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Elementary Expectations

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									Ministry of Education




         Curriculum Expectations
                           GRADE 8
                                      for



                              English Language
                        French as a Second Language
                                 Mathematics
                           Science and Technology
                                    History
                                  Geography
                         Health & Physical Education (Interim)
                                   The Arts




 2010
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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    The Arts

The Arts (None) Expectations                                                       Grade 8

                                                             A. DANCE

OVERALL EXPECTATIONS


 8a1        A1. Creating and Presenting: apply the creative process (see pages
            19–22) to the composition of a variety of dance pieces, using the
            elements of dance to communicate feelings and ideas;


 8a2        A2. Reflecting, Responding, and Analysing: apply the critical
            analysis process (see pages 23–28) to communicate their feelings,
            ideas, and understandings in response to a variety of dance pieces
            and experiences;

 8a3        A3. Exploring Forms and Cultural Contexts: demonstrate an
            understanding of a variety of dance forms, traditions, and styles
            from the past and present, and their sociocultural and historical
            contexts.

Elements of dance


 8a4        body: body awareness, use of body parts (e.g., hips, shoulders),
            body shapes (e.g., angular, stretched, twisted), locomotor
            movements (e.g., leap, dart), non-locomotor movements (e.g., twist,
            rock), body bases, symmetry versus asymmetry, geometric versus
            organic shape, curved versus angular shape, isolation of body parts,
            weight transfer

 8a5        space: levels, pathways, directions, positive versus negative space,
            proximity of dancers to one another, various group formations, use
            of performance space


 8a6        time: stillness, rhythm, tempo, pause, freeze, with music, without
            music, duration, acceleration/deceleration




 8a7        energy: quality, inaction versus action, percussion, fluidity (e.g.,
            glide, sink, fall, shiver)




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    The Arts

The Arts (None) Expectations                                                        Grade 8

 8a8         relationship: dancers to objects, opposition, groupings (e.g., large
             and small groups), meet/part, follow/lead, emotional connections
             between dancers


A1. Creating and Presenting


 8a9         A1.1 create dance pieces to respond to issues that are personally
             meaningful to them (e.g., young people’s relationship to authority,
             global warming [glacial melting, extreme weather events], recycling,
             land claims, bike lanes) Teacher prompts: “How would you structure
             a dance to convey the impact of a tsunami (the calm before the
             storm, storm escalating, chaos) on the environment and humans?”
             “What kinds of movements would help you convey your ideas about
             peace?”

 8a10        A1.2 use dance as a language to communicate messages about
             themes of social justice and/or environmental health (e.g., possible
             solutions to bullying, poverty, racism, pollution, land claims,
             homelessness, war, deforestation, oppression, colonization)
             Teacher prompt: “What formations could you use to show racism
             (e.g., one dancer separates from the group)? What type of
             movements would help you communicate your message clearly?
             How do you change the movements to convey togetherness and
             acceptance?”

 8a11        A1.3 determine the appropriate choreographic form and create
             dance pieces for a specific audience or venue (e.g., use a narrative
             dance structure for a primary class; use features of a site-specific
             outdoor space to structure a dance on an environmental theme)
             Teacher prompt: “How can you use theme and variation to convey a
             message of peace at a Remembrance Day assembly? If you are
             performing alone, what are some ways that the movements can be
             varied using different elements?”

 8a12        A1.4 use technology, including multimedia, to enhance the
             message communicated by the choreography in a dance piece
             (e.g., use lights and costumes to create a mood; project images on
             the dancers or a backdrop to illustrate a theme) Teacher prompt:
             “How could you use light and/or sound technology to enhance the
             message of your dance piece about the majesty of forests?”

A2. Reflecting, Responding, and Analysing




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    The Arts

The Arts (None) Expectations                                                         Grade 8

 8a13        A2.1 construct personal and/or group interpretations of the themes
             in their own and others’ dance pieces (e.g., the role of greed in
             deforestation, war, global warming, poverty) and communicate their
             responses in a variety of ways (e.g., through writing, discussion,
             oral report, song, drama, visual art, dance) Teacher prompts: “How
             do the projected images (e.g., of deforestation, war, global warming,
             poverty) in this dance piece reinforce the choreographer’s intent?”
             “What choices did you make in your dance about how to convey
             your opinion on homelessness?”

