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Search and Retrieval and Digital Right Management document sample
Search and Retrieval and Digital Right Management document sample
Perspectives on Digital Asset Management By Steven Puglia U.S. National Archives and Records Administration 8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740, USA Phone: 301-837-3616 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org April 2008 Background: •Pilot projects for digitizing historic records- ODISS (1986-1990 and 200,000 images) and EAP (1997-1999 and 124,000 master files). •Digital Imaging Lab established 15 years ago, primarily high-quality scanning for exhibits and publications. •Digital audio equipment first used in Recording Lab in 1990. Currently, all reformatting of audio recordings being done using digitization, both in-house and by contractors. •For video - using dedicated digital broadcast formats for many years and moving to computer-based digital video. •Digitization of wide variety of original records- textual records on paper and microforms, still photographs, audio recordings, maps, architectural and engineering plans, etc. •Actively transitioning to digital reformatting of all types of records - including motion pictures. •Discussing potential digitization projects and conducting projects with external partners. •For many years, we have been using digital photography to document agency events and activities. •We have amassed and are creating a significant number of digital assets. •We are working to define both approaches and infrastructure requirements for managing these assets - including the Electronic Records Archives (ERA). •We have a complement of tools in the reformatting labs. •The digital assets are used actively. •Currently, high resolution versions are not available to end users. •Also, we provide copies of digital assets to other systems - ARC and ReDiscovery. •Current systems do not have a DAM component or it is so simplified that it is not too helpful. Static Analog Media •Historic documents, printed publications, photographs, microfilm, and digital hardcopy output. Dynamic Analog Media •Motion pictures, audio recordings, and video recordings. Digital Media •All types. Static Analog Media •Chemical and physical stability limits usable life. Dynamic Analog Media •Chemical and physical stability and systems obsolescence limit usable life. Digital Media •Systems obsolescence is critical factor, but chemical and physical stability can be problematic. Digital Media Digital Motion Pictures Dynamic Increasing Analog- Video Recordings complexity machine dependent and Audio Recordings corresponding risk of loss. Still Photographs Static- human readable Textual Records Digital - digital preservation Motion Pictures Harder to do preservation reformatting as Increasing Video - digital only option digital - but once expense to digital, potentially no loss when reformat Audio - digital only option copying. and to preserve. Feasible to do Still Photographs preservation reformatting as Textual Records digital. Archival Medium is a recording material that can be expected to retain information forever, so that such information can be retrieved without significant loss when properly stored. However, there is no such material, and it is not a term to be used to describe material or system specifications in standards. Life Expectancy (LE) is the length of time that information is predicted to be acceptable in a system at 21°C and 50% RH. LE Ratings: •B&W Polyester-Based Photographic Films LE-500 •B&W Acetate-Based Photographic Films LE-100 •Diazo Film LE-100 •Vesicular Film LE-100 •Thermally-Processed Silver Film (Dry Silver) LE-100 •Polyester-Based Magnetic Tape LE-50 Longevity of Digital Optical Media: 3 to 300 years Digital Data System Obsolescence: 5 to 10 year system life (maybe less) is critical factor. Digital preservation refers to a series of managed activities designed to prevent obsolescence and to maintain data integrity. Digital objects are not preserved unless they are stored in a digital repository. OCLC Systems Perspective: Managing and preserving digital data/objects/records is different than managing and preserving physical records. Need to bring digital resources into a managed environment as soon as possible, to facilitate management, access, and long-term preservation. •It is about risk management. •It is about creating a managed environment – the need to be proactive, not just reactive. Effective IT procedures exist for the short-term management of electronic records and digital information- • Not always followed. • Not always as easy or as inexpensive as advertised. • We have been sold on the promise of the technology, but rarely acknowledge the downsides. Records Management: It is about managing and protecting essential records for the appropriate retention period. Federal Enterprise Architecture Reference Models: Digital Asset Services •The Digital Asset Services Domain - defines the set of capabilities that support the generation, management and distribution of intellectual capital and electronic media across the business and extended enterprise. •Content Management - defines the capabilities that manage the storage, maintenance and retrieval of documents and information of a system or website. •Document Management - defines the set of capabilities that control the capture and maintenance of an organization’s documents and files. •Knowledge Management - defines the set of capabilities that support the identification, gathering and transformation of documents, reports and other sources into meaningful information. •Records Management - defines