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					CRIMINALISTICS
  CHAPTER 2


  THE CRIME SCENE



                    1   8/11/2011
SOURCES OF PHYSICAL
      EVIDENCE
   THE CRIME SCENE
   THE SUSPECT
   THE VICTIM




                      2   8/11/2011
HOW AN ITEM BECOMES
PHYSICAL EVIDENCE
   BEFORE AN OBJECT CAN BECOME
    EVIDENCE, IT MUST BE RECOGNIZED BY
    THE INVESTIGATOR AS HAVING A
    RELATIONSHIP TO THE CRIME
    COMMITTED



                          3       8/11/2011
FIRST OFFICER AT SCENE


   ADMINISTER FIRST AID
   ARREST PERPETRATOR
   REQUEST AID
   DETAIN AND IDENTIFY WITNESSES
   SAFEGUARD CRIME SCENE

                          4         8/11/2011
RECORD THE CRIME SCENE

   Photography
   Sketching
   Notes




                  5   8/11/2011
STEPS FOR SAFEGUARDING
       THE SCENE
   DETERMINE CRIME SCENE AREA
   EXCLUDE ALL PERSONS
   BLOCK OFF BOUNDARIES
   IDENTIFY AND SEGREGATE WITNESSES
   NOTE DETAILS FOR LATER
   AVOID UNNECESSARY WALKING ABOUT
   DON’T TOUCH ANYTHING
   PROVIDE INFORMATION TO INVESTIGATORS

                             6        8/11/2011
CRIME SCENE PHOTOGRAPHY

   PURPOSE
       TO PROVIDE INFORMATION TO ASSIST IN
        INVESTIGATION AND PROSECUTION OF THE
        CASE
       TO RECORD FACTS
       TO SUPPLEMENT FACTS



                               7        8/11/2011
To provide information which
will assist in the investigation
   Provides the investigator with an
    accurate, pictoral representation of the
    appearance and position of objects at the
    scene
   Aids in questioning suspects and
    witnesses
   Presents the judge and jury with an
    accurate picture of the scene
                               8        8/11/2011
         RECORDING FACTS

   Describes better than words
   Proves statements
   Records items that may be overlooked
   Refreshes the memory




                             9        8/11/2011
        SUPPLEMENTS FACTS

   Position of the body
   Description of injuries or damage
   Location of body or objects
   Measurements
   Gives the impression of careful
    observation

                              10        8/11/2011
            PHOTOGRAPHY

   It allows the court and the jury to obtain
    an accurate and lucid understanding of
    specific situations
   Photographic evidence may be stored
    indefinitely and be readily available when
    needed


                               11         8/11/2011
            PHOTOGTAPHY

   It provides the investigator with a visual
    record of the crime scene and objects
    related to the investigation. When these
    are viewed under favorable conditions in
    conjunction with his notes, they may help
    him to recognize an overlooked or a
    condition that may furnish the key to the
    case.

                               12        8/11/2011
WHEN TO TAKE
PHOTOGRAPHS
   AS SOON AS THE INVESTIGATION
    PERMITS
   BEFORE THE BODY OR ANY OBJECT IS
    MOVED OR DISTURBED




                         13       8/11/2011
PHOTOGRAPHING THE SCENE

   DECIDE WHAT YOU WANT EACH PHOTOGRAPH
    TO SHOW
   CLASSIFICATIONS OF PHOTOS
       GENERAL VIEWS
       MEDIUM VIEWS (10-20 FT)
       CLOSE-UP VIEWS (4-6 FT)
       EXTREME CLOSE-UP (>1 FT)
   KEEP IN MIND NATURE OF OFFENCE

                                   14   8/11/2011
           GENERAL VIEWS

   Surrounding territory
   Identity of the locality
   Aid to orient a jury as to surroundings




                               15         8/11/2011
            MEDIUM VIEWS

   Taken within ten to twenty feet of the
    objects
   Shows the specific object desired
   Is of sufficient size to tie objects to
    general view
   Includes objects which may be seen in
    general view
                               16        8/11/2011
                CLOSE-UP

   Clearly shows an item of interest (Gun,
    Knife, toolmarks on window, footprints,
    etc)
   Generally taken at a distance of 4-6 ft.
    (should include some identifiable object
    in general view)