 8a14        A2.2 analyse, using dance vocabulary, their own and others’ dance
             pieces to identify the elements of dance and the choreographic
             forms used in them (e.g., body: geometric shapes, stretched
             shapes; space: levels; time: duration; energy: percussion;
             relationship: opposition; choreographic form: theme and variation)
             and explain how they help communicate meaning (e.g., percussion
             and opposition are used to suggest conflict; theme and variation are
             used to explore a relationship between continuity and change)
             Teacher prompts: “How did this group’s manipulation of the element
             of energy change the message of the main theme?” “What feeling
             did the abrupt movements in the dance create?”

 8a15        A2.3 identify and give examples of their strengths and areas for
             growth as dance creators, interpreters, and audience members
             (e.g., describe a suggestion they made to a peer about how to
             improve the first draft of a dance work, and evaluate their personal
             contribution to the success of the final performance) Teacher
             prompt: “How did you make constructive suggestions without
             appearing to comment negatively on someone else’s work? What
             was good about your approach? What might you change next time?
             How could you use invented dance notation to visually represent the
             suggestions for improvement?”

A3. Exploring Forms and Cultural Contexts


 8a16        A3.1 describe how social, political, and eco-nomic factors
             influenced the emergence and development of a dance form or
             genre of their choice (e.g., factors: funding to artists, the
             commercialization of dance, support for dance programs in schools;
             genres/forms: modern dance in the early twentieth century, the
             waltz in nineteenth-century Europe) Teacher prompts: “What social
             factors led to the emergence of this dance (e.g., hip hop, Celtic
             dance, the waltz)?” “Why do you think swing developed during the
             Depression in the 1930s (e.g., escapism)?”




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    The Arts

The Arts (None) Expectations                                                        Grade 8

 8a17       A3.2 identify a variety of types of dances and relate them to their
            different roles in society (e.g., contemporary Aboriginal dance/folk
            dance contributes to ceremony/ritual; dance numbers in stage
            plays and movies provide entertainment; classical ballet offers
            scope for artistic expression and provides elite entertainment; disco
            dancing and solo performance allow creative self-expression;
            dances at parties or social events contribute to social bonding; jazz
            and hip hop make a social and/or cultural statement) Teacher
            prompt: “How did the street dance ’Cool’ in the musical West Side
            Story depict the culture of American gangs in the 1950s? What
            impressions do you have of the dance? How do you think this
            dance might have affected audiences when the film was released in
            1961?”

                                                           B. DRAMA

OVERALL EXPECTATIONS


 8a18       B1. Creating and Presenting: apply the creative process (see pages
            19–22) to process drama and the development of drama works,
            using the elements and conventions of drama to communicate
            feelings, ideas, and multiple perspectives;

 8a19       B2. Reflecting, Responding, and Analysing: apply the critical
            analysis process (see pages 23–28) to communicate feelings,
            ideas, and understandings in response to a variety of drama works
            and experiences;

 8a20       B3. Exploring Forms and Cultural Contexts: demonstrate an
            understanding of a variety of drama and theatre forms, traditions and
            styles from the past and present, and their sociocultural and
            historical contexts.

ELEMENTS OF DRAMA


 8a21       role/character: analysing the background, motivation, speech, and
            actions of characters to build roles; using voice, stance, gesture,
            and facial expression to portray character


 8a22       relationship: analysing relationships to develop the interplay
            between characters




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    The Arts

The Arts (None) Expectations                                                          Grade 8

 8a23        time and place: using props, costumes, and furniture to establish
             setting; modifying production elements to suit different audiences




 8a24        tension: using various stage effects to produce specific audience
             reactions




 8a25        focus and emphasis: using a wide range of devices to highlight the
             central theme for the audience; making deliberate artistic choices to
             sharpen focus


B1. Creating and Presenting


 8a26        B1.1 engage actively in drama exploration and role play, with a
             focus on examining multiple perspectives and possible outcomes
             related to complex issues, themes, and relationships from a wide
             variety of sources and diverse communities (e.g., identify significant
             perspectives related to an issue and assume roles to give voice to
             the different perspectives; use improvisation to communicate
             insights about life events and relationships; develop and present
             anthology dramas, short scripts, or multi-role plays for a single
             actor) Teacher prompt: “How could you use drama conventions
             such as conversations, mapping, or role on the wall to dramatize
             two opposing views on a community issue (e.g., consumerism,
             landfills, bike lanes)?”

