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Screen Printing Business document sample

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									                           December 2,1998


I would like to order a VHS tape of the videoconference, Using Screen Printing Technologiesfur Business and
Environmental Success, broadcast December 2, 1998.


Street Address:

City, State , Zip Code:

Price: $25 prepaid for Non-Profit Organizations or Students
       $40 for all others

Price includes one two-hour videotape and one copy of the course notebook.

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Payment must accompany order. All orders will be shipped at the lowest U.S. Postal Service rate unless payment is
included for other shipping method. All foreign orders must add shpping. Payment must be in U.S. funds.

                Mail order form and check payable to University of Wisconsin-Extension to:

                                          Kimberly Swanson
                                   University of Wisconsin-Extension
                              Solid & Hazardous Waste Education Center
                                    610 Langdon Street, Room 535
                                          Madison, WI 53703
                                         phone: 608-262-0910
                                           fax: 608-262-6250
                            Development of this national videoconference has been made possible by the financial
                            support from the following sources:

                                     Grants to the Printers’ National Environmental Assistance Center from:
                                              -EPA Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance
                                              -EPA Design for the Environment (DE)    Program

                                     Additional labor contributed by the University of Wisconsin-Extension’s
                                             -Cooperative Extension Distance Education Unit
Using Screen Printing                        -Solid & Hazardous Waste Education Center
Technologies for Business
                                     Labor and promotional support provided by the Screenprinting and Graphic
& Environmental Success
                                     Imaging Association Intemational (SGIA).

                                     Registration fees from Federal, State, and Local Sponsoring Partners. We
                                     gratefully recognize the partnership of the following sponsors in makinz this
                                     videoconference possible:

                            State Partners

                            California                 New York
                            Illinois                   North Carolina
                            Iowa                       Ohio
                            Kansas                     Rhode Island
                            Kentucky                   Tennessee
                            Massachusetts              Virginia
                            Minnesota                  Wisconsin

                            Granhic Arts Education Progams
                            Distribution of this videoconference and these course materials to graphic arts educational
                            programs is made possible through the support of the Partnership for Environmental
                            Technology Education (PETE).

                            W.S.EPA Air Pollution Distance Learning Network

                            National and Rezional Co-Sponsors
                            The development, promotion and delivery of this program natiorinlly rvns made possible
                            throiigh the collaborative egorts of the following organizations:

                            Graphic Arts Technical Foundation
                            Illinois Waste Management and Research Center
                            National Pollution Prevention Roundtable
                            Partnership for Environmental Technology Education
                            Printing Industries of America
                            Printers’ National Environmental Assistance Center
                            Screenprinting and Graphic Imaging Association International
                            University of Wisconsin-Extension
                            University of Wisconsin Solid and Hazardous Waste Education Center
                            U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

                                Table of Contents
                                I. Program Goals and Agenda ........................................................ I- 1

                                    Biographical Sketches of Participants .........................................             1-5

                                11. Speakers’ Notes
    Using Screen Printing
    Technologies for Business
    & Environmental Success
                                    Marci Kinter ............................................................................. 11-3
                                    Wolfgang Pfirmann .................................................................        11-1 1

                                111. Supplementary Fact Sheets and Articles ..................................               111- 1

                                IV. Additional Sources of Information and Assistance .................. IV- 1

                                   PHONE NUMBERS TO USE DURING THE PROGRAM
                                    Live Question and Answer Period: 1-800-442-4613
                                    Fax Number:                      1-800-345-9529


                                                    Program Goals and Agenda

                                1. Overview key environmental issues affecting smaller screen printers.
                                2. Explore potential to reduce costs and improve environmental
                                   performance through use of newer technologies.
                                3. Identify resources for additional information and assistance.
    Using Screen Printing
    Technologies for Business   Agenda
    & Environmental Success
                                 Using Screen Printing Technologies for Business and Environmental

                                Time                 Topidsegment
                                *Note: Times listed are Central Standard Time

                                9:00                  Registration

                                9: 15                 Welcome and Introduction
                                                      Local Host

                                9:30                  National Broadcast Begins
                                                      Welcome and Introductory Remarks
                                                      Patti Loew, Moderator
                                                      Carol Browner, Administrator, EPA (invited)
                                                      John Crawford, President, SGIA
                                                      Wayne Pferdehirt, Co-Director, PNEAC

                                9:38                  Are These Potential Headaches - or
                                                      Opportunities -on Your Radar Screen?
                                                      Mclrci Kinter, Vice President, Government Affairs,
                                                      This overview of key regulatory issues and concerns
                                                      facing screen printers will cover major applicable
                                                      regulations and how technolo,ay can be used to lower
                                                      emissions, thereby reducing costs and regulatory

                                  PHONE NUMBERS TO USE DURING THE PROGRAM
                                   Live Question and Answer Period: 1-800-442-46 13
                                   Fax Number:                      1-800-345-9529


                                                      T- 1
                                                         Using S tate-of-the-Art Pre-Press for Business and
                                                         Environmental Advantage

                                                         Overview of Current and Evolving Digital Pre-
                                                         Press Technologies
                                                         CVolfgnng Pjirmann, m o
                                                         A growing number of screen printers are using
                                                         digital pre-press technologies to improve their
            Using Screen Printing                        profitability and eliminate the headache of managing
            Technologies for Business                    photochemical wastes. See how forward-looking
            QL Environmental Success
                                                         screen printers are gaining competitive advantage
                                                         through appropriate application of digital pre-press
                                                         technology .

                                                         Case Study: Modernistic, Inc., St. Paul, MN
                                                         Modernistic Inc.’s products include point-of-
-   .
    r                                                    purchase graphics, signs,.posters, and fleetgaphks.       ~

                                                         Modernistic recently installed a large-format
                                                         computer-to-screen system, virtually eliminating the
                                                         use of film for pre-press. The move greatly reduced
                                                         job turnaround, opening up new markets, improving
                                                         job quality, and reducing wastes.

                                        10:41             Managing in the Real World: “You Make the
                                                          This session brings the preceding concepts down to
                                                          the very practical decisions that screen printers face
                                                          in their shops. This “you make the call” session will
                                                          present scenarios that typical screen printing shops
                                                          face as they try to make decisions regarding
                                                          selection of equipment and materials. Panel
                                                          participants will discuss each problem, highlighting
                                                          the regulatory, business, environmental and safety
                                                          aspects, and propose one or more recommended
                                                          solutions to each problem.
                                                          Panel will include Harold Johnston, Marci Kinter.
                                                          Wayne Pfirdehirt, Wolfgang Pfirrmann, and Mike

                                        11:oo             Pause for Developing Questions by Phone or Fax

                                          PHONE NUMBERS TO USE DURING THE PROGRAM
                                           Live Question and Answer Period: 1-800-442-4613
                                           Fax Number:                      1-800-348-9529

                                                          T 1
                                Biographical Sketches of Presenters and Panelists: National Broadcast

                                Thomas Blewett is a Waste Reduction and Management Specialist with
                                the University of Wisconsin-Extension’s Solid and Hazardous Waste
                                Education Center (SHWEC). Mr. Blewett delivers educational programs
                                and technical assistance on pollution prevention and solid waste
                                management programs. Special areas of expertise include small business,
                                manufacturing, and printing industry waste reduction; training and
    Using Screen Printing       organizing pollution prevention teams; and petroleum storage tanks
    Technoiogies for Business
                                (Farm*A*Syst). Mr. Blewett has more than 15 years of teaching and
    Sr Environmental Success
                                technical experience.
                                Phone: 608-262-0936
                                Fax: 608-262-6250

                                Eric Henry is the president of T.S. Designs, Inc. Mr. Henry’s
                                responsibilities at T.S- Designs include implemeging and gverseeing
                                environmental activities. He is also the secretary for the SGIA
                                International Board of Directors and is the Chairman of the SGIA
                                Environmental Committee. Mr. Henry serves on the Board of Advisors for
                                Elon College Business School, and he is on the Board of Directors for
                                Piedmont Land Conservancy.
                                Phone: 336-229-6426 (ext. 201)
                                Fax: 336-226-44 18

                                Harold J. Johnston has experience in coating photo-sensitive
                                photographic film, color separations, and in plant management of a leading
                                screen printing company. In 1962, Mr. Johnston joined General
                                ResearcNGeneral Formulations in Sparta, Michigan in a technical sales
                                position. He sold the general cylinder press along with specialty inks and
                                pressure sensitive vinyl and polyester films. Mr. Johnston was responsible
                                for the development of the manufacturing base for General (now Sakuri) in
                                Japan. He moved to Kansas City as a Sales Manager for K.C. Coatings, a
                                leading screen ink manufacturer of its time, and he has been in Sales and
                                Marketing of screen ink manufacturers until the present. Mr. Johnston is
                                currently the Vice President of Sales of NAZDAR, located in Shawnee,
                                Phone: 913-422-1888
                                Fax: 9 13-422-8295


                                                     1- c;
                            Biographical Sketches Continued

                            Wolfgang Pfirrmann is Vice President of the Digital Products Division
                            for KIWO, Inc. and former Manager of the Applied Research Department
                            for KIWO’s parent company, Kissel & Wolf GmbH, Wiesloch, Germany.
                            Prior to joining Kissel & Wolf in 1988, Mr. Pfirrmann was responsible for
                            the Technical Training Center at Svecia Silkscreen Maskiner AB,
                            Norsborg, Sweden as well as technical education on printing equipment.
Using Screen Printing       For a number of years, he also served as a consultant to the industry, and
Technologies for Business   held a position as production manager. Mr. Pfirrmann has 22 years
& Environmental Success
                            experience in screen printing and was educated as a screen printer at
                            Domberger KG, Filderstadt, Germany, one of the worlds foremost 4-color-
                            process and fine arts printers. His experience also includes flat glass
                            printing, circuit board printing and nameplates. Mr. Pfirrmann is a frequent
                            speaker and author of several technical papers and articles and has
                            introduced Rz-measurements as a quality control tool in the industry.
                            Recently he has been iaducted,inta the Sagen Erkting Academy.
                            Phone: 8 0 0 - W O - U S A (or 28 1-474-9777)
                            Fax: 28 1-474-7325

                            Michael R. Ukena has had a varied business career, including seven years
                            as an owner of a textile screen printing business, three years as a technical
                            specialist and Director of Education for the SGIA, and the past year as a
                            Technical Sales Representative for Union Ink. Mr. Ukena has also worked
                            as a consultant to several screenprinting businesses on both technical and
                            managerial issues. Prior to his career in the screen printing industry, he
                            spent 20 years working for several major companies in various
                            management capacities.
                            Phone: 800-647-7764
                            Fax: 727-938-0194 (call’prior to faxing)

                            Jon Weber is a Quality Manager with Romo, Inc. blr. Weber took over as
                            Romo’s SafetyEnvironmental Coordinator in 1996. He handles all of
                            Romo’s environmental reporting, coordinates all employee safety training,
                            and heads Romo’s Safety Committee.
                            Phone: 920-336-5 100
                            Fax: 920-336-5 17 1
                            11. PRESENTATION NOTES

                              Marci Kinter
                                   Speaker Notes .................................................................. 11-3
                                   Article: “Demystify the Air-Permitting System” .............. 11-7

                              Wolfgang Pfirrmann
Using Screen Printing             Speaker Notes ............................................................... ..II- 1 1
Technologies for Business
& Environmental Success
                              Romo Case Study
                                  Paper by Jon Weber ........................................................ 11- 19
                                  EPA DfE Case Study ............................................. :....... .II-23

                              T.S. Designs Case Study
                                   EPA D E Case Study ......................................................     11-37
    Are These Potential Headaches - or
         on Your Radar Screen?

                        Marci Kinter
               Vice President. Government Afhirs
         Screenprinting and Gnphtc I m a ~ t i g
                       Intemattotial (SGIA)

     Federal versus State Regulation
     of Screen Printing
    + General Misconception Regarding
      Applicability of Environmental Regulations
    + Air and Wastewater
       - No industry-specific Federal guidance
         regarding applicability of air and wastewater
         regulations to screen pnnters
I   + Hazardous Wastes
       - Applicable to all generators ofhazardous waste
       - Vimally all pnnters generate hazardous wastes

    Importance of Understanding
    Impacts of Process Changes
     + Changes to Chemical Selection and Use Can:
       - Increase waste generation
       - Lead to increased regulatory oversight
       - Provide oppartunities to reduce wastes and
         regulatory headaches
     + Important to Know Applicable Regulations
     + Incorporate Environmental Issues into
       Business Planning


    Used Shop Towels
     + State policies dictate if/when used shop
       towels are considered hazardous waste
     + SGlA working with other graphic arts
       associations and EPA to develop national

I   wastewater
     + Wastewater highly dependent on local
       regulations and permit requirements
     + Limits set by local wastewater treatment
     + Call local agency for questions about what
       may be put down drain and obtaining
       appropriate permits

1                                                   1

    Advantages of New TechnoIogies
     +   Example Applications
         - Inks
         - Cleaning solvents
         - Digital pre-press
     + Benefits: Economic and Regulatory Relief
         -   Lower emissions
         -   Reduction in wastes
         -   Reduction in costs
         -   increased performance

                    Demystify the Air Permitting System
                        By Marcia Y. Kinter, SGIA Vice President- Government Aflairs

For most, the prospect of going through the process to        addition, air permitting requirements differ between areas
obtain an air permit is daunting. Where do I start’? What     in attainment and non-attainment, as well as between the
information do I need? Whom do I contact‘? Do I even          different non-attainment areas. An area in attainment is
need an air permit?                        .~         *   -   one iwwhichttre ozone standard has been met. Non-
          There are many different types of air permitting    attainment areas are those that have exceeded the current
systems out there, which makes the process even more          ozone standard. The more days the standard is exceeded,
confusing. Generally, all states require some type of         the more severe its non-attainment status. For example,
construction or operatins permit; however, state programs     parts of Ohio are in non-attainment, but are only classified
do differ. In addition, if a facility is considered a major   as a marginal non-attainment area. However, the state of
source of emissions, it is possible a Title V permit may be   Massachusetts is classified as a severe non-attainment
required. While it would be next to impossible, not to        area.
mention tedious, to discuss all state permitting               Therefore, the first piece of information Jake’s need to
requirements, it is the intent of this article to take you    collect is the attainment of non-attainment status of its
through the process that will help you determine which        location in Florida. Oftentimes, attainment status is
type of permit would be required for your equipment.          broken down by county or standard metropolitan
Remember: in most states, Fcrmitting is done on an            statistical area. It is important to know the status of your
equipment basis not a facility-wide basis.                    area because that will determine the thresholds for a
          To illustrate how the permitting system works,      major source.
we need to construct a facility. Our facility that we will      Attainment status can be found by contacting your
follow through the permitting system is located in            state’s small business technical assistance program, SGIA
Orlando, Florida. Jake’s Display Company is a graphics        International’s Government Affairs office, or by
facility with three press lines, one of which uses solvent-   searching U.S. EPA’s Internet site at www.epa.zov.
based inks and two that use UB curable ink systems.             Jake’s called SGIA International and found that the
Jake’s Display Company produces both outdoor and              Orlando, FL,area is in attainment and that major sources
indoor displays with an estimated income of $2 million.       are those that have the potential to emit 100 tons per year
The majority of Jake’s work is indoor display graphics.       of volatile organic compounds. Also, there is a major
Their annual consumption of ink is 2,600 gallons of           source designation for hazardous air pollutants or HAPS.
solvent-based and 1,300 gallons of UV curable inks.           A facility that has the potential to emit more than 10 tons
They also use 60 gallons of solvent for screen reclamation    of one HAP or 25 tons of a combination of HAPs is
purposes.                                                     considered a major source. The HAP major source
                                                              threshold remains constant, no matter where a facility is
Does Jake’s Display Company Even Need a n Air                 located.
Permit?                                                         Jake’s also discovered that the state of Florida has a
                                                              program requiring all major sources to obtain a Title V
          Before Jake’s can determine if an air permit is     permit, as well as a requirement that any facility emitting
required, the plant needs to understand why air permits       pollutants must obtain an operating permit, unless the
are necessary. Air permits are essentially a facility’s       Department of the Environment deems otherwise. It is
license to emit pollutants into the atmosphere. The           recommended that Jake’s Display Company determine
amount one can emit is based on h e            iwich           whether orlnot it falls within the major source status for
you reside. Pollutants include both volatile organic          either VOCs or HAPs
compounds as well as hazardous air pollutants. In
What Happens Next ...

  Negotiating and obtaining the
actual air permit is time consuming.
Afterwards, Jake’s will be required
to maintain records of actual usage
of VOC containing materials.
Recordkeeping requirements are
often written in as a permit
condition, and I would encourage
Jake’s to request monthly
recordkeeping rather than daily.
Additionally, the permitting office
may request that you submit these
records to them on a routine basis.
They may request quarterly, semi-
annual or annual records. Again,
 annual submittal of records would
 be the ideal situation; however, the
 time frame is frequently set by the
 permittins agency.
   Hopefully, Jake’s permit limits
 will allow growth. If new
 equipment is to be added, though,
 then the permitting cycle must
 begin for the new piece of
   Overall, Jake’s Display Company
 is in a better position than before.
 It has a high comfort level that one
 facility is operating well within the
  purview of the law.

Reproduced froin the SGIA Journal,
Foiirtli Quarter, 1997. pages 40-42.
                An Introduction to
                Digital Pre-Press
                for Screen Printing

                   Wolfgang P f m a n n
                      KI WO, Inc.

        Pre-press Technologies

          4   Analog
             Processes that include manual or
             machine-assisted operations not fully
             executed by computers
          -+ Digital
             Processes that are completely exacuted
             by a computer or computer-assisted


    Changes that Have Made Digital
    Pre-press Affordaljle

    4 Postscript language became industry standard
    4 Standards for color description

    4 Keduced cost for output equipment

    4 Reduced cost for software

    + Dramatic reduction in computer costs

    Smaller Shops with Limited Budgets

          4 High-quality desktop scanners
          4 Thermal film output devices
          4 Dye sublimation and ik jet
            printers for proofing

1   Eliminating the Use of Film

               4   Computer-to Plate (litho)
               4   Computer-to-Screen

I   Applications of Digital Pre-press
I   Hardware and Software

           + Image Creation & Processing
           4   Proofing
           4   output

                                               11- 1 3
      Pre-Press Components:
          4   Film Output
              - Laser
              - Vellum
              - Thermo Film
              - Image Setter
          4   Direct Output
              - Computer-to-Screen Systems


    Challenges to Going Digital

              4   Training
              4   Resistance to Change

     Benefits of Digital Pre-press
      4 Potential for lower production costs
      4 Shorter turnaround for customers

      4 Greater process control and quality

      4 Reduced press setup times

      4 Reduced wastes
          - film
          - photoprocessing chemicals
          - substrate
Case Study: Romo, Inc.
By Jon Weber, Quality Manager, Romo, Inc.

Federal and state environmental regulations have become more strict each year,requiring businesses to
find ways to reduce or eliminate the pollutants they are putting into the atmosphere and the harmful
chemicals that they use daily, or suffer the consequences. The following is a story of how a small
company reduced its waste voluntarily by 90% over the span of a few years, and has received national
recognition for it.

33/50 Pragram Background

The Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) 33/50 Program is a voluntary pollution reduction
initiative that focuses on 17 different Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) chemicals for reduction in direct
releases (through the air, etc.) and off site transfers (in your hazardous waste barrels). This program gets
its name from the goals that it set - a short term reduction of these TRI chemicals of 33% by 1992, and
an ultimate reduction of 50% by 1995, using 1988 TRI reports as a baseline. About 1,300 companies
responded to this initiative that focused on voluntary pollution source reduction. The goal of the
program was to reduce the 1.5 billibn pounds of pollution reported to TRI to 750 million pounds. By
1994, the 33/50 Program led companies to decrease the chemical pollution by 757 million pounds,
beating the goal by 1 year.

                     THE 17 TFU CHEMICALS OF
                     THE 33/50 PROGRAM

                     CADMIUM & COMPOUNDS
                     CARBON TETRACHLORIDE
                     CHROMIUM & COMPUNDS
                     LEAD & COMPOUNDS
                     MERCURY & COMPOUNDS
                     METHYL ETHYL KETONE
                     METHYL ISOBUTYL KETONE
                     NICKEL & COMPOUNDS
                     1,1,1 - TRICHLOROETHANE
    The company’s next step was to address the use of emulsion remover. In the past, employees dipped a
    brush into the emulsion remover container and then used the brush on the screen to remove the
    emulsion. To gain efficiency in this process, a spray nozzle was connected to the 15-gallon container so
    that an employee could evenly mist the screen with the emulsion remover. To speed up this process,
    Romo installed a high-pressure water blaster (290 psi) to spray the screens. This increased pressure did
    not degrade screen quality. Additional pressure (1,500 - 4,000 psi) proved overall more effective. The
    increased pressure aiso cut back on the amount of emulsion remover needed, going from 1 gallon for
    every 3 gallons water to 1 gallon for every 6.5 gallons water. By using a water/emulsion remover
    solution, the company was able to cut back on emulsion remover use by 75%. This reduction resulted in
    a $3,80O/year savings, allowing the $4,900 pressure washer to pay for itself after only 15 months.

    With only a few minor process, product, and equipment changes, Romo was able to easily reach its
    33/50 Program seal. By 1993, the company’s total TRI release goal was 20,368 (33% less than the
    1988 figures) pounds, and by 1995, the company’s goal was 15,200 pounds. By the end of 1992, the
    actual amount of TRI chemicals released was 5,390 pounds, 10,000 pounds less than the overall goal
    and 3 years ahead of schedule.

    After 3315.9 .   ~       -   ^   -

    Romo’s releases held steady for about 3 years, with no drastic process or product changes. However, in
    the silmmer of 1996, Romo management wanted to find a new screen wash product in order to stay
    proactive and to reduce chemical releases even further. A “Solvent Team” was created with production
    employees who use the solvents on a daily basis. This team tested a number of company’s products in
    actual production environments, in some cases for 2 to 3 weeks at a time. The team collected data on
    each product batch, including how much was used, how easy the product was to use, and whether any
    changes in the recommended application procedure were required. The Solvent Team met on a weekly
    basis to discuss test results and to plan future testing. The group also studied MSDS sheets of the
    products tested so that Romo did not take an accidental step backward when it was trying to go forward.

    After a couple of months of testing, the solvent team chose one company’s products. While certain
    situations still require the use of the old solvents, the new product line has virtually replaced the old
    solvent. A new organic solvent mixture, which contains no SARA reportable ingredients, replaced the
    press solvent that employees had used since 1992. This new product separated the ink from the screen
    mesh whereas the old solvent packed the ink into the mesh more. In essence, the new product
    significantly decreased the number of screens that needed to be hazed to 5% overall.

    Romo also switched its screen wash solvent and eliminated the need for the still. The new screen wash.
    like the press solvent, contains no SARA reportable ingredients. The screen wash system now uses. a
    recirculation tank that reuses all solvents that do not fall directly on the screen. The tank reuses all
    solvents drained into it. Finally, Romo switched its emulsion remover to a product that contains no
    reportable chemicals.

     Along with the product changes Romo made, employees needed to make equipment and process
    changes. First, Romo covered its overhead lighting (which contained ultraviolet light) with an UV
    inhibative material so that light from the ceiling would not dry the UV ink into the screens, which
    promotes screen hazing. Second, when employees need to leave their press for any reason, they must
    wash the substrate side of the screen with the press wash to prevent ink from drying into the mesh. The
    p r o d u c t k d prmxss changes dramatically reduced screen hazing. When Romo made their most recent
    product and process changes, the percentage of screens hazed dropped from 33% of all screens to 5 % ,

                                                       TT   in
A Cooperative Project
between the
'J.S. Environmental
Protection Agency
and the
Pi-in ring Trade
Associations -        '-

Nation wide

r €PA 744-F-93-015
0 0 0 0 . . 8 . . * 0 * *                    I     O            O     O         ~       ~   ~   O    O        O
                                                                                                                  SCREEN PRINTING CASE STUDY I
                                                                                                                    W    8     ~     ~     O     O     ~      ~   ~

                                      ' X
                                EPA                                                                      Proiecr, EPA and the Drinting industry are
                                                                                                         wor'king together to i&nuify&ernauve prod-
                                            REDUCING THE USE                                             ucts and processes chat are safer for the environ-
                                                                                                         ment. The DfE Printing Project provides the
                                            OF RfCLAMATION                                               chemical risk and pollution prevention informs-
                                           CHEMICALS                                                     tion that printers need in order to condua their
                                                                                                         day to day business operations wirh the envi-
                                       I SCREEN PRINTING-                                                ronpcncz a priority.
                                                                                                    z z r w

                                                                                                                  This is the first in 3 series of screen
                                                                                                         printins industry case srudies that EPA is
                                                                                                         developing to illustrate how the DtE concept
                                                 C A S E STUDY                              1            can be incorporxed into printing Ficiiiries.
                                                                                                         This .srudk-describes a successful pollution
                                                                                                         reduction program at Romo Incorporated. 3
                                                                                                         screen printer in De Pere. Wisconsin.
                                                                                                                       o u company did not 1 1 3 ~ 1~c c e s
                                                                                                         . ~ \ I ~ l ~ the ~ h
                                                   a:-:   ...   ..
                                                                 :   .. .   .       .
                                                                                                         risk inionimion like that x i s produced in i h r

                                                                                                         DIE Printing Project. the v-3); that the comoa-
                                                                                                         ny sexched out safer alrematives illustrxes
                                                                                                         ho\v screen printers can ;\chieve significsnr
                                                                                                         enwonmental resulrs.
                                                                                                         In particular. this case study slioLvs:

    . ... .                                                                                                   used in screen cleaning led IO the subsutu-
             .    .
                                                 SCREEN PRINTING                                              tion of more environmentdly :ippropr;are
                      .     -                                                                                 solvents at press side
                                                                                                              Hun. using 3 still to recover 2nd rewe ink
                                             eing responsive to the environment                               cleaning solvent saved the company
                                             means leiming new procedures and                                 money.
                                              using new tools to d o the same job
                                      with less negative environmental impact.
                                      Decisions about the purchase of equipment
                                      and chemicals for screen reclamation or other
                                      production processes depend not only o n
                                      cost. availability. and performance, bur also
                                      on whether environmental requirements c:in
                                      be met. Meeting environmental requirements
                                      meins understanding the comp:irr*ti\.e human
                                      and ecological risks o the altematives beins
                                             This case study is brought to you by the
                                      U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's
                                      (EPA's) Design for the Environment ( D E )
                                      Program with assistance from the Screenprint-
                                      ing and Graphic&itq+pbeciation        Interna-
                                      tional (SGIA). Through the D E Printing
solvent becomes to d i q to clenn effec-                                                     expemive at $13 per gallon, as
tively, Romo disposes of the ink-conta-                                                      opposed to $3 per gallon for the sol-
minated solvent as a hazardous waste.                                                        vent Romo was using at rhe time. the
Through the use of the still. Ronio                                                          product performed well, and Romo
able to reduce its consumption of                                                            decided to use the less hazardous prod-
cleaning product to only one 55-gallon                                                       uct for press side cleaning. Savings
drum every three to four weeks (even                                                         genemted by using less reclaiming sol-
in conjunction with an increase in facil-                                                    venr were used to fund the increased
ity production). This saves the compa-                                                       cost of the new press-side screen clean-
               $83 per d a y or 520.750 per                                                  ing product.
                year in solvent procure-                                                             In 1991, Romo used 12,382
                ment costs alone. .The                                                       pounds of toluene and 6,038 pounds of
                decreased consumption                                                        methyl isobutyl ketone. By making the
                 in screen cleaning prod-                                                    switch to the new press-side Screen dean-
             ct also contributes to a
                                              sure control device for the spray noz-         ing product, Romo was able to reduce its
      healthier working environment,          zle. The device was simply a smsll             use of these chemicals by approximately
since employees are no longer exposed         piece of wood secdrrd under the han-           70 percent, bringing the use of toluene
to large quantities of evaporated sol-        dle of the nozzle by a locking band.           down to 3,611 pound5 and methyl
vent                                          Since the wood prevented the screen            tsobutvl ketone down to 1.779 pounds
                                              reclaimers from pushing thcnozzte -        .
                                              past a certain point. the amount of sol-
                                              vent being sprayed was coo.trolled.
Change To Alternative                                                                        Change Emulsion
Apptication Techniques                        Investigate Alternatiue                        Remover A p p r o a c h
      By working cogether with compa-
                                              Products F o r Toxics Use                              With a number of successes
ny employees, Romo discovered new             Reduction                                      behind it, Romo continued iu se3rch for
work practices that further reduced the                                                      other potential pollution prevention
volume of screen cleaning product need-                In early 1992. Ronio decided to       opportunities by looking at the emul-
                                              go one srep further and made a volun-          sior? removal process. Following up o n
                                              tary commitmeiit to EPX's 33/50 Pro-           an adverrisement. Romo tested and then
                                              gram to reduce its use of toluene and          bought and extremely high-pressure
                                              m t h y i isobutyl krtone by 50 percent        Lvater blaster 290 pounds per square
                                              bv 1995. hlanagemcnt
                                              decided to test some alter- I                                                          I

ed. For years, the screen cleaning sol-
vent was applied in the same way, by
hosing the solvent onto the screen.
One creative employee suggested
adding an adjustable spmy nozzle. like        chemicals listed by EPA's                      inch (psil) for $2.650 that hamessed the
that on a garden hose, in order to pro-       33/50 Program as ingredients of envi-          physical power of water pressure to
vide more direct and efficient applica-       ronmental concern, Romo decided to             reduce the amount of chemical emul-
tion of rhe product. The nozzle, paired       test a few products that had been rec-         sion remover product used o n each
with better use of brushes to loosen          ommended by other screen printers.             screen. Romo was concerned that the
the ink, was able to reduce the amount        One particularly promising product,            increased pressure might disturb screen
of solvent needed for e x h screen.           formulated for process cleaning 31             tensioning o r deteriorate the mesh. But
       Furrher reductions in solvent use      press side. primarily consisted of a mix       afcer five years of successfully.using the
were made in 1991 by creating a pres-         of propylene glycol n i o r i o n i r.   .~     ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
                                                                                             high-pressure blaster. Romo was confi-
                                              propylene glycol monomethyl ether              dent enough th3t the equipment did not
                                              xemte. and qclohesanonr. Although

        A Cooperative Project
                                             I                  #

        between the
        U.S. Environmental
        Protection Agency
        and the
        Printing Trade
        Nation wide

       .............- &?

                             US. EPA-
                                          Innovations in Adhesives, Screen
                                          Cleaning, and Screen Reclamation

      SCREEN PRINTING                       his case study describes how T.S.
                                            Designs, a textiie screen printet ins 1
                                            Burlington, North Carolina, used ini-
                                                                                           7     mjs*;zs@
                                                                                                        s&Jy                   &dws -how:
                                    hahve and creativity to prevent p o h h o n                  m Water-based adhesives can
                                    at its facility. In doing so, the company                      effectively replace solvent-
                                    minimized risk to workers and the envi-                        based adhesives in the textile
                                    ronment, greatly reduced its solvent use,
                                    and increased its cost efficiency.
                                                                                                   printing process.
                                                                                                 m Solvent use can be drastically
                                                                                                     reduced by reusing chemicals
                                    Background                                                       in enclosed screen cleaning
                                                                                                     and reclamation tanks.
                                           T.S. Designs began textile screen print-
                                    ing in 1977 and today processes 4.5 million
                                    articles of clothing per year.<Thecompany
                                    employs 55 people, about a third of whom                   time, the company used a solvent-based
                                    are directly involved in production. T.S.                  spray adhesive to hoId T-shirts in place on
                                    Designs mainly uses plastisol inks, which                  a platen while the image was applied. The
                                    are polyvinyl chloride-based, although it                  adhesive came in 12- and 16-ounce aerosol
                                    does occasionally use water-based inks                     cans, and workers manually sprayed it
                                    when requested by customers. Currently,                    onto the platen. The process was imprecise,
                                    T.S. b i g n s produces mostly T-shirts, but               and if a worker sprayed too much or too
                                    also prints sweatshirts, piece goods, and                  little adhesive, the printed image would
                                    hosiery products. The materials include both               often be defective.
                                    synthetic and natural fibers. The f " s pri-                      The company wanted to lower the
                                    mary market is contract screen printing for                number of products rejected due to incor-
                                    large sportswear companies. The company                    rect adhesive application. It contacted sev-
                                    also prints for local schools, restaurants,                eral chemical companies to discuss
                                    clubs, and other organizations.                            automating the adhesive application
                                                                                               process. Several partially automated sys-
                                                                                               tems did exist, but given the large quantity
                                    Automated Adhesive                                         of texhles the company prints and its quali-
                                                                                               ty control requirements, the firm decided
                                    Application Process                                        to design and build a totally new, fully

                                                                                               automated system. The new system would
                                          T.S. Designs began reducing its sol-                 be tied electronically to the printing
_..                                 vent use in 1991 as aquality conh-ol is -
                                                                         s+                    machine, and couldpreciseiy con& when
                                    not for environmental reasons. At that                     and how much adhesive is applied.