                               17        8/11/2011
         EXTREME CLOSE-UP

   Taken at one ft or less (shows
    characteristics too small to be seen or
    recognized in any previous photo)
   Contains rule or scale (should be placed
    by object but not obscure detail)
   Requires correct lighting (Photoflood,
    flash, or time exposure)
                              18         8/11/2011
PHOTOGRAPHING THE SCENE

   Number of photographs
       No simple answer
       Better to overshoot
       Time may be a concern
       Experience will answer the question
       A number of important photographs should
        be made at each scene

                                  19         8/11/2011
PHOTOGRAPHING THE SCENE

   Important Photographs
       Location
            Exterior photographs
            Location of doors and windows
            Surrounding area
            Aerial photographs (in some cases)




                                          20      8/11/2011
PHOTOGRAPHING THE SCENE

   Important Photographs
       Witness Photographs
            Depict scene as observed by witness
            Victim as viewed from number of locations
            Designed to tell a story
            To relate what location looked like to someone not
             present
            Overlapping photographs
            Long range and intermediate range to show perspective
             and relative location

                                             21             8/11/2011
PHOTOGRAPHING THE SCENE

   Important Photographs
       Close-up photographs
            Used to further clarify the scene
            Show as Item actually appears
            Show with ruler included
            Film plane parallel to object
            Can produce 1:1 photographs



                                            22   8/11/2011
PHOTOGRAPHING THE SCENE

   Important Photographs
       Evidence photographs
            Photograph all evidence
            Prior to removal or change of location
            Additional photographs as search progresses and
             new evidence discovered




                                          23            8/11/2011
PHOTOGRAPHING THE SCENE

   Photograph as completely as possible
   Include
       Areas where crime took place
       All adjacent areas
       Overview of scene
       Points of exit and entry
       The entire room (indoors)

                                  24   8/11/2011
PHOTOGRAPHING THE SCENE

   Photographing the body
       Position of body
       Location relative to scene
       Injuries (without disturbing)
       Weapons near body
       Area under body


                                        25   8/11/2011
PHOTOGRAPHING THE SCENE

   Photographing evidence
       Position and location relative to scene
       Close up views (to record detail)
       Place ruler in picture to record relative size of
        evidence




                                      26           8/11/2011
PHOTOGRAPHING THE SCENE

   Video
       Becoming increasingly popular
       Price lower
       Include entire scene and surrounding area
       Take in slow systematic manner
       Have someone narrate (be careful of sound)
       Does not replace still photography

                                  27          8/11/2011
ADMISSIBILITY OF
PHOTOGRAPHS
   Testify that photograph accurately depicts area
       Color, scale, form
   Must be in focus
   Show relationships and distances between
    objects
   Negatives retained
   Rulers important to show size


                                   28          8/11/2011
            ADMISSIBILITY

   The object pictured must be material or
    relevant to the point in issue
   The photograph must not appeal to the
    emotion or tend to prejudice the judge or
    jury



                              29        8/11/2011
CRIME SCENE SKETCHING

   PURPOSE
       TO PROVIDE 3 DIMENTIONAL
        REPRESENTATION OF SCENE
       TO PROVIDE SELECTIVE VIEWS
       TO SUPPLEMENT PHOTOGRAPHS




                              30     8/11/2011
TYPES OF SKETCHES

   ROUGH SKETCH
   FINISHED DRAWING




                       31   8/11/2011
ROUGH SKETCH

   Accurate depiction of dimensions of scene
   Location of all objects having a bearing on case
   Objects located from fixed point
   Measurements made with tape measure
   Use legend to locate items
   Show compass heading



                                   32           8/11/2011
              ROUGH SKETCH

   Importance of rough sketch
       It enables an officer to obtain a lasting
        picture of the crime scene which will assist
        him to review the circumstances of the
        incident after the original scene has been
        changed or destroyed



                                     33          8/11/2011
              ROUGH SKETCH

   Importance of rough sketch
       The sketch helps a witness to recall some
        particular facts. It permits him to clarify
        statements by indicating his position when he
        observed the event, the location of the
        principals and of certain objects at the time
        of the occurrence.