 8a27        B1.2 demonstrate an understanding of the elements of drama by
             selecting and manipulating multiple elements and conventions to
             create and enhance a variety of drama works and shared drama
             experiences (e.g., use “a day in the life” to compare farming,
             fishing, or hunting practices at the beginning of the twentieth
             century to those of today; create sets to depict the physical setting
             of a drama using available materials; use knowledge of movement
             and blocking to achieve well-paced action and create visual interest)
             Teacher prompts: “How can corridor of voices help you to
             understand your role more deeply and also to experience other
             perspectives on what the character might think and feel?” “In your
             prepared improvisation, how can your physical movements in
             relation to one another be used to highlight the nature of your
             emotional relationship?”




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    The Arts

The Arts (None) Expectations                                                         Grade 8

 8a28        B1.3 plan and shape the direction of the drama by negotiating ideas
             and perspectives with others, both in and out of role (e.g., In role:
             use group improvisation to work out a time line of events in a drama
             story; Out of role: use the talking stick in group discussion about
             the best way to resolve the drama’s central conflict) Teacher
             prompt: “In your group, discuss one aspect of your presentation that
             communicates your meaning clearly. Identify one thing that could
             be changed to strengthen your presentation.”

 8a29        B1.4 communicate feelings, thoughts, and abstract ideas through
             drama works, using audio, visual, and/or technological aids for
             specific purposes and audiences (e.g., music/soundtracks to
             intensify audience reaction; video as counterpoint to action or to
             add details; costumes, props, fabric to establish character and
             setting; an audio recording of a soundscape to accompany and
             reinforce ideas and feelings in a mimed sequence) Teacher
             prompts: “What are some ways you can use objects or technology
             to represent the moods of these different characters? Masks? A
             ’signature tune’?” “How could you use technology to signal to the
             audience when an actor’s speech represents the character’s
             private, inner thoughts? A spotlight? Another kind of lighting
             change?”

B2. Reflecting, Responding, and Analysing


 8a30        B2.1 construct personal interpretations of drama works, connecting
             drama issues and themes to social concerns at both the local and
             global level (e.g., create a web with the main idea of the drama in
             the centre and words describing personal and global connections
             leading out from the centre; explain in discussion or a journal entry
             why they disagree or empathize with the motivations of a character)
             Teacher prompts: “What are the key messages of this drama/play?
             How does its message relate to your own life experiences and
             opinions?” “Can you sum up what this play was about for you in a
             paragraph? A sentence? A word?” “Is this an important play for
             others to see? Why?” “How does the play’s theme or point of view
             connect to another drama experience that we’ve shared?”




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    The Arts

The Arts (None) Expectations                                                        Grade 8

 8a31        B2.2 evaluate, using drama terminology, how effectively drama
             works and shared drama experiences use the elements of drama to
             engage the audience and communicate a theme or message (e.g.,
             determine whether the use of contrasting comic and serious scenes
             strengthened the impact of the theme or weakened it; determine
             whether using a historical setting enhanced the presentation of a
             contemporary theme) Teacher prompts: “Imagine that you are a
             theatre critic. How many stars (on a scale of one to five) does this
             drama deserve? What key elements were used in the drama? In
             your opinion did they help make it stronger or weaker? Why?” “How
             successful were the actors in using movement, voice, and gesture
             to create interest?”

 8a32        B2.3 identify and give examples of their strengths, interests, and
             areas for improvement as drama creators, performers, and audience
             members (e.g., write a journal entry outlining the process they used
             to solve a given problem, what worked, and what they would do
             differently next time; develop and use rubrics and/or assessment
             charts to evaluate their contribution to group work) Teacher
             prompts: “About what area of drama do you feel most confident?
             What areas do you want to pursue in the future?” “What drama
             conventions did you use most successfully to express your
             thoughts, feelings, and ideas?”