                                                    ca   Printed on paper that contains at least 20 percent postconsumer t i k r
  U.S. EPA
       In 1992, the company used tradi-              more stringent. In addition, the old sys-    water system. The new system cost
tional ink removal and emulsion                      tem used large amounts of water and          nearly $13,000 to install, but saves T.S.
removal processes that required the use              was very labor intensive.                    Designs over $20,000 in reduced labor
of several hazardous chemicals. The                                                               and purchasing costs annually.
first part of the ink removal process,
carding out the screens, required work-              Automated Ink
ers to remove excess ink with card-
                                                     Removal System                               Enclosed Emulsion
board cards. Next, workers applied a
diluted ink remover detergent to the
                                                                                                  Removal System
scre2n.s. The detergent contained glycol                  The firm sought out ways to
ethers (less than 30 percent), petroleum             improve its ink removal and emulsion               The emulsion removai process
distillate (less than 5 percent), and                removal processes at every level.            presented many of the same concerns as
d-lunonene (less than 20 percent). For               Beginning with the carding out phase, it     the i k removal process. Too many haz-
the emulsion removal process, workers                eliminated the thousands of cardboard        ardous chemicals were being washed
                                                                                                  down the drain, and workers were
                                                                                                  spending too much time applying the
                                                                                                  chemicals, waiting for them to loosen
                                                                                                  the emulsion, and washing off the
                                                                                                  screens. T.S. Designs started experi-
                                                                                                  menting with its emulsion remover
                                                                                                  chemical. It found that much smaller
                                                                                                  amounts of the chemical, if left on the
                                                                                                  screen longer, were just as effective as
                                                                                                  the amount the company had been
                                                                                                  using. Although the chemical looked
                                                                                                  dirty after use, it could be reused many
                                                                                                  times and still successfully reclaim the
                                                                                                     T.S. Designs used this new informa-
                                                                                                  tion to design and build its o w n
                                                                                                  enclosed system. Similar to the ink
                                                                                                  removal system, workers place the
T.S. Designs'enclosed reclaim tank h a s c u t t h e company's use of water in half.              screen in a tank where it is soaked in
                                                                                                  emulsion remover. This chemical softens
applied an emulsion remover consisting               cards and replaced them with reusable        the emulsion. Workers then remove the
partially of peracetic acid (25 to 30 per-           cards made from scrap Formica. Next,         screen from the tank and wash out any
cent). Occasionally, if a stain shll                 the company improved the application         remaining emulsion with gray water
remained on the screens, workers used                of its ink removal chemical. It identified   recycled from the degreasing process
a haze remover containing akylphe-                   and installed an automated closed loop       (described below) at a pressure of 200
noxypdyethoxyethanol (less than 18                   system that did not need water and did       pounds per square inch. Previously, T.S.
percent). To complete the process, they              not send ink down the drain. This sys-       Designs used roughly 90 gallons of
used a degreaser with a small amount                 tem simply requires workers to put the       emulsion remover a month, but now
of propylene glycol ether (3 percent).               screen inside an enclosed tank, and the      about 25 gallons are recirculated
After each step in the ink removal and               equipment does the rest, much like an        through the system each month. This
emulsion removal processes, the chemi-               industrial dishwasher.                       recirculation reduces the amount of
cals were washed through the screens                        This new enclosed system allows       emulsion remover purchased and dis-
with a very low-pressure water stream.               chemicals to be applied in a much more       posed of by about 780 gallons a year,
The resulting mixture was then washed                controlled environment. They can be          saving over $900 in purchasing costs
d o w n the drain in compliance with                 recycled many times and                      annually. These purchasing savings
local, state, and federal regulations.               waste is greatly                             allowed the firm to recoup its labor and
       Even though the old system was                reduced.                                     equipment costs for designing and
 I compliance, T.S. Designs knew that                       This reuse                            implementing the new emulsion
.ne fewer chemicals it sent down the                 process keeps                                removal system in just over a year. In
drain, the lower their impact      mw. -        1-
                                                     a p proxima teI y                            addition, the effectiveness of the ink
environment. The company also stood                  1,000 gallons of                             removal and emulsion removal systems
less chance of avoiding future compli-               solvent a year                               has allowed the firm to virtually elimi-
ance problems if regulations became                  out of the waste-                            nate the haze remover step.
                              111. SUPPLEMENTARY FACT SHEETS AND ARTICLES

                                      “Screen Printing,” by Marci Kinter .................................          .IIi-3

                                  Design for the Environment Fact Sheets
                                    Case Study 2: Action Graphics ......................................... 111-9
                                    Bulletin 3: Work Practice Alternatives ........................... 111-13
                                    Bulletin 1 : Technology Alternatives ............................. ..III- 17
Using Screen Printing
Technologies for Business &      Table: Screen Reclamation Chemicals Which Trigger
Environmental Success              Federal Environmental Regulations ................................             .III-:! 1

                                  “Eliminating Screen Printing Photographic Wastes,”
                                    reprinted from Pollution Prevention Review ................... .III-23

                                  PNEAC Fact Sheets
                                    Basic RCRA Recordkeeping Requirementsfar.- . __
                                      Printers ...................................................................... 111-37
                                    How to Read and Use an MSDS €or Environmental
                                      Purposes .................................................................... 111-41

                                  GATF Environmental Compliance Checklist .................... ..III-47

                                  Excerpts from “Federal Environmental Regulation Potentially
                                  Affecting the Commercial Printing Industry ....................... .HI-63

                                  Excerpts from the “Code of Management Practice: Guide for
                                  Commercial Imaging.” ........................................................ 111-69
                                       Screen Printin
                                             Marcia Y. Kinter

          Although generally classified as                       Unlike the other major printing
"Commercial Printing, Not Elsewhere                     processes, screen printing is able to utilize a
Classified" by the Office of Management and             wide variety of substrates. All substrates can be
Budget's Standard Industrial Classification Code        classified as either absorbent or nonabsorbent.
System, the process known as screen printing            Substrates for screen printing include all types
has little in common with lithography, gravure,         of plastics (acrylic, epoxies, vinyl, top-coated
flexography, and letterpress. The flexibility of        and non top-coated polyester, and
the screen printing process allows the controlled       polycarbonate); fabric (both natural and
deposit of inks onto a substrate in a manner that       synthetic); metals (aluminum, brass, copper,
provides the user with the needed legibility,           lacquer-coated metals and steel); papers
color.opacity, and durability. This method is '         (uncoated, coated, corrugate coated fiberboard,
known for its ability to impart relatively heavy        poster, and cardboard); and other substrates,
deposits of ink onto practically any type of            such as leather, masonite, wood, and electronic
surface, in a controlled pattern, with few              circuit boards.
limitations on the size and shape of the object                  This listing of substrates ar?d end
being printed.                                          products graphically illustrates the differences
          Today, there are over 40,000 screen           between screen printing and all other major
printing operations located throughout the              printing processes. It needs to be noted at this
United States. It has been estimated that in            point that the majority of screen printers do not
 1986, the screen printing industry posted gross        restrict their operations to printing on one
sales of $13 billion. This printing process is an       substrate or to the production of one end
integral part of every industry that produces           product.
products that need imprinted instructions,
identification, or color application. Over the                    PROCESS DESCRIPTION
past decades, the rate of growth has exceeded
that of any other type of printing process.             In the most simplistic terms, the screen printing
          The average screen printing company           process involves the flow of ink through a
has 15 employees, in both production and                porous screen mesh to which a stencil has been
management. Nearly half of the screen printing          added to define the image. The ink flows
 facilities produce imprinted textiles garments.        through the imazed screen by virtue of
This category includes clothing, caps, children's       hydraulic pressure that is initiated by the action
 wear, and towels. Other major categories of            of a flexible rubber or synthetic blade known as
 screen-printed products include banners and            a squeegee. The squeegee blade sweeps across
 billboards for outdoor advertising, point-of-          the surface of the pretensioned, preimaged
 purchase displays, posers (both single and             screen, pressing the ink through those areas of
 multisheet), electronics such as circuit boards,       the screen not blocked by the stencil and onto
 containers of all types and sizes, and pressure-       the substrate in the pattern defined by the stencil
 sensitive decals. End products procuded by             image. The substrate is then either manually
 screen printing include in-store displays, decals,     place onto drying racks or
 labels, emblems,banners, flags, pennants,              mechanically/manually placed onto a conveyor
 binders, transit advertising, nameplates,              transport system f o r s       n h t o a drying
 wallpaper, and product-identification markings.        unit.
            entire curing process. The amount of energy                appropriately with a vinyl resin
            absorbed by the material depends on the amount             system would be required to assure durability.
            of time spent under the IR element. Air is                 The volatile content of the ink is dependent on
            circulated within the heating system; however,             the demands of the resin system.
            very little is exhausted to the outside. The air is                 A variety of ink systems are available
            swept over the substrate and recirculated within           for use by the screen printing industry. The
            the system.                                                selection of a given ink system for a particular
                     Ultraviolet curing units provide                  job is determined in large part by the end use of
            relatively energetic photons of 200-400 nm.                the product and the substrate being printed.
            Photons are emitted from mercury vapor lamps                        Within the screen printing ink family,
            within the curing unit. The intensity of                   four different major types of ink systems
            commonly used lamps is 200 w/in squared. The               currently utilized: UV inks (UV curables),
            lamp is either housed in an extruded aluminum              water-based inks plastisols, and the solvent-
            reflector with highly polished walls for                   based ink systems.
            maximum UV reflectance or its energy is                             Ultraviolet inks consist of pigments,
            focused onto the substrate by parabolic                    monomers, oligomers, additives, and modifiers.
            reflectors.                                                The photoinitiator reacting to the UV-light
                    The UV energy-pmyidedby the lamps is               source produces free radicals that initiate a
            absorbed by the photoinitiators present within             chain reaction, resulting in polymerization of
            the liquid formulation of the ink. Free radicals           the monomers and oligomers. Some UV inks
            are produced that attack the double bonds of the           are suitable for outdoor usage because they
            resin molecules, increasing the molecular                  exhibit resistance to abrzion, solvents,
            weight as the particles add to themselves and              chemicals, and other environmental menaces.
            form a cross-linked chain. This chain produces             They do have limitations in the area of
            a solid polymer film. This process takes place             flexibility and are not recommended for use on
            in a fraction of a second. The UV curing units             most corrugated surfaces.
            are 10 to 12 times more energy efficient that the                   Water-based ink systems use water as
            traditional thermal curing units.                          part of all of their solvent component. These
                                                                       ink systems all contain organic pigments, resins,
             Ink Systems                                               and additives, such as flow promoters, retarders,
                                                                       and other performance enhancers. Water-based
             The basic chemistry of ink systems resolves               systems require the use of water-soluble resins
             around three major elements: pigments that are            and contain up to 65-7096 solids. These inks
             the colorants for impact, identification, and             can be used on a wide variety of substrates.
             contrast; binders that hold the colorants together                 A distinction must be made between
             in a continuous film and to the substrate onto            water-reducible and water-based ink systems.
             which the film is printed; and solvents that              Not all water-reducible systems are water based.
             dissolve the resins so that they are put in a fluid       Water-reducible systems can contain very little
             state a n d , together with the pigments, make a           water, as low as lo%, but as long as the system
             pliable and screenable material.                          can be reduced or thinned with water. This is a
                      Resins are the important element of any           major difference between true water-based
              ink system. They are the solids of the ink and           systems and a water-reducible system that needs
             bond the pigment to the surface. The resins                to be recognized.
              have to be dissolved by the solvents. Ink                         Plastisol inks are generally used in the
              manufacturers develop products from a host of             textile market. This ink system consists of two
              resin systems to meet end-product demands for             basic ingredients: polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
              substrate compatibility, opacity:. flexibility,           resins and the plasticizer. This ink system is
"'*id-i   ""*at%&ion resistance, and durability. For                    considered to be 100% solid with little or no  c:ia

              example, to print on a vinyl substrate, an                VOC emission. Because of their chemical
does not apply for several very important            on the configuration andthe size of the Facility
reasons.                                             and whether or not new drying units are
         First, the test method calculation          purchased. Annual operating costs range as
requires the removal of the water from the           high as $500,000 per year.
product in order to determine the actual VOC                  The major air pollution control method
content. The water-based ink systems                 currently applied by the screen printing industry
developed for screen printing use have replaced      involves the use of low-VOC-content products.
VOCs with water. Although water-reducible            Generally, the VOC content of inks is expressed
systems are used, the industry also uses true        in either grams per liter. as applied, or pounds
water-based ink systems. In utilizing Reference      per gallon, as applied. Because of the relatively
Method 24 to determine the VOC content of            small amounts of solvents used during the
these inks, the industry is penalized for            screen reclamation process, these VOC products
technological improvements designed to reduce        are generally regulated by a vapor pressure
the amount of VOCs emitted.                          figure, that is, 45 mm Hg at 20 C.
         Second, the test method calls for the                Several of the ink systems discussed
baking of the product to determine the VOC           previously do offer the screen printer the option
content. Many of the inks in the screen printing     of utilizing low-VOC-content inks. The UV
industry, most notably the u\/    gurables, the -    curable inks have very low emissions of VOCs.
cured, not baked. This requirement seriously         True water-based ink systems also are viewed as
distorts the actual VOC content of these ink         viable low-VOC-content inks, as are plastisols.
systems and again penalizes the industry for the     However, these low-VOC-co9ntent inks a- L not L

utilization of low-VOC emitting systems.             suitable for use on all substrates or for all end
         For these reasons, it is advocated that a   products. Cotlsidering the end use of the
test method that evaluates the VOC content in        product, such as outdoor graphics, or the type of
grams per liter of applied solids be used by the     substrate, it may still be necessary to use an ink
screen printing industry. Furthermore, if            system with a relatively high solvent content.
Reference Method 24 is used for the UV curable                Substrates for which there are no viable
ink systems, then it is recommended that a cure      low-VOC inks on the market include cast
cycle be inserted before the bake cycle to           styrenes, plastic firms, paper used to
simulate actual use.                                 manufacture water-slide decals, rubber, and
                                                     low-weight, water-sensitive papers. There may
AIR POLLUTION CONTROL MEASURES                       be other problem substrates, but their
                                                     representative volume in the screen printing
Air pollution control equipment with a capture       industry is currently unknown.
efficiency of 90% and an overall efficiency of                There are still certain end uses,
95% currently is not available for the screen        regardless of the substrate, that require an ink
printing industry. Both thermal and catalytic        with a higher solvent content. These situations
afterburners have been installed in several          include ceramic inks, inks used to manufacture
screen printing fxilities; however, the average      ceramic decals, conductive inks used for
capture-control efficiency level for this            circuitry printing, and inks for substrates used in
equipment ranges between 70% and 80%. The            the production of durable signs, such as stop
air pollution control equipment either can be        signs and other highway sings. Ink
retrofitted to existing equipment or new drying      manufacturers are still in the process of
units that include the control equipment can be      verifying low-solvent-content inks for
purchased. The cost of an afterburner unit           durability.
ranges from $12,000 to $2,000,.000, depending
         A Cooperative Project
         between the
         W. S. Environmental
         Protection Agency
         and the
         Printing Trade
         Nation wide

    e...e ....
        ..                                                                 .............................................*....*...........
                                                                                                                       SCREEN PRlNTINC PROJECT CASE STUDY 2

                                                           U.S. €PA-                                                          Specifically, this case study shows:
                                                                                                                              0   How the need for ink remover can be
                                                                                                                                  eliminated by:
                                                                                                                                  a Reciaiming screens immediately after
                                                                             SCREEN PRINTING                                         a print run.
                                                                                                                                  m Using a high-pressure water system.

                                                                                                                              0   How the quantity of solvent used d u r -
                                                                                                                                  ing the printing process can be greatly
                                                                                                                                  reduced by finding more efficient sol-
                                                                                                                                  vents and reusing rags.

                                                                                                                                                                  - -~

                                                                                                                                 .Action Graphics produces point-of-
                                                                        Changing Equipment                                    purchase display products, such as shelv-
                                                                                                                              ing signs, banners, and window signs used
                                                                           and Reducing                                       in retail stores and fast-food restaurants.
                                                                                                                              Traditional solvent-based mks are used in
                                                                          Solvent Use In                                      about 60 percent ot the company's printing,
                                                                                                                              and ulhaviolet CUT)curable mks are used
                                                                        Screen Reclamation        ~
                                                                                                                              in 40 percent. Achon Graphics opened for
                                                                                                                              business in 1979 and currently has 30
                                                                                                                              employees, half of which are directly

                                                                             he Design for the Environment (DE)
                                                                             Screen Printing Project is a unique,             involved in printing processes.
                                                                              cooperative effort between the screen              Over the past five years, Action Graphics
                                                                       printing industry and the US. En~nrnend                has developed a creative and comprehensive
                                                                       Protection Agency (EP.4). The voluntary                approach to pollution prevention. Although
                                                                       project helps screen printers improve their            a small shop with limited resources, it has
                                                                       efforts to reduce risks to their workers and           greatly reduced solvent use through many
                                                                       the environment in cost-effective ways.                innovative changes. The primary change
                                                                          EPA and the screen printing industry are            was the introduction of a high-pressure
                                                                       developing a series of case studies to illus-          water system, which eIiminated the need
                 ..   .       ,                                        trate how screen printers can improve their                 n
                                                                                                                              for i k remover solvent. In addition, the
                 '1       .
                          .           :
                                       ;   7
                                                    ..'.               environmental performance. This case                   company substituted safer screen reclama-
                 ' .I ,                    ,,       .;                                                                        tion chemicals, purchased a distiller,

                                           , I _
                                                                       study describes a successful pollution pre-
                                                                       vention program at Action Graphics, a                  switched to a slower-evaporating solvent
                                           -.                          commercial printer in Louisville, Kentucky,            for screen cleaning during press runs,
                          .       .                                                                                                                 n
                                                                                                                              changed to a safer i k thinner, and devel-
                                                                       that took the initiative to minimize risks to
                                                                       workers and the environment. In doing so,              oped a rag reuse policy. These changes low-
                                                                       the company purchased equipment that re-               ere$ $e company's level of volatile organic
,     ..-
       ..        ..
                                                                       duced salwntmse &hose           safer altema-          cowpwnds (VGCs) and decreased its gener-
                                                                       tives for the solvents it could not eliminate.         ation of hazardous waste.
                                                                                       @ Printed on paper that contains at least 20 percent postconsumer fiber.
Comparison of Yearly                                    Some of the
Operating Costs*                                     changes Action
                                                     Graphics explored
                 Old System     N e w System         to reduce these
Ink Remover         513,100             50           environmental and
E m u l m n Remocer  53.000         $1,600           health effects
Haze Remover         Si,SUc)       S10,900           included using
Filter Media              50        53.000           thermal incinera-
Total               s5900          $16,500           tion, catalytic
Yearly Operating Cost Savings: S9,400                incineration, or
                                                     carbon absorption.
'Although k h o n Craphcs believes labor costs       Thermal and cat-
also were reduced under the ne\< svstem, spe-
cific data are not available
                                                     alytic incineration
                                                     involve burning
                                                     VOCs that are cap-
                                                     tured in a dryer.
A Change in Solvents                                 Carbon absorption
Used During Press                                    removes VOCs
                                                     through activated       Screen cleaning with a slowly evaporating press wash
Operation                                            carbon, which peri-
                                                     odically must be sent a u t forJeactiva-        completely evaporated before continu-
    About a year after Action Graphics               tion. Through a cos5benkfit analysis,           ing a press run. To address this issue,
overhauled its screen reclamation sys-               Action Graphics found that these                company management wrote a letter to
tem, another one of its solvents surfaced            processes required a large capital invest- the press operators. The letter
as a problem. Like many printers,                    ment. Since Action Graphics is a small          explamed that the new solvent really
Action Graphics used a solvent during                shop, a large iinancial investment was          did not require any additional effort
the printing process to remove dried ink             out of the question. The company                and that the switch was not only neies-
left on screens overnight or during                  decided that chemical reformulation of          sary to comply with regulations, but
lunch breaks. The quickly elraporating               its press wash \vas a more affordable           also helped create a healthier work
solvent, called a press wash. consisted              altemative. in addition, chemical reior-        environment. Employees gradually
of n-butyl acetate, toluene. n-butanol,              mulation promised to stop V K s from            adjusted to the new procedure.
and isopropanol.                                     being generated in the first place, a true         The company not only reduced its
    In 1989, Action Graphics purchased a             pollution prevention alternative, instead VOCs by using the new solvent, but
distiller to reclaim its press \\.ash sol-           of trying to capture the VOCs atter             also reduced the total quantity ot'sol-
vent and consequently reduce its haz-                generation.                                     vent used, since press
ardous waste disposal and solvent costs.                 Finding a new solvent was no easy           operators needed
As a result, the cornpan!. !vas able to              task, horvever. The company spoke               less oi the slower-
reuse roughly 100 gallons ot solvent                 with other screen printers, distributors        evaporating sol-
over the course of a year, for a savings             of national brands that 'ire marketed as        vent to do the
of about S500 annually. Although this                environmentaily friendly, and local             same job. This
early change WJS a step in the right                 chemical suppliers. Action Graphics             switch cut sol-
direction, when Action Graphics' man-                found that formulations from local              vent usage from
agement applied tor a permit with the                chemical suppliers were much less               approximately
local Air Pollution Control Board in                 expensive than national brands and              1,200 gallons b e r
1992, they realized that more had to be               through trial and error found one that         year to 300 gallons.
done. During the application process,                met its needs. Action Graphics                  Although the new solvent costs a little
the shop discovered that much of its                 switched to a solvent that contains aro-        more per gallon, the company saves
VOC emissions were coming from the                    matic solvent naphtha (60 percent),            about 52,300 a year in purchasing costs
quickly evaporatmg press solvent. The                 1-methoxy-?-propanol (30 percent), and         because it uses so much less of the
board found that the level of VOCs on                oxybispropanolmethylether (10 per-              new product.
the application triggered ordinances                 cent). This mixture evaporates much                At the same time that the Air
that required Action Graphics to per-                more slowly than the company's tradi-           Pollution Control Board suggested that
form a best achievable control technolo-              tional solvent, thereby decreasing             Action Graphics reduce its VOC emis-
gy test to find ways to decrease its VOC             Action Graphics' total VOC emissions.           sions from its press wash solvent, the
emissions. These ordinances help pro-                    Workers did not like switching to this board also noted that the company was
 ect both the environment and worker                 new solvent, however. Since it evapo-           close to the emissions limit for ethylene-
health, since VOCs can contribute to air             rates more slowly, press operators were         based glycol ether compounds. If the
pollution and exposure to V X s can -                concerned that they would have to               company exceeded the limit, it would
lead to adverse health effects: " -                  check more carefully to see if it was           move to a higher emissions category

                                                                         111- 11
    A Cooperative Project                                                                                                          *

    between the
    U.S. Environmental
    Protecfion Agency
    and the
    Printing Trade

                                                         . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   o * * ~ * * ~ * * * * * * * ~ * * ~ * ~ ~ ~ * * ~ . * * . * *

                                           U.S. P A                                                              from a survey of screen pnnters. D E identlfied
                                                                                                                 m n v altemmve workplace pracuces that par-
                                                                                                                 ticipants found helped them prevent pollution
                                                                                                                 m hile reducing chemical exposure5 and screen
                                                         SCREEN PRINTING                                         cle~nmg    costs
                                                                                                                        This bulletin descnbes simple changes in
                                                                                                                 m e e n reclJmauon mork practices that hA\ e
                                                                                                                 resulted in ,ignlticanc reductions in coss, e m I-
                                                                                                                 ronmental impact and worker exposures
                                                                                                                 ;Uthough this bullecin concenmtes on prevent-
                                                                                                 -P*     I =
                                                                                                          ,    4 ing-pel1trr;jo-aa &escreen reclamation
                                                                                                                 process. it highlights a basic Framework For
                                                                                                                 pollution prevention through improved work
                                                                                                                 pracrices th;it c3n be applied to an]; process in
                                                                                                                 your shop.

                                                      Work Practice Alternatives                                       : s u n q of screen printers (conducted
                                                       for Screen Reclamation                                   by the screen prinrina trade association) dexr-
                                                                                                                mined that almost 36 percrnt of the respon-
                                                                                                                dents had implernentrd changes in workpl3ce
.                                                                                                               practices to reduce their use of ink removai or
    .   ..
                                                  T      ne Design for the Environment (.DE)
                                                         Screen Printing Proiecr is 3 voluntary
                                                         cooperative effort bemeen the screen
                                                  printing industry and the U.S. Environmental
                                                  Protection Agency (EPM dedicated to helping
                                                                                                                screen cleanin3reclamation producrs. S i t h lit-
                                                                                                                [!e or no c a p h i espenditures. pollution pre-
                                                                                                                vention through improved workplace practices
                                                                                                                can result in cost savings through the reduced
                                                                                                                use of marerials, lower waste disposal costs.
                                                  screen printers improve their efforcs to reduce               less worker exposure and other benefits.
                                                  risk to their workers and the environment in
                                                                                                                Improving work practices to prevent polluaon
                                                  cost effeaive ways.                                           is simply a common-sense approach. to run-
                                                         Printers, EPA, product manufacturers,                  ning a print shop.
                                                  and the screen printing mde.3ssociation are
                                                  all concemed with minimizing the environ-
                                                  mental and health hazards of screen
                                                  reclamation. Through the D E Screen Printing
                                                  Project, these groups are --orking together to
                                                  ident~   and
                                                  share d o m a -
                                                  tion o n
                                                  screen reclama-
                                                  tion work
                                                  practices and to
                    -..  .    #.
                                   .   .          evaluate altema-
                         <.   .                   rive screen
.   .. ..-,   -.-                                                                                                                                                     I
                                                  products Usmg 1           ..-
                                                  information                       Increase the Benefits by Reducing Your Chemical Use

    s m
   u .E

M a t e r i a l s Management and                                     est t the process often come up with the most creative
I n v e n t o r y Control                                            approaches to pollution prevention Awareness of materials
                                                                     use and waste generation can be fostered by centralizing the
       Many printers have found that proper materials manage-        responsibility for storing and distributing chemicals, by making
ment and inventory control Cut both the amount of chemicals          employees accountable for the waste they generate, and by
used and their screen cleaning costs. Keeping track of chemical      providing incentives for waste reductions.
usage clarifies materials flow, how it relates to waste generation
rates, and where pollution prevention opportunities can be
implemented. lMaterials management and inventory control
techniques used by many printers to help reduce mterial use
and disposai include:

Manage inventories on a first-in, firstaut basis.
  This will minimize the disposal of expired materials.
Maintain accurate logs of your chemical and materials
stock, use and waste generation rates.
   This will help you evaluate your shop's materials flow and
   identdy where wastes are being generated.
Minimize the amount of chemicals i the production area
   This will encourage materials conservation.
K e e p all wastes separate and i clearly marked containers.
   This allows wastes to be reused or recycled, and prevents
   hazardous wastes from contaminating non-hazardous wastes.
                                                                          Rior to Work After Implementing After Addiiionai   After Continued
Keeping it Going                                                         Pmaice Changes    lnifial I d a     Emhn              Evalwxion
       According c many printers, a reluctance to change to
 rltemative screen cleaning producrs or work pncrices is one of
the largest obsracles to pollution prevenrion in their shops.                         Reduce Your Chemical Use
Much of this unwillingness to cry new products, technologies,                     Through Continuous Improvements
and procedures arises from employees' lack of awareness of the
benefits and a belief that the altematives will not work. Training          It is important that employees are aware of your compa-
on health and safety issues and on materials handling and d i s      ny's commitment to environmental goals and pollution preven-
posal procedures will help employees understand both the ben-        tion. Depending o n the company size, it may be helpful to
efits of proper marerials handling and disposal and the potential    prepare a wrinen environmental policy and written procedures
consequences of improper workplace practices to heir health          on proper equipment operation, maintenance, and materials
and safery, the environment, and company profitabiliry.              handling and disposal. Providing feedback to employees on
       Seek your employees' input on pollution prevention            materials handling, disposal and pollution prevention perfor- ,
activities to encourage their participation; the people clos-        mance re-emphasizes your commitment to pollution prevention
                                                                     and encourages your employees to continue to improve their
                                                                     workplace practices.
                                                                     Finally, pollution prevention should be an ongoing process
                                                                     where work practices are monitored regularly to ensure that
                                                                     improved practices already identfied are acrually being imple-
                                                                     mented on the shop floor, and that new opportunities for pollu-
                                                                     tion prevention are being identified continuously.

              Recove                       Capture

            Reuse Your Reclamation Cherni&m--

A Cooperative Project
between the
U. Environmental
Protection Agency
and the
Printing Trade
Associa fions

............ .L
€PA 742-F-95-008
                                                                                      SCREEN PRlNTlNG PROJECT BULLETIN I

                    ~   U.S.EpA-
                                                                                          The D E Screen Printing Project identifies
                                                                                   several potential substitute technologies chat
                                                                                   can be environmentally safer than traditional
                                      SCREEN PRINTING                              screen reclamation, including: high pressure
                                                                                   water blasters, automatic screen washers. zodi-
                                                                                   um bicarbonate spray, media blasting, puke
                                                                                   light energy technologies, stripping technolc-
                                                                                   gies, and emulsion chemistry. This bulletin
                                                                                   highlights h e r Qf these.tttchnobgies:
                                                                                        High pressure screen washers
                                                                                        Automatic screen washers
                                                                                        Sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) s g r q
                                                                                          High pressure screen washers and auto-
                                                                                   matic screen washers are two commerciaily
                                                                                   available technologies that can reduce 3 facili-
                              TECHNOLOGY ALTERNATIVES                              ty's usage- of traditional solvent-based ink
                                                                                   removers. Sodium bicarbonate spray is a rrch-
                               FOR SCREEN RECIAMATION                              nology now under development that could
                                                                                   Further reduce the cosu and potential he&&
                                                                                   risks of screen reclamation. This bulletin pre-
                                                                                   vides comparative cost. performance and risk

                               T'       e screen reclamation process can be
                                      one of the most hazardous operations
                                      in a screen printing facility-. Typically.
                               highly volatile solvents are used which may
                                                                                   information for these reclmution technolc@es.
                                                                                   when available.
                                                                                         It should be noted that these techncio-
                                                                                   gies were evaluated using a case study
                               be hazardous to the health of employees if
                                                                                   approach; these were not rigorous, scientiiiic
                               inhaled, ingested, o r absorbed through the
                                                                                   investigations. Instead. much of the inf0m.a-
                               skin. These products may also be hazardous
                                                                                   tion presented here is based on printers' opin-
                               to the environment if they are not disposed of
                                                                                   ions of these technologies as they are used in
                               properly. Traditionally, when reclaiming
                                                                                   production. This bulletin compares the dtsr-
                               screens, employees vigorously scrub the
                                                                                   native screen reclamation techniques to E m u -
                               screens in a wash-out booth, with their faces
                                                                                   a1 application and scrubbing of traditionai
                               close to the reclamacion chemicals. This
                                                                                   screen reclamation chemicals. The traditicnal
                               increases the likelihood that they will inhale
                                                                                   system used in the compxison consisrs GC
                               che chemical vapors.
                                                                                   lacquer thinner as the ink remover. a sodium
                                                                                   periodae solution as the emulsion remove:.
                                     To reduce the hazards of screen recla-
                                                                                   and a ?c).lene/acetone.'mineral spirits/cyciu-
                               mation to workers and to the environment,           hexanone blend as the haze remover. These
                               screen printers can use altemative tech-            chemicals were selected because screen pnnt-
                               niques for screen reclamation. These tech-          ers indicated &ey were commonly used in
                               nologies help to reduce the employee                screen reclamation.
                               exposure to hazardous chemical vapors
                               either by speeding u p the reclamation
                               process, or by enclosing the process, or by
                               eliminating the use of volatile soIvenls.-------

                                                           111- 1 7
    s ;EpA

the market and found significant differences in the chemi-            cially higher volume printers, the equipment pays for itself
cals used and costs. COS vary based on the level of                   through savings in reduced chemical use. Additionally, the
automation (such as conveyors), system capacity, and com-             savings of switching to this technology would be greater if
plexity of the equipment.                                             this costing accounted for the labor savings of workers mov-
        The basic component of the automatic screen washers           ing on to other tasks once the screen is loaded in the washer.
is the wash unit, an enclosed box that can house a variety of         It is important to note that the cost per screen of the more
screen sizes (up to 60 in. by 70 in.). After a screen is clamped      automated, higher cost washer would be much lower if it
inside the wash unit and the top closed, the cleaning process         operated nearer to its capacity OF over 100 screens per &y.
begins. A mobile mechanical arm Sprays solvent onto the
screen through pressurized nozzles (30 to 150 psi) for any
preset number o cleaning cycies. Since the systems are
                  f                                                   Sodium Bicarbonate Spray
enclosed to reduce solvent losses, volatile solvents, such as               A sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) spray technology
mineral spirits, are often recommended because of their e%-           was evaluated by the D E Screen Printing Project to deter-
cacy.There are, however, a number of altemative formula-              mine if it is potentially adaptable as an alremative screen
tions offered by equipment manufacturers. Used solvent                reclamation technology. This technology is currently used for
drains off the Screen and is directed to a filtration system to
                                                                      removing coatings, such as paint, grease, or teflon from
remove particulates ( n s and emulsion). Following the film-
                       ik                                             metal parts. In these applications, the technology has been
tion step(s), redaimed solvent is typically reused. Some sys-         successful in replacing hazardous cleaning chemicals. Based
tem have separate wash, rinse, and air dry cycles or separate
                                                                      on thesw~essroEthersdiambicarhnxe spray ip other
tanks for washing and rinsing. Solvent reservoirs must be *           applications, it appears to be a promising substitute for
 replenished intermittently and changed once or twice a year.         chemical screen reclamation systems. Because the sodium
 Filter wastes are typically disposed of as hazardous waste.          bicarbonate spray technology had never been tested for
                                                                      screen reclamation, D E staff conducted a one-day site visit
                                                                      to the equipment manufacturer’s facility. Three imaged
Risk                                                                  screens were inked with three types of ink. Each inked
      Compared to manual application of the traditional               screen was individually placed inside an enclosed cleanmg
screen reclamation chemicals, the D E risk evaluation of              booth, and the screen was passed, back and forth, under the
automatic screen washers found that worker inhalation expo-
sures to the volatile organics used in solvents (mineral spirits
and lacquer thinner) were reduced by as much as 70 per-
cent. Although the health risks associated with skin contact
of the chemicals remained high, these risks could vimally be
eliminated if gloves are wom while handling the screens.
Since the automatic screen washer evaluated was used for
ink removal only, the risks associated with emulsion and
haze removal remained the same as the traditional system’s
risks for these steps.

Pel fo rTtiniice
       kj   described above, there are several types of automat-                   Sodium Bicarbonate Spray Enclosure
ic screen washers, and for each type there are several manu-
facturers. Because of the resources required to do a full
demonstration of all the equipment chat is commercially avail-        sodium bicarbonate spray. N o chemicals other than the scdi-
able, performance demonsmtions of automatic screen wash-              um bicarbonate were used during the reclamation.
e s were not conducted in this projecc.
 cost                                                                         The D E project did not undemke a risk assessment of
      The D E Screen Printing Project estimated costs for two          this spray technology for a number of reasons. Sodium bicar-
automatic screen washers, assuming that the washers were               bonate has been shown to be a fairly i ~ o c u o u chemical
used for i k removal only and that six screens (15 ft2 each)
           n                                                           and it is not a skin initant. In addition, it is a common ingre-
 #ere reclaimed per day. Screen reclamation costs using an
                                                                       dient in baked goods, toothpaste and detergents. If this tech-
automatic screen washer ranged from $4.13 co510.14 per                  nology proves to be a viable altemative for screen
                                                                        reclamation in the future, a detailed assessment of the human
screen compared to 56.27 for traditional reclamation. hm.-.        . ..     ’-


largest cost component. and the cause of the variability in                    and environmental risk should be conducted.
cos=. is typically equipment cost. For many print shops, espe-
     Screen Reclamation Chemicals Which Trigger Federal Environmental Regulations

*In addition to being listed as a U waste, methyl ethyl ketone also exhibits a characteristic of
toxicity which causes it to be considered hazardous waste.

Source: Designing Solutions for Screen Printers: An Evaluation o Screen Reclamafion
Systems, page 50. EPA 744-F-96-010, September 1996.