                                   34          8/11/2011
          FINISHED SKETCH

   Drawn for Aesthetic appearance
   Use templates and drafting tools
   Drawn to scale
   Must reflect evidence in rough sketch
   CAD programs now available


                              35        8/11/2011
            FINISHED SKETCH

   Value of Finished Drawing
       Helps the Judge and Jury to obtain a better
        understanding of the scene and the
        testimony of the investigator and witnesses
       Case presentation strengthened by accurate
        and professional drawing which creates a
        favorable impression with the jury. Instills a
        respect for the efforts and ability of the
        police to present the facts

                                     36          8/11/2011
    INFORMATION ON SKETCH

   Case identifying information
       Case number, investigator,date, time
   Scale
   Distance measurements
   Reference points
   Legend to identify portions of drawing

                                   37          8/11/2011
EQUIPMENT FOR SKETCHING

   Pens or pencils (Pencils better)
   Colored pencils
   Graph paper
   Drawing surface (clipboard)
   Measuring devices (rulers or tapes)
   Compass

                              38          8/11/2011
              Type of sketches

   Bird’s-eye view
       Items located in one plane
       Simple to draw
       Easy to understand
   Elevation Drawing
       Vertical plane of interest (wall)


                                      39    8/11/2011
              Types of sketches

   Cross-projection (exploded) view
       Combination of bird’s-eye and elevation
       Similar to bird’s-eye
       Walls folded down into same plane as floor
   Perspective drawing
       Three dimensional drawing
       Requires considerable skill
       Not generally recommended


                                         40          8/11/2011
         LOCATING OBJECTS

   Actual position in the scene where object
    located
   Position defined by two measurements
   Perpendicular measurements easier
   Must use fixed points to locate objects
   Must be permanent and identifiable
   GPS may become useful in future
                              41         8/11/2011
           MEASUREMENTS

   All measurements must be accurate
   Distances never paced off
   All measurements taken with measuring
    device and verified by second officer if
    possible
   Moveable objects not used as point of
    reference, only fixed objects
                              42         8/11/2011
             MEASUREMENTS

   Basic methods of obtaining
    measurements
       Rectangular coordinates
       Straight line measurements
       Triangulation




                                     43   8/11/2011
             MEASUREMENTS

   Rectangular coordinates
       Useful in sketching indoor crime scenes
       Two measurements are made at right angles
        of an item to the nearest two permanent
        objects (usually walls)




                                 44          8/11/2011
45   8/11/2011
           STRAIGHT LINE
           MEASUREMENTS
   Usually made of furniture or evidence on
    a wall
   Two measurements are taken, one from
    each side of the object




                              46        8/11/2011
47   8/11/2011
           TRIANGULATION

   May be used indoors or outdoors
   Two fixed points are selected as points of
    reference
   Measurements taken from the object to
    each point forming a triangle



                               48        8/11/2011
49   8/11/2011
    RULES FOR ROUGH SKETCH

   Decide what is to be sketched
   Determine compass direction
   Control all measurements
   Have another officer verify
    measurements
   Don’t estimate distances by pacing

                              50         8/11/2011
                   RULES

   Use a measuring tape or rule – be
    accurate
   Locate all objects accurately
   Include all essential items – exclude the
    irrelevant
   All corrections must be made at scene

                               51         8/11/2011
                    RULES

   When locating a body use two
    measurements, one to head one to feet
   All bodies shown as stick figures
   All objects identified either with letters or
    numerals
   All objects described in detail in notes

                                 52         8/11/2011
53   8/11/2011
54   8/11/2011
55   8/11/2011
ADMISSIBILITY OF SKETCHES

   Must be entered by someone competent
    to testify about authentiity
   Must testify that it is true and accurate
    representation of scene




                               56        8/11/2011
                  NOTES

   Forces investigators to commit
    observations to writing
   Investigators keep detailed record of
    everything observed and accomplished




                             57        8/11/2011
             NOTE TAKING

   Make notes as events occur and in
    chronological order
   Detail step-by-step all actions
   Complete and thorough
   Clearly written and legible
   Negative or unexpected conditions
    should be notede

                             58         8/11/2011
                NOTE TAKING

   Be as specific as possible (Vague
    statements should be avoided
   Never discard
       Notes, Sketches, tape recordings, or
        negatives should be placed in case folder and
        retained as long as case is by department
        policy