B3. Exploring Forms and Cultural Contexts


 8a33        B3.1 analyse the influence of the media on a wide variety of drama
             forms and/or styles of live theatre (e.g., introduction of digital
             storytelling, multimedia presentations, and dance-drama into drama
             forms; incorporation of technologies from different media to enhance
             sets, backdrops, and special effects; use of virtual role play to
             explore options for avatar characters) Teacher prompts: “What are
             some similarities and differences in how drama expresses ideas
             and emotions compared to other art forms (e.g., dance, film, music,
             art)?” “In what ways can the use of technology enhance or detract
             from the message or meaning in a drama presentation?”




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    The Arts

The Arts (None) Expectations                                                       Grade 8

 8a34       B3.2 identify and describe a wide variety of ways in which drama
            and theatre make or have made contributions to social, cultural, and
            economic life in a variety of times and places (e.g., by providing
            opportunities for personal enjoyment, celebration, and
            entertainment; by providing jobs; by attracting tourists; by
            communicating and teaching about a range of topics; by enhancing
            participants’ life skills of communication and collaboration; by
            raising awareness of political, environmental, medical, and other
            social/global issues) Teacher prompts: “Why do we provide
            opportunities to participate in drama in school and in the
            community?” “Why might theatrical performances have been
            important in times when very few people could read and write?”
            “How do theatre performances help the economy?”

                                                            C. MUSIC

OVERALL EXPECTATIONS


 8a35       C1. Creating and Performing: apply the creative process (see pages
            19–22) to create and perform music for a variety of purposes, using
            the elements and techniques of music;


 8a36       C2. Reflecting, Responding, and Analysing: apply the critical
            analysis process (see pages 23–28) to communicate their feelings,
            ideas, and understandings in response to a variety of music and
            musical experiences;

 8a37       C3. Exploring Forms and Cultural Contexts: demonstrate an
            understanding of a variety of musical genres and styles from the
            past and present, and their sociocultural and historical contexts.


ELEMENTS OF MUSIC


 8a38       duration: tempo markings and rhythms encountered in the repertoire




 8a39       pitch: major and minor tonality; keys encountered in the repertoire




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    The Arts

The Arts (None) Expectations                                                           Grade 8

 8a40        dynamics and other expressive controls: all intensity levels;
             changes in levels




 8a41        timbre: tone colours of world music ensembles and instruments
             (e.g., gamelan, shakuhachi, doumbek, sitar, djembe, ocarina)




 8a42        texture/harmony: monophonic, homophonic, and polyphonic music




 8a43        form: forms encountered in performance repertoire (e.g., minuet)




C1. Creating and Performing


 8a44        C1.1 sing and/or play, in tune, music in unison and in two or more
             parts from a variety of cultures, styles, and historical periods (e.g.,
             perform in large and small ensembles, prepare a solo, improvise in
             a drum circle) Teacher prompts: “How can you interpret the
             expressive markings in music when you perform?” “When
             composing, how can you indicate with musical symbols how the
             performer is to perform your composition?”

 8a45        C1.2 apply the elements of music through performing, composing,
             and arranging music for a specific effect or clear purpose (e.g.,
             create a jingle to advertise a product; improvise a simple melody
             over a 12-bar blues progression; arrange a piece of their choice from
             their method book for a quartet of mixed instruments) Teacher
             prompts: “How did the elements that you chose for your jingle help
             sell the product?” “What did you need to take into consideration
             when arranging the piece for your quartet?”

 8a46        C1.3 create musical compositions in a variety of forms for specific
             purposes and audiences (e.g., write lyrics and a melody for a
             protest song based upon a current social issue; compose a melodic
             theme for a computer game Teacher prompts: “Explain how the
             rhythm and melody of your song communicate your intended
             message.” “What does a composer have to consider when writing
             music for computer games?”

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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    The Arts

The Arts (None) Expectations                                                         Grade 8

 8a47        C1.4 use the tools and techniques of musicianship in musical
             performances (e.g., apply blend, articulation, phrasing, conducting
             patterns; maintain straight and relaxed posture when singing or
             playing; keep instrument, hand, arm, and/or mouth in playing
             position; use proper breath, bow, or stick control Teacher prompts:
             “What are the functions of your right and left hands when
             conducting?” “How can you communicate dynamics, articulation,
             phrasing, and tempo through your conducting gestures?”