                        REEN PRI

                                          The digital revolution                   *
                                                                                   .   .-
 New technologies are currently                                                   size, dots per inch (dpi), lines
 being generated a n d imple-             off!?fsp2 qqmtfmitit?s                  per inch (lpi), and produc-
 mented in all areas of thegraphic                                             tion speed?
 arts. Many of these technologies allow printers to           What costs and benefits might be expected in
 substitute digital processes for the traditional pho-        regard to waste generation if a screen printer
 tographic darkroom-thus        allowing the printer to       decides to move away from photographic pro-
 avoid creating silver waste and the other toxic by-          cesses? Are there significant monetary savings
 products associated with film developing.                    to be realized when silver halides are eliminated
       This article addresses technological alternatives      from the prepress operation? Or are there other
 for one segment of the industry-screen       printers.       reasons, equally or more compelling, that might
 A multidisciplinary research team worked to ad-              affect the screen printer’s decision in regard to
 dress the following questions, focusing o n the use          adoption and use of these technologies?
 of digital data generation technologies:
                                                                In order to illustrate some of the points made
      Can reasonrrbly priced, readily available digital    in the article, we also include brief case studies on
      prepress equipment replace the traditional pho-      two screen printers-one which is trying out the
      tographic positives generation techniques in the     new digital equipment, and one which is still us-
      average screen printer’s prepress operation?         ing silver.
      What types of color work can be addressed with
      these reasonably priced technologies?
      What substrates are most effectively used with                             Catherine i. &mar;,
      reasonably priced technologies?
      What are average screen printers doing in their
                                                                                   Devang I? Mehta,
      shops currently? Can they afford these digital                               Daniel G. Wilson,
      technologies? Will the reasonably priced equip-
      ment meet their needs in regard to formatting                              and Ervin A. Dennis

CCC 1079-0276196/060157-14
0 1996 John Wiley 8 Sons, Inc                              111-23                           Pollution Prevention Review / Autumn 19% I 57
                              Knowing more about the available technolo-          was devoted to color electronic prepress, computer
                         gies and their usefulness-not only as pollution          publishing, computer technology graphic design,
                         prevention tools, but also as smart business invest-     and software. Over 150 booths represented ven-
                         ments-can strengthen the position of technical           dors offering new and improved technologies in
                         service providers when they make pollution pre-          these areas.
                         vention suggestions that include the use of digital          A sampling of the technoloby innovations
                         technologies. A s a technical service provider, it is    showcased offers a glimpse of the overall trends in
                         essential to know the current state of the industry      the area for lithography.
                         in regard to the use of environmentally friendly
                         technologies, and why printers are most likely to         Improvements in Resolution
                         use them.                                                     Optronics has developed what they call a “sec-
                              In addition, for the owners or operators of              ond generation” of scanners, imagesetters, and
                         screen printing businesses, knowing the direction             platesetters. Formats of 20x26-and41x55 have
                         in which the industry and their competitors are               been developed. Imagesetters with dpi of 2,000
                         moving is essential for survival.                             to 4,000 are also being offered.
                                                                                       Heidelberg USA isshowasin!: Quickus(er&l,.                        .
                                                                                                                                                        ~,   . ~

                         Background:                                                   direct-image technology, which enables opera-
                         Digital Technology and Lithography                            tors to manufacture a finished product directly
                             The use of digital technologies has been rap-             from postscript data without the need to es-
                        idly revolutionizing the practice of the graphic arts          pose film, in a dpi range of 1,270 to 2,540.
                        in a wide variety of arcas as technologies that havc           Fuji is among the companies that are bolster-
                        existed in their infancies for some time begin to              ing prepress capabilities with improved rcsolu-
                        mature.                                                        tion color printers, such as the Pictography 3 0
                             This revolution has had its first and farthest            digital color printer.
                        reaching impact in the area of lithography. AI-                Prepress Solutions offers a Panther Plate/36P
                        though this article focuses on screen printers, it is          and Panther Platel46P for platesetting paper
                        useful to have some background on the techno-                  and polyester plates at dpis of up to 3,048.
                        logical advances currently being made in the re-
                                           lated area of lithography since         improved Color Proofing Systems
                                           they point to the direction in               One of the notable new systems is DuPont’,
       A sampling of the        ‘- * -     which the graphic arts industry         WaterProof Pre View, a high-resolution desktop color
       technology innovations               is heading overall-and give an         proofing system calibrated to DuPont’s LVaterProot
       showcased offers                     idea of the kinds of future devel-     digital color proofing system, allowing a very close
       a glimpse of the                    opments that may soon take              match to the printed page direct from the worksta-
       overall trends in the                place in screen printing.              tion. Continued steady improvements in the color
       area for lithography.                    Lithographers have an in-          match of digitally generated color proofs to off-press
                                            creasingly wide array of choices       product have helped to place CTP technologies
                                            available to them when they            within the reach of lithography shops.
                         look for digital prepress and computer-to-plate
                         (CTP) technologies. The 1995 Graph Expo, held              Technology Proliferafion
                         in Chicago’s McCormick Center, reflected these op-            These examples are only a few of the many
                         tions: The entire first floor of the exposition hall      innovative products and new technologies that are

  58 I Autumn 1996 / Pollution Prevention Review                          Catherine L. Zeman, Oevang    .
                                                                                                       P Mehta, Danief G. Wilson. and Ervin A. Dennis
                                                                           TTT    9,
driving the digital evolution of the graphic arts.     rapidly being addressed by a number of manufac-
     While impressive in scope and rate, the pro-      turers, including Milikan, British Textile, Sci tex
liferation of technology choices has also created      hfanutacturing, Stork, and Iris.’ As with the other
confusion for printers. When Dr. Frank Romano, a       areas of the graphic arts, improvements in resolu-
professor of graphic arts at Rochester Institute of    tion and format capabilities are occurring, along
Technology, described his impressions of DRUPA         with improvements in produc-
95 in Dusseldorf, Germany, he observed that            tion speeds, cost, and the dura-
prepress technologies have “moved beyond a             bility of the finished product.                Technologies for the
dream-to a nightmare,” noting the explosion in              The leading industry asso-          direct imaging of textiles
the number and types of technology in this area.       ciation for screen printers, the                   have been in use
Romano further reflected that, within the last two     Screen Printing and Graphic Im-                  for about 20 years.
years, the CTP area alone has “gone from three to      aging Association (SGIA), recog-
about 40 suppliers, selling about 15 different sn-     nizing the importance of digital
gines and 18 different plates.”’                       technologies for the industry, recently opened the
                                                       Center for Digital Imaging at its headquarters in
Digi€aI ‘he&hnalogy and.Screen Printing                Virginia. The Center has gathered together some3            ’

     Improvements and innovations in the areas         of the leading technology in the area from manu-
of resoiution, format capabilities, and color proof-   facturers such as Hewlett Packard, 3M Scotch,
ing for digital and CTP technologies have also been    ProTech Orca, Info Graphix, Onyx Graphics,
permeating the areas of web, flexographic, gravure,    CalComp, and Candela. These companies are mak-
and screen printing.                                   ing equipment and expertise available to SGfA to
     Digital technologies have diffused into the       help the industry association develop technical
screen printing shop at a slower rate than in the      expertise and practical information for their mem-
lithography industry. Screen printers can face sev-    bers who are seeking to incorporate digital tech-
eral problems when they try to implement direct-       nologies into their operations.’
to-substrate (DTS) processes, in which the image            As a result of recent technological develop-
is printed directly onto the carpet, garment, or       ments, digitalization of the prepress process to the
other substrate. Among the difficulties are low pro-   point of producing a digitally generated positive
duction speeds, high costs for each print or de-       for the imaging of printing screens is currently
sign, and problems with thedurability of inks suit-    within reach of the average screen printer, both
able for DTS technologies.                             technically and economically.
     However, technologies for the direct imaging
of textiles have been in use for about 20 years.       Technical Evaiuation and     .
The earliest machines, which functioned much           Screen Printer Survey
like inkjet printers, were manufactured by                  In order to Setter understand how well the new
Miiikan. These machines were designed to print         digital technology works-and to what extent it is
on carpeting and had a resolution of only about        actually being put to use by screen printers-tech-
20 dpi, according to one of the screen printing        nical staff and faculty of the University of 8orth-
industry’s leading printers and a leader in digital    ern iowa (UNI), working through the Small Busi-
tec hnologies.2                                        ness Pollution Prevention Center (SBPPC) managed
     As the technology matures, the problems tra-      by the Iowa Waste Reduction Center at UNI, un-
ditionally encountered by screen printers are          dertook a two-part research study. First, we made a

Eliminating Screen Printing PhotographicWastes                                       Pollution Prevention Review / Autumn 1996 i 59
                        technical evaluation of some reasonably priced,            Plotter, Enhanced Mode, Vellum Substrate
                        currently available digital technology for the screen      Laser Printer, Vellum Substrate
                        printing prepress area. Second, we surveyed screen
                        printers in the Midwest on their use of digital tech-                                            f
                                                                                     Positives generated under each o these treat-
                        nology.                                                 ment conditions were then evaluated using a BTC
                             In the following discussion, which focuses on      Digimatic Solid State Duo-Densitometer and Color
                        this study, we explain our technical evaluation and     Analyzer (calibrated Spring 1995). The well-estab-
                        the findings of the survey. We hope this informa-       lished densitometer reading of 4.0 for the typical
                        tion will be valuable both to screen printers con-      photographic positive is more than adequate for
                        sidering the implementation of digital technolo-        imaging screens. A densitometer reading of 2.0 is
                        gies, and to technical service providers interested     also deemed adequate for imaging most screens.
                        in encouraging the implementation of such tech-              This research indicated that screens can be im-
                        nologies.                                               aged for mechanical color at densitometer read-
                                                                                ings above 1.25 (arth. mean). Screens with read-
                         Technology E Yaliiafion Data                           ings above 1.25 (arth. mean) were imaged by using
                       The study evaluated two kindb of digital post-           Chfomoline+toKq 5 presefiiitized capillary di-
                  tive generation technologies, a laser printer and a           rect film to a 250 mesh screen utilizing a FT 36
                  plotter. Laser printers use thermal techno[oby,               Ulta Plus nuArc fliptop esposure u n i t with an ap-
                  whiie plotters are similar to inkjet printers.                proximately 21-inch esposure length to a 3,000
                       We used an H P Vectra XP/60 586 processor                watt metal halide lamp.
                  with a variety of traditional prepress software                    Following the generation of positives and their
                  packages, including Photoshop, QuarkXpress,                   evaluation using the Duo-Densitometer, the data
                  PageMaker, and Deskscan, to generate two stan-                poin!s under each test condition were reduced to
                  dard digital images for mechanical color. Digital             arithmetic means an6 modal distributions. The
                  data were output from the CPU to either a Laser               data were then analyzed for significant differences
                  Master (laser printer) 1200 with peak dpi of 2,400,           between treatment conditions using first the Paired
                                     or a Nova Jet I1 (plotter) with 50         T-test, T-test, and One-way Repeated Measures
                                     Ipi at 15E diamond dot using.              Analysis of Variance for parametric data.
  The positive substrates            double black cartridges.                        The Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test with Lilliefor’s
  examined were                          The laser printer had only             Correction was used to establish normality, and
  polyester and vellum.              one standard setting. The plotter          the Levene-Median Test was used to establish equal
                                     ailowed for multipie settings, and         variance for the Paired T-test, T-test, and One-way
                                     the normal and enhanced imag-              Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance. If data
                  ing modes were used. The positive substrates exam-            points failed these parametric f i t analyses, the less
                   ined were polyester and vellum. These parameters             sensitive nonparametric tests, the Wilcoxon Signed
                  allowed for the evaluahon of the following test con-          Rank Test, the blann-Whitney Rank Sum Test, and
                  ditions using two differentpositive substrates:               the Friedman Repeated Measures Analysis of Vari-
                                                                                ance for nonparametric data, respectively, were
                           Plotter, Normal Mode, Polyester Substrate            used to establish statisticaIly significant differences
                         * Plotter, Enhanced Mode, Polyester Substrate          among treatment groups.
                           Laser Printer, Polyester Substrate                        Findings from the statistical analysis of data
                           Plotter, iu’ormal Mode, VeIIum Substrate             indicated statistically Significant differences among

60 /   Autumn 1996 I Pollution Prevention Review
all ot the test treatments achieving densi-
                                                    Exhibit 7 . Comparisons of Median Densitometer Readings-
tometer readings above 1.25 (arth. mean).           Plotter, Polyester Substrate
Two treatment conditions below the 1.25
(arth. mean) densitometer reading did not
indicate statistically significant differences
in the data. The three readings above a 1.35
                                                                      0 PEPoly - Plotter. Enhanced Mode. Polyester Substrate
                                                                             PNPoly - Plotter. Normal Mode, Polyester Substrate
(arth. mean) included:

    Plotter, Enhanced Mode, Polyester Sub-
    Plotter, Normal Mode, Polyester Sub-
    Laser Printer, Vellum Substrate

     Comparison of the plotter data under
normal and enhanced mode on polyester
substrate indicated that statistically signifi-
cant differences in densitometer readings                                    Positive Generated (Treatment Number)
occurred in each circumstance.
    Looking at the readings for plotter data
between normal and enhanced mode on                 Exhibit 2. Comparisons of Medlan Densitometer Readings-
polyester substrate (Exhibit l), median val-        Plotter, Vellum Substrate
ues for each condition were 1.25 and 2.36,
respectively. This is a difference of 89 per-
cent between enhanced and normal mode                                      PEVel - Plotter, Enhanced Mode, Vellum Substrate
                                                                           PNVel - Plotter, Normal Mode. Vellum Substrate
on polyester substrate. The statistical sig-          C
nificance of the difference in values was            m
                                                     a:     1.5
supported. by all parametric and nonpara-
metric measures. Visual inspection of the

positive for resolution, a subjective measure        -
                                                      5     1.0
of the “crispness” of line edges, was con-            C
sidered adequate.                                    El    0.5

     A comparison of plotter data under nor-
mal and enhanced mcdeon vellum substrate                   0.0
did not produce densltometer readings                             1    2       3     4      5    6     7     8     9        10    11   12

above 1.25 (arth. mean). Median values for                                   Positive Generated (Treatment Number)

plotter-generated positlves on normal and
enhanced mode were 0.570 and 0.455, respectively,            sures. Visual inspection of the positives for resolu-
a difference of 25 percent between the highest and           tion were not considered adequate, and drying of
l o w s t value (E’xhibit 2). However, statistical mea-      the ink on the vellum substrate was also inadequate.
sures of significant difference for this test group               Median data for laser printer-generated posi-
failed for both parametric and nonparametric mea-            tives on vellum and polyester were 1.36 and 0.870,

Eliminating Screen Printing Photographic Wastes            111-27
                        respectively, a difference of 56 percent between                               equate based on visual inspection.
                        the lowest and highest measure (Exhibit 3). Me-                                    A comparison of all values obtained and the
                        dian data values were significantly different as                               modal distribution, providing an indication of the
                        determined by nonparametric measures of statis-                                variability of densitometer readings across any
                        tical significance. Resolution was considered ad-                              given positive, are illustrated in Exhibit 4.

   Exhibit 3. Comparisons of Median Densitometer Readings-Laser                                Printer           Survey Response Data
                                                                                                                      Screen printing DTS and digitalization
                             LPVel - Laser Printer, Vellum Substrate                                              have not proceeded as quickly as digita-
                                LPPoly - Laser Printer, Polyester Substrate                                       lization in the lithographic area, but DTS
                                                                                                                  has been around for specific screen print-
                                                                                                                  ing applications for at least 20 years,
                                                                                                                  mainly in carpet ~rinting.~  Acceptance of
                                                                                                                  the technology has been hampered by
                                                                                                                  production-time limitations, resolution
                                                                                                                  limits, available size formats, and cost-
                                                                                                                 ‘a’lFjP$hifi ar.e?@icMy k i n g addressed -
                                                                                                                  by technology vendors.
                1       2   3       4       5       6     7      8   9       1   0     1      1        1    2
                                 Positive Generated (Treatment Number)
                                                                                                                      But what are “average” screen print-
                                                                                                                  ers doing? Are they ready to take the digi-
                                                                                                                          tal plunge, even for positives gen-
    Exhibit 4. Comparlsons of Median Densitometer Readings-All                              Values                        eration, DTS notwithstanding? To
                                                                                                                          find out, our research team sur-
                                                                                                                          veyed 374 companies in seven
                                                                                                                          midwestern states. The survey
                                                                                                                          data provide an inventory of cur-
                                                                                                                          rent practices in the screen print-
                                                                                                                          ing industry in regard to positives
                                                                                                                          generation and waste disposal op-
                                                                                                                          tions for screen printing prepress.
                                                                                                                               The overall response rate to
                                                                                                                          our four-page survey was 26 per-
                                                                                                                          cent. The largest percentage of re-
                    1       2           3       4        5       6       7       8      9         10       11   12
                                                                                                                          spondents from any single state
                                                                                                                          was from Iowa (30 percent). (See
                                   Positive Generated (Treatment Number)
                                                                                                                          Exhibit 5.)
                                                    PEPoly - Modal Distribution (1.66 - 3.00)                                  The survey was sent to mem-
                                                    PNPoly - Modal Distribution (1.34 - 1.65)                             bers of a key industry association,
                                * - I - - - _       LPVel - Modal Distribution (13 0 - 1.40)
                                ----                PEVel - Modal Distribution (0.91    - 1.27)
                                                                                                                          all of whom could be considered
                                -------                      -
                                                    PNVel Modal Distribution (1.18      - 1.25)                           to be the “leaders”in their profes-
                                ----                LPPoly - Modal Distribution (0.79    - 1.OO)                          sional fields. Surveys were ad-
                                                                                                                          dressed to the owner/operator of

62 / Autumn 1996 / Pollution Prevention Review                                              Catherine L. Zeman, Oevang P Mehta. Oaniei G. Wilson, and Ervin A. Dennis

the business as listed in the industry association’s         Exhibit 5. Percentage Survey Response by State
membership roster.
                                                                                           Missouri 8%
     Among those who answered the survey, re-                                              I
sponse rates for specific topics ranged from 79 to       I
100 percent, depending on the questions. Techni-                                                                outh Dakota 2%
cal or equipment-specific questions were consis-
tently answered by 97 to 100 percent of the respon-
dents. Questions on waste generation rates and
waste disposal costs had a 79-percent response rate.
     The survey responses were tabulated and de-
scriptive statistics were run using the University
of Northern lowa’s SPSS system, supported by the
mainframe CPU. Statistics included frequency dis-
tribution (corrected for percentage of respondents),              26% Total Response Rate (70%total response outside o Iowa)
mean, mode, median, kurtosis, and various other
descriptive parameters, including standard error                                                                                --

and standard deviation.                                      Exhibit 6. Survey Respondents-Gross Sales FY 94

0vera Il Survey Conclusions                                       2    0.40

     An overall description of the “statistically av-             -
erage” screen printer can be derived from the sur-
vey responses. This survey and statistics-mediated
                                                                  n    0.30   -

snapshot will not fit every screen printer, of course.            -
                                                                  $    0.25
But it can give the technical service provider an                 VI
                                                                  e    0.20   -
indication of the current state of the screen print-              CJ
ing industry in regard to implementing digital                     m
                                                                  .- 0.15
                                                                   c          -
prepress technologies. It also offers insight into                r,
                                                                  4    0.10   -
how screen printers view trends in this area as they              LT
relate to waste management issues. And it can help

                                                              .   C

educate the technical service provider community                  2
                                                                  Q    0.00
about the technology needs and limitations that
                                                                                       Gross Sales by Category
the industry faces. Using such information to as-
sist in education and outreach programs regard-
ing pollution prevention options can only enhance        percent, and 10 percent of their production, re-
the effectiveness of business assistance programs.       spectively, from these areas. These descriptions are
     The “average”screen printer, according to this      general averages; more variety than this obviously
survey, is running a diversified shop as far as manu-    exists in this graphic arts area.
factured products are concerned. Screen printers              The average screen printer employs from 11
are most likely to produce garments and textiles         to 20 people. However, 32 percent of respondents
(44 percent), decals and labels (43 percent), and        (the largest singIe category) employ fewer than five.
nameplates, dials, gauges, and panels (27 percent).      Their gross revenues average $500,000 per year or
These printers are likely to derive 60 percent, 20       less (40 percent). (See Exhibit 6.)

Eliminating Screen Printing Photographic Wastes                                            Pollutlon Prevention Review / Autumn 1996 ’I 63
                                                                     positives per week. While these can be either pho-
                           Most use either a process camera or high-con-
                                                                     tographic or digital, most are photographic. The
                      trast film or diffusiontransfer technology (or both)
                                                                     large majority of shops (88 percent) produce fewer
                      to produce around SO to 75 percent of their imag-
                      ing positives. The remainder come from hand-cutthan 200 positives per week. The positives pro-
                                                                     duced include the following sizes in order of per-
                                                                     centage produced: 10 x 12, 20 x 24, S x 7, 8 x 10,
                                                                     and others as needed.
                                                                           The dpi range for laser printer equipment in
                                                                     order of percentage used is 600 dpi, 300 dpi, and
                                       r a small percentage of their 1,200 dpi. The Ipi settings in order of use are SO lpi
                                                                     and 51-65 Ipi, with higher Ipi rulings being used
                       The average prepress shop produces 10 to 50 only sparingly and in small percentages.
                                                                                      Screen printers generally utilize ei-
     Exhibit 7 Type of Positive Generation Techniques Used
              .                                                                   ther diffusion transfer technology or
                                                                                 an automatic processor with rapid ac-
          0.5 -                                                                  cess developer for the majority of their
                                                                                  positives development. This is supple-
                                                                                  mented by either the tray method or
          0.4 -
                                                                                  out-sourcing for certain (smaller) per-
                                                                                  centages of work. This results in the dis-
          03 -
            .                                                                     posal of approximately 1.S gallons of
                                                                                  spent developer and fix chemicals (in-
          0.2 -                                                                   cluding silver) per month, a t a cost of
                                                                                  approximately $50 dollars per year.
                                                                                      A word of caution is important
          0.1 -
                                                                                  here. The response rate for the ques-
                                                                                  tions regarding waste disposal and cost
           00 -
            .                                                                     of waste disposal was only 79 percent.
                             Positive Production Technique Used .                 This indicates either an unwillingness
                                                     & -
                                                     5 -  5             a
                                                                                  to report waste disposal costs and

                                                     0    a ,           ln
                                                         >    L
                                                                                  amounts or an unfamiliarity with the
                                                          0                        I

                                                         .-             m         actual figures in this area. The experi-

                                                         U              vi
                                                          C             -
                                                                        21,       ence of pollution prevention practi-
                                                          0             0
                                                              u)        a.        tioners supports the latter conclusion;
                                                          0             0         I

                                                                        m         many companies, both small and large,

                                                         -3             0
                                                                        h         do not adequately track the amount or
                                                                                  cost of waste generation and disposal.
                                                                                      If the company is using digital
                                                         1-"  L                   technology for a percentage of its posi-
                                                          m   L

                                                                                  tives production, it is most likely gen-
                                                         t-                       erating three to four spent cartridges
                                                                                  (plotter or laser printer) per year.

64 I Autumn 1996 I Pollutlon Prevention Review                        Catherine L. Zeman. Oevang P Mehta, Daniel G. Wilson, and Ervin A. Dennis
                                                                     III- 30
     Respondents were questioned about their per-                                   Correlational analysis conducted on several of
ceptions of the role of digitalization in the indus-                           the response categories indicates few correlations
try and about the continued cost of waste man-                                 of significance. This could relate to the large num-
agement relating to environmental regulations.                                 ber of potential responses and the ”cell categories”
Thirty-seven percent stated that photographic film                             this creates when using the SPSS statistical analy-
use has decreased over the last two years. In addi-                            sis system. This does not detract from the overall
tion, 68 percent believed that the reliance on pho-                            usefulness of the descriptive statistics.
tographic film would continue to decrease over the
next two years. Seventy percent believed that the                              Lessons learned
use of nonphotographic positive generation meth-                                   The information gathered in our research pro-
ods would increase over the next two years. Eighty                             vides some answers to the questions posed at the
percent believed that the cost of waste disposal                               beginning of this article:
would continue to rise over the next two years in
response to increasingly stringent environmental                                   Reasonably priced and readily available digital
standards. (Exhibit 8 shows a copy of the survey                                   prepress equipment is being implemented for
form used in the study.)                                                                                  (Continued Qnpage68)

  Exhibit 8. Survey
                                                Use o Positives for Screen Printing

     INSTRUCTIONS: Please read each question carefully and provide the answer by checking the appropriate box or
     legibly writing in the spaces provided. Many answers may be approximations. Please make every effort to be as
     accurate as possible.

     Note: If you have questions interpreting any pari of this survey. please telephone: (319) 273-2753

                                                 PART 1: Demographic Information
     1. Business Product Focus:

     Check all that apply      ................ .................
                                                    and                Circle percentage of use
     0 Binders or Ad Specialties...........................            10 20 30 40 50 60                70 80   90   100
     0 Ceramics, flat Glass..................................          10 20 30 40 50 60                70 80   90   100
     0 Compact Disk.............................................       10 20 30 40 50 60                70 80   90   100
     0 Containers/Other 3-0 objects...........         .......... 10 20 30 40 50 60                     70 80   90   100
     0 Decals and Labels......................................         10 20 30 40 50 60                70 80   90   100
     0 Fine Art/Serigraphs.....................................        10 20 30 40 50 60                70 80   90   100
     0 Fleet Marketing...........................................      10 20 30 40 50 60                70 80   90   100
     0 Garments and Textile Products................... 10 20 30 40 50 60                               70 80   90   100
     0 Name Plates, Dials, Gauges, Panels......... 10 20 30 40 50 60                                    70 80   90   100
     0 Outdoor signdBillboards ............................            10 20 30 40 50 60                70 80   90   100
     0 Point of purchase and Displays..................10 20 30 40 50 60                                70 80   90   100
     0 .Circuits/Electronics.....................................      10 20 30 40 50 60                70 80   90   100
     0 Other ......................................................... 10 20 30 40 50 60                70 80   90   100
                                                                       Please make certain the total   = 100%

     2. Number of full time equivalent employees:
     (Check only one box)

     0 1-5       0 6-10        0 11-20 0 21-30 R 31-50 0 51-100 0 Over100

     3. Gross sales from screen printing production for FY ‘94:
     (Check only one box)

     0 $1 - 100,000               0 $100,000 250,000-               0 $250.000 - 500,000
     0 9500,000 - 1 mil.          0 $1 mil. - 2 mil.                0 over52mil.

Eliminating Screen Printing Photographic Wastes                             111-31                                    Pollution Prevention Review / Autumn 1996 / 65

                                                                   PART 2 Positive P r o d u c t i o n Techniques

                           NOTE: A "positive" is defined in this sufvey as a positive image produced on a transparent or translucent material
                           (such as 1 t film, diffusion transfer film, clear polyester, or vellum) which is used to expose indirect film. directf
                           capillary film, and/or direct emulsion

                           4. Methods of positive generation or exposure:

                           Check all that apply...................._........
                                                                         and            ...............
                                                                                       ...............           Circle percentage of use
                           0 Pen and ink on film or vellum_.............._.... ................. 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90                                            100
                           0 Transfer type and illustrations on film or vellum......_......_.. 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
                                                                                                 10                                                                    100
                           Cl Hand cut film (such as rubylith)...........................................          10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90                          100
                           0 Process Camera - photographic high contrast film............lO                            20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90                         100
                           0 Process Camera                                                                       .10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90                          100
                           0 Laser printer to fi                                                                   10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90                          100
                           0 Laser printer to v                                                                    10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90                          100
                           0 Plotter {ink jet) to film..._._...._....                                   .........10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80- 90                           100
                           0 Plotter (ink jet) to vellum__.......                                           ...... 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90                          100
                           0 Plotter to cutting                                                             .._.. 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
                                                                                                                   10                                                  100
                           0 Phototypsetter di                                                               ..... 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 00                          100
                           3 Imagesetter direct to high contrast film ..............................               10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90                          100
                           0 Digital direct to screen emulsion........................................             10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90                          100
                           0 Other.................................................... .    ......:...........lo       20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90                         100
                                                                                                                   Pleas6 make tertain-tM totat= "3% 'A      '
                                                                                                                                                                       a t -

                           5 Approximate number of positives produced per week (including duplicate & reverses):
                            (Check only one box)

                           0 1-10        a    10-50     0 51-100 0 100-200 0 200-500                                    0 500-1000         0 Over 1000

                           6. Indicate fhe m o x im&          size of the positives produced and the percentage used.

                           Check all that apply......._....... ................. Circle percentage of use
                           0 5 x 7 .........................................................      10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80                    90   100
                           a  8 x 1 0 .......................................................     i o 20 30 40 50 60 70 80                   90 loo
                           0 10 x 12 .....................................................        10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80                    90   100
                           0 14 x 17 .....................................................        10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80                    90   100
                           0 20 x 24 .....................................................        10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80                    90   100
                           0 Other                                                            ... 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80                    90   100
                                                                                                  Please make certain the total = 100%

                            7. Method of processing photographic film materials:

                           Check all that apply .............and.       ................................    Circle percentage of use
                           0 Automabc processor w/lith developer........ ._........_.... 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90. 100
                                                                                     10       ~

                           0 Automabc processor w/rapid access developer........ 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
                           Cl Tray method w/lith developer.....................................   10 20 30 40 50                        60 70 80        90       100
                           cf Diffusion transfer processor....................................... 10 20 30 40 50                        60 70 80        90       100
                           0 Other                                             ._..._._..._......... 30 40 50
                                                                                                  10 20                                 60 70 80        90       100
                                                                                                  Please make certain the              total = 100%

                            8. Volume of chemical disposed ofper month relating to positive production.                                                 List if
                            Check all that apply       ..........and ..........
                                                                      ..........                  Circle gallons used per week                          amount
                           0 Lith developer A & 8 (concentrate)....._.._.. 2         1                      3 4      5    6   7        8     9    10    -
                           0 Rapid access developer ...........................1 2                          3    4   5    6   7        8     9    10    ,              ~           .

                           0 Acetic acid stop bath.................................. 1 2                    3    4   5    6   7        8     9    10    .              ~       -

66 I Autumn 1996 / Pollution Prevention Review                                                       Catherine L. Zeman. Oevang P Mehta. Daniel G. Wilson, and Ervin A. Dennis
  Exhibit 8. Survey (continued)
    0 Fixer (concentrate)....................................        1    2   3     4    5   6   7      8   9    10    ~

    0 Diffusiontransferdeveloper......................               1    2   3     4    5   6   7      8   9    10

    a Other                                                      .....1   2   3     4    5   6   7      8   9    10

    9. Amount of chemical disposal per month relating to digital positive production.                                  List if
    Check all that appty ........and.......................          Circle units used per week                        amount
    0  Laser printer toner packs .........................            1   2    3    4   5   6   7       8   9    10    -
    0 lnkjet cartridges .......................................       1   2    3    4   5   6   7       8   9    10    -
    a Other                                                     ..... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7                     8   9    10    -

     7 0 Financial expenditures incurred for waste removal relating to photographic film processing chemicals for
     FY '94.
    (Check only one box)
    a    50-50       0 $51-150           0 $151-300                                                  t e$--
                                                              0 $301-500 0 $501-1000 0 $1001-2000 0 Ohr -.-

      7 7. of the total amount of line copy (such as type and illustrations)prepared or used in the preparation OfpOSitiVeS.
     indicate the output device resolutions used in dots per inch (dpt).

    Check all that apply           ...........
                                      and        ..........          Circle percentage of use
    0 300 dots per inch .....................................        10 20    30    40   50 60 70     80    90 100
    0 600 dots per inch .....................................        10 20    30    40   50 60 70     80    90   100
    [7 1200 dots per inch ...................................        10 20    30    40   50 60 70     80    90   100
    (1 2400 dots per inch ...................................
     I                                                             10 20      30    4050 60 70 80           90   100
    0 Other                                                   .....10 20      3040 50 60 70 80              90   100
                                                                   Please make certain the total = 100%

      7. Of the total number of halftones prepared or used in the preparation of positives, indicate the typiCa, Screen
     ruling(sJ used in lines per inch ([pi).

     Check all that apply         ............... .................Circle percentage of use
     0 0 to 50 linas per inch.................................       10 20 30     40 50 60 70 80            90   100
     0 51 to 65 lines per inch...............................        10 20 30     40 50 60 70 80            90   100
     (3 66 to 85 lines per inch...............................       10 20 30     40 50 60 70 80            90   100
     0 86 to 100 lines per inch.............................         10 20 30     40 50 60 70 80            90   100
     0 101 lo 120 lines per inch...........................          10 20 30     40 50 60 70 80            90   100
     0 Over 121 lines per inch.............................          10 20 30     40 50 60 70 80            90   100
                                                                     Please make certain the total = 100%

     13. Based anany trends that you perceive in your business, answer the following:

     Check only one box per item                                                             Increase       Decrease        No change

     a. Over the past two years, photographic film positive
        production (imagesetter,camera) has been on the:                                         a               0                 a
     b. Wthin the next two years it is anticipated that positive
        oufpuf from photographic film production will:                                           0               a                 0

     c. Over the past two years, non-photographic film production
         (laser printer, plotter, transfer type) has been on the:                                0               0                 0
     d. Over the next two years it is anticipated
        that non-photographic film production will:                                              a               a                 0
     e. Due to envi7onmental regulations,
         future costs for waste management will:                                                 a               0                 0

Eliminating Screen Printing PhotographicWastes                                     I1I- 33                           Pollution Prevention Review / Autumn 1996 1 6'
       Case Study #1:
       Beta Testing the CalComp EcoGraW lmagesetter
             Grady McCauley, Inc.. is a major screen printer in North Canton. Ohio, employing over 160 people. The company specializes in
       large format, point-of-saledisplays and fleet graphics.
             For the past year, Grady McCauley has been beta testing the CalComp EcoGrafiP digital dry film imaging system. This system
       allows Grady McCauley to produce film positives for complex line art and multicolor applications. Positives can measure up to 36
       inches wide, with a dpi range of up to 400.
             In addition to the EcoGrafix@     generated positives, the company also generates some Rubylith" positives using a plotter. A small
       number of photographic positives are still generated and tray developed. and four-color positives over 36 inches wide (a relatively small
       number of positives) are out-sourced.
             Dennis Grady. CEO of Grady McCauley, notes that the company has been successfully using the EcoGrafix" digital system to
       generate approximately 40 to 50 positives per week. By using the EcoGrafix" imagesetter along with a smaller number of plotter-
       generated Rubylith" positives. and out-sourcing photographic positives over 36 inches wide. Grady states that his facility has been
       able to reduce photographic wastes to Very negligible fractions of gallons per week."
             Grady observes that his main incentives to move to the EcoGrafiP system, however, were the advantages of digital flexibility and
       the fact that CalComp offered a format up to 36 inches. This allows the company to output to a full size positive that does not require
       resizing. meaning that they can..eliminate all the prepress work that a photographic positive resizing entails.
             In addition, digital flexibility allows the prepress specialist to work with text and graphic design to the limits oEhardware and
       software capability while producing a positive that is ready to image the screen, in a size that fits the needs of a largrzformat screen
       printer. This flexibility and increased productivity allow for significant savings in labor, making the cost of implementingthe CalComp
       system (around $35.000)a viable investment.
             The biggest challenge with the digital system, according to Grady, has been in the refinement of prepress technique. He states,
       "getting good, predictable resolution, density and sharp edges in both the black and four-color process work" took some time and effort
       to perfect. However, continued refinement in technique and practiw inmrbingwilh.the q s i p r s t iapqmp&rGsid@cGauley.
       The company is realizing increased productivity and enjoying the added benefit of nearly eliminating the generation of hazardous
       silver-bearing wastes from the prepress process.

                       (Continued from page 65)                                              As reflected by our survey, the average screen
                          limited percentages of t h e average screen                        printer is in a state of transition, experiment-
                          printer's work in the midwestern states sur-                       ing with and attempting to integrate new tcch-
                          veyed. Our findings indicated that this was n o                    nologies into a work environment and produc-
                          more than 26 percent of the screen printers re-                    tion schedule that demand flexibility in format-
                          sponding to our survey.                                            ting options, dpi, and Ipi rulings for positives
                          Good process color work remains a challenge                        generated. The equipment evaluated in t h e
                          for the less expensive equipment because of                        laboratory provided adequate dpi for all needs
                          limitations in the resolution of digitally created                 indicated in the survey, covered most of the
                          positives. Additionally, continued improve-                        formatting ranges reported, and provided a n
                          ments in lpi rulings for plotter equipment are                     adequate Ipi ruling for the category of halftone
                          necessary before the plotter-based technologies                    rulings most often used in theindustry ( 5 1 Ipi).
                          can be applied to the broad range of lpi rulings                   However, the need for more flexible equipment
                          used by the average screen printer. Continued                      in the areas of large size formatting and Ipi half-
                          technology improvements are expected t o ad-                       tone rulings was also obvious, especially if the
                          dress this in the near future.                                     industry is going to move directly to substrate
                          Vellum substrates were most effective with la-                     printing.
                          ser printer-generated images, while polyester                      Waste disposal costs were minimal (around $50
                          substrates were most effective with plotter-gen-                   per year) given the conditions of discharge that
                          erated images. The differences in substrate a n d                  t h e majority of screen printers face, especially
                          adequacy of image density were statistically sig-                  in rural areas of the midwest. In areas of t h e
                          nificant.                                                          country with more severe water quality prob-

68 / Autumn 1996 I Pollution Prevention Review                                 Catherine L. Zeman. Devang P. Mehta. Daniel G. Wilson. and Ervin A. Dennis
    Case Study #2:
    When Silver Makes Sense
          Stuart Sarjeant is CEO of Daytona Trophy; a specialty screen shop in Daytona Beach, Florida. The company employs only
    people, but it does nearlyS1 million worth of business each year. Sarjeant's area of expertise is printing for the award market on Plates
    and placards, using enamels. Keeping the small business competitive is of prime importance to Sarjeant.
          Competitive concerns have led the company to switch from a diffusion transfer positives generation process using a laser Printer
    to a silver halide imagesetter. Sarjeant was originally using a laser printer to generate about 175 to 200 digitally produced images per
    week. But he was not pleased with the quality of the digital products.
          In addition. each one of the positives was produced on a single sheet of paper that was then taken to a camera operator for the
    preparation of a film positivo. The film positive was produced through a diffusion transfer process. This process eliminated silver halide
    chemistry, but it generated only a 60 Ipi, 600 dpi positive that sometimes performed poorly in regard to blends and tints. Additionally, the
    operators shooting the film positives for each individually generated digital image spent approximately half of their working day on this
    task alone.
          After investigating his options. Sarjeant came upon the CompuGraphics 94OOa imagesetter. This imagesetter uses silver halide-
    based films and chemical development processes. However, it delivers the 175 to 200 positives per week that Daytona produces at up
    to 1,200 dpi. This produces noticeably sharper blends and tints. The film for the imagesetter also comes in prespooled standard sizes
    that allow Safjeant to schedule positives production and shoot up to 25 linear feet of film before developing. This eliminates the need
    to have one prepress person devoted to image transfer for four hours per day and greatly increases productivity.
          Sarjeant investigated waste disposal costs and issues and found that adequate silver recovery services were available in the
    Daytona Beach area. Reclaiming his liquid silver wastes (lessthan five gallons per week) and tilms has allowed him to realize a net
    savings when increased productivity. quality, and time savings are considered.
          While this system has been a 'Volkswagen to Lamborghini" improvement according to Sa .eant, he is still keeping his eye on
    emerging silverless digital technologies. He notes that equipment such as the CalComp EcoGrafi and the LaserMaster laser printers
    are making strides to improve Ipi and dpi ranges.

   lems, or with POTW treatment facilities that                 mental improvements will simply be added ben-
   require stringent pretreatment agreements                    efits resuiting from sound business practice.
   with industrial dischargers, the cost/benefit
   ratio could tilt in favor of eliminating silver
                                                                 I . Nation21 ,\ssociation of Printers m d Lithographers/Graphic
   discharge. It should be noted that this study                Arts Technical Foundation (NAPLlGATF), "CTP System Choices
   did not address materials other than liquid sil-             Abound a t DRUPA '95," Siieelfrd Operatiorrs Qitartrrly, Vol. 2,
                                                                No. 3 (1995).
   ver-bearing wastes generated during t h e
                                                                2. V. Cahill, "Digital Imaging on Textiles: Swimming with the
   prepress process. Other savings could be ex-                                                 Printin3 (Nov. 1995).
                                                                Tide," Screerrprirrting/(;annriit
   pected in films, stripping films, and stripping              3. Id.
   materials.                                                   4. Sfkenprinting SC Graphic ImagingAssociation International,
                                                                "Center for Digital Imaging Update," Tabloid, Vol. 17, NO. 10
                                                                (Oct. 1995).
     The main benefit from the digitalization of                5. Cahill (cited in note 2)
prepress operations is the increased flexibility and
                                                                 For additional information:
the potentially greater productivity of digital out-
                                                                Abramic-DilSer, K., "Big Bonus,"Ainericarr Pnnter, Vol. 215, No.
put, even while staff in the prepress area are re-              6 (Sept. 1995).
duced. These factors should be kept in mind when                 Andrukitas, J., "Tough Decisions," American Printer, Vol. 215,
                                                                 No. 2 (May 1995).
t h e overall costs and benefits of technology
                                                                Cahill, V., "Digital Imaging on Textiles: Stvimming with the
changes are being presented to the small screen                 Tide," Screenpnrrririg/Cannerrt Printing (Noe 1995).
printer. From the perspective of competitiveness,                "Digital Proofing Roundup," In-Plant Printer, Vol. 35, NO. 5 (Oct.
it is in the business's best interest to implement               1995).

digital prepress technologies. And it is this point-             "DRUPA Product halysis," Arnericnrr Printer, Vol. 215, NO.4
                                                                 (July 1995).
not environmental issues-that will most likely                  Jeffrey, N.. "Wired ~Vebs,"ilmencarrPn'nter, Vol. 215, No. 1 (Apr.
inform companies' choices in this area. Environ-                1995).