                                    59          8/11/2011
         NOTE TAKING
       SHOULD INCLUDE
Date and Time reported
Type of crime
Location of scene and description
Description of crime and events leading to
Who requested investigation
Names of officers, witnesses, investigators,
  other personnel at scene

                               60          8/11/2011
             NOTE TAKING

   Names of persons who investigated and
    specific tasks (sketcher, photographer
    etc)
   Weather and lighting conditions
   Description of primary scene
   Location of evidence and who collected
   Description of location and surrounding

                              61        8/11/2011
             NOTE TAKING

   Description of the interior or exterior of
    the scene including type
   Description of outside of scene including
    terrain, plants, soil, etc
   Date and time investigation concluded



                               62         8/11/2011
               NOTE TAKING

   Tape recording
       Easy to take information later transcribed
       Detailed notes faster than writing
       Must be transcribed
       Impromptu remarks can prove embarrassing
       Video can combine notetaking and
        photography

                                  63          8/11/2011
             NOTE TAKING

   Investigating officer responsible
   Get statements from first officer
   Meticulous note taking key to good police
    work
   Notes are part of a competent crime
    scene investigation

                              64        8/11/2011
              SITUATION

   Scene is secure
   Preliminary photography complete
   Rough sketch made
   Search method decided
   Assignments made
   Search ready to begin

                             65        8/11/2011
  CRIME SCENE SEARCH




After scene has been secured and recorded



                             66             8/11/2011
                 THE SEARCH

   To obtain physical evidence
   Not confined to area of crime itself
       May include approach and line of flight
   Definite plans must be made
   Must know what to look for and where



                                    67            8/11/2011
                 THE SEARCH

   Physical evidence may
       Determine facts of crime
       Identify the criminal
       Aid in the arrest and conviction of the
        criminal




                                     68           8/11/2011
             THE SEARCH

   Must be undertaken with determination
    and alertness
   No room for defeatist attitude
   No room for light-hearted attitude
   May be unpleasant
   Insignificant items may prove very
    important

                             69        8/11/2011
       CRIME SCENE SEARCH

   Must be thorough and systematic
   How to search depends on several
    factors (locale, size, actions of persons)
   One person should be in control
   What to search for determined by crime
   As general rule fragile items first

                                70         8/11/2011
                  SEARCH

   Systematic search of scene conducted
   Type of search pattern may depend on
    scene
   Be careful not to destroy evidence while
    searching (walking about)
   Night time searches problem (put off till
    day if possible)
                               71         8/11/2011
                  search

   Types of searches
       Spiral
       Strip
       Grid
       Zone
   Be organized – Search everything


                             72        8/11/2011
              THE SEARCH

   Search method must support what the
    search is intended to accomplish: A
    comprehensive accumulation within a
    reasonable period of time of all available
    physical evidence
   Should economize on movement and
    avoid unnecessary disturbance

                               73         8/11/2011
         GENERAL METHODS

   Evidence that is being significantly
    deteriorated by time or elements has first
    priority
   Major items are collected in order that is
    most logical
   When deceased individual process area
    between entry and body
                               74        8/11/2011
           General Methods

   After processing obvious search for trace
    material before dusting
   After trace removed process for latents
   Elimination prints and evidence standards
    are collected last



                              75        8/11/2011
OUTDOOR SCENES




SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS



                  76     8/11/2011
          OUTDOOR SCENES

   Nature of site will influence types of
    materials collected
   Fingerprints less frequent
   Recording more difficuld due to fewer
    reference points
   Consider route to be taken to focal point

                               77        8/11/2011
           OUTDOOR SCENES

   Almost all evidence on ground (easy to
    overlook or step on
   Approach from route least likely to have
    been used by suspect
       Examine vegetation for damage
   Area under body should be given
    attention
                                 78      8/11/2011
          OUTDOOR SCENES

   Careful search for tire or foot impressions
   Soil samples collected from area of
    impressions
   Broken limbs or twigs should be
    examined carefully (trace)
   Is blood or semen suspected to be mixed
    with soil
                               79         8/11/2011
VEHICLE SEARCHES