 8a48        C1.5 demonstrate an understanding of standard and other musical
             notation through performance and composition (e.g., interpret repeat
             signs such as D. C. al coda, d. s. al coda, d. s. al fine; interpret
             Italian terms and abbreviations for dynamics and tempo; use the
             notes of the chromatic scale; arrange a piece for a duet using
             notation software) Teacher prompts: “How many bars of music will
             you actually sing or play in this piece if you follow the repeats
             indicated by the composer?” “What are all of the different dynamic
             and tempo markings in this piece?” “What will you need to do in
             your singing or playing to effectively follow these markings?”

C2. Reflecting, Responding, and Analysing


 8a49        C2.1 express analytical, personal responses to musical
             performances in a variety of ways (e.g., use graphic organizers,
             journals, or reflection logs to record their responses; conduct or
             respond in an interview in which they describe a musical
             experience; analyse a performance in the way that a musical
             commentator on the radio might do it; depict scenes from Love
             Songs for a Small Planet by Alexina Louie or The Moldau by
             Smetana using visual arts)

 8a50        C2.2 analyse, using musical terminology, ways in which the
             elements of music are used in various styles and genres they
             perform, listen to, and create (e.g., use of form and dynamics in
             absolute music, such as the Symphony no. 40 in G minor by
             Mozart, and in program music, such as The Firebird by Stravinsky)
             Teacher prompts: “What are the differences between absolute and
             program music? How did the composer use such musical elements
             as timbre, form, and dynamics to suggest certain images?” “Which
             musical elements made the images in The Firebird the clearest for
             you? Why?” “How do the lyrics in a song affect your interpretation of
             the music? What happens when we change the lyrics? How is the
             song’s overall effect different? Why?”




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    The Arts

The Arts (None) Expectations                                                            Grade 8

 8a51        C2.3 identify and give examples of their strengths and areas for
             improvement as composers, musical performers, interpreters, and
             audience members (e.g., set a goal to improve their performance
             skills, reflect on how successfully they attained their goal, keep a
             practice journal, record and analyse their own performances
             throughout the term) Teacher prompts: “Having followed your music
             as you listen to your performance, what are your strengths and next
             steps as a performer?” “About what area of music do you feel most
             confident? What area do you want to pursue in the future?”

C3. Exploring Forms and Cultural Contexts


 8a52        C3.1 analyse some of the social, political, and economic factors
             that affect the creation of music (e.g., historical events that inspired
             the composition of nationalistic music; the development of jazz, rap,
             and heavy metal, and their effect on culture; the social and/or
             cultural origins of folk songs, love songs, national anthems, and
             dance music; the economic purposes for commercial music played
             in stores; purposes and effects of Aboriginal activism through song)
             Teacher prompts: “What factors might influence someone to
             compose this type of music?” “Do composers have a target
             audience in mind when composing music?” “How does nationalistic
             music influence the listener?” “How might the style of the music
             affect your interpretation of the lyrics?”

 8a53        C3.2 compare and contrast music from the past and present (e.g.,
             differences and similarities between music from various cultures and
             contemporary fusion forms; similarities and differences between
             traditional Aboriginal music and music sung and played by
             contemporary Aboriginal musicians; differences and similarities
             between dance music from the seventeenth century, Chopin
             waltzes, hip hop, and mariachi) Teacher prompts: “What are the
             key characteristics that distinguish folk music from popular
             commercial music? Are there any similarities?” “How has the role of
             music in our lives changed?”

                                                         D. VISUAL ARTS

OVERALL EXPECTATIONS




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    The Arts

The Arts (None) Expectations                                                        Grade 8

 8a54       D1. Creating and Presenting: apply the creative process (see pages
            19–22) to produce art works in a variety of traditional two- and
            three-dimensional forms, as well as multimedia art works, that
            communicate feelings, ideas, and understandings, using elements,
            principles, and techniques of visual arts as well as current media
            technologies;

 8a55       D2. Reflecting, Responding, and Analysing: apply the critical
            analysis process (see pages 23–28) to communicate feelings,
            ideas, and understandings in response to a variety of art works and
            art experiences;

 8a56       D3. Exploring Forms and Cultural Contexts: demonstrate an
            understanding of a variety of art forms, styles, and techniques from
            the past and present, and their sociocultural and historical
            contexts.