Eliminating Screen Printing Photographic Wastes                                                          Pollution Prevention Review / Autumn 1906 / 69
                   Printers’              Printing
                   Environ menta I                                 
                   Ass istance
                                          FACT SHEET                        I-~~-USPNEAC

        Basic RCRA Recordkeeping Requirements For Printers
The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1984 gave the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) the authority to regulate municipal and hazardous waste. The purpose of this fact sheet is
to provide a basic understanding of the various recordkeeping requirements mandated by EPA.
Depending on state and local requirements, additional recordkeeping requirements and longer record
retention reqltiPerPreaAtsawq”p1y:- -- -

The information below in a starting point for determining if your RCRA required records are in order.
Since paperwork is one of the easiest noncompliance issues to spot during an EPA audit, keep your
paperwork in order. Here are some records to keep.

e       EPA Identification Number / Notice of Hazardous Waste Activity (40 CFR 262.11)
Prior to offering hazardous waste to transporters or treatment, storage, or disposal facilities a generator
must obtain a EPA (waste generator) identification number. The facility must complete EPA form
870012 and submit it to the Agency. Copies of the application and notificatiordassignment of the facilities
assigned identification number must be kept on file. No specified record retention period. Note, this
number does not expire or change, unless the facility relocates.

         Hazardous Waste Storage and Accumulation (40 CFR 262.34)
Facilities that generate greater than 221 Ibs per month (SQG & LQG) of hazardous waste are required to
train affected employees on proper waste Mdling and emergency procedures, maintain documentation
on waste handling procedures, which includes designated emergency response personnel; documentation
on duration and date of waste storage, and a written storage time compliance procedure. No specified
record retention period.

e        Manifests and Land Disposal Notification (40 CFR 262.40)
Facilities that generate greater than 221 Ibs per month (SQG & LQG) of hazardous waste are to maintain
copies of each signed manifest. One copy should be retained when the waste is transported from the
facility and the second copy must be signed and supplied by the disposal facility within 45 days after the
waste leaves the generator’s facility. The facility’s manifests or the signed manifests from the treatment
storage and disposal facility receiving the hazardous waste are to be retained for 3 years.

Records of test results, waste analyses, or other determinations that the waste is hazardous must be kept
for 3 years.

       PNEAC Fact Sheet: Basic OSHA Recordkeeping & Training Requirements Affecting Printers p.2

       0       Biennial Report (40 CFR 262.41)
       A Biennial Report (each even numbered year) must be submitted to the USEPA by Small Quantity and
       Large Quantity Generators no later than March 1"' (on odd numbered years most states require a report
       be submitted to the state agency). A copy of the Biennial Report and Exception Report must be kept for
       3 years.

       0       Exception Reporting (40 CFR 262.42)
       If the hazardous waste generator does not receive a signed copy of the manifest from the disposal facility
       within 45 days after the waste was accepted by the initial transporter, an Exception Report must be
       supplied to the state regulatory agency and a copy of this report must be retained w i t b h e manifest. The
       exception report must be retained for at least 3 years.

       0       Hazardous Waste MinimizationRollution Prevention Requirements (40 CFR 262 App)
* %.   eazardous waste generators using a manifest under the "Generator's Certification" &tes.WtCk31' &. .Jf Lam+ .   1L

       large quantity generator, I certify that I have a program in place to reduce the volume and toxicity of
       waste generated to the degree I have determined to be economically practicable and that I have selected
       the practicable method of treatment, storage, or disposal currently available to one which minimizes the
       present ar?d hture threat to human health and the environment; OR, if I am a small quantity generator, I
       have made a good faith effort to minimize my waste generation and select the best waste management
       method that is available to me and that I can afford." In other words a waste minimization and pollution
       prevention plan is required to be implemented. It is recommended that a written program be developed
       and retained on-site.

              Hazardous Waste Storage Area Inspection (40 CFR 265.1101)
       The hazardous waste storage area must be inspected at least every 7 days to monitor leak detection
       equipment and detect signs of releases of hazardous waste in or around the containment area. Records of
       weekly inspections must be maintained for at least 3 years.

       0       Recyclable Materials (40 CFR 266.70)
       Persons Who Geherate or Store Recyclable Materials That Are Reclaimed to Recover Economically
       Significant Amount of Silver and Other Precious Metals (40 CFR 266.70): Generators must maintain
       manifests when material is being transported for reclamation. Persons who store these materials
       (nonspeculatively) must keep records showing the volume of these materials stored at the beginning of
       the calendar year; the amount generated or received during the calendar year; and the amount of materials
       remaining at the end of the calendar year. No specified retention period for the documents.

       0      Used Oil Generators (40 CFR 279.74)
       Generators of used oil are to keep a record of each used oil shipment that is accepted for
       processinghe-refining and shipped to a used oil burner, processor/re-refiner, or disposal facility. These
       records may take the form of a log, invoice, manifest, bill of lading, or other shipping documents.
       Records are to be retained for 3 years.

PNEAC Fact Sheet: Basic OSHA Recordkeeping & Training Requirements Affecting Printers p.3

       Underground Storage Tanks (UST's) (40 CFR 280 & 281)
Owners and operators of new and existing USTs are to maintain records that demonstrate compliance
with performance standards (monitoring, testing, protection, repairs, and closure). These records are to
be maintained for the life of the tank and piping system.

Hazardous Waste Generator Status:
 Conditionally Exempt SQG            Small Quantity Generator           Large Quantity Generator                  I
 less than 220 Ibs/month             22 1-2205 Ibs/month                2205 lbs/month or greater

If no specific records retention time is established, records should be retained for at least five years.
Additional fact sheets are or will be available that will cover in detail hazardous waste issues. For
additional information about pollution prevention opportunities in the printing industry call the PNEAC:
toll free number at 1-888-USPNEAC (please refer to VOC fact sheet when calling) or contact :

Graphic Arts Technical Foundation - Gary Jones or Rick Hartwig (4 12/74 1-6860)
Printing Industries of America - Ben Cooper (703/5 19-8115)
Illinois Hazardous Waste Research & Information Center - Debra Kramer (630/472-5019)
or Gary Miller (2 17/333-8940)
University of Wisconsin - Wayne Pferdehirt (6081265-2361) or Tom Blewett (608/262-0936)

Reasonable effort has been made to review and verifq. information in this document. Neither PNEAC and its partners, nor
the technical reviewers and their agencies, assume responsibility for completeness and accuracy of the information, or its
interpretation. The reader is responsible for making the appropriate decisions with respect to their operation, specific
materials employed, work practices, equipment and regulatory obligations. It is imperative to ve* current applicable
regulatory requirements with state and/or local regulatory agencies.

                                                Safety Compliance
                                                                                      .   PNEAC
                        Environmental                                                     www. pneac.or
                        Ass ista nee

     How to Read and Use an MSDS for Environmental Purposes
 OSHA mandates that each product used commercially which contains any hazardous ingredient must be
 accompanied by a Material Safety Data Sheet or MSDS upon entering a facility if there is one or more
 people employed at that location. The MSDS was initially designed to convey important safety hazard
 information and measures to protect persons who may come in contact with a product, including
 employees, fire fighters, etc. Current, revised, and obsolete MSDS must be kept on file at a facility for 30
 years or as long as the company is in business (whichever comes first).
- -

 The MSDS also sewes to provide important environmental compliance information, including VOC
 content, hazardous chemical ingredients and their CAS numbers, product density, and vapor pressure.
 This information is required for hazardous air pollutant (HAPS) and VOC emission calculations, as well
 as other annual record keeping and reporting requirements, such as S A R A 3 1 1 and 3 12 reporting

There is currently no required format for a MSDS, but the most common is the OSHA Form 174 which
contains 9 different sections. Other formats may illustrate the same required information, but in an
alternative lccation on the sheet. This guide follows the same sequence as the OSHA Form 174. Each
section of OSHA Form 174 is listed and environmental information or description is provided where

Section I. Basic Product Information

1. Trade Name or Synonym.
This name may not reflect the product’s use or the name the product is referred to in your facility. It is
recommended that the facility mark on the MSDS the department or application of the product if it is
unclear on the MSDS.

2. Manufacturers Name and Address.
This may be different than product source or supplier. It is advised that if the product supplier is different
write their name and phone number on the MSDS sheet.

3. Emergency Telephone Number.
There must be 24 hour telephone access to a company representative in case of a spill, reiease, or
personal injury. Many suppliers of hazardous materials contract out to an emergency answering service
provider such as Chemtrec.

4. Chemical Name of Product.
              PNEAC Fact Sheet: How to Read and Use an MSDS for Environmental Purposes p.2
       Refers only to products that are single substances, such as methyl ethyl ketone. This information may be
       sanitted ifthe product is a mixture or proprietary.

       5. Date Prepared.
       Signifies the date the original MSDS information was compiled or last updated. This information should
       be used to verify whether a new MSDS has been updated or is a duplicate of current MSDS on file.

       6 . Signature of Preparer.
       Optionai information, name andlor signature of the person who prepared the MSDS.

       Section TI: Hazardous Tnoredients

       This section lists the chemical name, CAS (chemical abstract service) number, and the quantity of the
       chemical within the product expressed in percent by volume or weight. This informationris needed to
       calculate the chemical usage and storage quantities for SARA Section 3 11,3 12, and 3 13 compliance as
       well as calculating HAPSand VOC emissions from the product for air p e - ~ t t i n calculations or quantity
       of chemical released. Some state air operating permits specify how the VOC information must be
       calculated and the printer may need to work with the supplier to provide the VOC information i then
       correct units of measure.

       Many MSDS omit the VOC containing products in this section, but will list the total volatile content of
       the product. The printer will need to consult the supplier to obtain a product data sheet which provides
       information about the actual chemical and its concentration that is a VOC.

       A supplier may list chemical content as a range due to proprietary concerns, for example 10-15%. In this
       case the printer should verify the VOC content with the product supplier. If the actual VOC content
       cannot be verified, consider the higher percentage when caicufating total concentration of VOC or HAP.

       VOC emission calculations and certificaiion that the information is correct is the responsibility of the
       printer. In other words it is the printer's responsibility to verify that the VOC information that the supplier
       provided is correct. One way to assure that the information is correct is to request that the supplier
. .'
       determine the,VOC: content of their products through EPA Test Method 24 or Method 2 4 4 which are ,
       analysis protocols for determining VOC content of liquids established by U.S. EPA.

       Section lII: Phvsical Data

       1. Boiling Point:
       The temperature in degrees F at whch a liquid boils under normal atmospheric conditions.

       2. Vapor Pressure:
       The pressure of saturated vapor above the liquid in mercury at 68 degrees F.

       Boiling point (bp) and vapor pressure (vp) indicate how rapidly the material evaporates or how much
       VOC and HAPSare in the product. For example, Isopropyl alcohol has a boiling point of 180 degrees F
       and a vapor pressure of 33 mm Hg. Where as ethylene glycol has a&g,a&?ZL&grees F and a vp of 0.1 . -

       PNEAC Fact Sheet: How to Read and Use an MSDS for Environmental Purposes p.3
mm Hg. Products with a low boiling point, vapor pressure and vapor density typically are high VOC
products. Some state air regulations limit the vapor pressure of certain printing products, such as blanket
wash or fountain solution (used in offset printing).

When considering alternative products in order to reduce VOC emissions, the vapor pressure of a
solution is a key factor. It is best to select products with low VOC and no or low HAP content andlor
products with a vapor pressure of 10"        Hg at 20 C or less. A product which contains 100% VOC, but
has a vapor press of 10" of Hg at 70 at 20 C will emit approximately 30% VOC's by weight because
the product does not evaporate as quickly.

3 . Vapor Density:
The weight of a vapor or gas compared with an equal volume of air measured at 60-90 degrees F.

Vapor density indicates whether the vapor is heavier or lighter than air. With flammable materials, when
the vapor density is greater than one, vapors will tend to move or collect in a low spot. Flame sources
should be carehlly controlled or avoided in these areas. For example the vapor density of isopropyl
alcohol is 2.07, propane is 1.52, and helium is 0.1 114; which means P A and propane are an immediate
fire hazard because the gas can collect in low spots within a building and easily ignite.

4. Soiubility in Water:
Indicates how quickly the material combines with distilled water at 50 F. It is measured in the following
        Negligible    less than 0.1%
        Slight        0.1 to 1%
        Moderate       1 to 10%
        Appreciable more than 10%
        Complete      in all proportions

5. Specific Grzvity
This is the ratio of the density of a material to the density of water. In other words, it compares the
weight of water to the weight of material. This information is especially important in the event of a spill
which can reach a lake or stream.

6. Evaporation Rate
This the rate the material evaporates compared to either butyl acetate or ethyl ether

7. Appearance and Odor
A brief description of the material. Ex. viscous colored liquid with ammonia odor

8. Percent Volatile by Weight
This information may not be included (required on old format); the printer may need to ask the supplier in
writing, to include this information on a 1 MSDS or provide a product data sheet.

 This is the total VOC content of the product. This number should correspond with the sum of the VOC
-products listed in Section 11. This number should be used to calculate th-missions           of the
       PNEAC Fact Sheet: How to Read and Use an MSDS for Environmental Purposes p.4
product. This is calculated by multiplying the total pounds of material by the %VOC content listed (or gal
product x density x %VOC). Some state air regulations limit the VOC content of products commonly
used by printers.

For S A R A reporting purposes each reportable chemical listed, the printer must calculate the amount
consumed or stored on site by the % content listed in the health hazard section. The total amount (in all
mixtures and pure form) stored or consumed on site must then be compared to the reporting limit. If the
reporting limit for any &quot;listed&quot; chemical is Zess than what was consumed or stored on site
during any month or calendar year reporting requirements may apply.

Section TV: Fire and Exdosion Data

1. Flash Point
The minimum temperature in degrees fahrenheit, at which a liquid gives off enough vapor for the material
to auto ignite. The most common test method is the closed cup method.

2. Flammable or Explosive Limits
The range of gas or vapor concentrations (percent by volume in air) which will bum or explode if an
ignition source is present. This is expressed as the lower explosion limit or LEL and the upper explosion
limit or UEL.

3. Extinguishing Media
Lists the fire fighting media suitable for use on the burning material. Some chemicals may negatively react
to water which is the most common extinguishing media. Therefore alternative methods, such as carbon
dioxide may be more suitable for extinguishing the flames.

4.Special Fire Fighting Procedures
This includes information about the toxicity of combustion products, any special personal protective
equipment, etc.

5. Unusual Fire and Explosion Hazards
This describes any special potential hazards which may need attention. For example, if water is
improperly applied to a flammable liquid with a flash point greater than 2 12 F, a violent boiling reaction
could occur.

Section V. Reactivity Data

1. Stability
Indicates whether a chemical is stable or unstable under reasonably foreseeabie conditions of storage, use
or misuse. If unstable, the potential reactions will be listed.

2. Incompatibility
Lists chemicals and compounds that will negatively react with the product and should not be combined or
stored. This is important to review prior to use and/or disposal. Shop towels and waste storage
containers are one of the more common areas where incompatible -   -              advertently combined
            PNEAC Fact Sheet: How to Read and Use an MSDS for Environmental Purposes p.5
     and a negative reaction occurs.

     3. Hazardous Decomposition or By-Products                 ---- -
     Describes the products produced as a result of heating, burning or oxidizing. For example, thermal
     decomposition of vinyl chloride plastics produces carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2) and
     hydrochloric acid (HCI)

     4.Hazardous Polymerization
     Describes the products that may be produced as a result of combining/exposing incompatible products.
     For example combining chlorine (bleach) with ammonia will produce hydrochloric acid.

     Section VI. Health Hazard Data

     1. Routes of Entry
     Ways the material could enter the body.

     2. Health Hazards (acute and chronic)
     Potential over exposure affects that will dissipate when moved away fiom product (acute) and potential
     health affects resulting fiom repeated, long term overexposure which leads to symptoms that remain fom
     greater than a few minuteshours (chronic).

     3. Carcinogenicity
     Indicates whether or not the product is known or suspect cause of cancer.

     4.Signdsymptoms of Exposure

     5 . Medical conditions generally aggravated by exposure
     Lists potential medical conditions which will worsen as a result of exposure to this product.

     6 . Emergency and First Aid Procedures.
     Recommendations on how to treat victims of over exposure.

     Section VU: Spill and Leak Procedures

     1. Steps to be taken in case material is released or spilled
     Describes special precautions if the material is spilled, such as evacuate area.

     2. Waste Disposal Method
     This area rarely describes how the product should be disposed of because each state and local
     government's waste disposal regulations may be different. Check with the supplier and review your state
     and local ordinances for proper disposal methods. Additionally, review waste water discharge permits
     prior to flushing any product down any drain.

     3. Precautions to be taken in handling and storing.
ir                                                                                         ct
     Provides information such as recommendations for temperature control, light exposure, e-
       PNEAC Fact Sheet: How to Read and Use an MSDS for Environmental Purposes p.6
be followed to avoid product degradation.

4. Other Precautions

Section W: Controt Measures

1. Respiratory Protection
Specifies necessary protection to avoid inhalation overexposure.

2. Ventilation
Indicates type of ventilation needed to avoid overexposure.

3. Protective Glovedeye protectiodother equipment
Specifies the type of eye, hand and/or body protection that should be used while handling product.

4. Other Protective Clothing or Equipment                     f   .
Includes additional recommended protective garments not covered in #3.

5 . WorWHygienic Practices
Provides information regarding personal handling such as washing hands prior to consuming food or
beverage, etc.

For additional information about pollution prevention opportunities in the printing industry call the
PNEAC toll flee number at 1-888-USPNEAC (please refer to MSDS fact sheet when c a h g ) or contact :
Graphic Arts Technical Foundation - Gary Jones or Rick Hartwig(412/741-6860
Printing Industries of America - Ben Cooper (703/519-8 115)
Illinois Hazardous Waste Research &amp; Information Center - Gary Miller (217/333-8940) or Debra
Kramer (630/472-50 19)
University of Wisconsin - Wayne Pferdehirt (608/26512361) or Tom BIewett (608/262-0936)

Reasonable effort has been made to review and verifL information in this document. Neither PNEAC and
its partners, nor the technical reviewers and their agencies, assume responsibility for completeness and
accuracy of the information, or its interpretation. The reader is responsible for making the appropriate
decisions with respect to their operation, specific materials employed, work practices, equipment and
regulatory obligations. It is imperative to verify current applicable regulatory requirements with state
andlor local regulatory agencies.
                       Environmental CompIianse ChecMist for Printers

Prepared by Gary Jones, Graphic Arts Technical Foundation (GA TF)
Revised 4/18/9 6

A, Air

[ ] Annually prepare detailed facility wide emissions inventory which includes emissions of Volatile
    Organic Compounds (VOCs), Hazardous Air Pollutants 0 s ) Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Sulfkr
    Oxides (SOX) ,Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Particulate Matter (e.g., paper dust or uncontrolied ink oil
    emissions), Emissions should be determined for both actual and potential emissions. Sources of
    emissions include film and plate processors, some proofing systems, printing presses, bindery lines,
    cyclones, bailers, boilers, dryers, furnaces, and other fuel combustion equipment. Emission
    detenninations can be based on either test data or mass balance incorporating appropriate engineering
    estimates and emission factors.

[ ] Determine thresholds for registration, constructioxhstallation and operating permits for existing
    operations which could be equipment specific (e.g., press, control device, or boiler) or facility-wide.
    Many statefiocal permitting programs are now focusing on facility permits and not per equipment
    permits. n e thresholds for registration and permits depend upon the current attainmentjnonattainment
   cl&ifica$on of the area, specific regulations being enforced by the appropriate government agency,         -
    and the amount or rate of air pollutants being emitted. Contact statellocal agency to obtain a copy of
    permit and air p o h t i o n control requirements.

[   3   Obtain appropriate permit(s) for existing operation. Keep copies of all permit application packages
        and emission determinations.

[ ] Determine permit thresholds for installation of new equipment to existing operations. New equipment
    could inciude presses, waters, emission control devices, boilers, cyclones, evaporators, distillation
    units,and some proofing and bindery equipment. The thresholds for new equipment and processes
    depend upon the current attainmentlnonatt3inment classification of the area, specific regulations being
    enforced by the appropriate government agency, and the amounthate of air pollutants being emitted.
    Contact stateflocal agency to obtain a copy of permit and air pollution control requirements.

[ ] Obtain appropriate permit(s) for existing operation. Keep copies of all permit application packagos
    and emission determinations.

[ ] Detennine thresholds for modifications to existing equipment that would require a permit amenGimt.
    Modifications to existing equipment includes changes in materials used (e.g., inks,dampening
    solutions, coatings, cleaning solvents, and other chemistries), increase in operating speeds, or matmal
    application rates. Keep copies of all correspondence and subsequent permit amendments. Modifica: ,on
    do not need to lead to an increase in emissions especially if an existing permit dictates the use of
    specific equipment, throughput rates, materials or chemicals. AI1 emission increases need to close$

[ ] Determine thresholds for exemption. Some equipmentlfacilities may be exempt from registration a ,ii
    permit requirements. Exemption level is dependent upon atrainmentlnonattaient classification si
    area, date of installation, and ratelamount of emissions. All exemption determinations need to be

[ ] Establish a system to track all permits and ensure that permit renewals are filed in a timely- m - :
                                                                                                   - *- e
                                                                                                    .-- ,
        This information is reprinted wt permission from "Regulatory Concems for the Printer. A Checkl! :
        produced by the Graphic Arts Technical Eoundation (GATF), copyright 0 1996.
                                                    T T T   1 7
      Document all actions taken to reduce or eliminate emissions. Reductions could be generated by
      changing process materials (e.g., use of isopropanol substitutes) or shutting down equipment.
      Typically, all creditable emission reductions must have occurred after 1990. Some states have specific
      forms to file for emission reduction credits. These credits can be used internally to net emission
      increases or sold to another company requiring offsets for emission increases.

      Establish appropriate recordkeeping and monitoring system. The system should be designed to allow
      for the demonstration of compliance with permit conditions and detection of potential violations.
      Permit conditions or regulations may require records of materials use, hours of operation, pollution
      control logs, temperatures of combustion or fountain solution, routine tests, etc. Depending upon the
      specific permit condition, it may be appropriate to periodically sample and test incoming materials,
      emissions, and control devices.

      File senli-annual emission reports and annual certification. Some permits, especially Title V, require
      facilities to submit reports and certification of compliance.

      File annual emission statements. Emission statements can be required of sources/facilities even if they
      are exempt from permitting. Thresholds for emission statements vary according to specific state/locrtI
      agency and attainmentfnonattainmentclassification. Some states require emission statements from
      facilities with emissions greater than 3 tons per year. Many states require them from facilities wt
      emissions greater than 8O-toaspee year"., t *    3   -  I : = -z - =
                                                               -p            b-

      If necessary, develop and impIement (when required) an emission reduction plan. Emission reduction
      plans typically address emissions of VOCs and NOx during excessive day(s) of ozone formation.
      Cepending upon severity of ozone formation, actions taken could be minor (e.g., deiaylng certain non
      -critical operations, car pooling, keeping chemical containers closed) or major which wouid involve
      production curtailment.

      Keep records of any phone conversation, correspondence, testing, and calculations; and send all
      correspondence to any agency by retum registered mail.

B. Water Discharges

[ I   Inventory all sources of wastewater dxcharges. .

E 3   Determine fate of all sink drains,floor d a n ,processor and equipment drains and sewage lines.
      Direct discharges of wastewater are prohibited, unless permitted (see NPDES requiremeats .below).

[ I   Maintain copy of sewer connect permit or notification and other correspondence.

[ I   Annually determine total wastewater flow in gallons. The amount resulting from industrial water use
      should be either measured or estimated. Sources of information for estimating total flow include
      records indicating the volume of water purchased, other water purchased with process chemistry llke
      water-based coatings, water-based inks,film and fouitain solution concentrates, and any water
      pumped from weils. If necessary, gallons per month and day may also have to be determined.

El    Contact local publicly owned treatment works (POTW) or sewer authority for permission to dscharge
      process wastewater eauent and for permitting requirements and obtain a copy of the sewer code.

I 1 Most POTWs require silver recovery and may have specific limitations for certain chemicals, heavy
      metals, and physical charrreccrisc;iehCopper, Ammonia, pfi, COD, and BOD) contained in
      wastewater effluent. Contact P O W to determine specific limits.
[ ] Establish a system to track all permits and ensure that pexmit renewals are filed in a timely manner.

[ ] Some statesflocal POTWs require employees who operate and maintain any pretreatment equipment to
   be trained and certified as wastewater treatment operator. Contact local POTW/state agency to
   determine requirements.

[   9   Conduct testing of wastewater discharges. Permits andor sewer code may require periodic discharge
        testing and monitoring reports of effluents. Contact local P O W to determine requirements.

[ J When conducting wastewater sampling, especially during compliance determination testing, take a
    sample of incoming water to use as baseline. The preferred sampling protocol is a multiple-hour
    (ideally, 24-hour) composite sample versus a grab sample.

[ ] Establish policies and procedures to prevent inadvertent release of prohibited materials. EPA ban on
    discharging of oillgrease, materials that could create a fire or explosion, and chemicals that could
    produce toxic vapors and fumes. Many POTWs allow a small amount of oillgrease discharge, usually
    in the 50- to 100-ppm range. Some ignitables, especially those that contain less than 25% alcohol,
    could also be exempt from the discharge ban.

[ ] Permanently block all open floor drains in the fa.cility or if floor drain is necessary, provide drain
     covers. In the event of a spill, open floor d r a i n s ~ r m i d m m e a n s ~ ~ ~ ~bc l - e d ~ ~ ~ s ~
    discharged directly to the P O W and depending upon the material spilled, in a concentrated form.
    Alternately, a raised pipe or other device could be provided to prevent spilled che&stry Erom being
     released through the open floor drain.The alternate approach cannot present a tripping hazard.

[ ] Provide secondary containment for all processors or equipment using chemistry to help contain spills
    and prevent them from spreading. The secondary containment should be capable of holding at least
    110% of the volume of the contents of a single chemical container or processor. If more than one
    container or processor is included in the containment area, then the secondary containment must be
    capable of holding 150% of the volume of the largest primary contiher or 10% of the aggregate
    volume of all primary containers, whichever is greater.

[ ] Assemble and locate appropriate spiIl response and neutralization materials in prepress area.
    Materials include a wide variety of absorbents, two or three mops, mop bucket with wringer, several
    squeegees, several push brooms, traffic tape,spill-sign, small shovel, clean container with lid for
    receiving spilled materials and contaminated cleanup material, weak acids (for developer), alkali
                     ) ,
    material (for k containers, and personal protective equipment (e.g., rubber gloves, goggles, aprons,
    shoe covers, and general purpose respirators).

[ ] Discharges of more than 33 IbsJmonth of hazardous waste, especially listed ones, or any acute wastes
    mixed with domestic sewage requires written notification to local EPA office, state waste agency, and

[ ] Significant dischargers (those discharging more than 25,000 gallons/day) and occasionally smaller
    dischargers may be required to submit biannual effluent testing data and develop plans to respond to
    accidental spills and discharges. Contact local POTW to determine requirements.

[ ] File annual industrial wastewater discharge survey. Some local POTWs require annual reporting of
    industrial effluents. Some surveys can be extensive.

[ ] install and maintain backflow prevention system. Some water authorities require backflow prevention
    devices on each piece of process equipment connecte&toj”ingwater supply. Some water
    authorities require m u d testing and registration of all backflow preventors.
                                                    111- 49
[ ] National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit:

          [ ] Obtain permit for discharges of industrial and sanitary wastewater effluent, non-contact
              cooling water, and boiler blowdown water to navigable waterways (e.g., streams, creeks,
              lakes, rivers, etc.).

           [ ] Obtain NPDES stormwater discharge permit for any rain or. snow melt mnoff exposed to
               industrial activity (e.g., contaminated with chemicals) and discharged to navigable
               waterways. NPDES permits can be either group, individual, or general. Printers
               constructing shelters over sources of contamination (e.g., dumpsters) or bringing materials
         .     inside can exempt themselves from this regulation.

          [ ] If stormwater discharge permit is required, determine pollutant monitoring, sampling
              and testing requirements. Keep copies of all testing results.

          [ ] If stormwater discharge permit is required, devefop and implement pollution
              prevention pian designed to " i z e or eliminate sources of pollution.

          [ ] Contaminated stormwater discharges to municipal systems require notification to the
              municipality. Printers constructing shelters over sources of contamination (e.g.,
              dumpsters) or bringing matarids kick can-exeat;btha&~&m;1egulation.

          [ ] Establish tracking system to ensure permit renewals are filed in a timely manner.

[ ] Septicsystem:

          [   3   Ensure that all septic systems are installed in accordance with state/local requirements.
                  Permits for installation may be necessary.

          [ ] Conduct annual inspection of septic system to ensure it is operating properly. Some
              statdocal agencies require annual inspections by qualified engineers.

          [       Prohibit discharges of industrial wastewater effluent into septic system. In some instances,
                  states will allow discharges of certain industrial wastes into septic systems, but discharger
                   will typically be required to obtain aNPDES permit.

          [ ] Ifa septic system had been previously used and/or removed, keep copies of all sampling
              and test results indicating contamination wt industrial effluents. If remediation actions
               were taken, copies of all pertinent records and test results must be maintained.

[ ] Drinkingwater:

          [ ] Make sure that lead-free solder for pipes and drinkmg water fouitains is used.

          [ ] Use lead-free drinking fountains t a have not been citdrecalled for lead-lined cooling

          [ ] Water being supplied from wells for drinking may have to be periodically tested for
              presence of contaminants. This testing is usually mandatory for plants with more than 25
C . Hazardous Waste

         [ J Determine if hazardous waste is generated. A waste is any material that has been
             abandoned or discarded that is unsuitable for use without treatment or recycling. The U.S.
             Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has established a protocol of using process
             knowledge, chemical identification, or testing (flashpoint, pH, Toxicity Characteristic
             Leaching Procedure, etc.) to determine classification of wastes. USEPA also provides for
             many exceptions, while some state agencies do not observe the same exemptions. For
             example, in some states, silver-laden fixer must be counted as a hazardous waste, whie
             USEPA exempts it. In addition, some states regulate other materials like used oil as
             hazardous wastes. Please check with your state agency to see if they regulate materials
             USEPA does not.

        [ ] Ignitable Wastes

                [ ] A liquid that has a flashpoint below 60°C or 140°F. Aqueous solutions containing
                    less than 24% alcohol by volume are not included in this definition.

                [ ] A non-liquid capable of spontaneous and sustained combustion under normal

                [ ] An ignitable compressed gas as defined by DOT.

                [ ] An oxidizer as defined by DOT.

      [ ] Corrosive Wastes

                [ ] An aqueous material with a pH less than 2.0 or greater than 12.5.

                [ ] A liquid that corrodes steel at a rate greater than one-forth inch per year at a
                    temperature of 55'C or 130°F.

      [ ] Reactivewastes

                [ ] Normally unstable and reacts violently without detonating.

                [ ] Reacts vioiently with water.

                [ ] Forms an explosive mixture with water.

                [ ] Generates toxic gases, vapor, or h e s when mixed with water.

                [ ] Contains cyanide or sulfide and generates toxic gas vapors or fumes at a
                    pH between 2 and 12.5.

      [ ] ToxicWastes

                [ ] Requires testing by Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP)
                    for 25 organic chemicals, 8 metals, and 6 pesticides and sets threshold levels above
                    whch the waste would be classified as hazardous.

         [ ] Listed Wastes

                     [ ] Waste contains or is completely composed of chemicals fiomfour separate lists of
                         hazardous wastes. Some “F” listed wastes must contain chemicals on the list that
                         exceed at least 10% of the original mixture.

[ ] Determine generator status (e.g., exempt;smll, or large), which is dependent upon the amount of
    hazardous waste generated per month. Some states do not recognize dstinctions between exempt and
    small and between small and large quantity generaiors, thus requiring either exempt quantity
    generators to observe smallquantity generator requirements and smallquantity generators to observe
    largequantity requirements.

         f ] Exempt quantity generators are those generating less than 220 poundshonth of hazardous
             waste and less than 2.2 poundshonth of acute waste.

         [ ] Small quantity generators are those facilities who generate between 220 and 2,200
             pounddmonth of hazardous waste and less than 2.2 poundshonth of acute

         [ ] Large generates over 2,200 poundshonth of hazardous waste and/or more than
             2.2 pounddmonth of acute waste.

[ ] Wastes to count toward generator status (Note: This list is not all inclusive.):   -
         ] All listed and characteristic wastes that are accumulated on-site for any time period.

     [ ] All listed and characteristic wastes that are packaged and transported off-site.

     [ ] Placed in a regulated on-site treatment or disposal unit.

     [ ] Still bottoms or slugs removed from storage tanks.

     [ j Contaminated soil or spilled chemistry.

     [ ] Any material mixed wt a listed hazardous waste.

     [ ] Unused inventory that has not been used within one year.

     [ ] Wastes not to count toward generator status (Note: Ths list is not all inclusive):

     [   3   Sewer cfischarges sent directly to a P O W , as long as POTW grants permission.

     [ ] Sewer hscharges from a neutralization       p)
                                                    ( H unit.
     [ ] Wastes continuously reclaimed on-site in a closed pipe system.

     [ ] Any material already counted once during a calendar month,’treated or reclaimed, and
         used again.

 [ ] Used oil sent off-site for disposal or recycling and not mixed nith listed hazardous waste
     and contains less than 1,000 ppm total halogens. Chlorofluorocarbon-bearing compressor oils are
     exempt, if not mixed wt other oils and recycled or reclaimed. Oils burned’either on-site or off-
     site for energy recovery that contain more than 2 ppm cadmium, 10 ppm chromium, 100 ppm
     lead, or 5 ppm arsenic must be burned in specially equipped furnaces, boilers, or incinerators
     w t scrubbers.

[ ] Any material left in containers emptied through conventional means. If a container is less than
     1 10 gallons, then one inch or 3% by weight of the total capacity is allowed in the container for it
    to be considered empty. For example, 5 5 - h i l o n drums are allowed one inch of material
    remaining in it for them to be considered empty. A five pound ink can would be allowed to have
    about one-eighth of an inch of ink in it to be considered empty. Containers greater than 100
    gallons are allowed either one inch or 0.3% by weight of the total capacity. Containers with acute
    wastes must be tripled rinsed.