 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS



                   80     8/11/2011
         VEHICLE SEARCHES

   Carefully planned
   Nature of case will dictate details
   Hit-and-run cases outside and
    undercarriage examined carefully
   Homicide and other all areas of vehicle
    should be considered

                              81         8/11/2011
         VEHICLE SEARCHES

   Exterior searched first
   Look for broken or damaged areas
   Cloth impressions
   Trace (hair, fiber, fabric) clinging to car
   Last on outside fingerprint


                                 82         8/11/2011
                VEHICLE SEARCH

   Interior of vehicle
       Generally divided into five major areas
            Rt front, Lt front, rt back, lt back, back deck)
       May divide floor from seat from instrument
       Vacuum floor areas first
       Seats swept next
       Fingerprint interior next

                                             83                 8/11/2011
               VEHICLE SEARCH

   Interior
       Search for hidden items inside vehicle
            Drugs, weapons, loot
       Trunk searched same way as interior
            (swept, fingerprints, hidden items)
       Under hood (usually not productive)
            Could have concealed tools, weapons, or drugs)


                                           84           8/11/2011
SEARCH OF VICTIM




   AT CRIME SCENE



                    85   8/11/2011
         SEARCH OF VICTIM

   Usually very limited
   May be only observation of dress
   If injured collection may be at hospital
   If deceased collection at medical
    examiners office



                               86         8/11/2011
        EQUIPMENT NEEDED

   Flashlight
   Containers
   Waterproof pens
   Metal Scribe
   Razor Blades
   Gloves
   Tweezers
                      87   8/11/2011
    PURPOSE OF COLLECTION
       AND EXAMINATION
   Aids in solution of case
       Develop MO’s or show similar MO’s
       Develop or identify suspects
       Prove or disprove alabi
       Connect or eliminate suspects
       Identify loot and/or contraband
       Provide leads

                                  88        8/11/2011
                    PURPOSE

   Prove an element of the offence
       Building material on suspects clothing may
        prove entry
       Bullets, residue at fire, semen, blood,
        toolmarks, may all prove elements of certain
        offenses
       Safe insulation on tools may prove
        possession of burglary tools
                                    89          8/11/2011
                   PURPOSE

   Prove a theory of a case
       Footprints in soil may show how many were
        at scene
       Auto paint on clothing may show that perfson
        was hit by car instead of injured otherwise




                                   90          8/11/2011
COLLECTION RULES

   ONE PERSON COLLECT
   PREVENT CONTAMINATION
   PHOTOGRAPH PRIOR TO REMOVAL
   MARK CRIME SCENE SKETCH
   RECORD IN NOTEBOOK
   PROCESS EACH ITEM
   BE THOROUGH – DO NOT HURRY
                        91        8/11/2011
FUNDAMENTALS OF
EVIDENCE COLLECTION
   PREVENT CONTAMINATION
   PROVIDE ADEQUATE SAMPLES AND
    STANDARDS
   LABEL EACH ITEM
   KEEP ITEMS SEPARATE
   SEAL EACH CONTAINER

                        92         8/11/2011
PROCEDURES FOR
COLLECTING EVIDENCE
   EVIDENCE FOUND
       SEARCH STOPS
       CRIME SCENE OFFICER MOVES TO AREA
       DETERMINE IF EVIDENCE TO BE USED
       EVIDENCE MAN CALLED
       PHOTOGRAPH
       SKETCH
       DUST (IF REQUIRED
       PACKAGE AND IDENTIFY
       PLACE IN COLLECTION AREA
                                   93       8/11/2011
                 collection

Obtain evidence legally
 Warrant
 Consent
 Incident to arrest
 exigent circumstances




                          94   8/11/2011
                COLLECTION

   Describe it in notes
       Location, circumstances, how obtained
       Date
       Chain of custody
       How identified




                                   95           8/11/2011
                 COLLECTION

   Identify it properly
       Case number
       Item number
       Initials
       Date
       Preferably on evidence
       If not on evidence on sealed container

                                    96           8/11/2011
                 COLLECTION

   Package it properly
       Use suitable containers
       Seal against leakage
       Package each item separately
       If wet air dry before packaging (except arson
        cases)



                                    97          8/11/2011
                 COLLECTION

   Maintain chain of custody
       Same person that recovered should initial,
        seal and send if possible
       Maintain in locked storage until sent
       Use personal delivery or some method of
        shipment that has return receipt



