disease vectors; c) improving strains for biocontrol; and d) using insects
as vaccinators.

An important event at the end of 2001 was the Resolution on the Pan African Tsetse &
Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC) adopted by the FAO Conference held in
Rome, 2-13 November 2001 (for the full text of the resolution see page 39).. The resolution
acknowledges the severity of the trypanosomosis problem in sub-Saharan Africa, and the
potential benefits of tsetse elimination, and calls upon affected member nations to include
tsetse eradication in their Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers and for the FAO to support them
in their efforts to combat the diseases and their vectors, and in particular to support the OAU
initiative of PATTEC. A subsequent meeting attended by representatives of interested
countries and FAO staff was held to explain the role of PAAT (Program Against African

Trypanosomosis) and the efforts to harmonize the roles of PAAT and PATTEC. The country
representatives recognised the relevance of both PAAT and PATTEC, and the priority
attached by FAO to harmonizing their activities.

Looking forward into the coming year, we are starting the new programme cycle for 2002-
2003. Some of the main programme changes involve a realignment to reduce research and
development on medfly mass rearing since other facilities are better able to address large
scale mass rearing; increase focus on regional programmes in order to address transboundary
issues; target other key insect pests, such as Anastrepha and codling moth; and increase
emphasis on quality assurance in order to improve efficiency. Additionally, increasing effort
will be made to examine commercialisation of some components of SIT.

I would like to call your attention to two moth related events that we are organizing for 2002:
the start of a new CRP on “Improvement of Codling Moth SIT to Facilitate Expansion of
Field Application“, and an interregional training course to take place at the codling moth SIT
suppression programme in British Columbia, Canada. For both events, which are tentatively
planned for August 2002, we are encouraging applications. For another new CRP on
“Genetic Sexing and Population Genetics of Screwworms”, which is holding its first Research
Coordination Meeting in early February in Brazil, we are still receiving additional
applications to achieve a good geographic distribution of participants working on the different
screwworm populations in the world.

On the staff side there have been some changes. We are fortunate to have Dr. Marc Vreysen
joining the team as Technical Officer for the tsetse programme and to support the growing
activities related to moth SIT. Marc has great experience in tsetse SIT and an extensive
publication record in this field. Without doubt he will contribute greatly to the Insect Pest
Control Sub-programme. We also welcome our new secretary Magali Evrard and trust she
will provide support to the Section for many years. Dr. James Novy has replaced Wendell
Snow in Jamaica as International Advisor of the ongoing screwworm eradication project on
the island. We sincerely thank Wendell Snow for his commitment and dedication during his
years in Jamaica to establish this project. We all wish him many years of happy retirement.
Dr. Abdeljelil Bakri has returned for a 12-month spell to continue his work on the
development of the IDIDAS database on radiation doses for arthropod disinfestations and

On behalf of all of us at the Sub-programme, I would like to thank those of you who are
involved in one way or another in SIT-related R&D and action programmes, for your
collaboration and hard work. We look forward to another fruitful year and wish you a very
successful 2002.

     Jorge Hendrichs
     Head, Insect Pest Control Section

B.               STAFF

      The Subprogramme staff, consisting of those in the Joint FAO/IAEA Division located
in the Vienna International Centre, those in the FAO/IAEA Agricultural and Biotechnology
Laboratory in Seibersdorf Laboratory and field experts, are listed below.

Insect Pest Control Section, IAEA, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna, Austria
(Tel = +43-1-2600-21628 Fax = +43-1-26007-21632)
Jorge Hendrichs                              Section Head
Udo Feldmann                                 Technical Officer (Tsetse/Screwworm)
Walther Enkerlin                             Technical Officer (Fruit Flies)
Jean-Pierre Cayol                            Technical Officer (Fruit Flies)
Arnold Dyck                                  Interregional Officer
Marc Vreysen                                 Technical Officer (Tsetse/Screwworm)
Abdeljelil Bakri                             Visiting Scientist
Marta De Coronado                            Senior Secretary
Magali Evrard                                Secretary

Entomology Unit, FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory,
A-2444 Seibersdorf, Austria
(Tel: +43-1-2600 28402; Fax: +43-1-26007 28274)
Alan Robinson                        Unit Head
Gerald Franz                         Genetics and Molecular Biology
Elizabeth Opiyo                      Tsetse Rearing Technology
Carlos Caceres                       Fruit Fly Rearing Technology
Gratian Mutika                       Tsetse Quality Control
Elizabeth Pereira                    Secretary

Field experts:
James Novy             JAM/5/006 Eradication of the New World Screwworm, Jamaica
John Kabayo            RAF/5/040 SIT for Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Management in Africa
      e-mail: and
René Garcia            RLA/5/044 Preparing the Caribbean for Eradication of the New World
Jesus Reyes            RLA/5/045 Establishing Pilot Fruit Fly-Free and Low Prevalence
                       Areas Using an Area-wide Integrated Approach in Central America
                       and Panama

               C. FORTHCOMING EVENTS

I. Research Co-ordination Meetings (RCM)

“Genetic Sexing and Population Genetics            May 2002, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 2nd
of Screwworms”, 5 – 14 February 2002,              RCM
Campinas, Brazil; 1st RCM and Workshop.
                                                   “Enhancement of the Sterile Insect
“Improved Attractants for Enhancing the            Technique through Genetic Transform-
Efficiency of Tsetse fly Suppression               ation Using Nuclear Techniques”, 8 – 12
Operations and Barrier Systems Used in             July 2002, Capri, Italy, 4th and Final RCM.
Tsetse Control/Eradication Campaigns”.             (See p. 28)
18 – 22 March 2002, Entebbe Uganda, 4th
and Final RCM.                                     “Improvement of codling moth SIT to
                                                   facilitate expansion of field application”,
“Development of Improved Attractants and           19-23 August 2002, Kelowna, British
their Integration into Fruit Fly SIT               Columbia, Canada, 1st RCM.
Management Programmes” 29 April – 3

II. Consultants and other Planning Meetings

FAO/IAEA Experts Meeting on “Risk                  Anastrepha and Bactrocera”,         Vienna,
Assessment of Transgenic Arthropods”,              Austria, July/August 2002.
FAO, Rome, Italy, 8 – 12 April 2002.
                                                   Consultants meeting on “Developing
Consultants meeting on “Identification and         product and process quality control for
establishment of molecular technologies to         standardization of tsetse mass production,
improve the effectiveness of SIT”, Capri,          sterilization and SIT release”, Vienna,
Italy, July 2002,                                  Austria, June 2002.

Consultants meeting on “Identification of
improved     rearing   techniques     for

III. Other meetings

Meeting of the National Counterparts of            This course will include field visits related
IAEA Fruit Fly Projects in the Middle              to the Okanagan Kootenay Sterile Insect
East. Stellenbosch, South Africa, April            Release (SIR) Program1, a program that
30 May 3, 2002.                                    releases sterilized codling moths as part of
                                                   an area wide strategy of Integrated Pest
Interregional Training Course on the               Management in apple and pear orchards.
"Use of the Sterile Insect and Related             Applications should be submitted through
Techniques for the Area wide                       FAO, Atomic Energy Authorities or
Management of Insect Pests", Okanagan              Ministries of Agriculture before the
Valley, British Columbia, Canada. 5 – 30           application deadline of 5 May 2002.
August 2002.
The 6th International Symposium on                             planning and implementing tsetse /
Fruit Flies of Economic Importance, 6 –                        trypanosomosis intervention campaigns
10 May 2002, Stellenbosch, South                               and for monitoring responsible utilisation
Africa.                                                        of natural resources.”

The Meeting                                                    Venue:        Ouagadougou, Burkina-Faso.
                                                               Date:         April or May 2002.
      The 6th International Symposium on                       Duration:     probably 3 weeks.
Fruit Flies of Economic Importance, will                       Candidates: Number: 12 from up to 10
be based on the same successful formula of                            tsetse infested West African
the previous symposia. Paper and poster                               Member States.
sessions will be presented, without parallel                          Academic qualifications: BSc or
sessions. Poster presenters will have                                 MSc in Biology, Entomology,
designated opportunities to share their                               Parasitology, Veterinary Sciences
findings with fellow delegates. There will                            or a related field.
also be opportunities for breakaway                                   Working experience: experience in
meetings.                                                             entomological,      veterinary and
                                                                      ecological surveys relevant to tsetse
   Topics for the symposium will be wide-                             / trypanosomosis intervention.
ranging as before: biosystematics and                                 Skills: proven ability to work with
biodiversity; molecular biology, genetics                             MS-Excel, MS-Access and related
and biotechnology; biochemistry and                                   computer programmes.
physiology; semiochemicals, behaviour
and ecology; post-harvest and quarantine;                            Eligible candidates need to provide
management and action plans; natural                           evidence from relevant Government
enemies and beneficial fruit flies – and                       authorities that after the training they will
anything relevant that is not mentioned                        be working as GIS specialists in tsetse /
above. Suggestions for additional topics                       trypanosomosis intervention projects.
and possible workshops are welcome.
                                                                     Applicants should complete the
  For more information consult                    the          Training Course Nomination Form that can
Symposium’s web site2.                                         be downloaded from our web site3 and
                                                               submit it to IAEA referring to RAF/5/051 –
                                                               GIS course. Closing date 22 February
Regional Training Course on GIS Under                          2002.
                                                                    A subsequent course will be
      Under the umbrella of OAU’s Pan-                         organized for candidates from East Africa.
African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis
Eradication Campaign, FAO/IAEA intend
to organise a course on the “Use of
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for


            D. PAST EVENTS (2001)

I. Research Co-ordination Meetings (RCM)

      “Genetic Application to Improve the                 “A Molecular and Genetic Approach
SIT for Tsetse Control/Eradication                  to Develop Sexing Strains for Field
Including Genetic Sexing” 19 – 23 March             Application in Fruit Fly SIT Programmes”,
2001, Rome, Italy.                                  10 – 14 July 2001, Sydney, Australia;
                                                    Final RCM.
      “Evaluating the Use of Nuclear
Techniques for the Colonisation and                        “Quality Assurance of Mass
Production of Natural Enemies”, 18 – 23             Produced and Released Fruit Flies”, 19 –
June 2001, Tapachula Mexico; 2nd RCM.               23 November 2001, Mendoza, Argentina;
                                                    2nd RCM. Held in conjunction with the
     “Automation in Tsetse Mass-rearing             Western Hemisphere Working Group of
for Use in Sterile Insect Technique                 Fruit Flies of Economic Importance, 25 –
Programmes”, 7 – 13 July 2001, Addis                29 November 2001.
Ababa, Ethiopia; 4th and Final RCM.

II. Consultants and other Planning Meetings

     “Consultants Meeting on Developing             Projects in the Middle East”, 26 – 28
Guidelines for Fruit Fly Trapping” 20 – 24          March 2001; IAEA, Vienna, Austria.
August 2001 – IAEA, Vienna, Austria
                                                         “Consultants Meeting on Tsetse
      “Consultants Meeting on Trans-                Suppression”, 5 – 8 February 2001; IAEA;
boundary Shipment of Sterile Insects” 30            Vienna, Austria
July – 3 August 2001; IAEA, Vienna,
Austria.                                                 “Thematic Planning Meeting on
                                                    Establishing Tsetse Fly Free Zones
     “First  Planning     Meeting on                through Area-wide Tsetse Intervention
Development of the Sterile Insect                   Involving the SIT”, 29 January – 2
Technique for Control of Malaria-                   February 2001; IAEA; Vienna, Austria.
Transmitting Mosquitoes”, 5 – 8 June
2001; IAEA, Vienna, Austria.                              “Preparatory Meeting on the Central
                                                    American Regional Fruit Fly SIT Project”,
      “Second Meeting of the National               16 – 19 January 2001; IAEA, Vienna,
Project Counterparts for the Fruit Fly SIT          Austria.