[ ] For reusable shop towels contaminated wt hazardous waste (e.g., some solvents and inks),
    states may require written contractwt laundry facility; laundry uses own trucks to pick up and
    deliver shop towels; shop towels not saturated with solvent and pass paint filter test (under these
    conditions, shop towels being washed and returned should be exempt from regulation). Some
    sktesJeglatrzall,re-               pixable solvent-laden shop towels (regardless of amount) as
    hazardous and require manifests, while other states have established management practices to
    exempt them from being classified as hazardous. It i important to “ i z e t h e
                                                          s                           amount of excess
    solvent placed on the shop towels to he!p launderers meet their wastewater discharge limits.
    Obtain copy of state interpretation of solvent-laden reusable cleaning shop towels.

[ ] Some states classify waste and used oil, recovered silver and silver-bearing wastes, fliiorescent
    and high-intensity lights (mercury content), PCBs, ethylene glycol (anti-freeze) and
    uncontaminated lithographic ink as hazardous.

[ ] Fluorescent lights properly disposed. Some states regulate them as hazardous because of the
    mercury content.

[ ] Batteries and recalled pesticides classified as universal wastes and can be taken to local collection
    center without manifest.

[      3   ESrempt Quantity Generatar Requirements:

       [ ] Determine amount of hazardous waste generated per month.

       [ ] Label and store wastes according to requirements (see below).

       [ ] Ensure wastes are properly disposed at licensed treatment, storage, and disposal Eacility.

       [ ] Can use own vehicle to transport waste to disposal facility.

       [ ] Can participate in local neighborhood hazardous &e      collection program.

       [ ] Total hazardous waste accumulation not to exceed 2,200 pounds.

       [ ] Spills or accidental releases of listed materiais above reportable quantities requires
_A I
 .       .- ’ natification to national responsmenter (800/424-8802), state, and local governmental
              agencies. Obtain proper telephone numbers for appropriate agency.
        [ ] Small Quantity Generator Requiremenfss:

                   [   1 EM" amount of hazardous u z x e generated per month.
                   [ ] Collect, label and store wastes according to requirements (see below).

                   [ ] Obtain facility identification number for &-site shipment of hazardous-waste to a treatment or
                       recycling facility. Number is specific to location and is not transferable.

                           [   1 Change in type or volume of hazardous waste stream requires notification of state agency
                                 by refiling the notification of hazardous waste zctivity form.

                   [ ] Manifests for all shipments of hazardous wastes wt all proper EPA code(s), land ban
                       notification. Some states allow for contractual reclamation or recycling that does not require a
                       manifest (e.g., solvent reclamation or reusable rags).

                            [ ] Generator must keep copies of manifests for at least three years and land ban f o m for
                                five years. Some states require twenty year retention for manifests. Pensanent manifest
                                storage for Superfund purposes is strongly suggested.

                            [ ] E x c e p t i m q o F t f w missing manifest must be filed within 60 days of shipment.

                   [ ] Complete annual or biennial report. Some states require small quantity generators to file
                       reports on waste generation and minimization activities.

                   [ ] Total hazardous waste accumulation not to exceed 13,200 pounds in any 1SO day pericd. A
                       270 day storage period is allowed if waste shipment to disposal facility is over 200 miles.
                       Some states do not recognize the federal time limits and impose tighter limits.

                   [ ] Confirm treatment method and treatment facility location, existence of liability insurance,
                       financial status, regulatory status (permits), and historical regulatory compliance record for
                       every treatment facility receiving waste and also the transporter (if a separate company).

                   [ ] Appoint an emergency coordinator either on-site or available 24 hours per day.

                   [   3   Contact local emergency response authorities and coordinate any response actions for facility.
                           Information should be provided on waste storage, spnnkler system, utility cut-offs, and water
                           main, etc. (Seemntingency plan for l a r g q a n t i t y generators below.)

                   [ ] Post name and number of emergency coordinator and fire department at strategic locations
                       like phones and front door.

                   [ ] Post location of fire extinguishers, spill control equipment, and fire alarms at strategxc

                   [ ] Provide general awareness training on proper waste handing and emergency response to all
                       employees involved in hazardous waste management activities.

                   [ ] Develop informal waste " k a t i o n plan.

                   [ ] Spills or accidental releases of listed materials above reportable quantities requires
dt-*u7i-".~-   -       notification to national response center (800/424-8802), state, and local governmental
                       agencies. Obtain and keep on hand proper telephone numbers for appropriate agency

       [ ] Some states require generators to develop and implement pollution prevention and waste
           minimization plans.

[ J Large Quanriry Generator Requirements:

       [ ] Determine amount of hazardous waste generated per month.

       [ J Collect, label and store wastes according to requirements (see below).

       [ ] Obtain facility identification number for off-site shpment of hazardous waste to a treatment or
           recycling facility. Number is specific to location and is not transferable.

               [ ] Change in type or volume of hazardous waste stream requires notification of state
                   agency by refiling the notification of hazardous waste activity form.

       [ ] Manifests for all shipments of hazardous wastes wt all proper EPA code(s), land ban
           notification. Some states allow for contractual reclamation or recycling that does not require a
           manifest (e.g., solvent reclamation or reusable shop towels).

                [ J Generator mustkeepmpiqi o f k d e - s f b r a t least h e e years and land ban forms for
                    five years. Some statcs require twenty year retention for manifests. Permanent manifest
                    storage for Superfund purposes is strongly suggested.

               [ J Investigation of missing manifest must begin within 35 days of shipmept and exception
                   report for missing manifest must be filed w t i 45 days of shipment.

       [   3   Complete and submit biennial report. Some states require more frequent reporting.

       [   3   Total hazardous waste accumulation not to exceed 13,200 pounds in any 90 day period.

       [ J Confirm treatment method and treatment facility location, existence of iiability insurance,
           financial status, regulatory status @emits), and historical regulatory compliance record for
           every treatment facility receiving waste and also the transporter (if a separate company).

       [ J Appoint an emergency coordinator either on-site or available 24 hours per day.

       [ ] Post name and number of emergency coordinator and fire department at str;itegic locations
           like phones a i d front door.

       [ ] Post location of fire extinguishers, spill control equipment, and fire alarms at strategic

       [ ] Develop and implement a formal emergency procedure and contingency p i a . Plan needs to
           be shared with local emergency response authorities.

                [ ] Minimum Elements o Contingencypplanforresponding to an emergency:

                     [ ] Facility description including review of activities, map and review of existing
                         response pian.

                          [ ] Activityimiew should include description of materials processed, waste
                              generated, and copies of appropriate MSDSs.
                   [ ] Facility map should be 7.5” USGS with facility name and ID number
                       indicating property boundaries, storage tanks, location of surface drainage
                       courses and potentially exposed surface and groundwater.

                   [ ] Facility plot plan should indicate boundaries, manufacturing areas, raw
                       material and product storage areas, waste handling and storage areas, drains,
                       pipes, and outfalls, secure and open access areas, and entrance and exit

           [ ] Brief incident history including spill description and cleanup measures.

           [ ] Facility personnel action responses including organizational strucmre of chain of

           [   7   List names, addresses, and phone numbers of emergency coordmators; designate
                   primary emergency coordinator and list others in order of responsibiiity.

           [ ] Spill and leak prevention measures including planning for emergencies, employee
              training, inspection and monitoring program, and preventive measures like
              housekeeping, materid comp&&l~tyw~dwstk~             mdsstwrity.. .

           [ ] Countermeasure plan details describing measures to be taken fa’cility personnel and
               outside contractors, list of emergency equipment available for response, intemal
               and external communication and alarm system, and evacuation plan for facility

           [ ] Contingency plan amended with dates.

           [ J Copies of plan submitted to police, fire department, hospital, and Iocal emergency
               response teams.

            [ ] At least one emergency coordinator is on facility premises at all times or on call.

            [ ] Some states require emergency response capabilities for containment/clean that
                require training under OSHA spill control regulation.

[ ] Develop and implement formal employee training program. Training records must be kept as
    long as a person is employed, and for t r e years after leaving the company. Employee’s job
    descriptions must include hazardous waste handling responsibilities.

     [ ] Minimum Elements of Empioyee Training Program:

          [ ] Training program consisting of classroom or on-the-job training (OJT) covering
              hazardous waste identification, storage, labeling, and shpping requirements,
              handling procedures, and emergency response actions.

          [ ] Training directed by person trained in hazardous waste management procedures.

          [ ] Training completed w t i six months of employment or assi-enment.

          [ ] h u a l
                         [ J Training records:

                              [ ] Job title and name of employee.

                              [ ] Job description.

                              [ ] Amount and type of initial and continuing training to be given each
                                  person filling position.

                              [ ] Documentation of training as job experience given to and completed by

                              [ ] Records kept until closure or three years after termination of

       [ ] Develop and implement fonnal waste " i o n               plan.

            [ ] Minimum Eiements of a Waste Minimization Program:

                    [ ] Development of written policy setting explicit w&e reduction goals:

                    [ ] Designation of waste minimization coordinator.

                    [ ] Development and implementation of employee appropriate training and recognition
                        of accomplishments.

                    [ ] Characterizationof waste generation and mamgement by deveioping and
                        maintaining a waste accounting system to track waste generation dates, types, and
                        amounts. Attempt to determine true costs associated wt waste generation and
                        cleanup including regulatory oversight, recordkeeping, reporting, loss of potential
                        production, costs of materials in waste stream, transpomtion and disposal costs,
                        employee exposure and health care, and potential future liability.

                 [ ] Conduct periodic waste minimiation assessments by identifying opportunities at all
                     points i the production process where materials can be prevented from becoming a
                     waste. Opportunities should be analyzed based on true cost of waste management.

                [    1 Explore technology transfer opportunities. Sources of information inchde intemal
                       and external sources like other companies, trade associations, consultants, and
                       f e d e d or state fimded programs.

                [    1 Implement most promising options are identified by assessment process evaluations.
                [ ] Conduct periodic review of program for effectiveness and feedback for potential

       [ ] Spills or accidental releases of listed materials above reportable quantities requires
           notification to ~ t i o n a response center (800/424-8802), state, and local governmental
           agencies. Obtain and keep on hand proper telephone numbers for appropriate agency.

[ ] Storage and Labeling Requirements:
     [ ] Satellite storage areas:

          [ ] Total volume limited to 55 gallons.

          [ J Wastes must be stored in compatible containers.

          [ ] Must be under visual control of operator and at or near equipment.

          [   3 Multiple containers usually aIlowed, number depends on type of waste and size of business,
          [ J Containers must be labeled “Hazardous Waste” and marked With accumulation date when
              first amount of waste is placed into the container.

          [ ] Containers must be closed unless filling or draining, spring closed funnel tops permitted.

          [   1 Filled drums need to be moved to storagddisposal staging area within 72 hours of being
               filled. If moved to storage area, they need to be relabeled for accumu1ation:tim.e limit.

          [ ] ?here fi&r$ sxpst&e,li@,          b t t some states have a time limit of one year or less,
              while others do not allow satellite ac‘cumulation.

[ ] Sroruge and Staging Areas:

     [ ] All drums or other containers need to be labeled “Hazardous Wastes” wt accumulation dite
         and contents [can use classification code (e.g., DOOl)].

     [ ] All wastes must be kept in closed containers unless they are being drained or filled.

     [   1 Wastes need to be stored on impervious surfice Iike sealed concrete or similar material.
     [ ] Storage areas must have adequate aisle space (at least 3 ft.) for inspections and readmg labels

     [ ] Dnuns need to be properly maintained and not leaking or rusted.

     [ ] Conduct weekly drum storage area inspections and daily inspections for tank storage. Maintain
         log of inspection results indicating any corrective action.
     [ ] Storage area needs to be equipped with or have immediate access to a communication system
         (e.g., phone, alarm, or two-way radio), fire extinguisher, water (e.g., sprinkler system), spill
         cleanup materials, and first-aid materials (e.g., eyewash).

[ 3 Permits for recyclinglrecovery hazardous waste (e.g., silver recovery, distillation Units). Many states
require generators of all sizes to obtain permits for these activities. Check with statellocal agency for

[ ] Unused chemicals not stored for more than one year. They are considered waste and must be properly

D. Non-lkandonscWaste

[ ] Some states have adopted mandatory recychg programs for business and require annualhiannual
    reporting on program effectiveness.
[   1   Some states have adopted Residual Waste regulations governing the proper disposaI of non-hazardous
        industrial wastes (e.g., uncontaminated lithographic inks, films, and chemical containers). These
        wastes must go to an approved treatment/landfill facility, the generator has to complete a biennial
        report, perform chemical analysis, and develop a source reduction plan.

[ ] Confirm treatment method and treatment facility location, existence of liability insurance, financial
    status, regulatory status (permits), and historical regulatory compliance record for every treatment
    facility receiving waste and also the transporter (if a separate company).

E. Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know

[ ] Obtain copy of USEPA's consolidated list of chemicals (800/535-0202)

[ ] Procedure for notifying federal, state, and local authorities in case hazardous substances are
    accidentally released above reportable quantity amounts. Depending on type of material, quantity,
    location and duration, and receiving media, notification should be immediate but no longer than 24
    hrs. May require written follow-up report detailing spill and remediation activities.

[ ] Submission of copies of Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) or listofsuhstancesto k d -                 I

    authorities, state authorities, and fire department for substances stored above threshold levels-usually
    500 lbs. for extremely hazardous substances and 10,000 Ibs. for any substance(s)kequiring an MSDS.
    Some states and local governnmts have lower threshold levels and also require submission of MSDSs
    to hospitals.

[ ] Submission of Tier I/Tier I1 forms by March 1 for chemicals stored in excess of threshold levels
    during previous calendar year. (See previous item for threshold quantities.) Some states and local
    governments have lower threshold levels.

[ ] Submission of Form R, Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Reporting Form by July 1 for each
    chemical on a specific ls of chemicals used in excess of the threshold levels (25,000 Ibs. for
    manuhctured or processed chemicals [components of i k ] or 10,000 Ibs. for otherwise used
    chemicals [solvents]) during the previous calendar year. New Form R requires poilution prevention
    activity reporting.

    [ J Consider using approved alkmate reporting option for Section 3 13 (e.g., Form R). Under this
        option a Form R need not be submitted, only an annual certification is needed. Applies to reponing
        year 1995 and chemical being reported must be used in quantities less than 1 million pounds and
        have a combined reportable threshold of 500 pounds &e., released, treated, or dsposed).

                                                -    rrrs9
F. Storage Tanks

[ J Submit registration form for all chemical underground storage tanks (USTs) greater than 110 gallons
    storing listed hazardous chemicals or petroleum products except for heating oil t n s Some states do
    regulate heating oil tanks with the size for regulation varying. Some states regulate all chemical tanks.

[ ] New petroleum USTs must be equipped with leak detection devices, corrosion protection, and
    spiIVoverfiII prevention measures. New chemical USTs must also have secondary containment.

[ ] Existing petroleum and chemical USTs must be retrofitted with leak detection by 1993 depending
    upon the age of the tank.Corrosion and spill/overfilI prevention measures are required by 1998.
    Existing chemical USTs must be retrofitted with secondary containment systems by 1998.

[ ] Aboveground t n s located outside the plant must have a spill containment system including dikes.
    Some states regulate aboveground storage tanks with regard to registration, spill control programs, and
    other corrosion requirements.

[ ] Aboveground t n s located inside the plant (tote tanks) may also require a spiIl containment system,
    registration, and spill control programs. Contact state for requirements.

[ ] Tank removal, especially of USTs, requires written notification, state supenision, possible testing for
    contamination, and remediation.

[ ] Demonstrate financial assurance of at least $1 million for cleanup costs and hrd-party claims
    resulting from leaks and spills from USTs.

[ J M i t i records of testing, maintenance, spills, and cIeanup activities.

G. Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures Plan

[   3    Storage total of more than 1,320 gallons in aboveground t n s or single tanks exceeding 660 gallons
        or UST with more than 42,000 gallons of petroleum or petroleumderived products (e.g., inks,
        lubrication oil, gasoline, diesel fuel, and possiblysome solvents) that when accidentally released can
        contaminate navigable waters of the United States and adjoining shorelines requires development of
        contingency and cleanup plan. Plan must be updated and certified by professional engineer every three

[ ] Spills of materials require notification of federal, state, and local authorities

H. Polychlorinated Biphenyls

[   3   Some states regulate polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and PCB-contaminated matcrial as hazardous
        wastes (e.g., ballasts fiom fluorescent lights, dielectric fluid from transformers, soil, and power
        -stabiIizing rectifiers).

[ ] PCBs or PCBconhrnhated material m s be shipped with a special manifest, or if considered
    hazardous, then with a state manifest form.

                                                      I I I - '60
[ ] 480-volt or greater transformers containing more than 500 parts per million PCB located near a
    commercial building and located in a network must be removed or reclassified by draining and refilling
    by October 1, 1990. Transformers less than 480 volts can be used, but they must be protected and
    disposed properly.

[ ] Transformers containing less than 500 ppm and greater than 50 ppm PCB can be used, but they must
    be disposed properly.

[ ] Transformers containing less than 50 ppm are exempt fiom federal regulation.

[ ] Presence of PCB can be determined by records, manufacturer’s data, or testing.

[ ] PCB-containing transformers need to be inspected quarterly and prominently identified for firefighters.

[ ] Fires invoiving PCB transformers need to reported to the nati~nal
                                                                    response center (800/424-8802),
    state, and local emergency response personnel. The phone numbers should also be included in the
    contingency plan.

[ ] Miti records of inspections, manifests, service, marking, and maintenance of PCB areas on the
                     - .
    proper forms.

[ ] A one-year time limit is imposed requiring the disposal of PCB-contaminated materials removed from

I. Asbestos

[ ] Renovation or demolition of more than 260 linear feet, 160 square feet, or 35 cubic feet of asbestos-
containing material requires EPNstate approval.

[ J Removal of more than 80 linear feet or 15 cubic feet requires the presence of a trained person on site
    to monitor activities and employee exposure. Make sure that the contractor has the proper credentials
    and has not been cited for violations.

[ ] Suggest institution of asbestos operation and maintenance program including regular inspections.

[ ] Some banks and lending institutions require that all-asbestos be removed fiom commercial buildings
    prior to granting loans for property acquisition or expansion.

[ ] See new OSHA regulations on employee training and exposure control requirements.

J. Department of Transportation Employee Training

[ J Training required for employees and supervisors involved in dnving; loading, unloading, or handling
    hazardous materials. Training is specific to job function and should include:

    [   I   General awareness of regulations.

    [ ] Shipping paper preparation.

    [ ] Recognition a& identification of hazardous materials.
    [ ] Proper handling and safety procedures

    [ ] Procedures for accident prevention and emergency response including specific protection
        measures like personal protective equipment.

[ ] DOT allows OSHA hazard communication standard, hazardous waste response (Hamoper), and
    USEPA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (see hazardous waste generator requirements).

K. Ozone Depleting Substances

[ ] Ail products manufactured with or containing a Class I substance (chioroflurocarbons, Mons, carbon
    tetrachloride, or 1, 1,l -trichloroethane) after May 15, 1993 must be labeled. All products manufactured
    wt or containing a Class I1 substance (hydrochloroflurocarbons) after January 1,2015 must be
    labeled. All containers used to transport or store a Class I or I1 substance must also be labeied.
    Labeling requirements are specified by regulation.

[ ] No venting of refrigerants from commercial refrigeration equipment, air condtioners, and vehicle air
    conditioners. Refrigerants must be recovered and recycled by certified technician.

[ ] Certifications obtained for technicians who will work on refrigeration equipment.

[ ] Equipment used to recover and recycle rehgerants must be certified.

[ ] Used refriger&on equipment cannot be discarded without first removing refrigerant.

( ] Consider retrofitting existing equipment for new refrigerants.
                                Federal Environmental Regulations
                      Potentially Affecting the Commercial Printing Industry

The following robles and information are drawn from the EPA publication "Federal Cir~irorinrerrrdRegii1ation.y
Potentially Affecting the Commercial Printing Industry" (EPA744B-93-003), prepared bv the Desigii for t J l e
Environment Program for the Ofice of Pollution Prevention and Toxics. US Environmental Protection Agencv,
Washington, D.C.,   October 1993. The frill report i available from the EPA. Tiibles are as in the$ill

EXHIBIT 6. Chemicals used in the printing industry that are listed as Hazardous Air Pollutants
           (HAPS)in the CIean Air Act Amendments

                                     HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS

Benzene                                 Formaldehyde                            Methy I ene c h I or i de
Cadmium compounds                       Glycol ethers                           Perch loroet h y lene
Carbon tectrachloride                   Hexane                                  Polycyclic organic mat    P

Chromium compounds                      Hydrochloric acid                       Propylene oxice
Cumene                                  Isophorone                              Toluene
Di butylphthalate                       Lead compounds                          2,4-Toluene diisocyanare
Diethanolamine                          Methanol                                1,1,2-TrichIoroethane
Et h y 1 benzene                        Methyl ethyl ketone                     Vinyl chloride
Ethylene glycol                         Methyl isobutyl ketone                  Xylenes

EXHIBIT 9. Examples of Listed Wastes (U-series) found in the printing industry

WASTE                                                   WASTE
CODE               NAMEIDESCRIPTION                     CODE            NAMUDESCRIPTION

UOO'L              Acetone                              U226            Methyl chloroform
U019               Benzene                              U080            Methylene chloride
u211               Carbon tetrachloride                 U159            Methyl ethyl ketone ([MEK)
U055               Cumene                               U161            Methyl isobutyl ketone
U056               Cyclohexane                          u 2 10          Tetrachloroethylene
U069               Dibutyl phthalate                                       (perchloroet h y le ne)
u112               Ethyl acetate                        u220            Toluene
u359               Ethanol, 2-ethoxy                    U223            Toluene diisocyanate
u359 _ _   -   I   Ethylene glycol monocthyl ether      U228            Trichloroethylene
u 122              Formaldehyde                         U043            Vinyl chloride
U 154              iMet h an o 1                        U239            Xylene
EXHIBIT 8. Examples of Listed Wastes (F-series) found in the printing industry


FOO 1               The following spent halogenated solvents used in degreasing: Tetracholorethylene,
                    tricholorethylene, methyl chloride, 1, I , I-trichloroethane, and chlorinated fluorocarbons;
                    all spent solvent mixtures/blends used in degreasing containing, before use, a total of
                    10% or more (by volume) of one or more of the above halogenated solvents or those
                    solvents listed in F002, F004, and F005; and still bottoms from the recovery of these
                    spent solvents and spent solvent mixtures.

F002                The following spent halogenated solvents used in degreasing: Tetracholorethylene,
                    tricholorethylene, methyl chloride, 1,1,1 -trichloroethane, chlorobenzene, 1, I ,?-trichloro-
                    1,2,?-trifuoroethane, ortho-dichlorobenzene, trichlorofluoromethane, and 1,1,2-
                    trichloroethane; all spent solvent.mixtures/blends containing, before use, a total of 10%
                    or more (byvolume) of one or more of the above halogenated solvents or those solvents
                    listed in F001, F004, and F005: and still bottoms from the recovery of these spent
                    solvents and spent solvent mixtures.

FOO3                The following spent non-halogenated sovents: Xylene, acetone, ethyl acetate, ethyl
                    benzene, ethyl ether, methyl isobutyl ketone, n-butyl alcohol, cyclohexanone, and
                    methanol; all spent solvent mixtures/bends containing, before use, only the above spent
                    non-halogenated solvents; and all spent solvent mixtures/blends containing, before use,
                    one or more of the above non-halogenated solvents, and a total of 10% or more (by
                    volume) of one or more of the above halogenated solvents or those solvents listed in
                    F001, F002, F004, F005; 2nd still bottoms frcm the recovery of these spent solvents
                    ar;d spent solvent mixtures.

F005                The following spent non-halogenated solvents: Toluene, methyl ethyl ketone, carbon
                    disulfide, isobutanol, pyridine, benzene, 2-ethoxyethanol, and '2-nitropropane; all spent
                    solvent mixturedblends containini, before use, a total of 10% or more (by volume) of
                    one or more of the above non-halogenated solvents or those solvents listed in FOO2, or
                    F004; and still bottoms from the recovery of these spent solvents and spent solvent
EXHIBIT 11. EPA Toxic Characteristic Contaminants that may be found in printing waste

WASTE                                        WASTE
CODE         CONTAMINANT                     CODE          CONTAM IN ANT

DO05         Barium                          DO1 1         Silver
DO07         Chromium                        d040          Trichloroethylene
DO19         Carbon tetrachloride            d043          Vinyi chloride
DO35         Methyl ethyl ketone

APPX B.      Clean Water Act: Reportable Quantities (RQ) of hazardous substances that may
             appl? in the printing industry .

             HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE             R Q (in pounds)

             Benzene                         10
             Carbon tetrachloride            10
             Chloroform                      10
             Cyciohexane                     1,000
             E:hyl benzene                   1,000
             Formaldehyde                    100
             Hydrochloric acid               5,000
             Propylene oxide                 100
             Styrene                         1,000
             Toluene                         1,000
             Xylene (mixed)                  1,000
APPX D.        CERCLA: Reportable Quantities (RQ) for some chemicals that may apply in the
               printing industry

CHEMICAL                      RQ (in pounds) CHEhlICAL                    RQ (in pounds)

Acetone                       5,000         Methyl chloroform             1,000
Ammonia                       100           Methylene chloride            1,000
Benzene                       IO            hlrthanol                     5,000
Cadmium and compounds         1             hlethyl ethyl ketone          5,000
Carbon tetrachloride         IO             hIrth:l isobutyl ketone       5,000
Chloroform                   IO             Perchloroethylene             100
Chromium and compounds       1              Phosphoric acid               5,000
Cumene                       5,000          Propylene oside               100
Cyclohexane                  1,000          Sulfuric acid                 1,000
Dibutyl phthalate            IO             Toluene                       1,000
Ethanol, ?-ethoxy            1,000          Toluene diisocyanate          100
Ethyl acetate                5,000          1 , l . I-trichloroethane     1,000
Ethylbenzene                 1.000          1,1,7-trichloroethane         100
Formaldehyde                  100           Trichloroethylene             100
Hydrochloric acid            5,000          Vinyl chloride                1
Isophoronr                   5,000          Xylene (mixed)                1,000
Lead and compounds           1

APPX E.        Threshold planning and Reportable Quantities (RQ) for some EPCRA-designated
               extremely hazardous chemicals used in the printing industry

CHEiMICAL N A E              RQ (in pounds)         THRESHOLD PLANNING (in pounds)

Ammonia                       100                   500
Formaldehyde                  100                   500
Hydroquinone                  1                     50011o,ooo*
Propylene oxide               100                   10,000
Sulfuric acid                 1,000                 1,000
Toluene 2,4-diisocyanate      100                   500

* Revised threshold planning quantity based on new or re-evaluated toxicity data.
APPX F.      ChemicaIs used in the printing industry that are listed in the Toxic Release
             Inventory (TRI)

                                      TOXIC CHEMICALS

Acetone                           Ethylene glycol                     Phosphoric acid
Ammonia                           Ethylene oxide                      Silver
Barium                            Formaldehyde                        Sulfuric acid
Cadmium                           Freon 113                           Tetrachloroethylene
Chromium                          Hydrochloric acid                   To 1ue ne
Copper*                           Hydroquinone                        Tric hioroe thy lene
Cumene                            Lead                                l , l , 1 -Trichloroethane
Cyclohexane                       Methanol                            Xylene
Methylene chloride                Methyl ethyl ketone
Ethy Ibenzene                     Methyl isobutyl ketone

   * Copper phthalocyanine pigments delisted in May 199 1

           Recommendations on Technology,
   Equipment and Management P r a c t i V
             Controlling Silver Discharges from
Facilities that Process Photographic Materials
                            The Silver Council
                    2.                                                                    rY
        The first step i s to determine which o i the        Example: If in step 1 you estimated that a
        four categories best describes your facility:        given processor produced 6 gallons per
        small, medium, large or significant                  dav (GPD) o i fixer, that processor would be
        industrial user (SIU). Remember, i i you             caiegorized as medium and the silver
        have centralized silver recovery, you must           recovery eiiiciency required would be
        consider the amount of fixer produced                95 percent.
                       e entire facility, rather than
                                                                          r taciiity produces in total more
                                                                          ons per day (GPD) of fixer then
                                                                       also consider the total amount o i
                                                                         stewater produced. If the total
                                                                         stewslterwslumeisk s than- -
                                                                   0 GPD then you can consider each
                                                                          dividually. If it is greater than
        day. For a more accurate estimate, average           25)OOO GPO you are considered a
        the fixer overflow over several days. Make           Significant Industrial User and need to talk
        sure you are using typical processing                to your POW.
        volume days.
                                                             Step 3
    '   Step 2                                               If you have more than one processor, use
        O n the chart below, locate the Fixer                the Processor log Form in Appendix H to
        Ovedbw column. Look down that column                 list each processor, the category size, and
        and find the amount ot fixer overilow you            the required silver recovery efficiency.
        estimated in step 1. Identify the processor
        category size and the silver recovery
        efficiency which corresponds to this

                   1I   Category
                                                                           % Silver
                   1    Small                   <2          <loo0              90%
                        Medium          >2 but QQ          <10,000             95O/*
                   1    Large                 > 20         45,000              99%
                        SIU                                >25,000        by permit

                                                       III- io
                  r-&     n F Mr.nHr.ement   Practice Guide for Commercial Imaging                  411197
3.0 Small Commercial Imaging Fadl
  A small commercial imaging iacility is
   onethat produces less than 2 gallons
     per day o i silver-rich solution                                    In this section for small facilities, we’ll
 Small facilities must recover silver to at                              review typical silver recovery equipment
                                                                         configurations for each of the compliance
       least 90 percent efficiency.                                      options. Detailed information is available
                                                                         in t h e appendices.

I f y o u are a small facility, you have iour                            We’ll also describe the testing methods
practical options ior compliance                                         and procedures to use with the equipment
(achieving a 90 percent removal). These                                                                             .
                                                                         to verify that-it is.rer:oveaq 3 teast 9 0
can be coniigured in several ways,                                       percent of the silver.
discussed below.
                                                                         Finally, we’ll show you samples of simple
                                                                         silver recovery logs to use for recordins
                                                                         the results of the testing.

The following silver recovery options are
recommended for recovering at least 90%
of the silver from silver-rich solutions:

1 . one or two chemical recovery                                         For detailed information about a specific
    cartridges (CRCs) with manufacturer                                  type of silver recovery equipment, how it
    specified flow control,* or                                          works, and preventive maintenance
                                                                         recommendations, refer to:
2. terminal electrolytic unit followed by a
   chemical recovery cartridge (CRC)   with                              Appendix B Electrolytic Silver Recovery
   manufacturer specified flow control, or                               Appendix C Chemical Recovery Cartridges
                                                                         Appendix 0 Off-Site Management
3. off-site management, or

4. alternative technology providing at
    least 9 0 percent silver recovery.

  Facilities that generate less than 0.5 gallons per dav or
  silver-rich solutions need only one CRC. Due to the
  l o w volume. a second CRC would oxidize and
  channel by the time the rirst CRC was exhausted
  resulting in no additional silver recovery

                                                              111- 7 1
            Code of Management Practice Guide                        for Commercial Imaging                         9
                                                                                                               411 I 7
  1.  One or f w o chemical recovery cartridges               (CRCs) with manufacturer
  sp e ci4i ed fbw controI

How i t works                                        3
In thiq configuration, the silver-rich overilow
from the processor (A) i s directed to an a
holding tank ( B - optional). Next, it is
metered (C - optional) at a iixed rate
through the chemical recovery cartridges
(CRCs) set up in series (E and GI. In this
diagram two CRCs are shown. Once the                       2. To verify the percent efficiency o i the
solution exits the last cartridge in series (HI               system, use an analytical laboratory to
at least 90 percent oi the silver has been                    test the .yyplntkwme every year, from
recovered and the solution can be                             two locations:
discharged to the drain (I).                                       before the first CRC at (B)
                                                                   after the last CRC at (H)
Testing methods for silver recovery efficiency
There are two types of testing methods                     See Appendix G for more information
you must use:                                              about testing for silver.

     once each week, silver estimating test                Testing records

papers or another method of approxi-                               All test results must be recorded in a
mating silver concentration must be used                           silver recovery log. See the examples
to indicate whether the system is working                          below. Check with t h e publicly owned
(if the paper shows any change in color,                           treatment works (POW)to find out
the system is not working), and                                    how long to keep records on file.

   once every year, highly accurate
analytical laboratory testing such as
atomic absorption (AA)or inductively
coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP) must
                                                              Silver Recovery           Log     i     Silver       Recovery Log @pmi
                                                                                                                             - _ _- -    -   -
                                                                       Weekly Effluent Check*\                     Annual Ten           96
be used. Use an outside service for
analytical testing.
                                                          Oate          CRC # 1         CRC#2   1   Date     1
                                                                                                                 Influent Eiiluent Recovery'

                                                          7/1/96           P              P     i
                                                          1/8/96   I       P              P     I   7/1/97:
Testing procedures
1. To indicate whether the system is
                                                                , _ .-.
                                                               -_ -/ .

                                                         * Pass (PI = no color, Fail (F) = color
                                                                                                    -if 1/98 I

   working, check the solution weekly                                                               To obtain the percent recovery, us-
   with silver estimating test papers at two             When the weekly check indicates            the following mrmula:
                                                         cartridge iailure. rerec to the            100 - (eiiluent x 100 + iniluenr).
   locations:                                            equipment manual ior the
       after the first CRC at (F)           -+-4:.
                                             1   ~       manuraaurer's recommendations.
       aiter the last CRC at (HI

                                         I I I - 72
           Code of Management Practice Guide for Commercial Imaging                                                        411I97
2   Terminal electrolytic u n i t followed by a chemical recovery cartridge                                                  (CRC)
    w i t h manufacturer specified flow control

How i t works                                                                                                                              ramoiing

In this configuration, the silver-rich
o v e d o w from the processor (A) is
directed to the electrolytic unit (B).
When suiiicient silver-rich solution has
accumulated, the electrolytic unit begins                     0                             holang ram

to desilver the solution. When the batch i s                                               Optional                I
                                                                                                                             arma age I1
completed. the partially desilvered                                                                                             @
solution is pumped out oi the electrolytic
                                                                       with silver estimating test papers at                               two
unit (C) into the holding tank (D-optional).
                                                                       locations:           *I
                                                                                               - -

From here, it is metered (E-optional) at a                                 after the electrolytic unit at (D)
fixed rate through the chemical recovery                                   aiter the CRC at (H)
cartridge (C).Once the solution exits the
cartridge (H) at least 90 percent of the
                                                                  2. To verify the percent efficiency of the
silver has been recovered and the solution
                                                                       system, use an analytical laboratory to
can be discharged to the drain (I).
                                                                       test the solution once every six months,
                                                                       from two locations:
Testing methods f o r silver recovery efficiency
                                                                            before the electrolytic unit at (A)
There are two types of testing methods                                      after the CRC at (H)
you must use:
                                                                  See Appendix G for more iniormation
    once each week, silver estimating test
                                                                  about testing for silver.
papers or another method of
approximating silver concentration must
                                                                  Testing records
be used to indicate the system is working,
                                                                       All test results must be recorded in a
(if the paper shows any change in color,
                                                                       silver recovery log. See the examples
the system is not working), and
                                                                       below. Check with the P O W to find
                                                                       out how long to keep records on file.
    once every year, highly accurate
analytical laboratory testing such as                                Silver Recovery ~ o g                 Silver Recovery Log ippm)
atomic absorption (AA) or inductively                                   Weekly Effluent Check7                           Annual Test
                                                                                                          Date-               -
coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP) must                            'atel Electrolytic       CRC        i                Inrluent'Efrluent I Recovery
be used. Use an outside service for                               "96 I        P                 P    1   7/1PXa 2370             2%           ?a%
analytical testing. Review Appendix G for                                                        P    I   71,107

det a iIed intor mati on about test i ng .

                                                              *   Pars IP) = no color, Fail (F) = color
Testing procedures                                                                                           To obtain the percent recovew. use
                                                              When the.week+.&e&          indicates
                                                              cartridge failure. reier to the                the following formula:
1 . To indicate whether the system i s                                                                       100 - (eirluent x 100 + inilut
                                                              equipment manual for the
    working, check the solution weekly                        manufacturer's recommendations.
                                                   111- 7 3
           Code of Management Practice Guide for Commercial Imaging                                                                  411I97
3. O f f site    management

                                                        Comply with all applicable hazardous
                                                        waste and DOT regulations.