                                    98          8/11/2011
COLLECTION METHODS




             99      8/11/2011
VISUAL INSPECTION AND
   COLLECTION
   EXAMINE CONTACT SITES
   FORMULATE HYPOTHETICAL
    RECONSTRUCTION
   IF LOCATED
       -DOCUMENT
       -PACKAGE
       -TRANSPORT

                       100   8/11/2011
TAPE LIFTS

   USE PRESSURE SENSITIVE OR “STICKY”
    TAPE FOR TRACE EVIDENCE
   USE IN CONJUNCTION WITH OTHER
    TECHNIQUES
   USEFUL WHEN
       VISIBLE EVIDENCE REMOVED
       TO COLLECT MICROSCOPIC EVIDENCE

                             101          8/11/2011
PACKAGING AND
SUBMISSION WITHOUT
SAMPLING
   IF UNSURE OR INEXPERIENCED
   NO OBVIOUS TRACE
   SUBMIT WITHOUT REMOVING TRACE
   TRANSFERS CAN RESULT FROM
    HANDLING



                       102      8/11/2011
VACUUMING

   POORLY UNDERSTOOD – IMPROPERLY
    USED
   CAN BE VALUABLE
   SELECTIVELY AND KNOWLEDGEABLY
   PROPER ADAPTION



                       103      8/11/2011
    EVIDENCE FROM AUTOPSY

   Victim’s clothing
   Fingernail scraping
   Known hair
   Known blood
   Swabs (sex related)
   Projectiles
   Other trace
                          104   8/11/2011
PACKAGING EVIDENCE




             105     8/11/2011
                 PACKAGING

   Evidence must be handled in way that
    will prevent detrimental change
   Improper packaging can cause
       Contamination
       Breakage
       Evaporation
       Loss

                            106        8/11/2011
               PACKAGING

   Guidelines for handling different types of
    evidence are provided by many agencies.
   We will talk about how to package
    individual evidence as we discuss that
    type of evidence
   Evidence guide in Appendix I of textbook


                              107        8/11/2011
PACKAGING PROBLEMS

   CONATINER SELECTION
   IMPROPER PROTECTION




                          108   8/11/2011
      CONTAINER SELECTION

   Arson evidence in open container
   Paint samples loose in standard envelope
   Biological materials in contaminated
    container
   Bullets placed in envelope and placed
    under heavy item

                             109        8/11/2011
         Improper protection

   Piece of glass with bullet hole placed in
    trunk of car unprotected
   Soil samples in unsealed manila envelope
   Fluid samples in stoppered bottle placed
    in hot area



                             110         8/11/2011
         GENERAL PACKAGING

   LIQUIDS
       Placed in all glass sterile bottles or containers
        and sealed with suitable tape
       Oils, gas, and explosives should be placed in
        unbreakable metal or plastic containers of
        sufficient strength to prevent rupture



                                     111           8/11/2011
         GENERAL PACKAGING

   FRAGILE ITEMS
       Items susceptible to breaking, marring, or
        other destructive change should be packed in
        tissue first
       Containers for fragile items should be
        selected to provide maximum protection



                                  112          8/11/2011
            PACKAGING RULES

   Prevent contamination
       Package items separately
   Prevent Breakage
       Wrap fragile items in tissue
   Prevent loss
       Seal containers properly
   Prevent misplacement
       Wrap smaller items before placing in envelopes

                                        113              8/11/2011
         GENERAL PACKAGING

   SMALL TRACE ITEMS
       Should be placed in white paper using the
        evidence fold before placing in container and
        sealed
       Items used to retrieve samples should be
        placed in separate piece of paper and sealed
        in same envelope


                                   114          8/11/2011
        STANDARD/REFERENCE
             SAMPLES
   Physical evidence whose origin is known
   Often required for comparison with
    samples from scene
   Examples
       Hit and run – Known paint samples
       DNA evidence Buccal swabs
            Swabs from inside mouth

                                       115   8/11/2011
        STANDARD/REFERENCE

   Substrate controls
       Uncontaminated surface material close to an
        area where physical evidence has been
        deposited
       Example
            Arson – material believed exposed to accelerant
             and material believed not exposed