ELEMENTS OF DESIGN


 8a57       line: directional lines; one- and two-point perspective to create
            depth; contour drawings of figures




 8a58       shape and form: various visual “weights” of forms (e.g., large,
            light-coloured forms can seem to have less weight than smaller,
            dark forms); complex three-dimensional constructions and motifs;
            gradation in size

 8a59       space: one- and two-point perspective or foreshortening to create
            illusory space; informal converging lines in an image creating the
            illusion of space; adult human figures that are seven to eight heads
            in height; alternative systems for representing space (e.g., layered
            images in medieval art; disproportionately small images of people
            within a vast landscape in Chinese art to show the smallness of
            humans in relation to nature; images seen from several points of
            view simultaneously in Egyptian and cubist paintings)

 8a60       colour: tertiary colours; contrast of colour; absence of colour Note:
            In creating multimedia art works, students may need some
            understanding of different colour models, such as RGB and
            CMY(K), and websafe colours.




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    The Arts

The Arts (None) Expectations                                                         Grade 8

 8a61        texture: real and illusory textures that appear in the environment




 8a62        value: cross-hatching to suggest volume and shadows; variation and
             increased range of gradation in value



PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN


 8a63        movement: actual lines to lead the viewer’s eye (e.g., solid lines,
             dotted lines); subtle or implied “paths” using shape, value, and/or
             colour (e.g., an invisible path created by leading the eye from large
             shapes to small shapes, from shapes in dark colours to shapes in
             lighter colours, from familiar shapes to unfamiliar shapes, from
             colour to no colour); actual action (e.g., kinetic sculpture,
             animation); implied action (e.g., an invisible path created by an
             arrow, a gaze, or a pointing finger; the “freeze frame” effect of an
             object in motion, such as a bouncing ball suspended in mid-air or a
             runner about to take the next step)

D1. Creating and Presenting


 8a64        D1.1 create art works, using a variety of traditional forms and
             current media technologies, that express feelings, ideas, and
             issues and that demonstrate an awareness of multiple points of
             view (e.g., create a collage that shows contrast between two points
             of view or a cause-and-effect relationship; create an art work on a
             current event or issue, using the conventions of sequential art or
             comics, or using found images and text to express a point of view in
             the style of a contemporary artist such as Martin Firrel, Jenny
             Holzer, or Barbara Kruger) Teacher prompts: “How can you
             juxtapose text and images to create a message that challenges
             what the text is saying?” “In your monochromatic comic layout, how
             will you use angle of view, images, and text to show two sides of
             the story?” “How can stereotypes be reinforced or challenged in art
             works?”




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    The Arts

The Arts (None) Expectations                                                         Grade 8

 8a65       D1.2 demonstrate an understanding of composition, using multiple
            principles of design and other layout considerations such as
            compositional triangles to create narrative art works or art works on
            a theme or topic (e.g., a figure drawing of a historically influential
            person that makes use of the whole paper or space to create a
            sense of unity and balance, with a single word or motif in the
            background; an abstract painting in which movement is created by
            using line, value, colour, and/or shape; a stop-motion animation that
            tells a simple story and that demonstrates the principle of
            movement through sequential images in which the character or
            object moves in relation to the frame) Teacher prompts: “How would
            your image be different if your figure took up only one side of the
            paper?” “How can you use colour and variation in value, like Mary
            Pratt, to capture light in a still-life composition that leads the
            viewer’s eye throughout the art work?” “How can you use implied
            action through a technique such as automotion or through the gaze
            or gestures of the figures?”

 8a66       D1.3 use elements of design in art works to communicate ideas,
            messages, and understandings for a specific audience and purpose
            (e.g., an illustration for a children’s book that uses colour and
            rhythm to appeal to its audience; a short movie or animation that
            uses space, time, and framing to highlight a contemporary issue; a
            portrait of a person made from junk-food or brand packaging to
            communicate an opinion, in the style of Giuseppe Arcimboldo’s
            series of allegorical portraits made from fruit, vegetables, and other
            unlikely objects such as pots and books) Teacher prompts: “How
            would manipulating the colour change the meaning of the image?
            How would your illustration differ if you used colours from the
            opposite side of the colour wheel?” “How will you use a variety of
            camera angles and shots (e.g., wide, medium, close-up) to include
            different perspectives and enhance your message?”