                                                    *   Keep records of volumes and types of
                                                        solutions transferred off-site. See the
                                                        example log below.

     container      oifsite for s:!verr e c o v w        Date    Amount         Type of                     Manifest
       0                                                         (gallons)     Solution                     Number
                                                        U6#6        w        srlver   - rich "o
                                                                                              t         I   MI ?ob4201

                                                        36/96"      '4       silver -men omto-3             MI   XW.L7Z
                                                        v"          55       silver   - rgh a i c t o   ,   MI xXIYZO3

How i f works
In this configuration, the silver-rich
solution overilcjw from the processor i s
stored in a container (A) until it i s picked-
u p by a licensed hauler for off-site silver
recovery, treatment and/or disposal (B).                Maintain logs, hazardous waste
                                                        manifests, land disposal restriction
Testing requirements                                    forms and other records for at least five
There are no Code of Management                         years. Make the records available for
Practice testing requirements for verifying             inspection by the sewage treatment
silver recovery eiiiciencies. Stdte waste               authorities.
agencies, however, may require testing in
order to characterize the waste,                        Verify that the contractor is properly
                                                        licensed to transport your waste and is
Additional requireme&                                   handling it correctly.
Commercial imaging facilities using off-
site management must meet the following

    Accumulate the silver-rich solutions in
    a container that's compatible with
    processing solutions.

    Provide secondary containment for
    storage tanks or containers, i f required
    in your jurisdiction.

                                                                                                                  311 I97
4.0 Medium
  A medium commercial imaging facility                              3. two or more CRCs with manufacturer
                                                                       specified flow control, or
   is one that produces more than 2 bui
   less than 20 gallons per day o i silver-                         4. off-site management (including
   rich solotions. Medium facilities must                              evaporationldisti 1 lation 1, or
          recover silver to at least
                                                                    5. alternative technology providing at
            95 percent efficiency.
                                                                       least 95 percent silver recovery.
Remember: the category size o i medium is
based on an individual machine, not the
whole facility, unless centralized treatment
is used. This is done to ensure the silver
                                                                    In this section for medium commercial
recovery equipment and testing
                                                                    imaging facilities, we’ll review typical
recommendations are appropriate for the
                                                                    si h e r recovery equipment contigurations
size and utilization of the processing
                                                                    for each o the compliance options
                                                                    Detailed information i s available in the
if you are a medium iacility, you have five                     ’

practical options for compliance
                                                                    We’ll also describe the testing methods
(achieving a 95 percent removal). These
                                                                    and procedures to use with the equipment
can be configured in several ways,
                                                                    to verify that it is recovering at least
discussed below.
                                                                    95 percent of the silver.

                                                                    Finally, we’ll show you samples o i simple
                                                                    silver recovery logs to use for recording
The following silver recovery options are
                                                                    the results of the testing.
recommended for recovering at least 95
percent of the silver from silver-rich                                  ~~   ~

solutions:                                                          For detailed information about a specific
                                                                    type of silver recovery equipment, how i t
1 . terminal electrolytic unit followed by a                        works, and preventive maintenance
   chemical recovery cartridge (CRC) with                           recommendations, reier to:
   manutacturer specified flow control*,
   or                                                               Appendix B Electrolytic Silver Recovery

                                                                    Appendix C Chemical Recovery Cartridges
2. in-line electrolytic unit with a chemical
   recovery cartridge (CRC) with                                    Appendix D Off-Site Management
   manufacturer specified flow control, or                          Appendix E Evaporation/disti I lation
  Flow control may be graviw feed o a metering pump.
  depending upon the design capabilities oi the cartridge and
  the processing workload. Work with your supplier to
  determine the ?lowcontrol appropnate tor your svnem.
1-   Terminal electrolytic unit followed by a chemical recovery cat+-idge                                                   (CRC)
     w i t h manufacturer specified flow control

How i t works
In this configuration, the silver-rich
overflow trom the processor (A) is directed
to the electrolytic unit (B). When sufficient
                                                                                                               :armage RI
si Iver-rich solution has accumulated, the                                    Optional                             0
electrolytic unit begins to desilver the
solution. When the batch is completed, the                         silver estimating test paper at two
partially desilvered solution is pumped out o  f                   locations:      .-        . -   . %                          a    .

the electrolytic unit (C) into the holding tank                            after the electrolytic unit at ( 0 )
(D-optional). From here, it is metered (E-                                 after the CRC at (H)
optional) at a fixed rate through the chemical
recovery cartridge (G).Once the solution                           2. To verify the percent efficiency of the
exits the cartridge (H) least 95 percent of
                         at                                           system, use an analytical laboratory to
the silver has been recovered and the                                 test the solution once every six months,
solution can be discharged to the drain (I).                          from two locations:
                                                                           before t h e electrolytic unit at (A)
Testing meihods                                                            after the CRC at (HI
There are two types of testing methods you
must use:                                                          See Appendix G for more information
                                                                   about testing for silver.
    once each week, silver estimating test
papers o r another method of approxi-                              Testing records
mating silver concentration must be used to                              All test results must b e recorded in a
indicate whether the system i s working (if                              silver recovery log. See the examples
the paper shows any change in color, the                                 below. Check with the P O W to find
system is not working), and                                              out how long to keep records on file.

    once every six months, highly accurate
analytical laboratory testing such as atomic                           Silver Recovery Log                   Silver Recovery              Log (ppm)   I
                                                                                                             __                 -           -
                                                                         ,Weekly Effluent Check-                   Six Month Test I           o:.
absorption (AA) or inductively coupled                                                                   Date.
                                                                  Dater Electrolytic CRC                           InfluentlEffluent nRecoveryt
plasma spectroscopy (ICP) must be used.
Use an outside service for analytical                              lfI1761    P              ?           1/5/961 2650       I       133       957.
                                                              ’    lf61761    P              P           I /5m              I
                                                                  7/15/961    P              F           7/1/97
                                                              .    2
                                                                   -     ./
                                                              * Pass (PI =no color.
                                                                                       ’.\         .
                                                                                      Fail (Fl = color
                                                                                                         \   L7
                                                                                                                  \.   \#A                 -\.-
                                                                                                                                             ,        ~

Testing procedures for silver recovery efficiency
 , -.                                                                                                        To obtain the percent recovery, use
                                                              When the weekly check indkates                 the iollowing iormula:
1 . To indicate whether the system i s                        cartridge failure, refer to the                 100 - (effluent x 100 t influent).
working, check the solution weekly with                       equipment manual ior the
                                                              manufacturer’s recommendations.
                                                    I 11-76
           Code of Management Practice Guide for Commercial imaging                                                                   4/1/97
                          2 In-line electrolytic unit witf) a chemical recovery cartridge                                                          (CRC) w i t h
                          manufacturer specified f i o w control

                          How i t works
                          In this contiguration, the silver-rich
                          overflow irom the processor (A) i s
                          continuously recirculated through the
                          electrolytic silver recovery unit (6) and
                          back into the fixer tank (A). Fixer o v e d o w
                          (C) is fed into the holding tank (D).   From
                          here, it is metered (e) at a fixed rate
                          through the chemical recovery cartridge                                                                          n s r OVwLar                            :nmticu
                          (GI. Once the solution exits the cartridge                                                                           0

                          (H) a t + l e a s r + ' 9 t i p x e&the silver. has .
         I   1

                                                             ~                                                                                                                      0
                          been recovered and the solution can be
                          discharged to the drain (I).                                                   2. To verify the percent efficiency of the
                                                                                                            system, use an analytical laboratory to
                          Testing methodsfor silver recovery efficiency                                     test the solution once every six months,
                          There are two types oi testing methods                                            from two locations:
                          you must use:                                                                          before the electrolytic unit at (A)
                                                                                                                 (in the fixer processing tank)'
                              once each week, silver estimating test                                             aiter the CRC at (HI
                          papers or another method of
                          approx i mating s i I ver concentration must                                   See Appendix G for more information
                          be used to indicate whether the system is                                      about testing for silver.
                          working (if the paper shows any change
                                                                                                         Testing records
                          in color, the system i s not working), and                                             All test results must be recorded in a
                                                                                                                 silver recovery log. See the examples
                             once every six months, highly accurate
                                                                                                                 below. Check with the POTW to find
                          analytical laboratory testing such as
                                                                                                                 out how long to keep records on file.
                          atomic absorption (AA) or inductively
                          coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP) must
                          be used. Use an outside service for
                                                                                                            Silver Recovery Log                           ' Silver         Recovery Log (ppmJ
                          analytical testing. Review Appendix G for                                                                                       1                                      ,
                          detailed information about testing.
                                                                                                                   Weeklv ENuent Check''
                                                                                                         Oate ' Electrolvtic       CRC
                                                                                                                                                          I Date a       Six Month Test
                                                                                                                                                                         lnrluent Effluent I Recoverv

                          Testing procedures                                                             lI81761       ?               P                      1/5/97 I

                          I . To indicate whether the system i s                                     lI151761          P               F                  1 l/r"
                              working, check the solution weekly
                                                                                                    -*    L-.    "'.__.
                                                                                                                     *,-...        \-      v   .          '. -<.           1
                                                                                                                                                                          - .'
                                                                                                                                                                             /4              \ L.
                                                                                                         Pass (P)= no color. Fail (F) = color
                                                                                                                                                               To obtain the percent recovery. cl-:

         -                    with silver estimating test papers at two
                                                                                                    When the weeklv check indicates                            the following iormula:
Lt   =            ..,.-
                              locations:                                                            canridge railure. rerer to the                             100 - (ehhent x 1 OQ I  &enrL-
                                                                                                    equipment manual for the
                                  after the electrolytic unit at ( 0 )
                                                                                                    manuianurer's recommendations.
                                  after the CRC at (H)
                                                                                                         t Because no pre-silver rewvery measurement IS possible, a
                                                                                                           baseline silver level of 2500 ppm is assumed.
                                                                                 I 11-77
                                      -         c - -              _-       .a      -   -   I   c           C.                 *   t   I                                                A I4 / A 7
                  3. Two o r     more chemical recovery cartridges               (CRCs) with                         manufadurer
                  specified    flow control

                  How it works
                  In this contiguration, the silver-rich wetilow
                  from the processor (A) i s directed to the                    " m g tank
                  holding tank (B). Next, it is metered (C) at a                   3
                  fixed rate through the chemical recovery
                  cartridges (CRCs)set up in series (E and GI.
                  In this diagram two CRCs are shown. Once
                  the solution exits the last cartridge in series            2. To verify the percent efficiency of the
b   v   U   4   * (it)a.f-lea!H%~eent i thesilver has been
                                           o                                    system, use an analytiGalIlaboratoi~~.                                              if   >*   +

                  recovered and the solution can be                             test the solution once every six
                  discharged to the drain (I).                                  months, from two locations:
                                                                                     before the first CRC at (B)
                  Testing mehods for silver recovery efficiency                      after the second CRC at (H)
                  There are two types of testing methods
                  you must use:                                     i        See Appendix G for more information
                                                                             about testing for silver.
                      once each week, silver estimating test
                  papers or another method of approxi-                       Testing records
                  mating silver concentration must be used                         All test results must be recorded in a
                  to indicate whether the system is working                        silver recovery log. See the example
                  (if t h e paper shows any change in color,                       below. Check with the P O W to find
                  the system is not working), and                                  out how long to keep records on file.

                      once every six months,    highly
                  accurate analytical laboratory testing such                Silver Recovery Log.
                                                                                                                             Silver Recovery Log (mg/L) I
                                                                         -              -        -
                  as atomic absorption (AA) or inductively                        Weekly Effluent Check''              1             SixMonthT-            I         I
                  coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP) must                                                                    Date I
                                                                         Date       CRC#1              CRC#2                         lntluent [Effluent I Recovery1
                  be used. Use an outside service for                                                                  ilLSF396: 118Y             I   89       0%    j
                  analytical testing. Review Appendix G for                                                            :    r/w7*                                    /
                  detailed information about testing.                   717506          F                 ?


                                                                                (PI = no color. Fail
                                                                                                       (F) = coloi     %
                                                                                                                            vma I
                                                                                                                              -.      +*\--c.-.
                                                                                                                                                   1. .
                                                                                                                                                      -     ., i
                                                                                                                             To obtain the percent recovery, use
                  Testing procedures                                    When the weekly check indicates                      the following iormula:
                  1. To indicate whether the system i s                 canridge iailure, reier to the                       100 - (efiluent x 100 + iniluent).
                                                                        equipment manual for the
                     working, check the solution weekly                 manuiaaurer's recommendations.
                     with silver estimating test papers at two
                      locations: . .
                          after the first CRC at (F)
                          after the second CRC at (HI
                                                         I I 1-78
                             Code of Management Practice Guide for Commercial Imaging                                                                      4/1/97
4.   W s i t e manaqement

                                                         Provide secondary containment for
                                                         storage tanks and drums, i f required in
                                                         your jurisdiction.

                                                         Comply with all applicable hazardous
                                                         waste and DOT regulations.

                                                         Keep records of volumes and types o i
                                                         solutions transferred off-site. See the
                                                         example log below.

Howiiworjrs     e

In this coniiguration, the silver-rich                   Date     Amount '       Type of               Maniiest
solution overflow from the processor i s                          kallons) I     Solution              Number
stored in a drum (A) until i t is picked-up              .PLY?$      +!        sliver   - r*chphoto    MI   X)QYZOI
by a licensed hauler tor off-site silver                 3/5/86      y4        swer     - nch photo    M I M89ZOZ

recovery, treatment and/or disposal (B).                 9/2/76      55        sriver   - rich photo   M I 3384203

Commercial imaging operations can                        5/l/?6      04        silver   - rich photo       W
                                                                                                       MI X W

reduce the volume oi waste using
evaporation or distillation to reduce
hauling charges. This technique does not
change the total amount of silver
                                                         Maintain logs, hazardous waste
available. (see Appendix E.)
                                                         manifests, land disposal restriction
                                                         forms and other records for at least five
Testing requirements
                                                         years. Make the records available for
There' are no Code oi Management
                                                         inspection by the sewage treatment
Practice testing requirements for verifying
silver recovery efficiencies. State waste
agencies, however, may require testing in
                                                         Verify that the contactor is properly
order to characterize the waste.
                                                         licensed to transport your waste and is
                                                         handling it correctly.
Addiiional requiremenis
Commercial imaging operation using off-
site management must meet the following

     Store the silver-rich solutions in a
     container that's compatible with
     Commercial imaging processing-,

                                              I I I-!9
           Code o Management Practice Guide for Commercial Imaging
                 f                                                                                             4/1/97
           !                                      mmercial lmagin
                                                                2. in-line electrolytic unit with two
                   A large commercial imaging facility is          chemical recovery cartridge (CRC) with
                 one that produces more than 20 gallons            manufacturer specified flow control, or
                     per day o f silver-rich solutions.         3. off-site management (including
                                                                   evapora ti o n/d isti I I a ti on), or
                  Large operations must recover silver to
                      at least 99 percent eficiency.            4. alternative technology providing at
                                                                       least 99 percent silver recoveryT

                Remember: the category size of large is
                based on an individt!ia{w"hine,i not the
                whole tacility,unless centralized recovery
                                                                In this section for large facilities, we'll
                is used. This is done to ensure the silver
                                                                review typical silver recovery equipment
                recovery equipment and testing         .
                                                                configurations for each of the compliance
                recommendations are appropriate for the
                                                                options. Detailed information is available
                size and utilization of the processing
                                                                in the appendices.
                                                                We'll also describe the testing methods
                If you are a large facility, you have four
                                                                and procedures to use with the equipment
                practical options for compliance
                                                                to verify that it is recovering at teast
                (achieving a 99 percent remcval). These
                can be configured in several ways,              99 percent of the silver.
                discussed below.
                                                                Finally, we'll show you samples o i simple
                                                                silver recovery logs to use for recording
                                                                the results of the testing.
                The following silver recovery options are
                recommended for recovering at least 99          For detailed information about a specific
                percent of the silver from silver-rich          type of silver recovery equipment, how it
                solutions. Ion exchange may be used in          works, and preventive maintenance
                combination with other compliance               recommendations, refer to:
                options to achieve 99 percent recovery
                with the wastewater from the processors:        Appendix          B Electrolytic Silver Recovery
                                                                Appendix          C Chemical Recovery Cartridges
                   I . terminal electrolytic unit followed by   Appendix          D Off-Site Management
                       two chemical recovery cartridge (CRC)    Appendix          E Evaporation & Distillation
                       with manufacturer specified flow         Appendix          F Ion Exchange
.*a-mn.r       -e-**.
                       control, or
                                                                *                                                                 ,-
                                                                    This optlon allows for improvements to exrsbng tectinology and.,
                                                                    for new technology developed after M s gude was m e n . It
                                                                    also allows for less mmmonly used techdog)' that IS
                                                                    available and can meet the percent recovery reqmrwnents.

                          Code of Manaqement Practice Guide for Commercial Imaging                                        411I97
7.   Terminal electrolytic unit followed by t w o o r more chemical recovery
     cartridges (CRC) w i t h manufacturer specified f l o w control

Wow it WO&S
In this cont'iguration, the silver-rich      i enrcimc

overilow from the processor (A) is              -- t
directed to the electrolytic unit (B). When
sufficient silver-rich solution has
accumulated, the electrolytic unit begins to
desilver the solution. When the batch is                                         with silver estimating test papers at
completed, the partially desilvered solution                                     three locations:
is pumped out of the electrolytic unit (C)                                           after the electrolytic unit at (D)
into the holding tank (D). From here, it is                                          after the first CRC at (H)
metered (E) at a fixed rate through the CRCs                                         atier the last CRC at ( f )
(G, Once the solution exits the last CRC
(I) at least 99 percent of the silver has been                           2. To verify the percent efficiency oi the
recovered and the solution can be                                                system, use an analytical laboratory to
discharged to the drain (K).                                                     test the solution once every three
                                                                                 months, from two locations:
Testing methods for silver recovery efficiency .
                                                                                      before the electrolytic unit at (A)
There are two types of testing methods                                               after the last CRC at (1)
you must use:
                                                                         See Appendix G for more intormation
     once each week, silver estimating test                              about testing for silver
papers or another method of approximating
silver concentration must be used to                                     Testing records
indicate whether the system i s working (if                                      All test results must be recorded in a
the paper shows any change in color, the                                         silver recovery log. See the example
system i s not working), and                                                     below. Check with the P O W to find
                                                                                 out how long to keep records on file.
     once every three months, highly
accurate analytical laboratory testing such
as atomic absorption (AA) or inductively                                      Silver Recovery Log                  j Silver Recovery Log (mg/L!
                                                                         .-       -              -            -
                                                                                  Weekly Effluent Check'           I
coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP) must                                              - . .- . - .      -            1 Date
                                                                                                                               Three Month Test             96

be used. Use an outside service for                                i   Date 'ElectroiyticfCRC I ICRC #2
                                                                                             #                     I              lnrluent I Ehluent Recover,

                                                                       7/11961      P           P    r   P
analytical testing. Review Appendix G for
                                                                       7/5/96:      P           P        P
detailed information about testing.
                                                                       7/lfi96:     P           F    '    P
                   __                                                                .                             I 1/5"

Testing procedures

                                                                       ' '--, , _ .      \---       -.
                                                                                                     -, \ ,

                                                                        Parr (P)= no color. Fad (F1 = color
                                                                                                              %-       .    --. --.--,;
                                                                                                                              .                          .,_
                                                                                                                   To obtain the percent recovery
1. To indicate whether the system i s                              When the weekly check indicates                 the following iormula:
                                                                   canrtdge failure. refer to the                  100 - (eiiluent x i00 + iniluenr)
   working, check the solution weekly                              equipment manual for the
                                                   I I I- 81
               I        c - -         .   -   _.   A   '   :   c                               . ..
                                                                   manufaaurer's recommendations.
                                                                                                                                             . I_.   ,n-?
Z In-line electrolytic unit w i t h a chemical recovery cartridge                                             (CRC, with
munufaeturer specified flow control
                                                                            I r a wwnw

How it works
In this configuration, the silver-rich
overflow from the processor (A) i s
continuously recirculated through the
electrolytic silver recovery unit (B) and
back into the fixer tank (A). Fixer          lcne        1

overflow (C) is fed into the holding        cc,:

tank (0). From here, it is metered (E) at a
fixed rate through the chemical recovery
cartridges (E). Once-the solution exits the
cartridge (H)-at least 99 percent o i the
silver has been recovered and the solution
can be discharged to the drain (I).                                    2. To verify the percent efficiency o i the
                                                                             system, use an analytical laboratory to
Testing metftods f o r silver recovery d i c i e n c y                       test the solution once every three
There are two types of testing methods                                       months, from two locations:
you must use:                                                                    before the electrolytic unit at (A)
                                                                                  (in the fixer processing tank)+
    once each week, silver estimating test                                   9   after the last CRC at (H)
papers or another method of approxi-
mating silver concentration must be used                               See Appendix G for more information
to indicate whether the system i s working                             about testing for silver.
(if the paper shows any change in color,
                                                                       Testing records
the system is not working), and
                                                                             All test results must be recorded in a
                                                                             silver recovery log. See the examples
    once every three months, highly
                                                                             below. Check with the P O W to find
accurate analytical laboratory testing such
                                                                             out how long to keep records on file.
as atomic absorption (AA) or inductively
coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP) must
                                                                          Silver Recovery        Log
be used. Use an outside service for                                        -      _.__
                                                                                 Weekly Effluent Check'
analytical testing.
                                                                             '    __-
                                                                       Dare Electrolytic       CRC
                                                                       7/1/961       P             P
Testing procedures                                                     1/8/96I       P             P

1. To indicate whether the system is                                1/15/961         P             F

   working, check the solution weekly                                  ..-\.-.------         \---,\.   '
                                                                   *   Pars (P) = no color. Fail (F) =color
   with silver estimating test papers at                                                                       To obtain the percent recovery, use
                                                                  When the weekly check indicates              the mllowing iormula:
   three locations:                                               cartridge railure. reier to the              100 - (effluent x 100 + influent).
       after the electrolytic unit at (D)                         equipment manual ror the
                                                                  manufacturer's recommendattons.
       after the first CRC at (F)
       after the second CRC at (HI                                 t Because no pre-silver recovery measurement is possible, a
                                                                       baseline silver level of 2500 ppm is assumed.

           p.4-     A   Mmn.crrrmment       Practice Guide for Commercial Imaging                                                  4/1/97
9. Offsite        management
                                                                    Provide secondary containment for
                                                                    storage drums, if required in your

                                                                    Comply with all applicable hazardous
                                                                    waste and DOT regulations.

                                                                    Keep records of volumes and types of
                                                                    solutions transferred off-site. See the
                       :i-ote lor swer remvew                       example log below.
                                                                         ,Q,f.C_     * -    -
H o w i t works                                                               O d    $due Lu:emUc22;
                                                                                                                A g

In this configuration, the silver-rich                     i        Date            Amount           Type of    Manifest
solution overflow from the processor i s
                                                           I                        (gallons)        Solution   Number

stored in a drum (A) until i t i s picked-up
by a licensed hauler for off-site silver                   i
recovery, treatment and/or disposal (6).                   i
Commercial Imaging operations can                          I

reduce the volume of waste using                           I
evaporation or distillation to reduce                      1
hauling charges. This technique does not                   i
change the totai amount of silver                          \        Maintain logs, hazardous waste
available. (see Appendix E.)

Testing requirements
                                                                    manifests, land disposal restrictions
                                                                    forms and other records for at least five
                                                                    years. Make the records available for
There are no Code of Management
Practice testing requirements for verifying
                                                           1        inspection by the sewage treatment

silver recovery efficiencies. State waste

agencies, however, may require testing in                           -_
                                                                0   Verify that the contractor i s properly
order to characterize the waste.                                    licensed to transport your waste and is
                                                           II       handling it correctly.
Additional requirements
Commercial imaging processing
operations using off-site management must
meet the following requirements:

    Accumulate the silver-rich solutions in
    a drum that's compatible with
    commercia I imaging processing

            Code of Manaaement                  Practice Guide for Commercial Imaaina                                411 IP?
               Appendix B
       ElectroNac Silver Recovery

Electrolytic recovery is an eiiicient and                                   Electrolytic Unit
cost-effective silver recovery technology
first used in 1931. Since then the
equipment has evolved and been reiined
so that today's electrolytic units are                        anOOei.1

reliable and can consistently achieve 90%
recovery efficiency. The equipment is
continuously reused and few additional
chemicals are-required-toperfm+n$tre*       -    =   -_       camowl-I

recovery operation.                                                               fixer saunon

                                                          solution i s collected within a chamber
Throughout this discussion, refer to the                  inside the electrolytic unit until there is
diagram in the right-hand column. In                      sufficient quantity to constitute a batch.
electrolytic silver recovery two electrodes               The solution is then pumped out all at
are immersed in silver-rich solution.                     once, usually into a secondary recovery
Electric current reduces the silver-                      system. In a flow-through unit, the silver is
thiosulfate complex in the solution and                   recovered continuously as it flows into the
plates almost pure silver metal onto the                  unit. This solution i s displaced as more
cathode-the     negatively charged                        processor overflow enters the electrolytic
electrode. The cathode is typically made                  unit.
of stainless steel. The amount and quality
of the silver plated out depends upon the                 Dependingon the percentage removal
operating amperage and the length of time                 required, electrolytic units must be used in
the solution is exposed to the current.                   conjunction with another system.

There are two basic types o electrolytic                  In-line electrolytic silver recovery
equipment: one in which the cathode                       By using in-line electrolytic silver recovery
rotates in the solution and the other in                  on fix solutions, the amount of silver in
which the solution flows around a stationary              solution is significantly reduced. This
cathode. Either type of equipment is                      results in less silver carried over into the
capable of recovering a significant amount                final wash water and subsequently
of the silver from the silver-rich solutions.             discharged to t h e sewer. Where the use of
                                                          in-line silver recovery is possible, mixing
In Addition,.there are batch units and                    and chemical usage can b e reduced by u p
flow-though units. in the batch unit, the                 to 50 percent, further increasing the cost

          Code of   Management Practice Guide for Commercial Imaging                              411I97
efiectiveness o i this technology. This                              important role in determining this
approach may not be feasible in all                                  concentration level. Over replenishment
circumstances. Solution overflow irom in-                            dilutes the amount ot silver. When silver
line systems must be treated by another                              concentration falls below 500 mg/L,
system to further reduce the silver                                  plating efficiency decreases significantly
concentration.                                                       thus reducing the recovery rate o i the
                                                                     electrolytic unit.

                                                                     It's very important to calibrate
                                                                     replenishment rates on the processors
The electrolytic unit must have enough                               routine/y
capacity t o treat peak volumes or silver-
rich chemical effluent produced by the                               c. Sulfite Concentration
printer. The manufacturer/supplier of the                            In the plating process, for each atom o i
electrolytic unit can help the commercial                                                f
                                                                     silver plated out o solution the process
imaging processor choose th.e appropriate                            consldmesone atom of sulfite. It's
equipment and provide preventive                                     necessary, therefore, to have sufiicient
maintenance information. Generally                                   sulfite in the solution. This is particularly
electrolytic unit a r e monitored for the                            important in in-line electrolytic silver
following: pH; silver concentration; sulfite                         recovery where the fix solution is
concentration; time and amperage; and,                               continually recirculated through the
mechanical operation. All of these are                               processing tank. Any degradation of the
discussed below.                                                     fixer can affect the final product. Check
                                                                     with the equipment manufacturer or
a pH
 .                                                                   chemical supplier to find out if you should
Fix solutions from commercial imaging                                be using a fix with an increaszd level of
processes are usually easy to desilver                               sulfite.
electrolytically and require little, i i any,
pH adjustment.*                                                .     d. Time and amperage
                                                                     Many of the electrolytic silver recovery
6. Silver    concentrdion                                            units sold today are automatic so the
The concentration of silver in the                                   operator doesn't have to set plating
overflows from commercial imaging                                    current a n d batch times-two critical
operations will typically range from                                 factors in electrolytic silver recovery. The
approximately 2,000 - 4,000 ppm prior to                             correct plating current must be maintained
electrolytic recovery.                                               to drive the silver out of solution onto the
                                                                     cathode. If the plating current is too high
Recovery efficiency is directly related to                           or the plating time too long, the silver
silver concentration; the higher the silver                          deposited on t h e cathode will be black
concentration, the higher t h e plating                              and sludgy, with much of it falling off the
efficiency. Replenishment rates play an                              cathode and collecting on the bottom of

  It is highly recommended not.              4 0 1 8.5.
  Above this level significant ammonia air emissions are
                                                           I 11.45

         Code o Management Practice Guide for Commercial Imaging
               f                                                                                        411197
                the electrolytic unit. This situation, known
                                                                         The person who is responsible for siiver
                as sultiding, results in a low quality silver
                                                                         recovery should follow all manufacturer
                and a mess to clean. To avoid suliiding,                 recommendations for preventive
                io1low the manufacturer recommendations
                                                                         maintenance and keep accurate records
                for setting both the plating time and
                                                                         of any maintenance performed.
                                                                              Make sure you receive the
                Attempts to achieve hisher eiiiciencies                       operations and maintenance
                than those recommended by the
                                                                              manuals for your silver recovery
                manufacturer can actually lead to lower                       equipment. These manuals are part
                silver recovery. By over extendins the
                                                                              of the purchase price o i your
                plating time or significantly raisin: the
                                                                              equipment and you a r e entitled to
                current density, sulfiding will occur. This
                results in coating t h e cathode with a black
                sulfide precipitate rendering it unsuitable
                                                                              Obtain data from t h e silver
                for continued silver recovery.                                recovery equipment manufacturer,! .       -
^ _ . _ . .-   ..   .   -   -   e

                                                                              supplier demonstrating the
                e. Mechanical operation                                       performance capability of the
                General mechanical preventive                                 equipment. For example, if you are
                maintenance should be conducted                               required to recover siiver to
                periodically to ensure the plating current                    99 percent efficiency, ask the
                is correct, t h e cathode is rotating or the                  manufacturer to provide you with
                pump is working, and the color of the                         data showing t h e equipment can
                silver on the cathode is creamy-grey rather                   achieve this level.
                than black or white. The silver should be
                harvested (removed from the cathode)
                periodically and sent to the refiner.

                T h e most common mechanical problem
                with electrolytic units is a poor electrical
                connection to either the anode or t h e
                cathode. It is important that terminals and
                wires do not come in contact with
                solutions. Corroded terminals or cables
                will result in poor plating.

                                                                I I I - ~ ~
                                    Code of Management Practice Guide for Commercial Imaging                 411 1'97
Chemical Recovery Cartridges
Chemical replacement cartridges are a                                Chemical Recovery Cartridge
relatively low cost method of achieving a
fairly high level of silver recovery.
                                                              for oiscnarge

Metallic. replacemept-isa f”cess that,                                                                        iron meaa
occurs when a solution containing
dissolved ions of an active metal such as
silver, contact a more active solid mera!                      influent   -+                                    gratlng or mesh
                                                                                                              or solubon aspeffion
such as iron. The more active metal, iron
which is contained in a cartridge, reacts                                      silver-ncn solutton influent
with the silver and dissolves in solution.
The less active metal, silver, becomes a
sludge or solid arid collects in the
                                                            There are a variety of CRCs on the market
                                                            today. They contain iron in the form o i
                                                            chopped steel wool, spiral wound steel
In essence, the dissolved silver in solution
                                                            wool, a heavy iron mesh similar t o door
changes places with the solid iron in the
                                                            screening material, or iron chips
cartridge. The exchange reaction is                     .
                                                            imbedded into a fiberglass support.
dependent on the contact of the silver-
thiosulfate in solution with the iron
                                                            A properly designed and maintained
surface. To ensure good and controlled
                                                            single-cartridge CRC system is capable of
contact, metallic replacement is
                                                            recovering more than 95 percent of the
accomplished by metering the silver-rich
                                                            silver from silver-rich solutions when used
solutions through a cartridge of iron. As
                                                            in accordance with manufacturer specified
silver is removed from the solution, the
                                                            flow rates. A two-cartridge system is
iron metal filler in the cartridge becomes
                                                            capable of recovering 99 percent of the
depleted. The cartridge is then replaced
                                                            s i I ver.
with a new cartridge and the accumulated
silver sludge is sent to be refined.
                                                            Where the flow of solution through the
                                                            cartridge exceeds its rated capacity, flow
A typical metallic replacement cartridge
                                                            control must be used. While a metering
generally called a chemical recovery
                                                            pump i s generally recommended, in
cartridgeK&C) is shown in the diagram                                                                                                ‘ i
                                                            extremely low volume situations, a flow
on t h e right.
                                                            restrictor may be adequate.