III. Regional Workshop on Using GIS for Data Management for Fruit Fly SIT

     The regional workshop on "Using                namely Egypt, Israel, the Hashemite
GIS for Data Management" took place in              Kingdom of Jordan and the Territories
Vienna on July 2 – 6 2001. The workshop             under the Jurisdiction of the Palestinian
was attended by 8 participants from 4 fruit         Authority. Hands-on training and lectures,
fly projects of the Near East region,               provided by the experts Mr. Patrick Akers

(CDFA), Ms. Anita Erkelens (FAO/IAEA)                based on digitised maps or aerial
and        Mr. Zowinde          Koudougou            photographs; (ii) a mechanism for
(FAO/IAEA), focused on using GIS,                    transferring fruit fly monitoring data from
working with GPS units and managing                  4 national to a single regional coordinate
data using MS Access 2000 and ESRI                   system be set-up; and (iii) support be
Arcview 3.2 computer programs. All the               provided to further improve the
participants agreed that fruit fly trapping,         applications developed for the AMEP for
fruit monitoring and host location data will         the benefit of the regional activities. The
now be shared on a regional basis through            use of GIS for fruit fly monitoring data
the Joint Division, using as a common                management will provide easy access to
basis the Access and Arcview applications            regional     information    by    all    the
developed for the Arava Medfly                       participating projects and will allow a
Eradication Project (AMEP) in Israel. In             more regional approach to the fruit fly
that perspective, it was recommended that:           problem through transboundary technical
(i) background geographical information              communication.
would be made available to each project

IV. Consultants Meeting on Transboundary Shipments of Sterile Insects

      A Consultants Group Meeting was                standard for consideration by the Interim
held to review the transboundary shipment            Commission on Phytosanitary Measures
of sterile insects for plant pest control            (ICPM), the governing body for the FAO
programmes. This meeting took place in               based International Plant Protection
Vienna at the Joint FAO/IAEA Division                Convention (IPPC), at their annual meeting
from 30 July through 3 August 2001. The              in March 2002. International Standards on
group of consultant was called together in           Phytosanitary Measures can take three to
response to questions from national plant            five years to be developed, reviewed and
protection organizations (NPPO’s) in light           endorsed. The proposed standard integrates
of the growing demand for alternatives to            new versions of FAO/IAEA standard
pesticide use as an exclusive control                operating procedures for product quality
measure and the increasing interest from             control and shipping of sterile insects. The
the private sector to invest in the Sterile          Consultants Group hopes that this effort
Insect Technique (SIT).                              will reduce the demand on the IPPC
                                                     resources and promote adoption of a full
       The aim of the meeting was to                 standard in a timely manner. Harmonized
facilitate the transboundary shipment of             guidance regarding regulation of the
sterile insects for SIT programmes and to            shipment of sterile insects will facilitate
reach conclusions regarding the level of             trade, while addressing any concerns about
risk. In the process of this analysis, the           shipment of what could be quarantine pest
group identified some routinely applied              species.
procedures, including best practices for
shipment that have been shown in nearly                    In the interest of harmonization,
50 years of SIT application to reduce the            similar discussions may be needed at the
risk to a negligible level. However,                 Office International des Epizooties (OIE)
currently there are no internationally               and the World Health Organization
recognized guide-lines for regulating the            (WHO) regarding the use of sterile insects
shipment of sterile insects.                         for control of vectors of human or animal
     This analysis has been the basis for
the development of a draft international

V. Consultants Meeting on Fruit Fly Trapping Guidelines

       Accurate methods for fruit fly                           To address this problem a
population surveys are a prerequisite for                  Consultants Group Meeting was held to
effective decision-making in area-wide                     prepare trapping guidelines in response to
control programmes aimed at pest                           the IAEA Member States request. This
suppression, as well as those attempting to                meeting took place in Vienna at the Joint
establish fruit fly free or low prevalence                 FAO/IAEA Division, from 20 to 24 of
areas. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division, as                     August 2001.
part of its mandate to support the
implementation of integrated area-wide                            The resulting draft FAO/IAEA
fruit fly control programmes involving the                 Trapping Guide-lines for Fruit Flies of
use of the Sterile Insect Technique, has                   Economic Importance, provide strategic
carried out two coordinated research                       guidance and harmonized direction on
projects over the last decade with the                     where and how to implement surveys in
objective of developing and validating in                  support of fruit fly control and quarantine
the field fruit fly attractants and traps. As a            activities. This draft document is the
result, improved fruit fly trapping systems                summation of recommendations put forth
have been developed that are being                         by a multi-national group of fruit fly
adopted by operational fruit fly control                   workers that has the aim of providing
programmes.                                                objective information on fruit fly survey
                                                           tools to NPPOs and industry in FAO and
       At the 3rd Western Hemisphere                       IAEA Member States. These Trapping
Meeting on Fruit Flies of Economic                         Guidelines are to be considered as a
Importance, held July 1999 in Guatemala                    “working” document to be regularly
City, representatives of National Plant                    updated as survey techniques continue to
Protection Organizations (NPPOs) of 21                     improve and experience in fruit fly control
participating FAO and IAEA Member                          programmes evolves.
States expressed trade-related difficulties
as a result of a lack of uniformity in the                       Application     of     these   recom-
application of the various trapping                        mendations, however, will not guarantee
methodologies to survey fruit flies of                     access to trade in fruit and vegetable
economic importance. They recognized the                   commodities by an exporting country with
acute need for some harmonization of                       an importing country. The use of
trapping procedures in view of the                         information in this working document does
increasing fruit fly-related trans-boundary                not preclude the need for early contact of
interactions resulting from the rapidly                    the exporting country’s NPPO with the
growing travel, transport, tourism and                     respective NPPO of the importing country
trade. Thus they requested FAO and IAEA                    to negotiate the specific trapping protocols
to develop in support of their fresh fruit                 that will be needed to fulfil the quarantine
trade some guidelines on fruit fly survey                  requirements of the importing country.
activities for the various fruit fly pests.

VI. Regional Fruit Fly Course in Support of the Regional Project on Development of
Pilot Low Prevalence and Fly Free Areas for Fruit Exports (RLA5045)

      With the aim of preparing a                          was carried out from 7 to 26 of October
specialized group on control of fruit flies                2001, at the International Fruit Fly
in Central America and Panama a regional                   Training Centre of the Moscamed Program
course on fruit fly area-wide management

                                                  - 10 -
located in Metapa de Dominguez, Chiapas,                 populations on agroecosystems, areas of
México.                                                  organic agriculture, and for forest areas,
                                                         biocontrol through the use of parasitoids
      The course was financed by the                     and the integration of all these methods
IAEA through project RLA5045 by means                    with the SIT. Other topics included in the
of a contract with the Moscamed Program.                 training programme were related to
Seventeen professionals from Central                     quarantine programmes established to
America participated in the course from                  allow fruit exports such as economic and
the following countries: Belize (1), Costa               technical feasibility studies, pest risk
Rica (4), El Salvador (3), Honduras (2),                 assessment, post-harvest treatment and the
Nicaragua (3) and Panama (4). The IAEA                   implementation and operation of a systems
financed participants from Costa Rica, El                approach programme. These subjects were
Salvador,     Nicaragua   and     Panama.                focused on the development of low
Participants from Belize were financed                   prevalence and fly-free areas.
through the existing FAO Fruit Fly
Technical Co-operation Project and                              Over 30 lecturers participated in the
participants from Honduras by IICA and                   training course from USA, Guatemala and
the OIRSA-USDA/FAS Fruit Fly Project.                    Mexico. The duration of the course was
                                                         three weeks, with 120 hours of effective
      The course focused mainly on topics                training with 30% of the time dedicated to
related to the planning and execution of                 hands on training in the field. The course
detection and control activities for the                 included visits to the medfly and
Mediterranean fruit fly and various fruit fly            Anastrepha spp. mass rearing and
species of economic importance of the                    sterilization facilities and to the parasitoids
Anastrepha genus endemic to the                          mass rearing facility. Other visits included
American continent.                                      quarantine stations and to the State of
                                                         Chiapas growers fruit fly control
      The specific subjects covered were:                programme and research centres.
organization of fruit          fly control
programmes, establishment and operation                        With this course an important and
of detection and monitoring systems for                  firm step towards the formation of a
different trap types and under different pest            specialized fruit fly working group has
levels and programme objectives, use of                  been taken. This will constitute the basis
fruit sampling as a detection and                        for the efforts towards developing pilot
monitoring tool, utilization of chemical                 fruit export areas in the Central America
control (bait sprays) for suppression of                 and Panama region.

VII. IAEA Scientific Forum on Nuclear Technology’s Role in Serving Human Needs

     A two day Scientific Forum was held                 Development at Harvard University in the
18 – 19 of September, 2001, Vienna,                      USA (via video-conference), Jose Vargas,
Austria, in conjunction with the IAEA’s                  former Minister of Science and
annual General Conference at the Austria                 Technology in Brazil, and Margaret
Centre.                                                  Catley-Carlson, who chairs the Global
                                                         Water Partnership.
      Science and technology’s critical
role in eradicating famine and disease,                        The    meeting     underlined   the
among the root causes of global instability,             contribution of nuclear science and
was address by some of the worlds leading                technology to sustainable development and
experts including: Jeffery Sachs, Director               the betterment of human welfare and
of    the    Centre     for   International

                                                - 11 -
stressed the need for the world’s wealthiest              water is contaminated by arsenic. In Latin
nations to give it more support.                          America isotopic and nuclear techniques
                                                          are being used as tools in the fight against
      In the developing world, nuclear                    malnutrition.
science and technology applied at the
village level is providing for some of the                       In the last 10 years the IAEA has
world’s poorest people with alternatives to               contributed nearly US $60 million towards
suffering. In Africa it promises to eradicate             expanding radiotherapy treatment for
the tsetse fly, carrier of sleeping sickness              cancer, the use of isotopes in managing
and nagana, a disease that binds millions of              fresh water resources, and in the fight
rural people to poverty by killing their                  against the tsetse fly. The Agency places
livestock, the source of draught power. In                considerable emphasis on assisting partner
Asia isotope hydrology techniques are                     countries to adopt new technologies and
helping to relieve the plight of millions of              use them to the best effect by providing
people in Bangladesh, whose drinking                      training and continued support.

VIII. 26th Meeting of the OAU International Scientific Council for Trypanosomiasis
Research and Control (ISCTRC)

                                                          submitted to subsequent forums and
PAAT Advisory Group Meeting (26 – 28                      meetings held in Ouagadougou.
September 2001)

      A joint meeting of the Programme                    PAAT – PATTEC Harmonisation
Against African Trypanosomiasis (PAAT)                    Meeting (28 September and 4 October
Advisory Group and the European Union                     2001)
funded Concerted Action on Integrated
Control of Pathogenic Trypanosomes and                          In the presence of the Co-ordinator
their Vectors (ICPTV) was held in                         of    the     Pan-African    Tsetse    and
Ouagadougou from 26 – 28 September                        Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign
2001. Several papers were presented on                    (PATTEC), the Chairman of PAAT, the
environmental       monitoring,     use     of            chairman of the OAU Pan-African SIT
Geographic Information Systems (GIS),                     Forum and representatives of OAU/IBAR,
the activities at different national, regional            FAO, WHO and IAEA various issues
and international institutions and on the                 relevant    to    the   required    further
tsetse / trypanosomosis situation and                     harmonisation and concerted action
intervention measures in selected African                 between PAAT and PATTEC were
countries. The presentation on the                        discussed.
completion of an aerial spraying campaign
in the northern half of the Okavango delta,                     Besides confirming the respective
Botswana, which eventually is anticipated                 roles of PAAT and PATTEC it was agreed
to be complemented by an SIT component,                   that a) PAAT will assist PATTEC to
received particular attention by the                      mobilise resources for its activities; b)
participants.                                             efforts be made as soon as possible to meet
                                                          again and further advance the PAAT-
      A special working group elaborated                  PATTEC harmonisation; and c) the four
specific recommendations relevant to the                  mandated organisations (FAO, IAEA,
implementation of the OAU Assembly of                     OAU and WHO) should meet as soon as
Heads of State and Government approved                    possible at high level to approve the
PATTEC Plan of Action, which was                          outcome of the harmonisation discussions
                                                          for implementation.

                                                 - 12 -
Directors’ of Veterinary Services                       trypanosomosis management present at the
Meeting (29 – 30 September 2001)                        meeting elected a spokesperson, who
                                                        presented a specific resolution in support
      OAU-IBAR organised a meeting of                   of the PATTEC objectives.
Directors of African Veterinary Services,
with the key intention to formally brief the
officials on PATTEC and the Heads’ of                   Launching of PATTEC
State and Government approved action
plan. The Directors of Veterinary Services                     In response to a Summit decision by
came up with recommendations, urging                    the African Heads of State and
Member States to take specific concerted                Government in Lomé, Togo, July 2000,
steps in support of joint intervention                  regarding the ultimate eradication of tsetse
against the tsetse and trypanosomosis                   flies from the African continent, the OAU
problem under the PATTEC umbrella.                      Secretary General established a task force
                                                        of African specialists, who met in Nairobi
                                                        in December 2000 and developed a plan of
26th ISCTRC Meeting (1 – 5 October                      action for the Pan-African Tsetse and
2001)                                                   Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign,
                                                        PATTEC. This plan of action was
      More than 230 researchers, decision               approved by the subsequent African
makers and tsetse control personnel from                Summit in Lusaka, Zambia, in July 2001
44 countries and various regional and                   for implementation. The Prime Minister,
international organisations participated in             on behalf of the President of Burkina Faso,
the 26th meeting of the ISCTRC. Reports                 launched PATTEC in the presence of
from international organisations and tsetse/            about 250 meeting participants and
trypanosomosis affected countries were                  representatives of the diplomatic corps. As
followed by papers on protozoology/                     a symbol of commitment to co-operate and
immunology and diagnosis, Human                         contribute towards the achievement of
African Trypanosomosis (HAT), animal                    PATTEC goals, the Prime Minister handed
trypanosomosis, entomology and vector                   over the PATTEC flag to delegates from
control. Participants furthermore exhibited             32 African countries and 17 international,
numerous scientific posters, on which there             regional and national institutions.
was ample time for discussions during
session breaks. Remarkable was that
private companies involved in tsetse/

                                               - 13 -

Establishment of a Medfly Mass-Rearing Facility and Introduction of a Pilot Sterile
Insect Technique Control Programme (TUN/5/020)

       Tunisia is considering the use of SIT                    The project will be jointly operated
to suppress, in a more environment-                      by the Ministry of Agriculture (Direction
friendly way, the medfly from the Cape                   Générale de la Protection, et la Qualité des
Bon Region where important commercial                    Produits Agricoles, DGPQPA) for the field
fruit production, mainly citrus, takes place.            activities, the fruit industry (Groupement
                                                         Interprofessionnel des Agrumes et des
       A small pilot control programme,                  Fruits, GIAF) for the conditioning and
which has been in preparation since 2001,                aerial release activities, and by the Atomic
aims to demonstrate the technical                        Energy Authority (Centre National des
feasibility of the method, train local                   Sciences et Technologies Nucléaires,
personnel in rearing, field and aerial                   CNSTN) for operating the rearing facility.
release operations and convince the private
fruit industry to invest in this environment-                  For increased effectiveness and
friendly method on a larger scale.                       economies of scale the area wide control
                                                         project of medfly will have to expand in
       As a first step, a rearing facility               the future to the entire Cape Bon
capable of a weekly production of 12                     Peninsula. There would be a need for about
million sterile tsl males has been built in              200 millions sterile males a week to be
Sidi Thabet in the outskirts of Tunis. The               released over a 1000 sq. km area in the
facility should be fully equipped and ready              Cape Bon. The Tunisian authorities are
to initiate rearing as from early 2002. A                considering the possibility of building a
trapping network has been set-up recently                large rearing facility capable of producing
to monitor the population of medfly                      not only the required numbers of sterile
throughout the year in the Cape Bon                      medfly males but also additional numbers
Region, and a pilot area of about 5,300 ha               to supply future SIT projects in the
has been selected around the city of                     Mediterranean Basin.