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    The Arts

The Arts (None) Expectations                                                            Grade 8

 8a67        D1.4 use a variety of materials, tools, techniques, and technologies
             to determine solutions to increasingly complex design challenges
             (e.g., • drawing: create a pastel composition or flipbook that
             combines or contrasts styles of two artists or styles from two
             cultures • mixed media: make a series of small artist trading cards
             [ATCs] in a variety of media, illustrating a contemporary issue or
             topic • painting: make an acrylic painting of a magnified section of a
             sketch or an image that is seen through a viewfinder or frame, then
             make changes to the painted surface with oil pastels to create a
             personal interpretation of the image • printmaking: make a series of
             two-colour softoleum, linoleum, or block prints that are variations on
             a social theme and that are printed on papers of different colours
             and textures [magazine paper, coloured bond paper, newsprint,
             tissue paper, handmade paper] • sculpture: make a sculptural
             portrait of a hero or favourite person out of papier mâché or plaster
             bandage that captures what the person means to them •
             technology: create a short movie from an animated image sequence
             or video, using editing software to create suspense, a feeling of
             speed, or a sense of the passage of time) Teacher prompts: “How
             would the feeling and message of the print change if you printed it
             on a magazine advertisement rather than on coloured paper? Which
             one serves your purpose better?” “How can you use storyboards to
             plan a variety of shots and camera angles?”

D2. Reflecting, Responding, and Analysing


 8a68        D2.1 interpret a variety of art works and identify the feelings, issues,
             themes, and social concerns that they convey (e.g., hold a mock
             debate between artists on a topic such as the emotional impact of
             realist versus expressionist styles of art; compare art works in
             different artistic media that express a common theme, such as
             wartime suffering in the art work of Käthe Kollwitz and Francisco
             Goya; interpret images of social issues that are explored in
             historical art works, contemporary art works, and media arts)
             Teacher prompts: “How can a landscape image express ideas or
             concepts, such as the power of nature in works by printmaker
             Hokusai or photographer Ansel Adams?” “How have you been
             influenced by art work from other cultures or historical periods?”
             “What makes one image a stereotyped illustration and another
             image an authentic expression?”




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    The Arts

The Arts (None) Expectations                                                          Grade 8

 8a69       D2.2 analyse ways in which elements and principles of design are
            used in a variety of art works to communicate a theme or message,
            and evaluate the effectiveness of their use on the basis of criteria
            generated by the class (e.g., the use of colour and exaggeration in
            Balinese masks to evoke feelings of fear; the use of line, colour,
            and shape in the work of Daphne Odjig and Norval Morrisseau to
            represent spiritual ideas; Molly Bang’s use of colour, size, and
            asymmetrical balance in Picture This to reinforce a mood or
            narrative; substitution of fur for a ceramic textural surface in Beyond
            the Teacup by Meret Oppenheim) Teacher prompts: “What
            message do you think Bang wants to convey in her image?” “How
            effective are the elements of design as the ’words’ of a visual
            language?” “How do the elements of design allow you to identify the
            intended audience for a book after you’ve looked at its cover?” “How
            does the representation of an image from two or three points of view
            at once in Egyptian or cubist art show you another way to represent
            perception?”

 8a70       D2.3 demonstrate an understanding of how to read and interpret
            signs, symbols, and style in art works (e.g., Horse and Train by
            Alex Colville as an allegory of the impact of the industrial age; the
            style of an artist or director of a film who is using compositional
            framing, point of view, and selective focus to guide the attention of
            the viewer or audience; the purposes of logos, icons, and images in
            advertisements; symbolic reuse and transformation of popular
            images or iconography as a form of commentary [“culture
            jamming”]; use of traditional Aboriginal symbols in contemporary
            art) Teacher prompts: “How are the symbol systems in a variety of
            cultures similar or different?” “How has the artist implied meanings
            in his or her image? Explain why you think this art work is or is not
            an allegory.”