the set of capabilities to support the storage, protection, archiving, classification and retirement of documents and information. For all these reasons, we need a digital asset management application and storage system. Six years ago we started the process of defining requirements, and investigating options. Our need does not match a specific model or market segment, includes the following functionality- •Records management application (RMA) •Content management (CM) •Document capture and management •Digital asset management (DAM) •Media asset management (MAM) •Digital repository •Digital preservation We are working on NARA-wide BPR to define requirements. Expect to integrate digitization management and digital asset management concepts with other systems- •Holdings Management System (HMS) to manage physical records. •Electronic Records Archives (ERA) to manage and preserve electronic records and digital copies of physical records. •Building local infrastructure for reformatting labs to support digitization of physical records. •Implementing a new centralized storage area network. Our definition of DAM: •The process of storing, retrieving, and distributing digital assets using a centralized and intellectually organized system. •A digital asset management and storage system allows for the management of the digitization of a variety of original records. •Facilitates the quick and efficient storage, management, retrieval, and reuse of digital resources. Functionality should include- •Digitization/image acquisition •Integration with image/signal processing applications (including batch processing) •Project management •Digital storage •Automated characterization of resources •Organization •Description •Search •Access •Presentation of resources •Metadata creation and update •Association (of multiple items/components as a representation of a record, of individual items with appropriate metadata, etc.) •Version control and management (tracking and distinguishing multiple versions of the same resources created at different times and/or from different sources, tracking parent-child relationships of master and derivative files, etc.) •Quality control (of digital versions, metadata, etc.) •Defect/error correction •Compatibility with a variety of digital object and data formats •Reporting System accommodates the management of workflow and system administration, including- •Workflow configuration •Defining user groups and privileges •Creating public and private collections and workspaces •Defining metadata requirements for different collections/groupings of resources •Configuring and monitoring system security DAM system also incorporates comprehensive metadata creation and authoring tools (descriptive, technical, administrative, preservation, structural, behavioral, etc.) •Structured/relational database capabilities •Import/export XML data •Metadata schema management •Compliance with information management standards •Dublin Core, Encoded Archival Description, Visual Core, IPTC Core, etc. Need flexibility to adapt to our workflow and daily lab operations- •Ease of use •Out of box capabilities and functionality •Search and retrieve capabilities, including full text •Asset formats •Image processing functionality and sophistication •Metadata / header tag capabilities - extraction and ability to write to headers •Version control and managing relationships •Full text search for ASCII-based and PDF formats •General conformance with the Open Archival Information System (OAIS) and digital preservation concepts •Ability to define hierarchical collections and independent collection metadata •Ability to create entries without associated assets, and to manage multiple assets as a single document/record •Automation - ingest, export, resource characterization, etc. Metadata management- •Structured/relational database capabilities •XML functionality and tools To be used by staff for- •Manage digitization projects •Manage digital resources created in-house and by partner organizations •Import and export of both resources and associated metadata •Provide resources for publications, presentations, web use, exhibits, etc. •Provide copies as requested to researchers and the general public, including digital and hard-copy export/output •Transfer/contribute resources to other systems and databases (such as ARC and ReDiscovery) Things we wish COTS DAM applications did better: •Managing multiple digital objects as a single thing •Ability to function like a database - including ability to have a record with out an asset •Repeatable fields •Download assets and metadata - including batch image processing and transformations •Need the ability to define transformations - often just a predefined routine and lacks more advanced image processing functionality - like color space transformations •Need to control image processing - such as defining parameters for unsharp mask filtering •Need for sophisticated XML tools •Ability to extract metadata from and write metadata to file headers - concerned about identifying assets if they become disassociated from the DAM •Desired flexibility in terms of structuring storage directories and ability to point to assets outside the system •Found some approaches to security too limiting for our needs Conclusions: •At this point in time, digital asset management is a needed and essential part of an organization’s IT infrastructure. •Current applications are sophisticated and will meet most needs, it is possible to add functionality. •Start with getting the basics done right, both the infrastructure and in defining metadata requirements.
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