Integrated Control of Animal Trypanosomosis to Create a Tsetse Fly Free Zone

      On     October    5,    2001,     the              people in Mali and Burkina Faso live in a
Governments of Mali and Burkina Faso                     rural environment and depend heavily on
signed a ‘programme development                          agriculture for their income. Livestock
document’, outlining a strategy to create                productivity, however, is extremely low
tsetse free zones in their respective                    due to the presence of the tsetse fly and the
countries. The document was co-signed by                 disease (African Animal Trypanosomosis
the IAEA as the first international                      (AAT) it transmits. Both Governments
organisation to endorse this initiative and              have realised that the elimination of AAT
to provide sound technical support to this               is a key factor in the elimination of hunger
tsetse intervention effort. Most of the                  and the alleviation of poverty. The most

                                                - 14 -
efficient way of containing this disease is             entomological and veterinary base-line
through the removal of the vector (the                  data collection has started in the periurban
tsetse fly) using an area-wide integrated               area of Bamako. In addition, an agreement
pest management approach (IPM). Area-                   has been signed between the Government
wide is defined here as the management of               of Burkina Faso and the regional research
entire tsetse populations within a target               centre ‘Centre International de Recherche-
area. To attain this goal, the programme                Développement sur l’ Élevage en zone
intends to integrate the release of sterile             Subhumide’ (CIRDES) located at Bobo
male insects (SIT) with efficient tsetse fly            Dioulasso in Burkina Faso, to use and
population suppression methods such as                  expand their existing G. palpalis
traps, insecticide impregnated targets,                 gambiensis colony to an operational
pour-on application of insecticide on                   capacity of 30,000 excess males for release
livestock and the Sequential Aerosol                    every week in Mali. Refurbishment of the
Technique (SAT) in a phased and dynamic                 existing facilities has been initiated and
way.                                                    new rearing and handling techniques such
                                                        as the semi-automated feeding and holding
       The distribution of the most                     system TPU-3 will be installed in the near
economically important tsetse species in                future.
Mali and Burkina Faso (G. palpalis
gambiensis and G. tachinoides) is                              The creation of a tsetse free zone in
restricted during most seasons to the                   the Niger River Basin will be a model for
riparian vegetation bordering rivers. The               future expansion of the eradication zone to
geographical ‘unit area’ of operation will              other river basins under the umbrella of the
be the ‘primary river basin’, which fits                newly created Pan African Tsetse and
well within the concept of area-wide IPM.               Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign
The degree of isolation of tsetse fly                   (PATTEC). The joint Mali-Burkina Faso
populations residing in adjacent river                  programme is a fine example that
basins will be determined using a                       demonstrates the determination of African
combination of high resolution satellite                Governments to take the lead and the
imagery, field data on tsetse fly population            ownership in this battle against the disease
dynamics, distribution patterns and                     and the tsetse fly. It is anticipated that the
genetics. Consequently, zones of close                  international community through advisory
contact where there is potential for                    bodies such as the Programme Against
immigration/ emigration of flies between                African Trypanosomosis (PAAT) and
populations of adjacent river systems can               international organisations such as FAO,
be identified and temporary fly barriers                WHO, IFAD, OAU etc. will endorse this
erected.                                                initiative and provide their long-term
       To date, operational field teams have
been    established in Mali and the

Sterile Insects Technique for Area-Wide Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Management

      In line with the Organisation of                  to assist Member States by contributing to
African Unity (OAU)-IAEA framework                      the PATTEC objectives by:

                                                        ƒÃdeveloping a strategy for creating and
agreement for strategic co-operation and in
support of the plans for the implementation
of the Decisions by the African Heads of                   subsequently expanding tsetse free
State and Government on the eventual                       areas;
eradication of the tsetse fly and the
PATTEC Plan of Action, the project seeks

                                               - 15 -
ƒÃassisting    in    the   design     and                    Utilising IAEA TC funds and extra
   implementation of action plans for                  budgetary contributions by Norway and
   integrated area-wide tsetse/trypanoso-              the U.S.A., the project will support
   mosis intervention;                                 PATTEC and related Member States’

                                                       efforts in planning and executing
              concepts and designs for,                integrated area-wide campaigns for the
   assistance   in    construction and                 creation of tsetse fly free zones in
   equipping and in managing of tsetse                 internationally agreed priority intervention
   mass production factories;                          areas in Eastern, Southern and Western

ƒÃcontributing   to relevant capacity
                                                       Africa. The creation of an increasing
                                                       number of tsetse fly free zones is expected
   building efforts for tsetse SIT and                 to be a key contribution to poverty
   related components of an area-wide                  reduction by generating opportunities for
   tsetse / trypanosomosis intervention                agricultural and livestock development
   campaign and of preparations for                    that,    as    the    Zanzibar      exercise
   sustainable    and    environmentally               demonstrated, are almost autonomously
   responsible utilisation of natural                  realised by the previously tsetse/
   resources;                                          trypanosomosis affected rural poor.

Area wide Integrated Control of Fruit Flies (THA/5/046)

       Mango (Mangifera indica) is a                   of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) and
traditional crop in Thailand with more than            the Department of Agriculture Extension
300,000 hectares cultivated throughout the             (DOAE) embarked on a pilot integrated
country. The area is divided into small                project to control the OFF in mango
mango plantations belonging to thousands               orchards in the Ratchaburi Province,
of farmers each having an average of two               southwest of Bangkok. The SIT
hectares. Unfortunately most of the mango              technology including field activities and
production is low input and considered to              mass rearing, sterilization and release of
be subsistence agriculture. Most of the                flies has been transferred through expert
mango produced in Thailand is sold in the              missions, fellowships and scientific visits.
domestic market although a small fraction              In 1992 the government of Thailand
is exported to markets that do not                     decided to adapt some facilities of the
discriminate against the presence of                   Centre for Irradiation of the DOAE into an
Oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis)               OFF mass rearing and sterilization facility.
such as Canada, Hong Kong, Malaysia,                   Since that date the facility has been
Singapore, etc. Small volumes of mango                 producing an average of 10 million sterile
are also exported to Japan after compliance            flies per week for the project. The IAEA
with a postharvest treatment (i.e. vapour              Board of Governors recently approved an
heat) and after a fruit fly free federal               extension of the SIT Pilot Project for three
phytosanitary certificate is issued by an              more years under project THA/5/046. The
inspector of the importing country.                    technology transfer has not been an easy
                                                       task; however, after years of effort, it has
      Although the mango has a number of               paid good dividends to a large number of
economically important pests, the key pest             small scale mango growers in the District
is by far the Oriental fruit fly (OFF). At             of Paktor, Ratchaburi Province.
least 50% of the mango is lost every year
due to poor control practices.                               According to the information
                                                       provided by the DOAE and confirmed by
     In 1991, the IAEA and the                         one of the farmers’ associations in the
government of Thailand through the Office              District of Paktor, the OFF damage

                                              - 16 -
decreased from over 80% in 1987, before                 •   Adoption of      new     and    better
the implementation of the SIT project, to                   technologies:
30, 26, 21, 18, 17 and 9% in the following
                                                            -   Aerial release.
six years (i.e. 1988 to 1993) respectively.
                                                            -   Chilled adult release system.
From 1994 to 2001 the damage has been
                                                            -   GPS and GIS information
reduced further to an average of less than
                                                                systems for trapping and fruit
4% per year.
                                                                sampling networks and for
      The economic benefits of the                              sterile fly release.
integrated application of the SIT for the                   -   Bait spray applications based on
mango growers of Paktor has been                                protein        hydrolysate    and
substantial. Farmers claim that mango has                       Spinosad.
become a profitable business since the                      -   Incorporation of female traps in
integrated use of SIT for control of the key                    the trapping network.
pest (OFF) and that mango growers in the                •   A scheme for effective technology
neighbouring areas are eager to join the                    transfer from Ratchaburi to other
SIT project.                                                provinces where mango is produced
                                                            such as Phitchit has to be developed
       This project has reached a stage                     and implemented.
where it could be scaled up to a regional
level with proper support from the                      •   If the project will expand in the near
government and mango industry. However,                     future to a second area, production
currently, without economies of scale the                   will need to be scaled up
project operates at a high per hectare cost                 considerably (at least by 10 fold) and
for the government. Furthermore, this                       careful planning of sterile fly
project is one of only a few examples of                    production must be made in order to
using the SIT for effective insect pest                     be able to supply the required
suppression, and techniques need to be                      amounts of good quality sterile flies
substantially improved. Despite the                         for the two areas (Ratchaburi and
project’s success, no serious effort has                    Phitchit).
been made to promote the project with the               •   Data management is vital for
fruit industry at national level. Scaling up                effective application of the SIT under
of the project would require improvements                   an area wide and large-scale
in field operations and management                          approach. A computerized data
activities through the following basic                      management network should be
actions:                                                    developed for record keeping, data
                                                            analysis and decision making. The
•    Definition of a project management                     network has to connect the district
     structure and clear identification and                 offices to the headquarters in
     assignment of responsibilities for the                 Bangkok.
     mass production and sterilization
     facility and for the field operations.             •   Technology transfer to another area
                                                            would be part of a national strategy
•    Shift from an orchard by orchard                       and would be done mainly by the
     control strategy to an area wide                       government of Thailand in close
     control strategy. Such an approach is                  collaboration with the mango
     not only effective, but also permits                   growers and exporters.
     achieving economies of scale in the
     application of SIT.

                                               - 17 -

Improvement of Codling Moth SIT to Facilitate Expansion of Field Application (CRP

       The objective of this NEW CRP is                     1) research to improve the cost-
to improve the application of the sterile                      effectiveness of rearing, sterilisation,
insect technique (SIT) and inherited                           release and distribution of sterile
sterility (IS) for codling moth control and                    moths,
its integration with other environmentally
friendly control methods to expand its use                  2) research to develop production and
in field control applications and reduce                       product quality control tests and
insecticide use.                                               standards to      ensure consistent
                                                               production of high quality moths,
       Codling moth (Cydia pomonella
(L.)) (CM) is a serious pest of pome fruit                  3) research on the genetics of CM in
and some walnut orchards in the temperate                      order to facilitate the development of
regions of all major continents. Between                       genetic sexing strains,
60-80% of apples and pears can be infested
on neglected apple and pear trees. Control                  4) research on the genetics of CM
of the CM has relied mostly on the                             populations in different regions,
intensive use of organophosphate and other                  5) research on the improvement of
broad-spectrum insecticides. The need for                      monitoring techniques,
4 to 5 spraying cycles in each growing
season has led to the development of                        6) research to better understand the
resistance and cross-resistance to most of                     combination of SIT with other
the traditionally used insecticides and to                     techniques such as parasitoids, mating
the disruption of natural controls of the                      disruption etc.
secondary pest complex. Alternative
                                                            Expected duration 5 years (2002-2006).
methods such as the use of insect growth
regulators, mating disruption, attract and                        Applications for contracts to work
kill, biological control agents have only                   on the above topics, to be received as
proven to be effective under certain                        soon as possible, preferably before 28
conditions. Environment friendly methods                    February 2002, are invited from
which show great potential for integration                  researches in the field of integrated
with these other methods for the control of                 area-wide control of Lepidoptera, and in
Lepidoptera (including CM) are the SIT                      particular codling moth. Details of the
and IS. Considerable R&D and field                          IAEA       Research        Co-ordination
evaluation are still required however,                      Programme       and     the    necessary
before the implementation of operational                    application forms can be found in the
projects will be feasible. Several aspects of               IAEA web site4.
both the rearing and field application will
be addressed through a co-ordinated
research approach:


                                                   - 18 -
Review of progress made in assessing the Potential Applications of Nuclear Techniques
in Biological Control (CRP D4.30.02)

A) REARING                                                 2. Suppression      of    Host     Immune

1. Artificial Diet Sterilization: Use,                     Problem:
   Storage and Table Life Extension                               Host immune reactions may reduce
                                                           rearing efficiency or prevent the use of a
Problem:                                                   factitious host that is easier or more
       Artificial diet often has a limited                 economical to rear.
shelf life and table life.
                                                           How Nuclear Techniques Can Help Us
How Nuclear Techniques Can Help Us                         Solve the Problem:
Solve the Problem:                                                Exposure to radiation has been
       Gamma radiation, as well as X-rays,                 shown to suppress host immune system
can provide a non-destructive means of                     responses. This may make irradiated larvae
killing microbial contaminants in artificial               of older instars more suitable for parasitoid
diets that may degrade the diet and/or                     development and thus increase rearing
impair insect growth and development.                      efficiency and parasitoid quality.
  i.   -may eliminate the need for other                   Progress:
       preservatives                                             Initial data showed that irradiation of
                                                           Galleria mellonella larvae with doses from
 ii.   -may simplify procedures in diet                    60 to 80 Gy allowed normal development
       preparation   (e.g.,    eliminate                   of the endoparasitoid Venturia canescens
       autoclaving)                                        while no development was possible in the
                                                           non-irradiated larvae. Irradiation of Plodia
iii.   -allows      for     “terminal    stage”
                                                           interpunctella larvae with a dose of 60 Gy
       sterilization (e.g., after packaging)
                                                           increased emergence of V. canescens
Progress:                                                  compared to non-irradiated controls. This
       Artificial diet often has a limited                 might be due to suppression of host
shelf life. Gamma radiation and X-rays can                 immune response to the parasitoid.
provide a non-destructive means of killing
microbial contaminants that may degrade                    3. Storage Extension of Hosts or Prey
the diet or impair insect growth. Initial
research has indicated that for situations                 Problem:
where prolonged shelf life is not required,                      Normal host/prey development limits
freezing or ultra low freezing may be                      storage of host/prey material.
simpler and more efficacious. However,
situations during rearing where longer                     How Nuclear Techniques Can Help Us
shelf life is required still need to be further            Solve the Problem:
explored.                                                         Use of radiation may be used to
                                                           arrest insect development and thus
                                                           facilitate the development of procedures
                                                           that would allow for storage and
                                                           stockpiling of hosts or prey.

                                                  - 19 -
Progress:                                                 production of particular life stages that are
      Studies on Ephestia kuehniella,                     discarded.
Spodoptera litura, Sitotroga cerealella,
and Musca domestica showed that                           How Nuclear Techniques Can Help Us
irradiation caused a protraction in the                   Solve the Problem:
development of host stages suitable for                       Sub-products of insect mass-rearing
parasitization, thus facilitating the use of              programs (e.g., excess or “off” season
these hosts under mass rearing conditions.                production or products that do not meet
                                                          minimum quality standards) may be
                                                          irradiated and used to support the
4. Host Suitability Extension                             production of natural enemies and thus
                                                          improve the overall (cost) efficiency of a
Problem:                                                  mass-rearing (SIT) system.
      Normal host development limits the
time interval when a host is suitable for                 Progress:
parasitization.                                                  Insect mass-rearing programs often
                                                          have excess production of particular life
How Nuclear Techniques Can Help Us                        stages or produce significant amounts of
Solve the Problem:                                        substandard material that is discarded.
      Use of radiation may be used to                     These may be irradiated and used to
delay normal insect development and thus                  support the production of natural enemies.
extend the time interval when a particular                Research has shown that this approach is
host stage is available for use by the                    in fact viable. Examples include the use of
parasitoid or help to regulate (slow-down                 excess egg production in Ceratitis capitata
or synchronize) parasitoid development                    and Anastrepha ludens mass-rearing
within the irradiated host.                               facilities to produce egg parasitoids, as
                                                          well as the use of remnant larvae and
Progress:                                                 pupae to produce larval and pupal
      Results have shown that radiation                   parasitoids.
can be used to delay normal insect
development and extend the time when a
given host stage is suitable for use by                   6. Stimulation Effects of Very Low
parasitoids. These examples are related to                   Doses of Radiation to Natural
the use of parasitoids in poultry production                 Enemies
to control Musca domestica, to control
Anastrepha spp. in mixed fruit orchards,                  Problem:
and to control Ephestia kuehniella in mills                     Field performance of laboratory-
and warehouses. In addition, radiation has                reared parasitoids and predators is a
been used to extend the time Sitotroga                    concern.
cerealella as factitious host is available for
Trichogramma chilonis to control Chilo                    How Nuclear Techniques Can Help Us
infuscatellus.                                            Solve the Problem:
                                                                Very low doses of radiation may
                                                          stimulate a variety of physiological (e.g.,
5. Use of Sub-Products of SIT Mass-                       pesticide tolerance) and behavioural (e.g.,
   Rearing                                                increased longevity and searching ability)
                                                          processes in insects that may be beneficial.
Problem:                                                  As such, very low doses of radiation may
      Insect mass-rearing programs often                  be useful in improving field performance
produce relatively large numbers of                       of laboratory-reared parasitoids/predators.
substandard material or have excess

                                                 - 20 -
Progress:                                               B) HANDLING-SHIPMENT
      In Trichogramma evanescens and                       RELEASE AND TRADE
Habrobracon hebetor low dose of
irradiation (20 and 40 Gy for T. evanescens
and 7.5 to 15 Gy for H. hebetor) had a                  1. Reproductive Sterilization of Host/
stimulating effect on adult longevity and                  Factitious Hosts/ Prey
oviposition. In Trichogramma chilonis low
dose irradiation (100 to 200 mGy) altered               The Problem:
the sex ratio in favour of females.                            Continued      development       and
                                                        emergence of non-parasitized fertile hosts,
                                                        factitious hosts, as well as of unused prey
7. Use of Radiation as a Tool to Study                  (pest) insects during rearing of natural
   Host-Natural Enemy Interactions                      enemies can require additional steps in
                                                        handling, thereby decreasing the efficiency
Problem:                                                of rearing systems.
      Behavioural and physiological inter-
actions between host and parasitoids are                How Can Nuclear Techniques help us to
complex, often difficult to study and not               solve the problem:
well understood.                                              Radiation     can    be    used    to
                                                        reproductively sterilize hosts, factitious
How Nuclear Techniques Can Help Us                      host or prey, thereby inhibiting further
Solve the Problem:                                      development      and      preventing    the
      Use of nuclear techniques may be                  emergence of unused individuals. This
used to selectively modify certain                      application of nuclear techniques would:
physiological processes in the host (e.g.,
host “odours”) thereby facilitating the                 a)   allow for the earlier shipping of hosts
study     of    particular host-parasitoid                   together with natural enemies without
interactions. Nuclear techniques may be                      the need to wait for emergence unused
also used to modify or terminate certain                     hosts;
parasitoid processes that affect host
physiology and behaviour (e.g., sterilizing             b) reduce the handling procedures
the parasitoid egg).                                       required during rearing of natural
                                                           enemies, thereby increasing the cost
Progress:                                                  effectiveness of the rearing process
      Irradiation     of    Glyptapanteles                 and the quality of the natural enemy
liparidis wasps (24 to 96 Gy) caused                       product;
temporary sterilization and a reduction in
oviposition. Effects of parasitization of               c)   facilitate the preservation of purity of
Lymantria dispar larvae by irradiated                        host, prey and/or natural enemy
female wasps indicate that this method can                   strains;
be used to study the influence of parasitoid
associated factors.                                     d) provide a cleaner product for
                                                           customers purchasing/using natural
                                                           enemies produced in this fashion.

                                                               During the rearing of natural enemies
                                                        it is often the case that not all of the host
                                                        material is parasitized or consumed,
                                                        requiring additional steps in handling prior
                                                        to shipment to prevent the release of pest
                                                        insects. Radiation has been successfully

                                               - 21 -
used to reproductively sterilize the host                  diet to the      natural   enemies   during
insects used to produce parasitoids of                     shipments.
Musca domestica , the stored grain pests,
Ephestia      kuehniella      and     Plodia
interpunctella, and to control a complex of                3. Provisioning    Natural       Enemy
sugar cane borers and Bactrocera oleae.                       Shipments with Sterilized Host/Prey
The use of sterilized hosts is also being
implemented on a large scale for the mass                  The Problem:
production of two larval fruit fly                                There exists a real or perceived risk
parasitoids, Diachasmimorpha longi-                        that shipping natural enemies with
caudata and Doryctobracon crawfordy,                       host/prey material will lead to introduction
being shipped to a number of countries.                    of non-native, pesticide resistant or new
These uses of natural enemies, without the                 strains of pest insects into new areas or
simultaneous release of pest insects, have                 countries. This may exacerbate the ever
only been made possible by the application                 stricter quarantine regulations required to
of radiation. In addition, the application of              obtain permits for natural enemy shipment.
radiation to the production of natural
                                                           How Can Nuclear Techniques help us to
enemies has reduced handling costs,
                                                           solve the problem:
allowed for earlier shipping, and provided
                                                                 Use of radiation has the potential of:
a cleaner product to the customer.
                                                           a)   killing or reproductively sterilizing
2. Provisioning   Natural     Enemy                             host/prey to provide the required
   Shipments with Sterilized Artificial                         quarantine security to overcome
   Diets                                                        regulatory barriers, and thereby
                                                                facilitating and encouraging national
The Problem:                                                    and international trade;
      Artificial diets have a short table-life
and, as such, are problematic to use for                   b) reducing the risk of inadvertently
rearing and shipment of natural enemies.                      shipping hitch-hiking arthropods with
How Can Nuclear Techniques help us to
solve the problem:                                         c)   extending the period of suitability of
       Radiation can be used to preserve the                    host or prey (as food) during shipping;
quality of the diet by delaying the process
                                                           d) allowing the addition of safe,
of diet degradation and, thereby, extending
                                                              nutritional supplements (in the form of
the acceptability and suitability of the
                                                              host/prey) to shipments of natural
artificial diet to the natural enemies. In this
                                                              enemies that will improve/maintain
way, the system also becomes more cost
                                                              their quality; allowing more timely
effective, as diets have longer table-life.
                                                              delivery of natural enemies by
Progress:                                                     eliminating the time required to allow
      Artificial diets often have a short                     non-parasitized hosts to emerge, and
table-life and, as such, can be problematic                   eliminating the need to separate
for use in provisioning shipments of                          emerged adult host from parasitized
natural enemies. Research has not been                        hosts allowing the customers more
carried out in this area. However, it is                      flexibility in release timing of natural
envisioned that radiation can be used to                      enemies
preserve the quality of the diet over longer
time periods, thereby extending the
                                                                 There exists a risk that shipping
acceptability and suitability of the artificial
                                                           natural enemies with viable host/prey

                                                  - 22 -
material will lead to the introduction of               are making use of this technology. One
non-native, pesticide resistant or new                  potential example is the shipment of sterile
strains of pest insects into new areas or               Musca domestica pupae to rear their
countries. Research on the use of pest mite             parasitoids in other locations.
eggs to provision shipments of predatory
mites has confirmed that radiation can be
used to eliminate the risk of introducing               C) SIT/F1 STERILITY +
fertile pest insects, or other hitch-hiking                BIOLOGICAL CONTROL
arthropods, and at the same time allow the
inclusion of nutritional supplements in the
                                                        1. Combination      of    Augmentative
form of host material to maintain quality.
                                                           Releases : SIT/F1 + Natural Enemies
This application of radiation will help
facilitate and encourage the national and               The Problem:
international trade of natural enemies.                       Agricultural and forest production is
                                                        adversely affected by many insect pests
4. Shipping    of   Sterilized  Pests/                  which have traditionally been controlled
   Factitious Hosts or Prey (in the                     with a heavy emphasis on chemical
   Absence of Natural Enemies):                         pesticides. Resistance to most insecticides
                                                        has been documented, leading to increased
The Problem:                                            use rates, which in return can exacerbate
       There exists a real or perceived risk            the adverse affects of pesticides on the
that shipping fertile hosts or prey material            environment.
will lead to accidental introduction of non-
native, pesticide resistant or different                How Nuclear Techniques Can Help Us
strains of pest insects into new areas or               Solve the Problem:
countries. This may exacerbate the ever                       Nuclear techniques (SIT/F1 sterility)
stricter quarantine regulations required to             and augmentative releases of natural
obtain permits for shipment of insects.                 enemies        (parasitoids,      predators,
                                                        nematodes, and insect pathogens) can
How Can Nuclear Techniques help us to                   significantly    reduce      insect   pests
solve the problem:                                      populations. Combining these tactics can
       The use of radiation will allow for              yield both additive and synergistic effects.
the commercial shipment of sterilized host              These combined augmentative releases
individuals, from one laboratory or                     would be compatible with traditional IPM
insectary to another, both within and                   programmes that could include resistant
between countries, Thus, commercial                     plant varieties, biopesticides, cultural
laboratories will be able to rear the same              practices, and mating disruption.
strain of natural enemy using the same host
material, insuring a standardized quality of            Progress:
the product for the customer.                                 Nuclear techniques (SIT/F1 sterility)
                                                        and augmentative releases of natural
Progress:                                               enemies are compatible strategies that can
      There are commercial needs and                    yield both additive and synergistic effects.
opportunities to ship sterile host/prey                 Laboratory studies and field trials with
material in the absence of natural enemies              Helicoverpa armigera, Helicoverpa zea,
for use and redistribution by smaller                   Phthorimaea      operculella,   Lymantria
rearing facilities and to standardize host              dispar, Spodoptera litura, Spodoptera
material to insure product quality. No                  exigua, and Plutella xylostella indicated
research has been carried out in this area,             that progeny from irradiated moths were
however, it is known that some                          acceptable as hosts for egg and larval
commercial biological control companies                 parasitoids. In addition, L. dispar larvae