          Code o Management Practice Guide for Commercial Imaging
                f                                                                                                         4/1 I97
                                                 only a small amount of the iron to be use
                                                 (that along the channel). When channeling
                                                 occurs, only low levels of silver are
 The manuiacturerhpplier of the CRC can
                                                 recovered and high levels are discharged
 help the photo processor choose the
                                                 from the CRC.
 appropriate equipment. This is also the
 best source of preventive maintenance
                                                 To avoid channeling: (1) select the proper
 information. Generally chemical recoverv
                                                 size CRC for the average volume of film
 cartridges are monitored for the following:
                                                 and paper processed in your lab, and (2)
 flow rate: channeling: obstruction: pH;
                                                 preiill the CRC with water just prior to
 and, cartridge capacity.
                                                 introducing chemical solutions into it.

 a. Flow rate
 The length o i time the silver-rich solution    c Obstruction
 is in contact with the iron is critical for     When the iron in solution contacts air,
-effective silver recovery. If the solution      iron hydroxide Or rust%m”f”the rm ir
 flows through the CRC too quickly, it will      allowed to build up in the lines leading
 not contact the stee! wool long enough for      into and out of the CRCs, it can eventually
 the iron/silver reaction to occur. The lower    restrict the flow of solution causing the
 the flow rate, the better the recovery.         solution to back up. The CRC may also
                                                 leak around the fittings and cover.
A pump or restricted orifice i s used to
meter the solution at a prescribed rate from     Obstruction also occurs when the center
the holding tank to the iirst CRC in the         core of the CRC i s crushed or damaged
series. To ensure proper flow rate, calibrate    and the solution cannot pass through it. If
the metering pump each time the CRCs are         this happens, replace the CRC with a new
replaced. Consult the manufacturer for the       one. Consult the CRC supplier for
optimum flow rate.                               information.

b. channeling                                    Finally, rust that passes through the CRC
                                                 can eventually build up in the floor drain,
As the recovery cartridge i s used, the
                                                 requiring expensive drain cleaning.
active suriace area is used u p and small
channels will begin to develop in the iron
                                                 Monitor the system regularly for
material. This i s known as channeling. It
                                                 obstruction. Remove the lines and rinse
also occurs when a CRC i s used only
                                                 them with hot water each time the CRCs
intermittently due to low volume. When a
                                                 are replaced. Do this more often i f there
small volume of solution enters the CRC
                                                 are several hours each day when no
and sits on the suriace, it slowly eats
                                                 solution i s flowing through the CRCs. Be
through the steel wool, forming a vertical
                                                 sure to run the overflow system downhill
shaft or channel as it goes. As more
                                                 so there’s no chance of back-up.
solution enters the CRC, i t takes the path
of least resistance and flows through the
                                                 To reduce the possibility of rust in the
channel, thus contacting very little of the
                                                 lines, make a loop i r r t M % M % twill
steel wool in the cartridge. This causes
                                                 create an airlock.
          Code of Management Pmdice Guide for Commercial imaging                       411197
d. pH                                                     new CRC, mark the installation date on the
For best results with CRCs, the pH should                 cartridge.
be bemeen 4.5 to 5.5. i f the pH i s too
                                                          Check with your local P O W authorities to
low, the steel wool is etched too quickly
                                                          find out how long to keep these records on
reducing the life of the CRC. If the pH of
the solution is too high, etching does not
occur so the siIver/iron exchange reaction
can't take place. Also, at higher pH levels,              Blank silver recovery log forms are
                                                          provided in Appendix H. Make copies ot
iron hydroxide (rust) is formed which can
                                                          these forms when you need them. Keep the
cause obstructions in the lines and drains.
                                                          originals in this Guide.
Try to maintain a consistent pH in the
influent going to the CRCs. This is best
accomplished by plumbing the silver-rich
overflow directly from the processors to
the silver recaver;y6y@emt&Ty@a$4y the
pH ot commercial imaging fixers are                        The person who is responsible for silver
between 4.5 and 6.5, and will not require                  recovery should follow all manuhcturer
pH adjustment. Work with your                              recommendations for preventive
equipment supplier to determine the best                   maintenance and keep accurate records
p H for your CRCs.                                         of any maintenance performed.

e. Cartridge capacity                                             Make sure you receive the
Each type of CRC has a limited capacity to                        operations and maintenance
recover silver depending on the type and                          manuals for your silver recovery
amount of iron. Manufacturers generally                           equipment. These manuais are part
rate the capacity of their CRCs in both                           of the purchase price of your
gallons of solution and time. For example,                        equipment and you are entitled to
depending on the silver concentration of                          them.
the solution going in, a CRC might have
the capacity to desilver 100 gallons of                           Obtain data from the silver
solution or last 12 weeks, whichever                              recovery equipment manufacturer/
comes first. Ask the manufacturer to help                         supplier demonstrating the
you in selecting CRCs appropriate for your                        performance capability of the
lab.                                                              equipment. For example, if you are
                                                                  required to recover silver to
                                                                  99 percent efficiency, ask the
Keeping a 109                                                     manufacturer to provide you with
Keep a silver recovery log to record all or                       data showing the equipment can
the checks and testing you do on your                             achieve this levei.
silver recovery equipment. As soon as the
weekly check (done with silver estimating
test papers) shows color, you know the
chemical recovery cartridge has failed and
it's time to change it. When you install a
                                               I I I-8g

         Code of Management Practice Guide for Commercial Imaging                               411I97
                                         Appendb< D
                                    Off-Site Manaaement
            The following information applies only to                   make sure you check with your state agency
            commercial imaging operations that ship                     for its specific requirements.
            waste off-site.
                                                                        a Generator category
            In some situations, oij-site silver recoverv
                                                                        If you’re shipping off-site waste pre-press
            is the best option. For example:
                                                                        processing solutions-containing 5 ppm or
                                                                        more o i silver, it’s important that you know
                Commercial imaging cperations
                                                                        how to determine your hazardous waste
            required to meet excessively restrictive
                                                                        category. This category is based on the total
1   c   .   silver concentration limits may be iorced
                                                                        amount c;i hazardous waste produced by
            to ship the solutions oiT-site for treatment.
                                                                        your company. The specific requirements
                                                                        for accumulation, storage, and manifesting
                If an imaging operation produces less
                                                                        vary depending on the category.
            than one gallon of silver-rich solution/day,
            a chemical recovery cartridge may oxidize
                                                                        The chart on the next page shows the
            and channel long before the iron is
                                                                        three categories established in the federal
            exhausted. This may create more waste
                                                                        Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
            than i t prevents.
                                                                        (RCRA). These categories, as shown across
                                                                        the top of the chart, are:
                 For commercial imaging operations
            discharging to a septic tank and leach
                                                                           Conditionally exempt small quantity
            field, there is no option; they must haul.
            Commercia I imaging processing
            chemicals must not he discharged to                            Small quantity generator
            septic systems. This could cause an upset
                                                                           Large quantity generator
            that would destroy the microorganisms
            responsible for breaking down the waste
                                                                        To determine your category, track the
                                                                        monthly volume of hazardous waste
                                                                        including waste processing solutions
                                                                        containing 5 ppm or more of silver
                                                                        produced in your facility to be sent off-
            Solutions containing 5 mgR or greater of silver
            are currently classified as hazardous waste. In
            order to transport these solutions off-site, the
                                                                        For example, if you process film in several
            facility must fulfill the requirements for
                                                                        locations within your facility and the
            transporting hazardous waste. In this section,
                                                                        solutions are accumulated and taken off-
            we’re going to discuss the Federal
                                                                        site, add all the fixer produced in all
            requirements for off-site silver recovery. Since                $X&W*$&&2  2
                                                                        locations tor one month. If it‘s less than
            individual states may enact stricter regulations,

                                                           I I I - 90
                       Code of Management Practice Gutde for Commercial Imaging                               411I97

                                          Hazardous Waste Category*

         Conditionally Exempt Small                       Small Quantity                          Large Quantity
         Quantity Generator fCESQGI                       Generaror 6 Q G )                      Generator (LQG)

         Facility that produces less              Facility that produces more    Facility that produces more
         than 100 kilograms per                   than 100 but less than 7,000 I than 1,000 kilograms per
         month oi hazardous waste                 kilograms per month of         month o i hazardous waste
                                                  hazardous waste

         -                                                         r
           Any phoro processing waste containing 3 pom or more o silver is considered hazardous unoer the Resource
         Conservation and Recoverv A a (RCWRA). +Moststates and municipalities have additional regulations ror discharge and
         transport o silver and silver-waring wastes. For more inrormation contact your local state hazaroous waste agency.

100 kilograms (approximately 220 pounds                                      day period. (6000 kg is approximately
or 25 gallons), your facility falls into the                                 1600 gallons).
category of conditionally exempt small
quantity generator.                                                          LQGs must not accumulate hazardous
                                                                             waste on-site longer than 90 days.
6. Generator identification number                                           In all cases, wastes must be stored in tanks
                                                                             and containers suitable for commercial
SQGs and LQGs must obtain an EPA
                                                                             imaging processing waste. In addition:
identification number before shipping
waste off-site. This 12-character number
                                                                                  Clearly mark each container with the
identifies both your site where the waste i s
                                                                                  words Hazardous Waste and with the
produced and the type of waste. It's a key
                                                                                  date you began to collect waste in that
element of tracking the waste from cradle-
to-grave. Your state hazardous waste
agency can provide you with the proper
                                                                                   Use only containers in good condition.
                                                                                  Keep containers closed except when
In some states, CESQGs do not have to
                                                                                  you fill or empty them.
obtain an ID number.
                                                                                  Inspect areas where containers are
c Accumulaiion and sforage                                                        stored, at least weekly, looking for
CESQGs must never accumulate more                                                 leaks and deterioration.
than 1000 kilograms (kg) of waste at any
time. (1000 kg i s approximately 300                                               Provide secondary containment where
gallons).                                                                          it's required.

SQGs must never accumulate more than
6000 kg of hazardous waste in any 180

             Code of Management Practice Guide for Commercial imaging                                                          411I97
                                                     The producer is responsible tor obtaining
                                                     numbered manifest forms from the state
                                                     hazardous waste agency. All links in the
                                                     chain keep a copy of the manifest and
                                                     receive copies from the other links to
                                                     acknowledge receipt of the waste.
                                                     Manifests must be kept on file by the
                                                     producer for at least three years.
                                                     Manifests are not required for CESQGs.
                                                     Some transporters, however, may still ask
                                                     they be used to help the transporter and
                                                     receiver fulfill their requirements.

                                                     f Spill response and fr-aining
d. Labels and marks                                  SQGs and LQGs are required to develop
Containers of silver-rich chemicals must             emergency plans and train employees on
be properly labeled and marked. The label            emergency response so that ii a spill or
shown above contains the six required                accident occurs, the facility i s ready.
elements:                                            Generally, the plans must include
                                                     procedures and identify the necessary spill
1. accumulation start date,                          controI/response equipment.
2. EPA waste identification number,
3. site name and address where the waste
   was produced (generator name),                    One important element of the cradle-to-
4. EPA generator identification number,
                                                     grave waste management system is
                                                     liability. Once you've produced the waste,
5. manifest number, and                              you retain some responsibility even after
                                                     turning it over to a licensed transporter
6. Department of Transportation (DOT)
                                                     and a licensed receiver. This means you
    shipping name for the waste.
                                                     must choose your waste management
                                                     partners carefully.
R   Manifests
                                                     Talk with your colleagues, trade
The manifest i s a multi-copy document
                                                     associations and state hazardous waste
used to track the waste from the time it
                                                     agency to get the names of licensed
leaves the producer (the commercial
                                                     companies that could handle silver-
imaging facility), to the time the receiver
                                                     bearing processing wastes. Choose a firm
treats, recycles or disposes of it. Each
                                                     with a good reputation. Verify their EPA
party in the link-producer, transporter,
                                                     identification numbers and any required
receiver-have EPA identification numbers
                                                     permits. Keep copies of their permits on
and each must complete its portion of the
                                                     file. Visit their site to look at their
                                                     equipment and the general condition of
                                                     their operation. &axe,carefully and with
                                          I I 1-92
         Code o Management Practice Guide for Commercial Imaging
               f                                                                          411/97
                              Appendix E
Evaporation and distillation are generally                   EvaporationKIistillation Unit
used in conjunction with off-site
                                                                        column for vamr
management. These processes reduce the                                   cmoensatm        9
volume of efiluent to be taken on-site for
treatment and disposal. When the on-site
management costs are based on the
volume of solution, evaporation and
distillation may help to reduce costs.

Because evaporation releases fumes to the
air, permits are often required to operate
a n evaporator. Hazardous waste permits
may b e required. Most equipment used
today consists of both evaporation and
distillation where the water vapor is
boiled-off, captured and condensed and
the fumes are contained.                               Routine cleaning of the evaporation or
                                                       distillation unit is the most important
In distillation, the liquid portion of the             preventive maintenance operation. Dried
process overflow is heated to its boiling              chemistry and dust can easily accumulate
point. Then the vapors are captured and                reducing the performance of the
cooled resulting in a distillate of                    equipment. intake and overflow screens
essentially distilled water that can be                along with air filters must b e checked and
discharged to the drain or used to mix                 cleaned periodically. The disti I lation
                      tillate contains                 chamber should be inspected and
ammonia and s         e, using it to mix               cleaned.
developers is not generally recommended.

Depending upon the unit, 80 to 100
percent of the water is removed leaving a
silver-rich slurry or solid to be managed
off-site as a hazardous waste.

                                             I 11-93
         Code   of   Management Practice Guide for Commercial imaging                         411I97
                                 Appendix F
Ion exchange technology can be used to                               {on Exchange Column
recover silver from dilute processing
solutions and wash waters. Keep silver
levels as low as possible in wash water bv
preventive maintenance of the equipment
and monitoring replenishment rates.

Ion exchange is recommended for use
only t o remove silver from some low-silver
solutions (< 1 percent ) such as wash
water. It is not generally recommended for
use with fix solutions.

                                                  actually result in more silver being
       change is a reversible exchange of         discharged from the resin column than is
        tween a solid (resin) and a liquid        present in the feed solution. Ion exchange,
(water containing ionized salts). When ion        therefore, lends itself only to the recovery
exchange is used with low-silver solutions,       of silver from wash waters and dilute
the silver thiosulfate in solution is adsorbed    processing solutions. Typically, more than
to the resin in the column. Periodically,                      f
                                                  90 percent o the silver from wash waters
under a service contract, the column is           can b e removed in a single-column
removed and the resin i s rinsed with a           system. Two-columns used in series can
dilute sulfuric acid solution to decompose        provide 99 percent silver removal
the silver thiosulfate to silver sulfide, which   efficiency.
remains in the ion exchange column. The
resin is reused for many cycles and is then
incinerated to recover the silver.
accumulated in it.
                                                  Converting equipment to incorporate in
/on exchange should not be used for               line silver recovery greatly reduces the
recovering silver directly from silver-rich
                                                  silver content o the final wash water. Ion
fix solution.                                     exchange technology i s most effective
                                                  when used in conjunction with an in-line
These concentrated thiosulfate solutions          silver recovery unit for the preceding fixer
                                                  sol ut(6-n1
                                                           Fc   -T   i v   s-
will strip silver from the resin, and can

          C o d e of Management Practice Guide for Commercial Imaging                      411I97
Factors affecting the egiciency or ion                        b. f l o w   rate
exchange include:                                             The low-silver solutions must be metered
                                                              through the ion exchange columns at a
        thiosulfate concentration,                            prescribed rate in order to allow for the
        flow rate, and                                        exchange between the silver and the resin
        biological growth control.                            to occur. Generally, this should never
                                                              exceed 1 bed volume or resin/minute.
a. Thiosulf d e concentrafion
The capacity or' the resin to retain silver is                c. Biological g r o w t h control
very dependent on the concentration of                        Algae, bacteria and fungi grow quite
thiosulfate in the influent. The higher the                   readily in ion exchange columns and feed
thiosulfate, the lower the capacity. That's                   on the dilute photographic processing
why ion exchange is not recommended for                       chemicals. This growth causes two
recovering silver from fix. These solutions                   problems: 1) it forms a film on the resin
are high in thiosulfate.                                      beads, thereby blocking the silver
                                                              exchange reaction, and 2)it obstructs the
If you operate under such severe discharge                    flow o solution through the column.
restrictions that you must use ion exchange
to recover silver from silver-rich solutions,                                     blem of biological
two steps are required:                                       growth, the ion exchange column(s) must
                                                              be flushed routinely with biocide.
1   ~    desilver the silver-rich solutions
         through an electrolytic unit, and

2. meter the desilvered solutions into the
         collected wash water overflow at a rate
         n o t exceeding their replenishment rate.

These procedures will reduce the silver
concentration prior to ion exchange and
ensure t h e thiosulfate levels are controlled.


               C o d e of Management Practice Guide for Commercial imaging                        411/97
                                    Appendix G

You must routinely monitor your silver                    3. After about 15 seconds, compare the
recovery system to make sure it's                            color on the moist test strip with the
operating correctly. There are two different                 color key provided with the test strips.
testing methods required: approximations                     Find the color that most closely
utilizing test papers iire periormed                         matches. That is approximately the
frequently and exact analytical testing is                   concentration ot'.silver in solution.
performed every three months, six months
or annualiv, depending on the size of the                 4. When evaluating a solution that has
commercial imaging iacility.                                 color, such as seasoned fixer, rinse the
                                                             test strip briefly under running water
                                                             toward the end of the 15-second
                                                             waiting period. Take the color of the
Silver estimating test papers are used to                    solution into consideration when
provide only an approximation oi how                         you're making the comparison with
much silver i s in a solution. The test strips               the color key.
are coated with yellow cadmium sulfide
that forms brownish-black silver sulfide              A typical color key scale i s shown below.
when it comes into contact with silver                As you can see from the scale of numbers
ions. The higher the concentration of                 ranging from 0 to 10 g/L* (0- 10,000
silver in solution, the greater amount of             mg/L), the silver readings are only
brownish-black silver sulfide will be                 approximations of the actual silver in
formed. The color formed on the test strip            solution. Note that the lowest detection
after it has been in solution, therefore,             point is .5g/L or 500mpJL (500 ppm).
reflects the amount or silver contained in
that solution.

Generally, the procedure for using the test
strips i s as rollows:

1. Dip the test strip in the sample
   solution for two (2)  seconds so that the
   strip i s properly wetted.                             The test strips are helpful in estimating the
                                                          amount o i silver in the solution exiting the
2.   Remove the test strip from solution,                 silver recovery system. Once the solution
     shake 05 any excess liquid, and place                has gone through primary silver recovery,
     the strip on a white card.                       -     Silver estimating papers are generally scaled in grams per
                                                            liter (g/U rather than parts per million (ppm). Remember:
                                             11196'         mg/L and ppm are the same measurement.

          C o d e o Management Practice Guide for Commercial Imaging
                   f                                                                                           4J1J97
the concentralion of silver should be                     a. Sample containers
below the 300 mg/L (ppmj mark. Since the
                                                             Obtain plastic containers from the
lowest range on the silver estimating test
                                                          analytical laboratory. Don’t use glass
papers is S O 0 ppm, you should see no
                                                          because silver precipitates more easily on
color change on the paper. These papers
                                                          the wall of a glass container.
are only useful for finding major
problems with the silver recovery system.                    Make sure the laboratory knows that
                                                          you are specifically testing for silver so
For example, ir you are using chemical
                                                          they provide you with the correct size and
recovery cartridges, you are required to
                                                          type of container.
test the cartridge effluent using test strips
to determine the presence of silver. The
effluent should be below 500 ppm and                      b. Sample preservation
therefore, not change the color o i the test                  Tell the analytical laboratory NOT to
strip. The onlv thing you’ve learned from                 use a nitric acid preservative with the
testing the effluent with a test strip i s that           sample. Nitric acid precipitates the silver
there are no major problems with the                      out of solution, thereby providing an
chemical recovery cartridges. A more                      artificially .low silver reading:.
exacting measurement must be taken
periodically to verify the system is actually                Return the sample to the analytical
recovering the percentage of silver                       laboratory as quickly as possible to avoid
required.                                                 any change in the make-up of the sample.

                                                          c. Sampling methodology
                                                             Rinse the sample bottle with the
An exact analytical measurement i s
                                                          sample once or twice before filling it for
required to verify whether the silver
recovery system i s achieving a specific
percentage recovery. Use an outside
                                                             Make sure that none of the equipment
analytical laboratory to analyze the
                                                          you are using to collect the sample has
solution samples.
                                                          been contaminated with another solution
                                                          or material.
Obtain a sample bottle from the analytical
laboratory, fill the bottle with a sample of
the solution to be analyzed and bring the                 d. Analpical test methods
bottle to the laboratory. When they have                  There are two methods the analytical
finished the procedure, the analytical                    laboratory can use to detect silver in the
laboratory will provide the results of the                sample:
a~al ysis.
                                                          1. Inductively coupled plasma
Your best source of information                              spectroscopy (ICP)
concerning your sampling procedures and
techniques i s the analytical lab that’s                  2. Atomic absorption (AA)
doing your work. Work with them closely
to get your best results. Here are some                   Either test will provide the same result.
general considerations for sampling:              11197
         Code of Management Practice Guide for Commercial Imaging                                411/97

                               Printers’ National Environmental Assistance Center
                                   World Wide Web site.......................................... IV-3
                                   Index of Fax-Back Documents ............................ IV-5

                               Screenprinting and Graphic Imaging Association
Using Screen Printing          International (SGIA)
Technologies for Business          SGIA Membership ..............................................            IV-7
& Environmental Success
                                   SGIA Assist ........................................................      IV-9

                                EPA Design for the Environment ( D E ) Program
                                  Program Description -_._:.................................... IV- 1 1
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                                  Screen Printing Project Publications List ............IV- 19

                                National Printers’ Trade Associations .....................                 .IV-25

                                World Wide Web Resources for Printers ..................IV-27

                                State Pollution Prevention Programs and Associated
                                Contacts for Printing-Related Questions ................. .IV-29

                                National Small Business Environmental
                                Resources ...............................................................   .IV-37

                                Clean Air Act Small Business Assistance
                                Programs .................................................................. V-39

                                Manufacturing Extension Partnership Centers. ....... ..IV-39
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ndex                                                      Name                                                    Number
                                                                                                                  of Pages

1020    Federal Environmental Regulations Potentially Affecting the Printing Industry, EPA D E                    69
        (Unavailable by fax. Available from <   3
        or from the Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse at (202) 260-1023 )

1050    What are VOCs and do Printing Related Materials Contain Them                                              2

1160    Basic RCRA Recordkeeping Requirements For Printers                                                        3

1200    How to Read and Use an MSDS for Environmental Purposes                                                    6

1210    Basic OSHA Recordkeeping & Training Requirements Affecting Printers                                       7

1250    Printing Industry Manuals on Compliance, P2 & Processes                                                   16

1420    Demystifying Environmental Management Systems,.Jeff Adrian                                                3
                                                                 ~   -      . - .   ~    ._    -    ~   - _
1470    Pollution Prevention: Working with Suppliers, Montana, 6/96                                               2

1520    Pollution Prevention: Environmental Marketing, Montana, 6/96                                              2

1570    Managing Solvents and Wipes, EPA D E                                                                      4

1600    Management of Solvents and Wipes in the Printing Industry                                                 6

1620    Managing Solvents and Wipes, EPA D E                                                                      4

1650    Options for Pnnters to Reduce Image Processing Costs by Minimizing Waste and Recovering Silve 5       '

1670    Code of Management Practice; Guide for Commercial Imaging, Silver Council, 4/97 (Unavailable 67
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1800    Pollution Prevention: Facts About Paper, Montana, 6/96                                                    6

1905    Profile of the Printing and Publishing Industry, EPA .                                                    117
        (Unavailable by f a x Available at <>
        Contact Ginger Gotliffe, EPA (202) 564-7072, E-mail: gotlif€ )

1906    Printing Industry and Use Cluster Profile, EPA D E
        (Unavailable by fa... Available at <
                                                                                                  html >
         or from the Pollutlon Prevention Information Cleannghouse at (202) 260-1023 )

2300    Pollution Preventlon: Self-Assessment Checklist, Montana, 6/96                                            6

23 10   Pollution Preventlon at Custom Print, EPA D E                                                             4

2320    Workplace Practlces Make the Difference, EPA D E                                                          4

2500    Pollution Prevention: Plate Developing, Montana, 6/96                                                     3

2690    Substitute Blanket Washes: Making Them Work, EPA D E                                                      4

27 10   Vegetable Ester Blanket Washes, EPA D E                                                                   4

2720    A Worksheet to Help You Choose a Better Wash, EPA D E         ,A.i.4x.Lr        Lx.-                      6
                                                         Name                                           \lumber
                                                                                                        of Pages

2730    Blanket Wash Solutions for Small Printers, EPA D E                                              2

2740    CTSA Summary Booklet: Solutions for Lithographic Printers: An Evaluation of Substitute          53
        Blanket Washes (Unavailable by fax Available from the Pollution Prevention information
        Clearinghouse at (202) 260-1023. Available at
                                                     ~~-                   ~

2742    CTSA: Lithographic Blanket Washes                                                               147
        (Unavailable by fax. Available from the Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse
         at (202) 260- 1023. Available at < )
2750    How to Reduce, Reuse and Recycle Lithographic Ink Wastes                                        5

2x00    Pollution Prevention: Printing Inks, Montana, 6/96                                              5

2860    Emission Reduction in Waterless Printing Operations                                             3

2900    Pollution Prevention: Fountain Solution Solutions; Montana, 6/96                                4
3600    Technology Alternatives for Screen Reclamation, EPA D E

3610    Smarter, Safe? Screen'Rmla";       fitentadvat S e Epsilon, WA D E . -
                                                        Wm                                              4

3620    Smarter, Safer Screen Reclamation; Alternative System Chi, EPA D E                              4

3630    Work Practice Alternatives for Screen Reclamation, EPA D E                                      4
3640    Reducing the Use of Reclamation Chemicals in Screen Printing, EPA D E                           4

3650    Changing Equipment and Reducing Solvent Use in Screen Reclamation, EPA D E                      4

3660    Innovations in Adhesives, Screen Cleaning and Screen Reclamation, EPA D E                       4

3670    Designing Solutions for Screen Printers: An Evaluation of Screen                                5x
        Reclamation Systems, EPA D E (Unavailable by fax Available from the Pollution Prevention
        Information Clearinghouse at (202) 260-1023. Also available f o rm
        <> )
3680    Cleaner Technologies Substitutes Assessment ExecuGve Summary: Screen                            16
        Reclamation, EPA D E
        (Unavailable by fax. Available from the Pollution Prevention Information Clearinghouse at
        (202) 260-1023. Also available from <      htm> )

4300    Reducing VOCs in Flesography, EPA D E                                                           5

4500    Focusing on Fleso Inks, EPA D E                                                                 2

45 10   Learning from Three Companies that Reduced VOC Emissions, EPA D E                               4

4650    Anagram Saves Over $68,600 through Waste Reduction, MnTAP                                       4

                                                       IV- 6
SGIA Membership                                                                              Page 1 of 2

                                     Members af SGtA tnternatrianaf
                                     EnJoya Competitive Advantage!

 Go to the SiteMap
 En Espafiol
   Here are just a few of the services that make membership in SGIA International a real
               Discounts                 Information      .             Training
   .. -:..> :$
                 Receive a 58%                                 SGIA's Educational
                 discount from                                 Activities
                 Yellow Freipht                                Including.. .
  Systems, the largest North                                   Hands-on Training v

  American freight carrier.     SGIA Journal                   Workshops - Instruction,
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                                re@latOT ~nfOrmation   in      materials enable workshop
                                SGIA's quarterly               participants to make
                                publication.                   immediate changes which
                                                               improve their work quality
  You'll receive SGIA's         ASSIST                         and productivity.
                                Get immediate, personalized
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  USA, SGIA International                                      workbooks that give users
                             Guidebook Add                     dynamic tools for mastering
  offers group rates on
  medical and life           the industry's                    the techniques, procedures,
                             master source for                 and business of screen
                             information about all             making.
                             production processes to
                             your arsenal.

                                 SGIA International's Member Only Area on the Web

                                 Fa         FastFAQ
                                            Access SGIA's
                                            ever-growing list
                                of answers to frequently-
                                                              You'll also find ...

                                                                    Specialty Interest
                                asked questions and get          0  Priority ASSIST
                                easy-to-read and easy-to-           support
                                follow answers. A                  0The latest Association
                                searchable "databank" is            publications for

                                                   IV- 7
http:llwww.                                                        1013 0/98
SGIA Membership                                                                     Page 2 of 2

                              available in the Members-               download
                              Only area of SGIA's Internet

                              Periodicals Search
                              Easy access to information
                              published in the TABLOID
                              and other Association
                              publications, addressing a
                              wide range of valuable
                              technical, managerial, and
                              regulatory information.

         Save Money, Save Time, Save More Money!
            Questions? Call ASSIST 888-385-3588*
             *in the USA and Ckiaada oply. Fwm other'countries call 703-385-1335.

                                                    IV- a                              10/30/98
http :/fwww. org/meminfo/index.html
ASSIST                                                                                       Page 1 o f 2

                                 Members of SGJA tnternati
                                 Enjoy a Competftive Advantage!
    Back to the index
    SGIA Main Page

 P u t the
 Associa tion's
 resources to work
 for you!
 Take full
                                SGIA's ASSIST
 advantage of...

                        SGIA now provides unlimited
                        technical, product referral, and
                        managerial support by toll-free
                        telephone and e-mail.

                        Here are two ways YOU can
                        take advantage of ASSIST...

                        1. Unrestricted Support for the industry - If you need help
                        locating a particular product or service, whether you are an SGIA
                        member or not, give ASSIST a call. The ASSIST operator will
                        ask your name and contact information, then connect you to
                        support staff who will help you locate the materials you need.
                        SGIA maintains an extensive database of product information that
                        can save you time and money. Cai! as often as you like!

                        2. As a member service (but non-members are invited to give
                        us a try) SGIA Members are encouraged to use ASSIST as your
                        "on call" industry expert for technical and managerial support.

                        ASSIST staff can help solve your problems so you can get back
                        to work. Whether you need an answer about screen making, static
                        control, personnel practices, textile or graphics printing, wages
                        and salaries, ink, or simply need a source for supplies, SGIA's
                        ASSIST staff can usually answer your question right on the spot.
                        Members are encouraged to call ASSIST as often as they like.
                        There is no additional charge for support, nor limit to the number
                        of calls you can make. Non-members are invited to give ASSIST
                        a try, on us. Simply tell the ASSIST operator you're interested in
                        membership information and giving ASSIST a try. The operator
                        will log your call and connect you to support staff. Take

http ://www.sgia.orglmeminfolassist.html                                                        1013019 8
ASSIST                                                                                   Page 2 of 2

                        advantage of this great resource, and save yourself time and

                          ASSIST hours are 9:OO am to 5:OO pm EST, Monday through
                                               Call ASSIST at

                          or send e-mail from the Technical Support page in the member
                                                    only area.

                          *in the USA and Canada only. From other countries call 703-

                                                   I V - 10
http :llwww.sgia.orglmeminfolassist.html                                                    1Oi3 0198
S. €PA Design lor the Ennronment (DIE) Program Home

                                          3EPA        United states
                                                                                  Office o Pollution Prevention
                                                                                            and Toxics- .


                                    t     w-                -   -+       Partnerships f o r a Cleaner Future- -                        e -     ~

                                                                                     ___               Outreach

                                                                    uilding on the "design for the environment" concept pioneered by
                                                                    industry, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Design
                                                                    for the Environment (DIE) Program helps businesses incorporate
                                                                    environmental considerations into the design and redesigr?of products,
                                                                    processes, and technical and management systems. Initiated by EPA's
                                                                    Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (OPPT) in 1992, DfE forms
                                                       voluntary partnerships with industry, universities, research institutions, public
                                                       interest groups, and other govemment agencies.

                                                       Project partners' activities include broad institutional efforts aimed at changing
                                                       general business practices, as well as cooperative projects with trade associations
                                                       and businesses in specific industries. The D E Program ensures that the information
                                                       developed through these voluntary efforts reaches the people who make
                                                       decisions-from managers to industrial design engineers to materials specifiers and
                                                       buyers. This information dissemination promotes the incorporation of environmental
                                                       considerations into the traditional business decision-making process.

                                                                             More Ah& the DtE Provam 11 Induwv l'rniwts
                                                                                Green Chemistry I1 Educational Initiatives
                                                                                  Assessment Tools II EPP II Sitc Ma12

                                                                                 V!ew the Metad,lta (Detcrtntion) Record

                                                                             OPPT Home 1EPA Home I1 Search II Comments

                                                                                     IV- 11
.S.EPA Design tor Ihe Envtronment (DtE) Program                                                                                    hltp./lwww epa.govloppllnrrldlelabourE:

                                           SEPA                   united sla€86
                                                                  E I I v h ” t a l Pmteajon
                                                                                                   Office of Pollution Prsvention
                                                                                                                   and Toxics

                                                              nder the authority of the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990, the U.S.
                                                              Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) created the Design for the
                                                              Environment ( D E ) Program to build on the “design for the environment“
                                                              concept pioneered by industry. Under this program, EPA encourages
                                                              businesses to incorporate environmental considerations into the design
                                                              and redesign of products, processes, and technical and management
                                                              systems. The EPA DfE Program forges voiuntary partnerships with a
                                                  variety of stakeholders in an effort to:

                                                       0   Incorporate environmental concems into the traditional decision-making
                                                           parameters of the business world: cost and pe~ormnnce.

                                                       0   Build incentives for behavioral change to encourage continuous
                                                           environmental improvement.

                                                  To accomplish these goals, the D E Program uses EPA expertise and leadership to
                                                  evaleate the environmental and human health risks, performance, and cost of both
                                                  traditional and altemative technologies, processes, and materials. D E disseminates
                                                  information on its work to all interested parties and also assists businesses in
                                                  implementing new technologies and processes identified through the program. The
                                                  program has formed cooperative partnerships with:

                                                       e Industry
                                                       0 Professional institutions/trade associations
                                                       0 Academdresearch institutions
                                                       0 Environmental/public interest groups
                                                       0 Other govemment agencies

                                                                                               DtE Home

                                                                             V i e w the Merndata (Descrrntlon) Record

                                                                        OPPT Home 1EPA Hiime 1
                                                                                  I          I                II c i m m e n t <

                                                  This page is designed for HTitlL 3.2 compliant
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                                                  Last Revision: October I . 1998

                                                                                               IV- 12
J.S EPA More About The Screen Prtnlinq Prolect                                                                                      http://www.epa.govlopptinlrldfelscreenprinting,


                                                                   The Design for the Environment (DtE) Screen Printing Project is a
                                                 voluntary effort between representatives of the screen printing industfand the U.S.
                                                 Environmental Protection Agency. The goal of the project is to provide screen
                                                 printers with information that can help them design an operation that is more
                                                 environmentally sound, safer for workers, and more cost-effective.

                                                 The DtE Screen Printing Project encoltrages the nation's 20,000 graphic art screen
                                                 printers to consider environmental and worker safety concems along with cost and
                                                 performance when purchasing materials and designing systems. The praject focused
                                                 prirxarily on the process of screen reclamation and evaluated several different
                                                 reclamation systems. Information was gathered on the performance, cost, and health
                                                 and environmental risk trade-offs of the components of each screen reclamation
                                                 system (ink removers, emulsion removers, and haze removers). The Project partners
                                                 provide this information to help printers make more informed decisions about the
                                                 products they use in their shops.

                                                               More About This Proicct I1 Information Products 11 Uncomino Events
                                                                       Prniect Partners 1Order Pubiicntiony I Site Man
                                                                                         I                   1

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                                                 Date Last Updated: July I . 1993

                                                                                             IV- 13
U S. €PA More Aboul The Screen Pnnting Project

                                                                                                                                  .       "   .   I
                                                 WHY IS EPA WORKING WITH SCREEN PRINTERS?                                             ?

                                                 There are about 20,000 graphic art screen printing shops in the United States. These
                                                 mostly small- and mediun-sized businesses perform diverse functions ranging from
                                                 the printing of billboard advertisements and posters to printing onto electronic
                                                 equipment. Screen printing involves stretching a porous mesh material over a frame
                                                 to form a screen. Then a rubber-type blade (squeegee) is swept across the screen
                                                 surface, pressing ink through a stencil and onto the print material. In the course of
                                                 providing their services, screen printers can reclaim the screens using solvents to
                                                 remove inks, emulsion (stencils), and remnant image elements so the screens can be
                                                 used again. The use of these solvents, however, can pose potential risks to the
                                                 people who work with them and to the environment.

                                                 The Design for the Environment (DE) Screen Printing Project is a unique, voluntary
                                                 effort between the screen printing industry and the U.S. Environmental Protection
                                                 Agency (EPA) dedicated to helping screen printers prevent pollution and reduce
                                                 risks to their workers and the environment in cost-effective ways. Printers, EPA,
                                                 product manufacturers, and the screen printing trade association are all concerned
                                                 with minimizing the environmental and health risks of screen reclamation chemicals
                                                 currently used in screen printing shops. DWs goal in working with screen printers
                                                 is to help them make more informed choices, now and in the future, by promoting
                                                 the search for and evaluation of cleaner products, processes, and technologies.

                                                 [Back to Ton]
                                                 HOW DID THE DFE PRINTING PROJECT GET
                                                 DfE began working with the printing industry in 1992, when the Printing Industries
                                                 of America (PIA) requested EPAs assistance in evaluating environmental claims for
                                                 products. This effort ultimately grew into two separate projects aimed at preventing
                                                 pollution in the industry, one focused on the screen printing sector and the other on
                                                 the lithography sector. Each project addresses a different area of environmental
                                                 concern in the printing process. In lithography, the focus is on blanket washes,
                                                 while for screen printing the project partners chose to look at screen reclamation.
                                                 DfE Screen Printing Project partners include the Screenprinting and Graphic
                                                 Imaging Association (SGIA), the University of Tennessee, and individual printers
                                                 and suppliers.

                                                 [Back to Tan]
                                                                                          I V - 15
1,s. EPA More About The Screen Pnnting Project                                                                               http 1lwww.epa govloppt~nlrldfe/screenpr~nt~ng/
                                                                                                                                                               about htm
                                                 WHAT HAS THE DFE SCREEN PRINTING PROJECT
                                                 D f E s work with the screen printing industry is conducted undcr thrce distinct
                                                 project areas:

                                                      1 . Technical studies,
                                                      2. Implementation, and
                                                      3 . Outreach.

                                                 Technical Studies

                                                 The DtE Screen Printing Project completpd a comparison of the environmental and
                                                 human health risk, performance, and cost of 14 substitute screen reclamation
                                                 product systems and technologies. The project collected hazard and environmental
                                                 release information (Le., releases to air, water, land) on 72 different chemicals that
                                                 are found in these screen reclamation systems. With this information, the project
                                                 assessed the risks to human health and the environment posed by the substitute
                                                 product systems and technologies.

                                                 Performance was evaluated in two phases:

                                                      1 . The Screen Printing Technical Foundation's laboratory evaluated the
                                                         products under controlled conditions, and
                                                      2. Field demonstrations at volunteer printers' facilities provided performance
                                                         information under "real world" conditions of production.

                                                 Twenty-three screen printir?gshops volunteered to use the substitute product
                                                 systems for 1 month. The participating printer recorded the amount of product used,
                                                 the length of time needed to reclaim the screens, and their opinion of how well the
                                                 product cleaned the screen.

                                                 The information collected in the performance demonstration was used to develop
                                                 cost data for each of the demonstrated product systems and technologies. The Screen
                                                 Printing Project also identified simple workplace practice changes that printers can
                                                 easily and cheaply implement. In addition, new methods and technologies were
                                                 examined that might help printers improve their bottom line while reducing human
                                                 health and environmental impacts.

                                                 Information on the comparative risk, performance, and cost of each of the substitute
                                                 product systems and lechnologies is contained in the DfE Screen Printing Project's
                                                 full technical report, the Screen Reclamation Cleaner Technologies Substitutes
                                                 Assessment (CTSA).

                                                 Implementation Efforts

                                                 In an effort to encourage pollution prevention in the screen printing industry, the
                                                 D E Screen Printing Project is providing technical assistance to screen printers. In
                                                 cooperation with the Small Business Administration, the New Jersey Small
                                                 Business Development Center, and SGIA, the project has produced a training video
                                                 entitled Saving Money and Reducing Wnsre . The video provides screen printers
                                                 with concrete ideas on how to prevent pollution and reduce waste in their shops, as
                                                 well as promote new ways to improve their processes.