                                         116             8/11/2011
        SUBMITTING EVIDENCE

   Methods of delivery
       Personal delivery
       Mail
       UPS




                            117   8/11/2011
        SUBMITTING EVIDENCE

   Personal delivery
       Someone familiar with case
       May be asked questions
       Evidence submission form
            Description
            History
            Administrative
            requests
       Chain of custody form

                                     118   8/11/2011
SUBMITTING/EVIDENCE

 Mail – UPS
  Postal regulations
  Care in packing
  Certified – Return receipt
  Each item packaged separately
  each item assigned number



                           119    8/11/2011
                 SAFETY

   Spread of AIDS and Hepatitis
   Normally transmitted through body fluids
   Body fluids present at many scenes
   Caution and protection used at all times
   Inoculation available for hepatitis B


                             120        8/11/2011
                     SAFETY

   IAI GUIDELINES
       Wear minimum of latex gloves and tyvek
        shoe covers – large contamination – wear
        tyvek suits
       Use mask when dust or mist may be present
       Sharp items in proper container and labeled
       Red biohazard bag for disposal of
        contaminated items

                                  121          8/11/2011
                        SAFETY

   IAI GUIDELINES
       Note taking with uncontaminated gloves
       Protective clothing soiled or torn removed immediately
        and person decontaminated using 10% bleach
       Eating, drinking, smoking, or applying makeup not
        allowed at scene
       Non-disposable items placed in labeled bag and
        laundered by qualified service

                                         122            8/11/2011
     LEGAL CONSIDERATIONS

   Fourth Amendment
       The right of the people to be secure in their
        persons, houses, papers, and effects, against
        unreasonable searches and seizure, shall not
        be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but
        upon probable cause, supported by oath or
        affirmation, and particularly describing the
        place to be searched, and the person or thing
        to be seized

                                   123         8/11/2011
                      LEGAL

   Warrantless Search
       Emergency Circumstances
       Need to prevent immediate loss or
        destruction of evidence
       Incident to a lawful arrest
       Consent search



                                  124       8/11/2011
                        LEGAL
   Supreme court addressed issue of
    warrantless searches at crime scene
   1978
   Two cases
       Mincey v. Arizona
            Homicide
       Michigan v. Tyler
            Arson

                                125       8/11/2011
                   LEGAL

   Mincy v. Arizona
   Four day search at homicide scene
   Undercover police officer killed after
    forcing entry into house to buy drugs
   Police raided and spent four days
    searching (bullets, drugs, paraphernalia)

                              126        8/11/2011
                  LEGAL

   Mincy v Arizona
   Mincy convicted
   Appealed – evidence gathered without
    warrant or consent
   Court unanimously upheld Mincy’s
    position

                            127       8/11/2011
                 LEGAL

Mincy v. Arizona
Police may make warrantless entry to homicide
  scene to see if other victims or suspect still
  on premises
No exigent circumstances
No indication evidence would be lost or
  destroyed


                              128          8/11/2011
                LEGAL

Mincy v. Arizona
Police had a guard at apartment
Warrant could have been easily and
  conveniently obtained
Seriousness of the offence does not create
  exigent circumstances



                             129             8/11/2011
                  LEGAL

   Michigan v. Tyler
   Business destroyed by fire
   Fire extinguished in early morning
   Smoke, steam and darkness prevented
    examination of scene
   Building left unattended until 8:00 am

                             130        8/11/2011
                  LEGAL

   Michigan v. Tyler
   Officials returned at 8:00 am and
    searched and removed evidence
   Returned 4, 7, and 25 days later,
    searched and removed evidence
   Each search without warrant or consent

                            131        8/11/2011
                   LEGAL

   Michigan v. Tyler
   Tyler convicted or arson
   Court reversed
   Initial search proper but additional
    entries inadmissible



                               132         8/11/2011
                     LEGAL

   Message of Supreme Court
       When time and circumstances permit obtain
        a search warrant.




                                 133         8/11/2011
EVIDENCE DEPOSITORIES

   PHYSICALLY SECURE
   CAPACITY LARGE ENOUGH
   SHELVES TO ALLOW FOR SEPARATION




                        134      8/11/2011

				
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