                                               - 23 -
that were reproductively sterilized by                    the number of natural enemies could be
irradiation were found to be suitable                     increased prior to the outbreak. Releasing
carriers for the transmission of nuclear                  sterile insects as hosts for the natural
polyhedrosis virus to field pests                         enemies could increase the number of
populations.                                              natural enemies without increasing the risk
                                                          that the released pest will cause economic
                                                          damage in the future. Doses of radiation
2. Supplement Hosts for Natural                           required to reproductively sterilize pest
   Enemies Prior to Pest Population                       eggs and larvae were determined.
   Outbreak                                               Irradiated     Lymantria       dispar  and
                                                          Helicoverpa armigera eggs were studied in
The Problem:                                              the field and found to be acceptable and
      Many insect pests have demonstrated                 suitable as host for natural enemies.
cyclic population outbreaks. Although
these outbreaks may be predicted, effective
and environmentally friendly control                      3. Supplemental Hosts for Seasonal
strategies are needed to reduces the effects                 Maintenance of Natural Enemies
of these economically damaging events.
                                                          The Problem:
How Nuclear Techniques Can Help Us                              Pest populations can vary greatly
Solve the Problem:                                        from generation to generation. During
      An increase in the number of host                   periods of low pest densities, population
insects available for natural enemies can                 levels of their natural enemies can be
increase the population density of natural                reduced to very low levels. The low
enemies before a cyclic pest outbreak                     population levels of natural enemies are
begins. In this way, an optimum level of                  then unable to effectively respond in a
natural enemies can be available to prevent               timely manner to the next outbreak in the
expected pest outbreaks. Nuclear technique                pest population.
can be used to produce sterile host insects
or host insects with inherited sterility (F1).            How Nuclear Techniques Can Help Us
Releasing sterile insects as hosts for the                Solve the Problem:
natural enemies can increase the number of                       The use of SIT or F1 sterility could
host insects available for natural enemies                provide supplemental hosts in the form of
without increasing the risk that the released             sterile eggs, larvae, and pupae. These
insect pest will cause economic damage in                 supplemental hosts could sustain higher
the future.                                               population levels of natural enemies so that
                                                          future pest population increases would be
      Detail objectives:                                  moderated. An example of this application
                                                          would be the release of an egg parasitoid
a. Suitability of irradiated host         for             during a SIT program so that sterile eggs
   parasitoids [lab and field tests].                     deposited by irradiated insects could be
                                                          used by the parasitoid.
b. Optimum methods for releasing the
   sterile hosts.                                         Progress:
                                                                During periods of low pest densities,
c. Optimum methods for measuring the                      population levels of natural enemies can be
   effects the natural enemies following                  very low and unable to respond to an
   the releases of sterile hosts.                         increase in the pest population. Irradiated
                                                          Helicoverpa armigera and Plutella
                                                          xylostella moths released in the field laid
     Pests with demonstrated cyclic
                                                          eggs that served as host for feral egg
population outbreaks may be controlled if

                                                 - 24 -
parasitoids and caused the parasitoid                   or protected species. In some cases, despite
population to increase.                                 extensive and positive pre-release studies,
                                                        promising biological control agents are
                                                        ultimately rejected because of remaining
4. SIT Against Natural Enemy Pests                      doubts about their host specificity.
The Problem:                                            How Nuclear Techniques Can Help Us
      In certain cases where an insect                  Solve the Problem:
provides a useful service, natural enemies                    Radiation may be used to
of the useful insect are considered to be a             reproductively inactivate natural enemies
pest. Examples of this relationship would               so that they can be released and studied
include parasitoids of the silkworm,                    under actual field conditions without the
Bombyx mori, Varroa mites that attack                   risk of establishing breeding populations.
honeybees, or natural enemies of weed                   The use of reproductively inactivated
herbivores.                                             forms would allow one to further assess
                                                        and confirm oviposition behaviours and
How Nuclear Techniques Can Help Us                      host (acceptability) associations. The use
Solve the Problem:                                      of F1 sterile larvae of herbivores, being
      In this relationship, the natural                 considered for release against plant pests,
enemies could be sterilized with nuclear                also would allow field-testing larval
techniques and released in an SIT program               feeding preferences and the ability of these
to reduce the detrimental effects of the                larvae to develop and survive on related
natural enemies on the useful insect.                   plants that are of concern.
Progress:                                               Progress:
      In certain cases where an insect                         The importation of exotic natural
provides a useful service, natural enemies              enemies, particularly insect herbivores of
of the useful insect are considered to be a             plant pests, is becoming increasingly
pest (example: parasitoid of Bombyx mori,               difficult due to concerns over the
the uzi fly). Radiation biology studies were            possibility that imported natural enemies
conducted to determine the optimum dose                 may shift and become pests of beneficial
required to sterilize the natural enemy pest            or protected species. A model system
(Uzi fly).                                              including Opuntia spp. and the cactus
                                                        moth (Cactoblastis cactorum) has been
D) FACILITATION OF CLASSICAL                            developed to study the host range of an
   BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AND                               exotic herbivore. Radiation biology studies
   NATURAL ENEMY                                        have been initiated to determine the
   MONITORING                                           optimum dose at which females are
                                                        sterilized and males remain partially fertile
                                                        and produce sterile progeny.
1. Use of Reproductively Inactivated
   Agents for Final Confirmation of
   Host Specificity of Potential Exotic                 2. Use    of   Sterilized Hosts   for
   Biological Control Agents                               Exploration of New Natural Enemies
                                                           and for Monitoring Natural Enemy
Problem:                                                   Field Populations
      The importation of exotic natural
enemies, particularly insect herbivores of              Problem:
plant pests, is becoming increasingly                        The collection of new exotic natural
difficult due to concerns over the                      enemies or the monitoring of field
possibility that imported natural enemies               populations of native natural enemies is
may shift and become pests of beneficial

                                               - 25 -
sometimes complicated by the fact that                    Progress:
hosts are rare or difficult to locate.                          Monitoring of field populations of
                                                          natural enemies is sometimes complicated
How Nuclear Techniques Can Help Us                        by the fact that hosts are rare or difficult to
Solve the Problem:                                        locate. Radiation biology studies were
      Reproductively inactivated host                     conducted to determine appropriate doses
insects may be placed in the field in                     to reproductively inactivate certain life
strategic locations as sentinels to aid in the            stages. Reproductively inactivated eggs or
exploration and collection of new natural                 larvae of Lymantria dispar, Ephestia
enemies. These sentinels may also be used                 kuehniella and Plodia interpunctella were
to monitor natural enemy populations.                     released in the field to monitor the number
Furthermore, the use of live but                          and type of natural enemies (parasitoids
reproductively inactivated hosts will                     and pathogens).
eliminate the risk of increasing pest

A Molecular and Genetic Approach to Develop Sexing Strains for Field Application in
Fruit Fly SIT Programmes (CRP D4.10.15)

      The final RCM of this CRP was held                  fruit fly species has now been
at the Fruit Fly Research Center, in the                  demonstrated. Some of this work has been
University of Sydney, Australia from 9 –                  carried out in the Entomology Unit at
13 July 2001. The objectives of the CRP                   Seibersdorf and it represents a major
were to:                                                  breakthrough in the development of third
                                                          generation GSS. Data was also presented
1) optimize genetic sexing strains as                     on the development of GSS in B. dorsalis
   regards their genetic composition,                     and B. tryoni.
   productivity and application;
                                                                The use of the filter rearing system
2) develop third generation genetic                       (FRS) and the introduction of improved
   sexing strains using nuclear and                       GSS, have had significant impacts on the
   molecular methods, and                                 use of medfly GSS. The meeting focussed
                                                          on a) the use of inversions to improve GSS
3) develop genetic sexing strains in fruit                and isolation of useful genes, b) the use of
   flies other than medfly.                               microsatellite analysis to better understand
                                                          incursions of fruit flies into new areas and
      Results presented at the meeting and                c) the use of ginger oil to increase the
elsewhere have shown that for the current                 mating success of male fruit flies.
genetic sexing strains (GSS) the first
objective has been achieved as almost all                       The CRP consisted of 8 research
medfly rearing facilities now use these                   teams and representatives of 6 were
strains. Progress to achieve the second                   present at this last meeting together with a
objective has been very positively                        large number of observers. The results of
influenced by advances made in a related                  the CRP will be published in a special
CRP on genetic transformation (D4.10.12)                  issue of the journal Genetica.
where genetic transformation for several

                                                 - 26 -
Automation in tsetse mass rearing for use in sterile insect technique programmes (CRP

       The final RCM took place from 9 to              rearing. Prototypes of tsetse production
13 July 2001 in Addis Ababa Ethiopia and               units, TPU were produced and evaluated
was attended by all 5 participants. The                and verification took place in target
CRP lasted 6 years and achieved its                    countries. TPU 3 is a production unit in
objective of improving and upgrading                   which cages are held stationary in a frame
tsetse mass rearing by the development and             and blood in the feeding system is moved
utilization of automated and other                     to them and then raised to make contact
methods. Simple, efficient, flexible and               with the cages.
affordable systems and procedures able to
meet requirements for large scale tsetse                      The systems and procedures can be
mass rearing were developed. Mating                    adopted to meet the need for large-scale
regimes appropriate for automated mass                 production of sterile males for tsetse
rearing and direct loading of production               eradication in Africa. The design of future
cages (self-stocking of production cages,              sterile male production facilities will be
SSPC) were developed. Adult sex                        based on systems and procedures
separation based on differences in eclosion            developed during this CRP. However the
time was demonstrated and tested in                    participants identified areas that need
Ethiopia, Burkina Faso and Tanzania. The               further development        namely; cage
automated sex separation and direct                    design/size for maximum use of feeding
loading of production cages may be used                surface; automation of pupal collection and
for production of male pupae only for                  SSPC and non manual filling of blood
sterile male production. Procedures                    feeding system for large colonies, facility
developed have been adopted by rearing                 design      and    environment      control
facilities in member states paving the way             particularly light and heating system for
for the standardization of tsetse mass                 blood.

Genetic Applications to Improve the SIT for Tsetse Control/Eradication including
Population Genetics (CRP D4.20.05).

      The CRP focuses research on the                  continent has resulted in the planning of
population genetics of tsetse as a tool in             extensive tsetse intervention programmes
the management of tsetse SIT programmes,               incorporating the SIT. A key component in
using a range of modern techniques, with               the identification of target populations is to
emphasis on the requirements of the tsetse             delimit the degree of their isolation from
eradication project in the Southern Rift               other populations; a very powerful tool to
Valley of Ethiopia.                                    aid in this decision making is population
                                                       genetic analysis. A second component of
     The second RCM was held from 3 -                  target population identification is the use
7 October 1999, in Mombasa, Kenya in                   of GIS mapping technology.
conjunction with the 25th OAU/STRC
ISCTRC Meeting and the 3rd RCM was                           Results so far from the CRP confirm
held 19-23 of March 2001, at FAO, in                   previous analyses that showed there is a
Rome, Italy.                                           surprisingly high level of population
                                                       structuring in tsetse, even over quite small
      The recent declaration of the African            geographic distances. However, adequate
Heads of State and Government on the                   sampling has not been carried out over a
eradication of tsetse from the African                 sufficiently wide geographic area and this

                                              - 27 -
remains    a      major   constraint  to                are crossed, may provide an additional
understanding    fully tsetse population                component to SIT. Data from many
structure.                                              different crossing schemes illustrate the
                                                        complexity of the hybrid phenotype but
      Polytene chromosome maps are now                  identify several situations in which females
available for G. austeni, G. pallidipes and             could be permanently sterilized following
G. morsitans submorsitans. Banding                      mating with a male from a different taxon.
pattern analysis has revealed the presence
of many inversion differences between the                 The 4th and final RCM will tentatively
species. So far no field populations have               be held in Edmonton, Canada, in early
been analysed to see if there are floating              2003.
inversions as there are in mosquitoes and
black flies. A sex-distorter phenotype in G.            Expected duration: 6 years (1997-2003).
m. submorsitans was shown to be
associated with complex inversions on an                Contract Holders (3) from: Greece, Kenya
X chromosome.                                           and Burkina Faso.

   The frequent occurrence of hybrid                    Agreement Holders (7) from: Greece,
sterility, when tsetse from different taxa              Kenya, Belgium, Canada, United States (2)
                                                        and Italy.