                                                 The project has also developed computer software that helps screen printers assess
                                                 the profitability of pollution prevention investments using, total cost assessment
                                                 techniques. The DfE Screen Printing Project conducted pllot workshops for screen
                                                 printers i n 1995 on how to use the software.

                                                 Both of these products are available at low cost to printers, technical assistance
                                                 providers, and others interested in pollution prevention in the screen printing

                                                 Outreach Activities

                                                 The project has created a variety of informational materials based on the Screen
                                                 Reclamation CTSA. To explain to printers the results of the assessment, the project
                                                 produced a simple, concise brochure. A series of case studies also has been
                                                 developed to help screen printers sort through Some of the different factors that can
                                                 make one product system, technology, or work practice a more attractive substitute
-. . .   . .---,   ,   .."   YclrGll   r   "","cy   r   1"(r;CI                                                                             http:llwww.epa.govlopptintr/dfe/screenprintin~:
                                                                  than another. Other information products geared to small and medium-sized screen
                                                                  printers are also under development.

                                                                  Culminating their 3 year cooperative effort, D E and SGIA co-sponsored the first
                                                                  annual screen printing industry conference on the environment. The conference
                                                                  highlighted pollution prevention resources including those developed for the DIE
                                                                  Screen Printing Project.

                                                                                           Screen Printin? Proieci II Industrv Proiects

                                                                                                    Comments? E-mail DtE
                                                                                   Experiencing problems with this page? E-mail OPVT Home

                                                                                                   ME Hame II OPPT Home
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                                                                  Date Last Updated: July 1, 1998

                                                                                                        IV- 1 7
                                     Publications List

DfE Screen Printing Project Fact Sheet: Designing Solutions for Screen Printers

     This introduction to the D E Scrcci~ I’rinting Project provides a brief history of how and
     why the Project was started. It also provides an overview of the three main Project areas:
     technical studies, implementahi~, i d outreach.
       EPA 744-F-95-003,2 pages, Srplember 1995
       Also available in Spanish

Cleaner Technologies Substitutes Assessment. (CTSA) Screen Reclamation

     The CTSA is the full technical report of the Screen Printing Project. It contains the
     detailed results of the performancc. demonstrations, cost analyses, lab tests, and risk
     characterizations of each of the scicm reclamation systems that was tested. It also
     discusses the Project background, arid presents the methodology used for testing the
     systems in each of the above categories.
       EPA 744-R-94-005,480 pages, ,September 1994

Designing Solutions for Screen Printers: An Evaluation of Screen Reclamation Systems

     Recognizing that not all printers have the time to read the larger, more detailed CTSA, this
     booklet highlights the basic information about each screen reclamation system. This
     includes chemical composition, peiformance in a print shop or testing facility, cost,
     occupational risldexposure, regulatory concerns, ecological risks, general population health
     risks, and safety issues.
       EPA 744-F-96-010,52pages, September I996

DfE Screen Printing Project Case Study #1: Reducing the Use of Reclamation Chemicals in
Screen Printing

     This case study presents the expericme of one company that carefully examined its entire
     screen reclamation process and discovered several ways to reduce waste and improve
     efficiency. See hot the company * , loved its process by recycling reclamation products,
                                       11      i

     modifying application techniques,  a ~ i c switching to less toxic screen cleaning products.
       EPA 744-F-93-015,4 pages, Ocfoher 1995
       Also available in Spanish

DfE Screen Printing Project Case Study #2: Changing Equipment and Reducing Solvent
Use in Screen Reclamation

     Driven by concerns for worker health, this company wanted to reduce its use of solvents.
     By changing to a high-pressure water system, the company eliminated the need for an ink-
     removing chemical. A less toxic emulsion remover and a waste filtration system
     completed the improvements, which made the shop safer for workers and the environment,
     as well as more cost effective.
       EPA 744-F-96-011,4 pages, September 1996
       Also available in Spanish

Dffi Screen Printing Project Case Study #3: Innovations in Adhesives, Screen Cleaning and
Screen Reclamation

     Taking actions to improve product quality allowed this company to improve its
     environmental ,performance aDd save gn9wyTV$ tbs: company took included
     incorporating more precision into adhesive application, ink removal, and emulsion
     removal. Each of these actions is discussed.
       EPA 744-F-96-012, 4 pages, September 1996
       Also avaiiable in Spanish

DfE Screen Printing Project Bulletin #1: Technology Alternatives for Screen Reclamation

     This bulletin describes three alternative screen reclamation technologies - high-pressure
     screen washing, automatic screen washing, and spraying with sodium bicarbonate (baking
     soda). All three technologies are discussed, along with their health and environmental
     risks, performance differences, and costs.
       EPA 742-F-95-008, 4 pages, July 1996
       Also available i Spanish

DfE Screen Printing Project Bulletin #2: Smarter, Safer Screen Reclamation - Alternative
System Epsilon

     This bulletin highlights one of the alternative screen reclamation systems tested in the
     Screen Printing Project. The Epsilon System includes an ink remover, emulsion remover,
     and haze remover. All three components are discussed, and the entire system is evaluated
     for its performance, health and environmental risks, and costs.
       EPA 74’2-F-95-009,4 pages, July I996
       Also available in Spanish

DfE Screen Printing Project Bulletin #3: Work Practice Alternative for Screen

     Any print shop can benefit from simple workplace practices that reduce its costs and
     improve its environmental performance. This bulletin discusses how to perform a step-by-
     step evaluation of a shop to find where such opportunities exist. The practices that are
     discussed include process improvements, inventory control, and waste management.
       EPA 742-F-95-010, 4 pages, J ~ i l y
       Also available in Spanish

Dffi Screen Printing Project Bulletin #4: Smarter, Safer Screen Reclamation - Alternative
System Chi

     This bulletin highlights another alternative screen reclamation system tested in the Screen
     Printing Project. The Chi System includes an ink remover, emulsion remover, and haze
     remover. .All three c c m p n m t 6 arerdkcussed, and the entire system is evaluated for its
     performance, health and environmental risks, and cost.
       EPA 742-F-95-01I , 4 pages, July 1996
       Also available in Spanish

Printing Industry and Use Cluster Profile

     This resource provides an in-depth profile of the United States printing industry.
     Demographic information is given for the entire industry, as well as for the specific sectors:
     Screen Printing, Lithography, Gravure, Flexography, and Letterpress. The Profile also
     presents detailed information about the processes and technological trends involved in each
       EPA 744-R-94-003, 183 pages, June 1994

Federal Environmental Regulations Potentially Affecting the Commercial Printing

     This helpful report summarizes the requirements of Federal laws that apply to the
     commercial printing industry, such as the Clean Air Act; the Clean Water Act; the
     Resource Conservation and Recovery Act; the Comprehensive Environmental Response,
     Compensation and Liability Act (Superfund); the Community Right-to-Know Act; and the
     Toxic Substances Control Act.
       EPA 744-B-94-001, 71 pages, March 1994

                                            IV-2 I
Summary of Focus Group Discussion with Screen Printers and Lithographers for the
Design for the Environment Printing Project

     EPA conducted eight focus groups with screen printers and lithographers to discuss the
     D E Screen Printing and Lithography Projects. This report presents the focus group
     methodology and summarizes the meetings. Sources of environmental information that
     may be most useful to printers are also listed.
      EPA 742-R-94-004,89 pages, June 1994

Saving R/Ioney, Reducing Waste - A Short Course in Pollution Prevention for Screen

     This short, entertaining video shows screen printers simple, effective ways to improve
     efficiency, prevent pollution, minimize waste, and reduce costs in their shops. Topics
     include improved inventory control procedures, reduced chemical use, work practice
     changes, andemployee training.
       AvniLablefi-om SGIA only. 15 minutes.
       Cost: $25.00 for SGIA members and government entities; $35.00 f o r non-SIGA members

Pollution Prevention at Action Graphics, Inc.

     This video focuses on one printer’s efforts to prevent pollution and reduce risks to workers.
     Specifically, the video shows how the company eliminated the need for an ink remover in
     the screen cleaning process, and greatly reduced its use of other solvents.
       EPA 744-V-96-001, I7 minutes

Environmental Cost Accounting and Capital Budgeting: Videotape Seminar and Handouts

     This video seminar discusses the elements of environmental accounting azd of Total Cost
     Assessment (TCA), a methodology for the comprehensive financial assessment of
     environmental projects. Actual applications of TCA are also discussed.
       EPA 744-B-96-001,245 minutes (plus 134 pages of handouts), J d y 1995

Environmental Cost Accounting and Capital Budgeting for Small to Midsized
Manufacturers: Videotape Seminar and Handouts

     This video seminar discusses the connection between environmental cost accounting and
     investment decision-making. It introduces Total Cost Assessment (TCA), an approach to
     capital budseting for environmental projects that improves on more conventional cost
     accounting practices, and features company case studies that show how firms have
     benefited from taking a TCA approach.
       EPA 744-B-96-002, 165 minutes (plus 78 pages of handouts), December 1995

P2EINANCE for Screen Printers: Total Cost Assessment Software Program

    This is a user-friendly, menu-driven software tool for screen printers. It is designed to help
    printers determine when it makes economic sense to switch to a less toxic chemical, add a
    new press or dryer, increase ventilation, or invest in pollution prevention technologies.
      Cost: $25.00 f o r SGIA members and government entities; $50.00 for non-SGZA members

                             National Printers Trade Associations
                               (Current as of September 1998)
American Institute of Graphic       Graphic Arts Technical          National Association of
Arts (AIGA)                         Foundation (GATF)               Printers and Lithographers
2 121807-1990                       4 12/74 1-6860 or               (NAPL)
2 121807-I799 fax                   1-8OO-91O-GATF                  20 11342-0700
ww w .ai g a.oig                    412f741-2311 fax                20 i 1692-0286 fax
AIGAnswers@aiea.ors                           www .n apl .org
Association of the Graphic
Communications                      Graphics Arts Marketing         National Association of
21Z279-2100                         Information ServicePrinting     Printing Ink Manufacturers
2121279-5381 fax                    Industries of America (PIA)     7321855- 1525
w ww .a ecom m .org                 70315 19-8 100                  732/555- 1538 fax                  703-548-3227 fax                www .nani m .org
                                ,   .     nap i m @ n an i m .org
Business Forms Management 
Association                                                         National Assocation of Quick
5031227-3393                        Gravure Association of          Printers (NAQP)Printimage
5031274-7667 fax                    America (GAA)                   International
www                       7161436-2150                    3 12/321-6886
                                    7 161436-7659                   3 121527-6759 fax
bfma@ bfma.orz
                                         -                          w ww
The Environmental Group             p a @z!                   w ww. prin t i
7031648-32 18                                                       printimage 0mintimaFe.or.
7031648-3219 fax                    International Association of    a
                                    Printing House Craftsmen        a
                                    6 12560- 1620 or
envgrouD                                                  International Business Forms
                                    6 12560- 1350 fax               Industries
Flexographic Technical                                              703184 1-9 19 1, 703/684-9606
Association (FTA)                   www.iaphc.oro,                  7031654-9675 fax
5 161737-6020                       headquarters @ianhc .org        www .i hfi .or%
5161737-6813 fax
                                    International Digital Imaging
                                                                    comments 0ibfi .org
                                    Association (IDIA)
dseddio@vax.fta-ffta.ors                                            Newspaper Association of
                                    905-359-7619 fax                America (NAA)
Flexible Packaging                                                  70?/902- 1600
Association                                   703/620-4557
2OZ842-3S 80                        IDIA @ bias t .ne t             www.naa.or5
2021842-384 1
                                    International Prepress
w ww .tl ex nac k .orp
fua @                                                  North American Graphic Arts
                                    6 12896- 1908
                                    6 12896-0I8 1 fax               Suppliers (NAGASA)
                                    www.ioa.ors                     202/328-85 13 fax
                                    Steve @ IPA.or f:                        -
                                                                    w w w
                                                                    nag:tsa @

NPES, The Assocation For    Screen Printing and Graphic   Technical Association of the
Suppliers of Printing and   Imaging Association           Graphic Arts
PubIishing Technologies     International (SGIA)          7 161475-7470
7031264-7200                703/385-1335 or               7 161475-2250 fax
7031620-0994 fax            1-588-385-3588                www .tarr
www.nDes.or%                703/273-0456 fax
nues (             ww w
                            s zi a@s

     World-'Wide Web Resources for Screen Printers
Increasingly, printers are using the Internet to receive orders and deliver products. You can also
instantly access environmental information and documents via the World-Wide Web. To do so, you will
need a computer with a modem and an account with an Internet service provider. Below you will find a
list of web addresses which have relevant environmental or technical information for screen printers.

The Printers' National Environmental Assistance Center (PNEAC) web site provides technical
information and links to other screen printing resources. A library of fact sheets and a searchable
archive of email discussions from the Printech listserv are available. You can find applicable statt: and
federal regulations and people to help you understand them. National and state printing-related
organizations as well as vendors and suppliers can be found also.

The Screenprinting and Graphic Imaging Association International (SGIA) site provides
information about services, workshops, software, pubiications and other links. Suppliers can be found
through a searchable Buyer's Guide. Members can access fact sheets, journals, and job descriptions.
The Screen Printing Technical Foundation provides publications and workshop opportunities through
this site. tintr/dfe/screenprinting/screenprinting.html

US EPA Design for the Environment Screen Printing Project provides technical publications
including case studies, bulletins, reports and assessments. Many of these documents are available
through PNEAC.

The U S . Screen Printing Institute site provides product reviews, technical articles, news and other

The National Association of Printing Ink Manufacturers (NAPIM) site provides information about
NAPIM services, publications, news and other links.

Enviro$ense: Printing P2 -- This web site contains case studies, P2 practices, regulations and vendor
information of interest to printers. Envirosense is one of the most comprehensive sources of
environmental information on the Web. Envirosense is a joint effort of the EPA, the Department of
Defense, and the Department of Energy.

The Graphic Arts Technical Foundation (GATF) site provides information about workshops,
products, and services.

The Printing Industries of America (PIA) site provides information about PIA publications,
conferences, activities, education, and other services.

The U S . EPA site provides information about the agency, its activities and programs, federal
regulations and publications.


ALABAMA                                                  California State Department of Toxic Substances
Alabama Department of Environmental Management            Control, P2 and Technology Development
Special Projects                                         PO Box 806
P2 Unit PO Box 301463                                    Sacramento, CA 95812-0806
Montgomery, AL 36 130-1463                               Phone: 9161323-9560,9 161322-3670
Phone: 3341213-4303                                      Fax: 9 161327-4494
Fax: 3341213-4399                                        Contact: David Hurtley, Kathy Barwick Fox
Contact: Kathleen Moss, Gary Ellis

ALASKA                                                   Colorado Dept of Public Health Sr Environment
Alaska DEC                                               Pollution Prevention Unit
555 Cordova Street                                       4300 Cherry Creek Drive South
Anchorage, AK 9950 1-26I7         .   -                  Denver, CO 80222
Phone: 9071269-7582                                      Phone: 3031'692-297.5
Fax: 9071269-7600                                        Fax: 303t752-4969
Contact:         Dave Wigglesworth                       Contact: Parry Burnap

ARIZONA                                                  CONNECTICUT
Arizona Department of Environmental Quality              Connecticut DEP
3033 N Central Ave                                       Office of Pollution Prevention
Phoenix, AZ 850 12                                       79 Elm Street
Phone: 6021207-4337                                      Hartford, CT 06 106-5122
Fax: 602l20714872                                        Phone: 2031424-3297
Contact: Greg Workman                                    Fax: 2031566-4924
                                                         Contact: Mary Sherwin

Arkansas Industrial Development Commission               DELAWARE
1 State Capitol Mall                                     Delaware Department of Natural Resources and
Little Rock, AR 7220 1                                        Environmental Conservation Pollution Prevention
Phone: 5011682-7325                                           Program
Fax: 501f682-2703                                        PO Box 1401.89 Kings Highway
Contact: Alford Drinkwater                               Dover, DE 19903
                                                         Phone: 3021739-2411
                                                         Fax: 3021739-6242
CALIFORNIA                                               Contact: Andrea Farrell
California Energy Commission
1519 9th Street
Sacramento, California 95814-5512                        FLORIDA
Phone: 9161654-4554                                      Florida Dept of Environmental Resource Mgmt
Fax: 9161663-7832                                        Office of Sustainable Environment and Education
Contact: David Jones                                     Pollution Prevention Program
                                                         33 SW Second Ave., Suite 1200
                                                         Miami, FL 33130
                                                         Phone: 3051372-6784
                                                         Fax: 3051372-6760
                                                         Contact: Talibah Adisa

GEORGIA                                                     ILLINOIS                    -

Georgia Department of Natural Resources Pollution           Illinois Environmental Protection
Prevention Assistance Division                              Agency Oftice of Pollution Prevention
7 Martin Luther King. Jr. Drive Suite 450                   2200 Churchill Road PO Box I9776
Atlanta, GA 30334                                           Springfield, IL 62794-9276
Phone: 404165 1-5 120                                       Phone: 2 171782-8700
Fax: 404165 1-5 130                                         Fax: 2171557-2125
Contact: Bob Donaghue                                       Contact: Kevin Greene

Georgia Department of Natural Resources                     Illinois Waste Management and Research Center
205 Butler Street SE Suite 1066                             One East Hazelwood Drive
Atlanta, GA 30334                                           Champaign, IL 6 1 820
Phone: 4041657-8875                                         Phone: 217/333-8940
Fax: 4041657-7379                                           Fax: 2171333-8944
Contact: Renee Hudson-Goodley                               Contact: Gary Miller, Deb Kramer or Todd
University of Georgia
Dawson Hall, Room 307
Athens, GA 30602                                            INDIANA
Phone: 7061542-4857                                         Indiana P2 & Safe Materials Institute
Fax: 7061542-4890-    %                                     1291 Cumberland Ave. Suite Cl
Contact: Terry Perenich                                     West Lafayette, IN 47906
                                                            Phone: 7651463-4749
                                                            Fax: 7651463-3195
GUAM                                                        Contact: Lynn A. Corson, Ph.D. or James R. Noonan
Guam Environmental Protection Agency
Air Pollution Program                                       Indiana Dept of Environmental Management
PO Box 22439                                                Office of P2 and Technical Assistance
Guam Main Facility                                          100 North Senate Avenue P.O. Box 6015
Barrigada, Guam 96921                                       Indianapolis, IN 46206-601 5
Phone: 67 11472-8863                                        Phone: 3 171232-8 172
Fax: 67 11477-9402                                          Fax: 3171233-5627
Contact: Jesus T. Salas                                     Contact: Mark Stoddard

HAWAII                                                      IOWA
State of Hawaii Department of Health                        Iowa Department of Natural Resources
Waste Minimization Division                                 Waste Management Assistance Division
919 Ala Moana Blvd., Room 212                               509 E. 9th St.
Honolulu, HI 96814                                          Des Moines, IA 503 19
Phone: 8081586-4373                                         Phone: 5 151281-8937
Fax: 8081586-7509                                           Fax: 5 15/281-5895
Contact: Marlyn Apuilar                                     Contact: Brian Tormey

                                                            Iowa Waste Reduction Center
IDAHO                                                       University of Northern Iawa
Idaho Division of Environmental Quality                     Cedar Falls, IA 50614-01 85
Prevention and Certification Bureau                         Phone: 3191273-2079
1410 North Hilton                                           Fax: 3 19t273-2926
Boise, ID 83706                                             Contact: Christine Twait
Phone: 2081373-0502
Fax: 208/334-0576
Contact: Katie Sewell

Kansas Department of Health and Environment                   MAINE
Office of Pollution Prevention                                Maine Department of Environmental Protection
Building 283, Forbes Field                                    State House Station #I7
Topeka. KS 66620                                              Augusta, ME 04333
Phone: 7851296-6603                                           Phone: 207/287-28 1 1
Fax: 785129 1-3266                                            Fax: 207/287-28 14
Contact: Theresa Hodges                                       Contact: Bryce Sproul

Kansas State University P2 Institute                          Maine Waste Management Agency
133 Ward Hall                                                 184 State Street
Manhattan, KS 66506                                           State House Station #38
Phone: 7551532-4998                                           Phone: 207/287-56 19
Fax: 7851532-6952                                             Fax: 2071287-6459
Contact: Sherry Davis                                         Contact: Hank Tyler

University of Kansas
Continuing Education Building                                 MASSACHUSETTS
Lawrence, KS 66045-2608                                       Massachusetts Dept of Environmental Protection
Phone: 9 131864-3968                                          75 Grove St.
Fax: 9131864-5827                                             Worcester, MA 0 16 10
Contact: Frank Orzulak                                        Phone: 5081767-2775
                                                              Fax: 5081792-762 1
                                                              Contact: Lee Adams
Kentucky P2 Center                                            Massachusetts Executive Office of Environmental
University of Louisville                                           Affairs
Rm 420 Academic Building                                      Office of Technical Assistance for Toxics Use
Louisville, KY 40292                                               Reduction
Phone: 5021852-0965                                           100 Cambridge Street Suite 2109
Fax: 5OZ8.52-0964                                             Boston, MA 02202
Contact: Cam Metcalf                                          Phone: 6 171727-3260
                                                              Fax: 6 171727-3827
Kentucky Business Environmental Assistance Program            Contact:          Barbara Keliey
227 Business and Economics Building
Lexington, KY 40506-0034                                      Toxics Use Reduction Institute
Phone: 6061257- 1 13 1                                        University of Massachusetts at Lowell
Fax: 6061323-1907                                             1 University Ave
Contact: Greg Copley                                          Lowell, MA 01854-2881
                                                              Phone: 5081934-3275
                                                              Fax: 5081934-3050
LOUISIANA                                                     Contact: Ken GeiserIJanet Clark
Louisiana DEQ
PO Box 82263
Baton Rouge, LA 70884                                         MARYLAND
Phone: 5041765-0739                                           Maryland Department of the Environment
Fax: 5041765-0742                                             2500 Broening Highway
Contact: Gary Johnson                                         Baltimore, MD 21224
                                                              Phone: 4101631-4119
Louisiana TAP                                                 Fax: 410163 1-4477
U of New Orleans Room 804, Eng. Bldg.                         Contact: Laura Armstrong
New Orleans, LA
Phone: 5041280-6072
Fax: 5041280-5586
Contact: Harry Freeman

                                                     IV-3 1
Maryland Technology Extension Service                     MISSOURI
2104 Potomac Building- 092 U of Maryland                  Missouri Department of Natural Resources
College Park, MD 20742                                    Technical Assistance Program
Phone: 301i405-3883                                       Pollution Prevention Unit
Fax: 30 1/403-4 105 .                                     P.O. Box 176
Contact: Gwen Saunders                                    Jefferson City, MO 65 IO2
                                                          Phone: 3 l4/526-6627
                                                          Fax: 314/526-5808
MICHIGAN                                                  Contact: Becky Shannon
Michigan Department of Environmental Quality
PO Box 30457                                              MONTANA
Lansing, MI 48909                                         Montana Pollution Prevention Program
Phone: 517/373-9122                                       Montana State University Extension Service
Fax: 5 17/335-4729                                        109 Taylor Hall
Contact: Marcia Horan                                     Bozeman, MT 597 17
                                                          Phone: 406/994-345 1
                                                          Fax: 406/994-54 17
MINNESOTA                                                 Contact: Dr. Michael P. Vogel, Todd MacFadden
Minnesota Office of Environmental Assistance
520 Lafayette Road, 2nd Floor
St. Paul, MN 55155                                        NEBRASKA      '

Phone: 6 1 2 215-0242                                     NICS-NBDC
Fax: 6 1212 15-0246                                       1135 M Street Suite 200
Contact: Ken Brown                                        Lincoln, NE 68508
                                                          Phone: 402/472- 1 183
Minnesota Technical Assistance Program (MN TAP)           Fax: 402/472-3363
1315 5th St. SE Suite 207                                 Contact: Rick Yoder
Minnesota, MN 55414
Phone: 6 12627-4556                                       Nebraska DEQ, Office of P2
Fax: 6 13627-4769                                         PO Box 98922
Contact: Donna Peterson                                   Lincoln, NE 68509-8922
                                                          Phone: 402147 1-6983
Minnesota Pollution Control Agency Pollution              Fax: 40247 1-2909
  Prevention Program                                      Contact: Ben Hammerschmidt
520 Lafayette Road
St. Paul, MN 55155                                         University of Nebraska
Phone: 6 12296-7330                                        Biological Systems Engineering
Fax:                                                       253 Chase Hall
Contact: AI Innes                                          Lincoln, NE 68533-0726
                                                           Phone: 4021472-8656
                                                           Fax: 4021472-6338
 ivirssrssIPp1                                             Contact: Wayne Woldt
 Mississippi Dept. of Environmental Quality
 PO Box I0385
 Jackson, MS 39289-1385                                    NEVADA
 Phone: 601/961-524 1                                      Nevada SBDC, Business Environmentd Program
 Fax: 601/961-5349                                         MS-032 University of Nevada at Reno
 Contact: Thomas E. Whitten                                Reno, NV 89557-0100
                                                           Phone: 7021689-6677
                                                           Fax: 702/689-6689
                                                           Contact: Kevin Dick

NEW HAIMPSHIRE                                              New Mexico Office of Energy, Minerals and Natural
New Hampshire Department of Environmental                        Resources
     Services                                               2040 S. Pacheco Street
PO Box 95                                                   Santa Fe, NM 87505
Concord, NH 00302-0095                                      Phone: 5051827-5993
Phone: 6031271-6398                                         Fax: 5051438-3855
Fax: 603127 1-2867                                          Contact: Judy Kowalski
Contact: Stephanie D'Agostino

New Hampshire Department of Environmental                   NEW YORK
Services Small Business                                     New York State Dept of Environmental Conseivation
Technical and Environmental Compliance Assistance           Pollution Prevention Unit
Program                                                     50 Wolf Rd.
64 North Main Street, 2nd floor                             Albany, NY 12233-8010
Concord, NH 03302-2033                                      Phone: 5 181457-7267
Phone: 603127 1- 1370                                       Fax: 5 181457-2570
Fax: 603127 1- 138 1                                        Contact: William F. Eberle
Contact: Rudolph A. Cartier, Jr., P.E.
                                                            New York State Environmental Facilities Corp.
                                                            Small Business Assistance Program
NEW JERSEY                                                  50 Wolf Road, Room 547
New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection           Albany, NY 12205
Office of Pollution Prevention CN423                        Phone: 5 181457-9I35
401 East State Street                                       Fax: 5 1814858494
Trenton, NJ 08625                                           Contact: Marian Mudar
Phone: 6091777-0518
Fax:     609f292- 1816
Contact: Melinda Dower                                      NORTH CAROLINA
                                                            North Carolina Department of Environment, Health
New Jersey Technical Assistance Program for                      and Natural
Industrial Pollution                                        Resources
Prevention (NJTAP)                                          Office of Waste Reduction
New Jersey Institute of Technology                          PO Box 29569
CEES Building University Heights Newark,                    Raleigh, NC 27626-9569
NJ 07102-1982                                               Phone: 9191715-6508
Phone: 9731596-5864                                         Fax: 9 191715-6794
Fax:      9731596-6367                                      Contact: Gary Hunt
Contact: Mike Wallace
                                                            University of North Carolina - Charlotte
                                                            Small Business Environmental Affairs Office
NEW MEXICO                                                  Phone: 7041547-3968
New Mexico Economic Development                             Fax: 7041547-3216
1100 St. Francis Drive
Santa Fe, NM 87503
Phone: 5051827-0563                                         NORTH DAKOTA
Fax:     505127 1- I3 17                                    North Dakota Department of Health
Contact: Marsha Oldakowski                                  Environmental Health Section
                                                            P.O. Box 5520
New Mexico Office of the Secretary Environment              Bismark, ND 58502
     Dept.                                                  Phone: 7011328-5 150
PO Box 261 I O                                              Fax: 7011328-5200
Santa Fe, NM 87502                                          Contact: Jeffrey L. Burgess
Phone: 5051827-0677
Fax:     5051827-2836
Contact: Patricia Gallagher

University of North Dakota                                 -   RHODE ISLAND
Energy and Environmental Research Center                       Rhode Island Dept of Environmental Management
PO Box 9018                                                    Office of Environmental Coordination P2 Section
Grand Forks, ND 58202-90 I8                                    83 Park Street
Phone: 7011777-5000                                            Providence, RI 02903
Fax: 701-777-5181                                              Phone: 4011277-4700
Contact: Gerald Groenwold                                      Fax: 4011277-2591
                                                               Contact: Richard Girasole, Jr.

Ohio Environmental Protection Agency                           SOUTH CAROLINA
Office of Pollution Prevention                                 South Carolina Dept of Health & Env
PO Box 1049                                                    Control Center for Waste Minimization
Columbus. OH 43216-1049                                        2600 Bull St
Phone: 6141644-3469                                            Columbia, SC 2920 1
Fax: 6141728-1245                                              Phone: 8031734-4761
Contact: Kirk Nofzinger                                        F a : 8031734-9934
                                                               Contact: Robert E. Burgess

OKLAHOMA                                                       University of South Carolina
Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality                   Institute of Public Affairs
Pollution Prevention Program                                   Hazardous Waste Management Research Fund
1000 NE 10th Street                                            937 Assembly Street
Oklahoma City, OK 731 17-1212                                  Columbia, SC 29208
Phone: 4051702-6100                                            Phone: 8031777-8157
Fax: 4051702-6101                                              Fax: 803/777-4575
Contact: Dianne Wilkins                                        Contact: Doug Dobson

OREGON                                                         SOUTH DAKOTA
Oregon Department of Environmental Quality                     South Dakota Department of Environment Br Natural
Toxics Use and Hazardous Waste Reduction Program                     Resources, Pollution Prevention Program
81 1 SW 6th Ave                                                Joe Foss Building
Portland, Oregon 97204                                         523 E. Capitol Ave.
Phone: 5031229-5946                                            Pierre, SD 57501-3181
Fax: 5031229-5850                                              Phone: 6051773-42I6
Contact: Marianne Fitzgerald                                   Fax: 6051773-4068
                                                               Contact: Dr. Dennis Clarke

Pennsylvania Dept of Environmental Resources                   TENNESSEE
Pollution Prevention Program                                   Tennessee Center for Industrial Services
PO Box 8472                                                    226 Capitol Blvd. Suite 600
Harrisburg, PA 17 105-8472                                     Nashville, TN 37219-1804
Phone: 7171783-0540                                            Phone: 6 151974-301 8
Fax: 7 171787-8926                                             Fax: 6 15/974-1528
Contact: Meredith Hill                                         Contact: Ken Hardison

Pennsylvania Technical Assistance Program
Penn State University
I 17 Tech Center
University Park, PA 16802
Phone: 8 141865-0427
Fax: 8 141865-5909
Contact: Jack Gido

TEXAS                                                      WEST VIRGINIA
Texas Natural Resource Conservation                        West Virginia Division of Environmental Protection
Commission                                                 Office of Water Resources
Office of Pollution Prevention and Recycling               Pollution Prevention Services
P.O. Box 13087                                             2006 Robert C . Byrd Dr.
Austin, TX 787 1 1-3087                                    Beckley, WV 25801-8320
Phone: 5 121239-3IO0                                       Phone: 3041454-6269
Fax: 5 121239-3165                                         Fax: 304/558-2780
Contact: Andrew C. Neblett                                 Contact: Leroy Gilbert

UTAH                                                       WISCONSIN
Utah Department of Environmental Quality                   University of Wisconsin
Office of Planning and Public Affairs                      Solid and Hazardous Waste Education Center
168 N 1950 W, P.O. Box 144810                              610 Langdon St.
Salt Lake City, UT 841 14-4810                             Madison, WI 53703
Phone: 8011536-4177                                        Phone: 6081262-0385
Fax: 801/536-4401                                          Fax: 608/262-6250
Contact: Sonja Wallace or Stephanie Bemkopf                Contact: Wayne Pferdehirt or Tom Blewett

                                                           Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources
VERMONT                                                    Bureau of Cooperative Environmental Assistance
Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation           PO Box 792 1 TS/d
Pollution Prevention Division                              101 S. Webster
Environmental Assistance Div.                              Madison, WI 53707
West Office Building                                       Phone: 6081267-3 125
103 South Main Street                                      Fax: 608/267-0496
Waterbury, V T 0567 1-0404                                 Contact: Mike Sloat or Lynda Wiese
Phone: 802/24 1-3629
Fax: 802124 1-3296
Contact: Paul Van Hollebeke                                WYOMING
                                                           Wyoming Departmen: of Environmental Quality
                                                           Outreach Division
VIRGINIA                                                   122 West 25th Street
Virginia Department of Environmental Quality               Cheyenne, WY 82002
Office of Pollution Prevention                             Phone: 3071777-6 105
PO Box 10009                                               Fax: 3071777-5973
Richmond, VA 23240-0009                                    Contact: Patricia Jordan
Phone: 30469s-4344
Fax: 804/695-4277
Contact: Sharon K. Baxter

Washington State Department of Ecology
Hazardous Waste and Toxics Reduction Program
PO Box 47600
Olympia. W A 9S504
Phone: 3601407-6056
Fax: 3601407-6989
Contact: Thomas Eaton

                   National Small Business Environmental Resources
                                 Quick Reference Ls

Federal Hotlines

   Chemical Information: Chemical                   Small Eusiness: US EPA Ombudsman
   Referral Center (Chemical                        8 am - 4 pm EST, M-F
   Manufacturers Association)                       8 am - 3.30 pm EST, M-F re: Asbestos
   24 Hours                                         8001368-5888
   8001424-9346                                     Solid & Hazardous Waste: (RCRA)
   8001424-9300 emergency #                         24 Hours
   Chemical Safety: Emergency-Planning
   and Community Right-to-Know Act                  Spill Response: National Response Center
   (EPCR A)                                         (US Coast Guard)
   9:00 am - 6:OO pm EST, M-F                       24 Hours
   8001535-0202                                     8001424-8802

   Groundwater/Stormwater: US EPA                   Superfund (CERCLA)
   Office of Water Resource Center                  24 Hours
   2021260-7786                                     800/424-9346

   Ozone DeDletins Chemicals:                       Toxic Substances: Toxic Substances
   Stratospheric Ozone (Clean Air Act   -           Control Act (TSCA) and Asbestos
   CAA)                                             8:30 am - 5:OO pm EST, M-F
   10 am- 4 pm EST, M-F                             2021554- 1404
   8001294- 1996
                                                    Transportation: Hazardous Materials
   Pesticides: National Pesticide                   (US DOT)
   Telecommunications Network                       9 am - 5 pm EST, M-F
   8:30 am - 6:30 pm CST, All Week                  2021366-4488
                                                    Undercround Storape Tanks (USTs)
  Pollution Prevention: US EPA                      24 Hours
  Information Clearinghouse                         3001424-9346
  8:30 am - 4 pm EST, M-F
  2021240- 1023                                     Water: Safe Drinking Water
                                                    9 am - 5:30 pm EST, M-F
                                                    8001426-479 I

                      Additional Technical Assistance Resources
Clean Air Act Small Business Assistance Programs (SBAPs)
The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 require that all States develop an assistance program to help
smaller businesses understand air pollution and air permitting requirements. Through factsheets and
publications, workshops, on-site visits and phone consultations, these free confidential, non-regulatory
programs assist thousands of businesses around the country. SBAPs help businesses answer such
questions as:

       How is your business affected by new state and federal air pollution replatiorzs?
       Will you need to file f o r an air operating permit?
       What can a small business do to comply with air pollution regiilntioiis.?

To find the Small Business Assistance Program in your state:
e      check the World-Wide Web at html
e      or call the EPA Small Business Ombudsman Office toll-free hotline, 1400-363-5888..

Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) Centers
MEP is a nationwide network of more than 70 not-for-profit Centers whose sole purpose is to provide
small and medium-sized manufacturers with the help they need to succeed. The Centers, located in all
50 states and Puerto Rico, are linked together through the Department of Commerce’s National Institute
of Standards and Technology. That makes it possible for even the smallest firms to have access to more
than 2,000 knowledgeable manufacturing and business specialists. These are people who have had
experience on manufacturing floors and in plant operations. They’ve been where you are today. And
they’ve lived to tell about it!
Each Center has the ability to assess where your company stands today, to provide technical and
business solutions, to help you create successful partnerships, and to help you keep learning through
seminars and training programs. It is the special combination of each Center’s local expertise and their
access to national resources that really makes a difference in the work we can do for your company.

For a center near you
e      check the World-Wide Web at
e      or call 1-S00-MEP 4 MFG ( 1 -S00-637-4634), and your call will be automntically routed to the
       hIEP center that serves your region.


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