Search and Retrieval and Digital Right Management by tdq15532


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									Perspectives on Digital Asset
By Steven Puglia
U.S. National Archives and Records Administration
8601 Adelphi Road, College Park, MD 20740, USA
Phone: 301-837-3616
April 2008
•Pilot projects for digitizing historic records-
ODISS (1986-1990 and 200,000 images) and
EAP (1997-1999 and 124,000 master files).
•Digital Imaging Lab established 15 years
ago, primarily high-quality scanning for
exhibits and publications.
•Digital audio equipment first used in
Recording Lab in 1990. Currently, all
reformatting of audio recordings being done
using digitization, both in-house and by
•For video - using dedicated digital broadcast
formats for many years and moving to
computer-based digital video.
•Digitization of wide variety of original
records- textual records on paper and
microforms, still photographs, audio recordings,
maps, architectural and engineering plans, etc.
•Actively transitioning to digital reformatting of
all types of records - including motion pictures.
•Discussing potential digitization projects and
conducting projects with external partners.
•For many years, we have been
using digital photography to
document agency events and
•We have amassed and are creating a
significant number of digital assets.
•We are working to define both
approaches and infrastructure
requirements for managing these assets -
including the Electronic Records Archives
•We have a complement of tools in the
reformatting labs.
•The digital assets are used actively.
•Currently, high resolution versions are not
available to end users.
•Also, we provide copies of digital assets to
other systems - ARC and ReDiscovery.
•Current systems do not have a DAM
component or it is so simplified that it is not
too helpful.
Static Analog Media
•Historic documents, printed publications,
photographs, microfilm, and digital
hardcopy output.

Dynamic Analog Media
•Motion pictures, audio recordings, and
video recordings.

Digital Media
•All types.
Static Analog Media
•Chemical and physical stability limits usable life.

Dynamic Analog Media
•Chemical and physical stability and systems
obsolescence limit usable life.

Digital Media
•Systems obsolescence is critical factor, but
chemical and physical stability can be problematic.
Digital Media    Digital

                 Motion Pictures
Dynamic                              Increasing
Analog-          Video Recordings    complexity
dependent                            and
                 Audio Recordings    corresponding
                                     risk of loss.
                 Still Photographs
human readable   Textual Records
Digital - digital preservation

Motion Pictures                  Harder to do
                                 reformatting as        Increasing
Video - digital only option      digital - but once     expense to
                                 digital, potentially
                                 no loss when           reformat
Audio - digital only option      copying.               and to
                                 Feasible to do
Still Photographs                preservation
                                 reformatting as
Textual Records                  digital.
Archival Medium is a recording material that
can be expected to retain information forever,
so that such information can be retrieved
without significant loss when properly stored.
However, there is no such material, and it is not
a term to be used to describe material or system
specifications in standards.
Life Expectancy (LE) is the length of
time that information is predicted to
be acceptable in a system at 21°C and
50% RH.
LE Ratings:
•B&W Polyester-Based Photographic Films         LE-500
•B&W Acetate-Based Photographic Films           LE-100
•Diazo Film                                     LE-100
•Vesicular Film                                 LE-100
•Thermally-Processed Silver Film (Dry Silver)   LE-100
•Polyester-Based Magnetic Tape                  LE-50
Longevity of Digital Optical Media:

          3 to 300 years
Digital Data System Obsolescence:

 5 to 10 year system life
 (maybe less) is critical factor.
Digital preservation refers to a series of
managed activities designed to prevent
obsolescence and to maintain data integrity.
Digital objects are not preserved unless they
are stored in a digital repository.
Systems Perspective:
Managing and preserving digital
data/objects/records is different
than managing and preserving
physical records.
Need to bring digital resources into
a managed environment as soon as
possible, to facilitate management,
access, and long-term preservation.
•It is about risk management.
•It is about creating a managed
environment – the need to be
proactive, not just reactive.
Effective IT procedures exist for the short-term
management of electronic records and digital
  • Not always followed.
  • Not always as easy or as inexpensive as
  • We have been sold on the promise of the
  technology, but rarely acknowledge the
Records Management:
It is about managing and
protecting essential records for
the appropriate retention period.
Federal Enterprise Architecture Reference Models:
Digital Asset Services
  •The Digital Asset Services Domain - defines the set of capabilities
  that support the generation, management and distribution of intellectual capital
  and electronic media across the business and extended enterprise.
  •Content Management - defines the capabilities that manage the
  storage, maintenance and retrieval of documents and information of a system or
  •Document Management - defines the set of capabilities that control
  the capture and maintenance of an organization’s documents and files.
  •Knowledge Management - defines the set of capabilities that support
  the identification, gathering and transformation of documents, reports and other
  sources into meaningful information.
  •Records Management - defines the set of capabilities to support the
  storage, protection, archiving, classification and retirement of documents and
For all these reasons, we need a digital
asset management application and
storage system.
Six years ago we started the process of
defining requirements, and
investigating options.
Our need does not match a specific model or
market segment, includes the following
 •Records management application (RMA)
 •Content management (CM)
 •Document capture and management
 •Digital asset management (DAM)
 •Media asset management (MAM)
 •Digital repository
 •Digital preservation
We are working on NARA-wide BPR to define
requirements. Expect to integrate digitization
management and digital asset management concepts
with other systems-
 •Holdings Management System (HMS) to manage
 physical records.
 •Electronic Records Archives (ERA) to manage and
 preserve electronic records and digital copies of
 physical records.
 •Building local infrastructure for reformatting labs to
 support digitization of physical records.
 •Implementing a new centralized storage area network.
Our definition of DAM:
•The process of storing, retrieving, and
distributing digital assets using a centralized
and intellectually organized system.
•A digital asset management and storage system
allows for the management of the digitization of
a variety of original records.
•Facilitates the quick and efficient storage,
management, retrieval, and reuse of digital
Functionality should include-
 •Digitization/image acquisition
 •Integration with image/signal processing
 applications (including batch processing)
 •Project management
 •Digital storage
 •Automated characterization of resources
•Presentation of resources
•Metadata creation and update
•Association (of multiple items/components as a
representation of a record, of individual items with
appropriate metadata, etc.)
•Version control and management (tracking and
distinguishing multiple versions of the same resources
created at different times and/or from different sources,
tracking parent-child relationships of master and derivative
files, etc.)
•Quality control (of digital versions, metadata, etc.)
•Defect/error correction
•Compatibility with a variety of digital object and data
System accommodates the management of
workflow and system administration, including-
 •Workflow configuration
 •Defining user groups and privileges
 •Creating public and private collections and
 •Defining metadata requirements for different
 collections/groupings of resources
 •Configuring and monitoring system security
DAM system also incorporates comprehensive
metadata creation and authoring tools (descriptive,
technical, administrative, preservation, structural,
behavioral, etc.)
  •Structured/relational database capabilities
  •Import/export XML data
  •Metadata schema management
  •Compliance with information management
  •Dublin Core, Encoded Archival Description,
  Visual Core, IPTC Core, etc.
Need flexibility to adapt to our workflow and
daily lab operations-
  •Ease of use
  •Out of box capabilities and functionality
  •Search and retrieve capabilities, including
  full text
•Asset formats
•Image processing functionality and
•Metadata / header tag capabilities -
extraction and ability to write to headers
•Version control and managing relationships
•Full text search for ASCII-based and PDF
•General conformance with the Open
Archival Information System (OAIS) and
digital preservation concepts
•Ability to define hierarchical collections and
independent collection metadata
•Ability to create entries without associated
assets, and to manage multiple assets as a
single document/record
•Automation - ingest, export, resource
characterization, etc.
Metadata management-
•Structured/relational database capabilities
•XML functionality and tools
To be used by staff for-
 •Manage digitization projects
 •Manage digital resources created in-house and by partner
 •Import and export of both resources and associated
 •Provide resources for publications, presentations, web use,
 exhibits, etc.
 •Provide copies as requested to researchers and the general
 public, including digital and hard-copy export/output
 •Transfer/contribute resources to other systems and
 databases (such as ARC and ReDiscovery)
Things we wish COTS DAM applications did better:
  •Managing multiple digital objects as a single thing
  •Ability to function like a database - including ability to
  have a record with out an asset
  •Repeatable fields
  •Download assets and metadata - including batch image
  processing and transformations
  •Need the ability to define transformations - often just a
  predefined routine and lacks more advanced image
  processing functionality - like color space
  •Need to control image processing - such as defining
  parameters for unsharp mask filtering
•Need for sophisticated XML tools
•Ability to extract metadata from and write metadata
to file headers - concerned about identifying assets if
they become disassociated from the DAM
•Desired flexibility in terms of structuring storage
directories and ability to point to assets outside the
•Found some approaches to security too limiting for
our needs
 •At this point in time, digital asset
 management is a needed and essential part of
 an organization’s IT infrastructure.
 •Current applications are sophisticated and
 will meet most needs, it is possible to add
 •Start with getting the basics done right, both
 the infrastructure and in defining metadata

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