Genetic Sexing and Population Genetics of Screwworms (CRP D4.20.09)

      A very successful area-wide                       achieve this would be to develop a genetic
programme for the eradication of the New                sexing strain for NWS.
World Screwworm (NWS) has been
carried out in North and Central America.                      For SIT to be effectively developed
A Thematic Plan for both NWS and OWS                    for the OWS much data is needed on
(Old World Screwworm) identified several                distribution and the genetic relationships of
technical constraints for the further                   populations from S. E. Asia to the Middle
expansion of SIT for these two species and              East and Sub-Saharan Africa. The CRP
these form the core of this new CRP. Any                will address these high priority areas.
expansion of the NWS programme into the
Caribbean and South America will require                      1st RCM and Workshop: 28 January
information on the target populations in                – 5 February 2002, Campinas, Brazil.
that large area where very little is known
concerning the distribution and levels of               Expected duration: 5 years (2002 – 2006).
population isolation. In addition, the size
                                                        Contract Holders (5) from: Brazil,
of the populations to be targeted and the
                                                        Indonesia, Iran, Uruguay, Venezuela.
area over which they are distributed will
require that economies be made in fly                   Agreement Holders (5) from: Sweden, UK
production and release costs. One way to                (2), USA (2).

Enhancement of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) through Genetic Transformation Using
Nuclear Techniques (CRP D4.10.12)

      The third RCM was held in São                     presented the results of the research
Paulo, Brazil on 14 – 18 August 2000. The               conducted over the last 18 months and
meeting was attended by 8 participants of               discussed     the     developments and
this CRP and three observers. The group                 opportunities for future work.

                                               - 28 -
      Since the last RCM, the participating              based research to consider the more
laboratories have been very successful in                applied aspects of using transgenic
generating a range of novel vectors, genes,              technology to the benefit of the SIT. This
regulatory elements and approaches which                 will include studies on the genetic
have the potential for incorporation into                behaviour of transgenic insects, e.g.
the SIT. Medfly remains the essential                    stability of transgenic strains over
model for the development of the                         extended periods of time and under less
transgenic technology for the SIT.                       favourable rearing conditions.
However, it is foreseen that the major
impact and opportunities for exploiting this                   It is planned to hold the last RCM in
technology will be the development of                    Capri, from 8-12 July 2002.
genetic sexing systems for other key pest
species that are the target for SIT and                  Expected duration: 7 years (1995-2002).
where the background knowledge in
genetics/cytology is lacking.                            Contract Holders (2) from: Greece and
                                                         from New Zealand
      Over the forthcoming period, the
participating laboratories will be well                  Agreement Holders (8) from: United
placed to begin the move from laboratory-                Kingdom, United States (4) and Italy (3).

Development of Improved Attractants and their Integration into Fruit Fly SIT
Management Programme (CPR D4.10.17)

      The first Research Coordination                    experiments by April 2002 in the next
Meeting (RCM) for development of                         RCM to be held in Stellenbosch, South
improved attractants for female fruit flies              Africa. All the relevant documents and
and their integration into fruit fly SIT                 papers that were presented during the
management programmes took place from                    meeting have been compiled in the
August 28 to September 1, 2000, in São                   working document for consultation.
Paulo, Brazil. Eighteen professionals from               Technical details including the standard
13 countries and 4 subregions participated               research protocol, fruit fly conditions in
in the meeting, most of them as contract                 each country, species being addressed, list
holders and some as observers. A                         of participants and material requirements
consensus was reached on a standard                      can be found in this report.
protocol for the core experiments and on
the side experiments that will be carried                Expected duration: 5 years (1999-2003).
out during the first phase of this CRP
following protocols developed by the                     Contract Holders (15) from: Argentina,
participants. Lists of materials required for            Brazil (2), Colombia, Costa Rica, Greece,
the first year experiments and delivery                  Honduras, Israel, Mauritius, Mexico,
schedules for supplying them were                        Pakistan, Spain, USA (2).
prepared. Participants will be presenting
the results of the first experiments as well             Agreement Holders (4) from: United
as a progress report of the second year                  Kingdom, Portugal, France and Spain.

Improved Attractants for Enhancing the Efficiency of Tsetse Fly Suppression Operations
and Barrier Systems Used in Tsetse Control/ Eradication Campaigns (CRP D4.20.08)

      This CRP aims at alleviating the                   odours used for Glossina morsitans and G.
shortcomings in attractants for a number of              pallidipes are poor or ineffective, and in
important tsetse species where the standard              general to try to improve attractant

                                                - 29 -
effectiveness   for    a)    entomological                        The antennal chemoreceptors of
monitoring,    b)     tsetse     population                 Glossina brevipalpis and G. pallidipes
suppression and c) barrier maintenance.                     show responses to plant secondary
                                                            products, as indicated by electroantenno-
      The 3rd Research Co-ordination                        gramme assays of essential oils.
Meeting took place in Bamako, Mali, 21 –                    Preliminary wind tunnel experiments
25 February 2000 and was attended by 8                      indicate that some plant secondary
participants and numerous observers. In                     products also evoke behavioural responses
the months preceding the meeting,                           from tsetse.
molecules that are stereo-isomerically
related to known natural tsetse kairomones                        As conventional PVC or fibreglass
have been synthesised and tested in                         leg panels are expensive and heavy to
laboratory experiments and field trials. In                 carry, efforts were undertaken to develop
addition, an effort was made to identify                    lighter and less expensive leg panels for
locally available inexpensive sources of                    trapping G. austeni. The leg panel made
visual and chemical attractants.                            from a wire framework and royal blue
                                                            polyethylene (150 m) appears to meet
      Among the odours tested in the                        these requirements and holds Temoocid®
coastal region of Kenya for G. austeni, G.                  (the sticky substance) for a sufficiently
pallidipes and G. brevipalpis, octyl                        long placement period (> three months).
formate and decyl formate proved
attractive. Preliminary studies reveal that                        Gas-chromatographic and mass-
racemic octenol increases the capture rate                  spectrometric analyses of the oxidative
of G. brevipalpis males. Coconut oil                        degradation process of methyl linoleate, a
increases the capture rate of G. austeni and                model for linoleic acid containing
G. pallidipes.                                              vegetable oils, revealed the formation of
                                                            (±) 1-octen-3-ol, suggesting the use of
      Preliminary field studies placing                     these oils as low-cost octenol sources in
electrified grids close to pyramidal traps on               field traps.
Buvuma islands, Lake Victoria, Uganda,
revealed that of the synthesised attractants                The 4th and Final RCM is scheduled for
decylformate       and    racemic     octenol               Kampala, Uganda 18 – 22 March, 2002.
significantly increased the number of
attracted (but not trapped) female G.                       Expected duration: 6 years (1995-2002).
fuscipes fuscipes. Alternative trap designs                 Contract Holders (7) from: Mali, Burkina
for G. f. fuscipes (e.g. the H-trap) will be
                                                            Faso, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania and
explored in combination with different                      Hungary.
odour combinations, in order to combine
increased attractiveness with a higher rate                 Agreement Holders (2) from: Switzerland
of trap entry.                                              and the United States.

Quality Assurance of Mass Produced and Released Fruit Flies (CRP D4.10.16)

      This CRP was established after a                      Vienna. This meeting produced an updated
Consultants Group Meeting on the                            international manual of standard QC
International Standardization of Quality                    procedures (available for downloading
Control Procedures for Mass Reared and                      from the internet5) and recommended
Released Fruit Flies, held in May 1997 in                   implementing this CRP to address those


                                                   - 30 -
technical issues that require fine-tuning                      The first Research Co-ordination
and those that could not be resolved and                 Meeting, to plan and co-ordinate the
therefore require a co-ordinated R&D                     research, was held 1 – 5 November 1999 in
approach to develop new or better QC                     the IAEA, Vienna, Austria. Proceedings of
tests.                                                   this meeting are available from the
                                                         Section. The 2nd RCM was held in
       The objective of the CRP is to                    Mendoza, Argentina from 26 – 30
improve and standardise international                    November 2001. (This RCM coincided
quality control procedures for mass                      with the preparation of this Newsletter; a
produced fruit flies. There are now more                 report will be presented in the next
than ten fruit fly mass rearing facilities in            Newsletter).
the world that produce sterile flies for SIT
programmes. With international trade in                  Expected duration: 6 years (1999-04).
sterile insects becoming a reality, it is
important that producers and users apply                 Contract Holders (12) from: Argentina (2),
standard international quality control                   Chile, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Israel (2),
procedures.      This    CRP,      involving             Lebanon, Mexico (2), Peru, Philippines
behaviourists, physiologists and mass                    and Portugal.
rearing specialists allows us to fine-tune
the internationally accepted quality control             Agreement Holders (5) from: Australia,
procedures as well as develop new tests                  France, Japan, South Africa and the United
measuring more representative parameters.                States.

                                                - 31 -


                                                           system, they have some serious problems in
Storing male Glossina pallidipes at low                    terms of construction and maintenance.
temperature                                                Developments are taking place to assess
                                                           whether injection moulded cages can be
       For large scale tsetse SIT programmes               produced. A prototype has been produced
it will be necessary to develop a chilled adult            and tested and though improvements are still
release system for aerial release of sterile               needed, in principle an injection-moulded
males. To assess the effect of low                         cage is a serious possibility for large scale
temperature a series of studies on male                    tsetse rearing.
Glossina pallidipes has been carried out
where adult males were stored for different                       The use of a high radiation dose to
amounts of time at 7°C and at 4°C. First day               reduce the bacterial load of large volumes of
mortality among flies exposed to low                       blood collected in an abattoir is a major
temperature was significantly higher than the              technical constraint to tsetse mass rearing in
control group depending on the length of                   Africa and elsewhere. In an effort to provide
time the adult flies were exposed to 7°C.                  a solution to this problem, collaboration was
Females that mated with males that had been                started with the Food Technology
stored at low temperature had significantly                Department of the University in Vienna to
lower spermathecal values than females                     assess whether pasteurization technology
mated with males from the normal colony.                   could be used. Initial results following
Storage of adults for longer than 24 hours is              different treatments of blood with a
extremely damaging to the flies. The exact                 pasteurizer in the University were not
protocol in terms of temperature and time                  successful. A machine was subsequently
will depend on the production and release                  loaned to the Unit and a series of
logistics developed during the field                       experiments were carried out. Although not
programmes. However it was concluded that                  conclusive, the bioassay results were
storage of adult males at low temperature                  encouraging and they need to be followed
invariably reduces survival and insemination               up.
potential of the males. Therefore the time
spent in the low temperature has to be as
short as possible. A prototype chilled adult               Re-mating among female tsetse flies
release machine is now at Seibersdorf and
will be evaluated shortly.                                        Experiments were conducted to
                                                           determine re-mating among tsetse flies and
                                                           the effect of re-mating on production when
Rearing Developments                                       females are first mated to irradiated males.
                                                           The preliminary results indicate that re-
      The TPU 3 fly holding and feeding                    mating is less frequent when females are first
system has been expanded on the basis of                   mated by normal males followed by
very positive results during the initial                   irradiated males. More females accept
evaluation. The system will be installed in a              second mating when first mated to irradiated
large tsetse rearing facility in Burkina Faso.             males. Although the number of flies
The cages used in the TPU 3 are the standard               observed is small, it would appear that when
cages and although they function well in the

                                                  - 32 -
females are mated to normal males followed                  mating takes place among female G.
by irradiated males, their production is not                pallidipes and G. brevipalpis, it is important
affected whereas when females are first                     to determine its frequency and the influence
mated to irradiated males followed by                       of re-mating on induced sterility/sperm
normal males more than 50% produce                          usage using the field cage.
normal pupae. Having established that re-


                                                            genotypes die as early as possible. It is
Induction of new translocations                             obvious that “construction of improved
                                                            strains” in essence means selection of
        Over the last years, a significant                  appropriate strains from a large number of
amount of data was gathered on the genetic                  candidates. Based on this we have started
behaviour      of    different    Y-autosome                several experiments to find better
translocations and their usefulness for the                 translocations:
construction of operational genetic sexing
strain (GSS), i.e. strains that are not only                 a)   Irradiation treatment of males with a
stable at the required mass rearing level but                     very short Y chromosome
also show the maximum benefit for the
economics of mass rearing. The structure of                  b)   Re-irradiation of existing Y-autosome
the translocation determines the stability of                     translocations
the GSS. Two aspects are here of relevance:
firstly, type 1 recombination which                          c)   Irradiation treatment of males carrying
determines how closely linked the selectable                      a balancer chromosome
markers are to the translocation breakpoint
and secondly, type 2 recombination which                           So far, 200 single pairs with irradiated
involves intra-Y-chromosomal recomb-                        males were screened for experiment a) and 6
ination related to the different types of                   new translocations were detected which we
sequences on this chromosome. In addition,                  are currently analysing genetically and
the structure of the translocation determines               cytologically, in collaboration with A.
the sex and the viability of the progeny                    Zacharopoulou (University of Patras). For
generated by adjacent-1 segregation during                  experiment b) 100 single pairs have been
male meiosis. In all cases observed so far                  screened while experiment c) is about to
adjacent-1 segregation occurs with the same                 start.
frequency as alternate segregation, i.e. all
simple Y-autosome translocations show 50%
sterility due to the inviability of the                     Medfly Transgenics
genetically       unbalanced       adjacent-1
                                                                   In collaboration with Al Handler
genotypes. This lethality represents a
                                                            (USDA-ARS Gainesville) new medfly
problem for mass rearing because the
                                                            transgenic lines were generated. In total
productivity of the colony is reduced by 50%
                                                            5292 medfly embryos were injected with
and as the lethality does not necessarily
                                                            three different piggyBac constructs carrying
occur at the embryo stage rearing efficiency
                                                            as marker either EGFP or DsRed, both are
is reduced and some QC parameters are
                                                            fluorescent proteins (GFP). Two different
affected negatively.
                                                            strains, D53 (inversion, white pupae,
      The challenge for the construction of                 temperature sensitive lethal) and EgII (wild
improved strains is to identify translocations              type), were used. The recovery of viable G0
where the sterility is reduced (e.g. reduced                flies was significantly higher in case of EgII
frequency of adjacent-1 segregation, or other               (26.7%) than with D53 (0.9%). The
modes of linking selectable markers to the                  experiment with DsRed was unsuccessful
male lineage) or, if that is not possible, to at            but will be repeated shortly. In total, 70 G1
least find strains where the adjacent-1                     flies displaying GFP were recovered, out of

                                                   - 33 -
which at least 12 should represent                          24°C before treatment stops development.
independent events. These flies were initially              The viability of the embryos decreased in
crossed with w wp flies. Later, 57 lines were               relationship to the length of the treatment
made homozygous and, currently, these                       period for all temperature treatment. It was
families are being analysed with respect to                 concluded that storage of eggs in water at
the expression of GFP in adults and after                   24°C without bubbling stops development.
death. The results obtained so far indicate                 In almost all treatments where the eggs were
that a significant variability between                      exposed to any temperature for longer than
different lines can be observed while the                   24 hours there was an unacceptable loss in
respective patterns of fluorescence are stable              viability.
within each line. No obvious correlation
between the pattern/intensity and the                             In a second experiment, eggs were
promoters used in the two different                         collected 0-1 hour after oviposition. Young
constructs      can      be     seen.     The               embryos are very sensitive to storage.
analysis/classification of the different lines              However, storage of embryos 24 hours and
will be extended using molecular techniques.                older can be carried out at different
                                                            temperatures and for periods up to 72 hours
                                                            at 20ºC without affecting egg hatch. It was
Storage and Transport of Eggs                               concluded that egg shipment will indeed be
                                                            possible but eggs need to be at least 24 hours
        The possibility of shipping medfly                  old    when transported.         Experimental
eggs to rearing and release centres is being                shipments will now be initiated between
considered as a way to increase the                         Seibersdorf and El Pino, Guatemala.
efficiency of large operational SIT
programmes. This would enable large
facilities producing eggs from genetic sexing               Olive Fly Rearing
strains to ship eggs to satellite facilities
where only male insects need to be reared,                         The olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) is the
sterilized and released. In order to test this              primary pest for olive plantations in the
system experimentally, it was decided to                    Mediterranean basin and elsewhere,
carry out some initial laboratory studies on                including a recent introduction into
egg storage to provide protocols for test                   California and northwestern Mexico. Many
shipments between the El Pino facility in                   years ago extensive studies were carried out
Guatemala and Seibersdorf.                                  on the development of SIT for this species
                                                            and a recent review of these studies is now
       Initially, the effect on egg viability of            available from the sub-programme. Current
egg storage for different periods of time                   rearing technology is not appropriate for any
followed by storage at different temperatures               area-wide SIT approach for this species. The
was assessed using eggs collected 0-6 hours                 laboratory will initiate studies on this species
after oviposition. The eggs were initially                  to try to improve mass rearing technology
stored for different periods of up to 36 hours              and bring down the cost of fly production.
at 24°C followed by treatment at different                  Olive fly pupae were obtained from a colony
temperatures for different amounts of time.                 maintained by Dr. E. Economopoulos,
Egg hatch was then measured. Egg hatch                      University of Crete, Greece and a small
decreased with the length of the egg storage                colony has been established. The R and D
for all temperatures. Increasing the length of              activities to be carried out are part of a wider
the temperature treatment also decreased the                European project that has been submitted to
egg hatch, independent of the temperature                   the EU for funding.
used. The similarity in the pattern of egg
hatch for all the treatment temperatures
suggests that storage of eggs in water at

                                                   - 34 -

                                                         have been very difficult to deal with and in
Member of the Order of Canada                            some cases the traditional technology has
awarded to Arnold Dyck for his lifetime                  simply failed to contain them. Secondly,
achievements in insect pest control and                  there has been a vociferous and well-
agriculture.                                             organised public campaign against the use
                                                         of cover sprays that caused the Governor
      Victor Arnold Dyck, C.M., was                      to take a decision to ban their use this year.
distinguished by the Government of                       Fortunately, Western Australia has just
Canada with the Member of the Order of                   completed a feasibility study for medfly
Canada (C.M.). Dr. Dyck is a respected                   eradication and has a small rearing facility
entomologist whose life’s work has had an                in Broom producing about 10 million
important effect on insect pest control                  males/week using a tsl-GSS. The
practices in various parts of the world. A               eradication programme in South Australia
specialist in agricultural research and the              is now purchasing sterile flies from the
use of the Sterile Insect Technique, he led              facility for weekly releases to deal with
the Agriculture Canada codling moth                      incursions into the state.
research project in the Okanagan Valley,
which had a major impact on the fruit tree
industry of British Columbia. He directed                Shipments to Israel
the Zanzibar project that helped to
eliminate the tsetse fly population.                           The Entomology Unit will produce
Currently working for the International                  and ship 5 million sterile male medfly
Atomic Energy Agency, he has                             pupae per week to Israel in support of
contributed, through his enthusiasm, his                 IAEA/TC project ISR/5/010 “Upgrading
research abilities and his leadership skills,            the     Area-Wide     Control     of    the
to the development of the agricultural and               Mediterranean fruit fly using the Sterile
economic sectors of many countries.                      Insect Technique”. Male flies from a trial
                                                         shipment of the strain were evaluated in
                                                         Israel and shown to be competitive for the
Sterile Insect Technique for Medfly in                   wild female medflies. These shipments are
Adelaide                                                 a stopgap measure to support the
                                                         programme in the absence of medflies
       For many years the area of Adelaide               from other rearing facilities. This clear
has experienced incursions of medfly                     imbalance in supply and demand suggests
brought in from Western Australia, despite               that    commercialisation     of     medfly
a very aggressive quarantine policy. These               production should be a viable business.
outbreaks, if allowed to become
established, would threaten very important
commercial fruit growing areas in the fruit              Pilot use of SIT to Control the Sweet
fly exclusion zone (FFEZ) to the east.                   Potato Weevil on Kume Island, Japan.
These outbreaks have been traditionally
dealt with using a combination of cover                       The Sweet Potato Weevil (SPW),
and bait sprays. This year the programme                 Cylus formicarius, first described in India
has run into very serious technical and                  in 1792, is a serious pest of sweet potato.
political problems. Firstly, the incursions              SPW spread from its origin in India and it

                                                - 35 -
is now present throughout Asia, some
countries in Africa and in the American
continent. The larvae develop in the
tuberous roots of sweet potato causing
irreversible damage to the plant.

     In 1994-95, the Department of
Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of the
Okinawa Prefectural Government in Japan,
launched a pilot project to control the pest
on Kume Island.

       Until 1998, the control method
included the use of a specific sexual
attractant developed by R. Heath                          Cylus formicarius (Photo courtesy of R.
(USDA/ARS). As in the case for the Male                   Burns, Texas Agricultural Extension
Annihilation Technique used against some                  Services)
tephritid flies, blocks impregnated with a
mixture of the attractant and an insecticide              semester of 2001, these operations resulted
were released over the entire island.                     in a ten-fold decrease in the wild
Unfortunately and unlike Bactrocera fruit                 population of the SPW on Kume Island.
flies, SPW adults do not feed on the
                                                                In order to lead to a wider use of SIT
attractant and consequently do not ingest
                                                          against the SPW, research is needed in the
the insecticide. This method alone was not
                                                          following fields: (i) development of a high
successful in efficiently controlling the
                                                          yield artificial diet and of an effective egg-
SPW populations.
                                                          collection process. The actual larval
       In parallel, "mass-rearing" of the pest            rearing on sweet potatoes strongly limits
was being developed in Okinawa. SPW is                    the number of eggs produced; (ii)
reared on sweet potato roots. The                         improvement of survival of sterile SPW.
attractiveness of the synthetic lure was                  The survival of sterile SPW is actually
used as a sexing tool to select males only                limited to one week in the field against
for release. SPW adults are then exposed to               over three weeks for the wild individuals.
an irradiation dose of 200 Gy which                       In addition, research is already being done
induces a nearly 100% sterility in the                    to develop small size (about the size of
population [until September 2001, an                      SPW), round-shaped lure-toxicant blocks
irradiation dose of 100 Gy was applied                    which are foreseen to be more efficient in
which resulted in a 90% sterility rate].                  attracting and thus killing SPW adults by
                                                          contact. These "MAT" blocks would be
       As from early 1999, an SIT                         needed to artificially decrease wild SPW
component      was    then     successfully               population prior to large scale SIT
integrated into the control strategy. The                 operations.
aerial release is done by helicopter from
which paper bags (9x20.5cm) containing                          A pilot project was also initiated to
1,000 SPW adults of both sexes are                        control the West Indian Sweet Potato
released at a rate of 500 to 2,000                        Weevil (WISPW), Euscepes postfasciatus,
individuals per hectare. Initially, 100,000               in a 30 ha area of Kume Island. An
sterile SPW adults were released weekly                   unsuccessful attempt was made to rear the
over Kume Island. As from 2001,                           WISPW on artificial diet. In order to use
following the increase in production                      SIT against the WISPW on a larger scale,
capacity, a total of 1 million adults are                 research would be needed: (i) to develop
released weekly. From 1999 until the first                an effective egg collection method; (ii) to

                                                 - 36 -
evaluate the adverse effects of sterilization              of candidate malaria vaccines, none have
on adult longevity; (iii) to synthesize an                 proved sufficiently protective against
effective attractant for this pest as available            malaria to warrant use in malaria control.
for the SPW in order to set-up effective                   Even when one is available, the belief is
population monitoring and suppression                      that a vaccine should be deployed
methods.                                                   alongside other control methodologies.

      These pilot projects run in the                            The Sterile Insect Technique has
Okinawa Archipelago are promising and                      been shown to be an effective technology
show that some R&D can make the                            for the suppression and/or eradication of
technique available for large scale area-                  certain key insect pests including the
wide SIT-based integrated control of sweet                 vector of animal trypanosomosis, tsetse
potato weevils.                                            fly. These factors have led to renewed
                                                           interest by Member States in the potential
(Information provided by Dr. Tadashi                       of the SIT for the suppression of mosquito
Teruya, Research Institute for Subtropics,                 vectors in suitable areas.
Okinawa, Japan).
                                                                 Previous attempts to develop the SIT
                                                           against Anopheles mosquitoes took place
Work to start on R & D for mosquito                        mainly in the 1960’s and 1970’s and a
SIT                                                        number of field trials were conducted.
                                                           Over the last decade there have been
      Malaria is the most important insect                 repeated requests from Member States to
transmitted      disease.     It    causes                 evaluate SIT for application against
approximately two million deaths a year                    vectors of malaria. As a result of these
and there are about 300–500 million cases                  requests, two consultants meetings - in
of clinical malaria annually. Over 90% of                  1993 and 1996 - advised on the possible
the world’s malaria cases occur in Africa,                 use of SIT for the control of malaria
and in many countries it consumes a major                  mosquitoes. Both Consultant Reports
portion of the national health budget. The                 commissioned by the IAEA recognized the
disease constitutes a major obstacle to                    potential of SIT for area-wide control of
poverty reduction in Africa; according to                  mosquitoes, but stressed that important
some estimates, it has slowed economic                     technical constraints relating to several key
growth in African countries by 1.3% per                    components of SIT technology must first
year. The burden that malaria places on                    be removed. They recommended candidate
societies and economies was recognized                     Anopheles species for SIT together with
when 48 African Heads of State and                         potential target sites for initial field trials.
Government met in Nigeria in April 2000                    However they noted that the technology
and adopted the Abuja Declaration on Roll                  for large-scale field application does not
Back Malaria (RBM) in Africa.                              exist and substantial R&D is needed to
                                                           develop the methods required.
      Early treatment for malaria requires
affordable and effective drugs but there are                     Now, following IAEA General
growing problems of drug resistance.                       Conference Resolution (GC-44/24), the
Insecticide treated bed nets have proved a                 Sub-programme has been instructed to
valuable control tool in seasonal                          embark on a feasibility study of the use of
transmission areas, but they are ineffective               SIT for one important vector of malaria.
in hyperendemic areas and resistance to                    To implement the above resolution, a
pyrethroid insecticides, already reported                  meeting was convened involving national
from several countries in Africa, could                    experts from 8 African countries,
limit the efficacy of bed nets if it were to               international experts and a representative
become more widespread. In recent trials                   from WHO. Emanating from this June

                                                  - 37 -
2001 meeting was a detailed definition of a               network of centres in Africa, together with
five-year R&D project aimed at                            strengthened collaboration with centres of
developing and evaluating SIT technology                  excellence elsewhere.
for An. arabiensis, a major malaria-
transmitting species that is the only vector                    The feasibility study will start in
in large parts of its distribution in Africa.             2002 and will focus on the following
A project document has been prepared that                 technical constraints:
would guide future work and would be
used by the Agency and Member States to                   a)   Development of efficient methods of
solicit donor support. The funding                             mass rearing Anopheles mosquitoes.
requirements for the 5-year project amount                b) Improvement of sterilization, handling
to $4.64 million. The scope of this initial                  and release methodology.
project is limited to: (a) laboratory R&D of
SIT technology for An. arabiensis; (b) the                c)   Design of genetic and molecular
collection of baseline data from field                         methods for the production of male
site(s); (c) training and capacity building in                 mosquitoes.
a network of centres in Africa. The project               d) Integration of the SIT with other
will also involve establishing an improved                   Anopheles control approaches.

                                                 - 38 -
      The following resolution in support of PATTEC was passed at the recent FAO General
conference. The application of this resolution will give strong additional support to PATTEC,
                         to complement that provided by the IAEA.

 Plan of Action for the Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Eradication Campaign


Acknowledging that tsetse flies which affect 37 African countries and cause an estimated
annual loss of US$ 4.5 billion were one of Africa’s greatest constraints to socio-economic
development, severely affecting human and livestock health, limiting land use, causing
poverty and perpetuating underdevelopment on the African continent,

Realizing that elimination of tsetse flies would significantly contribute to increased
productivity of crops and livestock and reduce rural poverty on the African continent,

Recognizing decisions AHG/Dec. 156 (XXXVI) of 12 July 2000 and AHG/Dec. 169 (XXVI)
of 11 July 2001 by the Heads of State and Government of the Organization of African Unity
(OAU) to free Africa of tsetse flies, and their endorsement of and commitment to the OAU’s
Plan of Action for the Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Eradication Campaign

Taking note that the PATTEC was officially launched in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso,
during the Second Orientation Workshop for the Directors of Animal Resources and
Veterinary Services on Policy and Strategy for Tsetse Eradication held on 29-30 September

Noting the recommendations made by the FAO Liaison officers meeting for West and Central
Africa, in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso on 29 September 2001, inviting the international
community to fully support the PATTEC initiative,

Recalling that the World Food Summit Plan of Action of 1996, adopted in Rome on 13
November 1996, recommended that Governments, in partnership with all actors of civil
society, and with the support of international institutions, seek to ensure effective prevention
and progressive control of plant and animal pests and disease, including those which are of
transboundary nature,

Considering the acknowledgement of the problem by the Secretary-General of the United
Nations in his recent report to the United Nations Economic and Social Council, and the
Resolution E/2001/L.34 adopted by the United Nations Economic and Social Council on 25
July 2001, calling upon all Member Nations, organizations of the United Nations System and
the international community to fully support the Organization of African Unity’s Pan-African
Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Eradication Campaign,

Acknowledging the Resolution GC(45/RES/12, adopted on 21 September 2001 by the Forty-
fifth Session of the Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency, welcoming the
OAU’s Plan of Action of the eradication of tsetse flies from Africa and calling upon Member
Nations to provide technical, financial and material support to African Member Nations in
their efforts to eradicate tsetse flies,

                                             - 39 -
Considering that the Twenty-ninth Session of the FAO Conference in adopting
Resolution 5/97 on the Programme against African Trypanosomiasis (PAAT) endorsed the
objectives and structures for PAAT in recognition of its concern over the considerable adverse
impact of Trypanosomiasis on agricultural production and human welfare, and for PAAT’s
potential to contribute to the objectives of the World Food Summit Plan of Action,

Supporting the significant joint efforts undertaken by FAO, IAEA, OAU and WHO through

Recognizing the important contribution that FAO was making in the fields of pest and disease
control and in food and agricultural production,

       1. Welcomes the OAU initiative for the progressive control and ultimate eradication
       of tsetse flies from Africa as an important tool to increase animal and agricultural
       production in affected countries,

       2. Urges affected Member Nations to include tsetse flies eradication in their Poverty
       Reduction Strategy Papers,

       3. Requests FAO, in cooperation with Member Nations and relevant international
       organizations, to support African Member Nations in their efforts to effectively
       combat the human and animal diseases and their vectors, and in particular to support
       the OAU’s initiative of PATTEC,

       4. Requests the Director General to report on the progress made in the
       implementation of this Resolution to the Council and the Conference at its Thirty-
       second Session.

                                                               (Adopted on 12 November 2001)

                                            - 40 -
I.                    ANNOUNCEMENTS


Marc Vreysen joins the Insect Pest Control Section

       Marc Vreysen joined the Section as a             culminated in the eradication of the pest
tsetse expert in July 2001. He has lived and            from the island. From 1998 to 2000, he
worked in the Congo, Tanzania, Zanzibar                 was the IAEA regional expert for the tsetse
and Ethiopia. Previous work with the                    project in Africa based in Addis Ababa,
IAEA include 3 years as a research                      Ethiopia.
scientist at the Entomology Unit (tsetse
group) in Seibersdorf, engaged in research                     Marc holds a Ph.D. in Veterinary
on radiation biology and hybridisation of               Entomology from the Agricultural
tsetse flies. From 1990 to 1993, he worked              University     of     Wageningen,      The
as an IAEA expert in Zanzibar and                       Netherlands. The FAO and the IAEA will
Tanzania. During this time he was                       greatly benefit from Marc’s expertise in
involved in methods development on tsetse               tsetse, considered to be a one of the main
trapping, monitoring techniques and sterile             root problems of poverty in Africa and a
male release methods. From 1994 to 1997,                priority for the IAEA’s Technical
he was responsible for the field operations             Cooperation Programme.
of the tsetse SIT project in Zanzibar, which

Abdeljelil Bakri rejoins the Insect Pest Control Section as Visiting Scientist

      Abdel Bakri has previously worked                 his valuable work on the IDIDAS database
in the Section in 1999 on the EcoPort                   and to assist in updating the manual on
pages6 for medfly and the South American                Nuclear Techniques in Entomology.
fruit fly and in 2000 on the IDIDAS
database (International Database for Insect                   Abdel holds a Ph.D. in chemical
disinfestation and Sterilization) which has             ecology from the University of
been established jointly with the Food &                Southampton in the United Kingdom. His
Environmental Protection Section of the                 expertise in the development of databases
Joint FAO/IAEA Division. He rejoined the                and knowledge of SIT technology will be
Section on July for 12 months to continue               of great benefit to the Section.

Magali Evrard joins the Section

      Magali Evrard joined the Section as                      We welcome Magali and wish her a
a Secretary in November 2001. She has                   fruitful time at the section.
worked previously in the IAEA for 22
years in the Medical Service and the
Division of Human Health.


                                               - 41 -
Wendell Snow leaves Jamaica

      Wendell Snow has left the Jamaica                      associated with the Sub-programme
screwworm SIT project on retirement after                    through many projects, including the
several years as the IAEA expert there.                      Zanzibar tsetse eradication.
Wendell has guided the counterparts
through many problems, and although he                             He will be missed by this project and
leaves before the project is complete                        the Sub-programme. We wish him a happy
significant progress has been recorded.                      and long retirement, and hope that we shall
Wendell has been involved with SIT for                       continue to see him.
much of his professional career has been


Recent SIT video now available in Spanish and French versions.

       The English teaching video "The                       and in French (La Technique de l'Insecte
Sterile Insect Technique. An environment-                    Stérile). Copies, in PAL, NTSC and
friendly method of insect pest suppression                   SECAM formats, are available on request
and eradication" is now also available in                    from the section. Contact one of the
Spanish (La Técnica del Insecto Estéril)                     secretaries to obtain a free copy.

CD-ROM publication, STOP Screwworms from the Special Collection of the National
Agricultural Library

   The Special Collections of the National                   Selections     from      the    Screwworm
Agricultural Library (NAL) documents on                      Eradication Collection”. The content of
eradication programs in North America                        this CD is currently available on the web7.
and Central America from the 1930s                           We believe that you will find these
through 2000, is offering a recent                           materials interesting and informative.
published CD-ROM, “STOP Screwworms:

The Moscamed Program website now available in the internet.

     The Moscamed Program website8 is                        beyond its current distribution in Central
now available with interesting information                   America. The Moscamed Program very
on historical and current information on                     much     appreciates    suggestions   and
the efforts that the Mexican and US                          comments to improve the website which
governments have been doing for the past                     can be e-mailed to:
22 years to prevent the Mediterranean fruit
fly (Ceratitis capitata) from spreading                 


                                                    - 42 -

      In our Newsletter No. 56, on page 9,
there is an article about “Date moth
(Ectomyelois ceratoniae) SIT in Tunisia”.
Unfortunately the specimen pictured is not
the date moth but a picture of the Indian
meal moth, Plodia interpunctella, a
notorious stored products pest. We
apologize for this error and request you to
make a note in your copy of the Newsletter
56 to prevent confusion. The correct
photograph is shown on the right.

                                                       Ectomyelois ceratoniae

                                              - 43 -
             J. PUBLICATIONS (2001)

2001                                                   FRANZ, G., “The genetic basis of SIT and
                                                         all-male strains”, PP. 63 – 71. In:
INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY                              Sterile insect technique as an
  AGENCY, Economic evaluation of                         environmentally friendly and effective
  three alternative methods for control of               insect control system (Proceeding of a
  the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera:                  seminar, Funchal, Madeira, Portugal, 12
  Tephritidae) in Israel, Jordan, Lebanon,               – 13 November 1999), Madeira
  Syrian Arab Republic and Territories                   Regional Direction of Agriculture,
  under the Jurisdiction of the Palestinian              Portugal (2001).
  Authority,        IAEA-TECDOC-1265,
  Vienna, Austria (2001), 63 pp.                       HENDRICHS, J., “The sterile insect
                                                         technique (SIT) worldwide”, pp. 25 –
AKSOY, S., MAUDLIN, I., DALE, C.,                        53. In: Sterile insect technique as an
  ROBINSON, A. S., O’NEILL, S.,                          environmentally friendly and effective
  Future prospects for trypanosomosis                    insect control system (Proceeding of a
  control, Trends Parasitol. 17 (2001) 29-               seminar, Funchal, Madeira, Portugal, 12
  35.                                                    – 13 November 1999), Madeira
                                                         Regional Direction of Agriculture,
DYCK, V. A., et al., Monitoring the                      Portugal (2001).
  incidence of trypanosomosis in cattle
  during the release of sterilized tsetse              LINDQUIST, D., “The advantages of area
  flies on Unguja Island, Zanzibar. Revue                wide insect control”, pp.55 – 61. In:
  Élev. Méd. Vét. Pays Trop. 53 3 (2001)                 Sterile insect technique as an
  239-243.                                               environmentally friendly and effective
                                                         insect control system (Proceeding of a
ENKERLIN, W., “Economics of area-wide                    seminar, Funchal, Madeira, Portugal, 12
  fruit fly sterile insect technique                     – 13 November 1999), Madeira
  programs”, pp. 83 – 106. In: Sterile                   Regional Direction of Agriculture,
  insect technique as an environmentally                 Portugal (2001).
  friendly and effective insect control
  system. (Proceeding of a seminar,                    LUNA, C., et        al. Microsatellite
  Funchal, Madeira, Portugal, 12 – 13                    polymorphism in tsetse flies (Diptera:
  November 1999), Madeira Regional                       Glossinidae), J. Med. Entomol. 38
  Direction of Agriculture, Portugal                     (2001) 376-381
                                                       MALCOLM, C. A., ROBINSON, A. S.,
FELDMANN, U., JANNIN, J., Tsetse fly                    Dramatic developmental changes in
  free zones for disease prevention and                 larval knockdown response enhance
  poverty reduction, Sustainable Dev. Int.              genetic sexing based on DDT resistance
  4 (2001) 159-166.                                     in Anopheles stephensi (Diptera:
                                                        Culicidae), Bull. Entomol. Res. 91
                                                        (2001) 471-476

                                              - 45 -
MICHEL, K., et al., Hermes-mediated                   PAPADOPOULOS N. T., et al., Early
  germ-line transformation of the                       detection and population monitoring of
  Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis                     Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)
  capitata, Insect Mol. Biol. 10 (2001)                 in a mixed-fruit orchard in northern
  155-163                                               Greece, J. Econ. Entomol. 94 4 (2001)
MUTIKA,       G.    N.,   OPIYO,       E.,
  ROBINSON, A. S., Assessing mating
  performance     of    male     Glossina
  pallidipes (Diptera: Glossinidae) using
  a walk-in field cage, Bull. Entomol.
  Res. 91 (2001) 281-287

                                             - 46 -
                     Insect Pest Control Section
Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture
                International Atomic Energy Agency
                  Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100
                       A-1400 Vienna, Austria

                    Printed by the IAEA in Austria
                             January 2002

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