 8a71       D2.4 identify and explain their strengths, their interests, and areas
            for improvement as creators, interpreters, and viewers of art (e.g.,
            organize and participate in a non-competitive art show that
            documents the stages of the artistic process from artists’
            statements, concept drawings, and photos of works in progress to
            the final art works; select, critique, and organize a display of
            personally meaningful images from their own portfolios; use
            feedback to evaluate the effectiveness of their own art works)
            Teacher prompts: “How does your art work reflect a sense of
            personal or social responsibility?” “How have you taken the venue or
            audience into consideration in your display or portfolio of work?”
            “How did you demonstrate imagination, flexibility, initiative, or
            judgement as you explored ideas to make, interpret, or present art
            works?” “What strategies did you use to resolve problems when
            planning your art work?”



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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    The Arts

The Arts (None) Expectations                                                            Grade 8

D3. Exploring Forms and Cultural Contexts


 8a72        D3.1 identify and explain some of the ways in which artistic
             traditions in a variety of times and places have been maintained,
             adapted, or appropriated (e.g., art works support or challenge
             personal and societal beliefs or practices; migration or contact with
             other cultures has an influence on the forms and styles of art and
             architecture; art styles of other times and places have sometimes
             been appropriated by artists to create hybrid art works that explore,
             represent, or challenge ideas) Teacher prompts: “What are some
             contemporary clothing designs that show influences from other
             cultures and designers from around the world?” “How are Inuit
             artists using traditional elements and forms to create art that is
             relevant today?” “How can artists incorporate the work of other
             artists or cultural traditions to make original art work while also
             showing respect for others’ cultural or intellectual property?” “How
             do exhibitions or research organized by theme or topic, instead of
             time period or culture, change the way art works are perceived?”

 8a73        D3.2 identify and analyse some of the social, political, and
             economic factors that affect the creation of visual and media arts
             and the visual and media arts community (e.g., the influence of love,
             loss, anger, or war on creative expression; collaboration within
             production teams or artistic communities; effects on artists of
             changes in government, changes in the amount of government
             funding, the creation of arts festivals, and the availability of
             exhibition opportunities; influence of location, era, and changes in
             technology on art and architecture) Teacher prompts: “How does
             the social and political context change the ways in which universal
             themes or ideas (e.g., love, war, family, ritual) are represented in art
             works?” “Which lifestyles, values, or points of view are represented
             in this image? Which are omitted?” “How are collaboration and
             group work used to produce, edit, and promote a movie?” “What
             external factors have led to the creation of a new art movement?”
             “How is visual culture shaped by the beliefs, technologies, arts
             funding, and values of society?”




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    French as a Second Language

Core French (None) Expectations                                                      Grade 8

                                       Oral Communication, Reading, and Writing

Overall Expectations


 8f1         listen to and talk about simple oral texts in structured and
             open-ended situations;




 8f2         express ideas, feelings, and opinions in conversations and
             discussions, using learned language structures and a variety of
             vocabulary and expressions;


 8f3         read a variety of simple materials, 400 to 600 words long, and
             demonstrate understanding;




 8f4         write in a variety of forms, adjusting language to suit the audience;




 8f5         identify and use the vocabulary and the grammar and language
             conventions appropriate for this grade level.



Oral Communication


 8f6         use compound and complex sentences in conversations and
             discussions (e.g., Pauline n’a pas fait ses devoirs parce qu’elle a
             regardé la télé hier soir);


 8f7         respond to oral texts (e.g., answer questions, role-play);




 8f8         use language appropriately in a variety of rehearsed, routine, and
             open-ended situations (e.g., an interview, a song lyric, an
             advertisement for a new restaurant);


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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    French as a Second Language

Core French (None) Expectations                                                      Grade 8

 8f9        give an oral presentation of more than twenty sentences in length,
            adjusting speech to suit the audience.



Reading


 8f10       read at least fifteen simple texts (e.g., excerpts from newspapers,
            magazines), and identify the main idea and supporting details;




 8f11       produce a variety of simple responses, in structured and
            open-ended situations, to convey understanding of written text in a
            different form (e.g., re-create a scene, design a book jacket);


 8f12       express personal preferences or reactions to a text (e.g., in a
            dramatization).



Writing


 8f13       use simple and compound sentences, and organize information in
            paragraphs;




 8f14       use strategies (e.g., brainstorming, mind mapping) to plan and write
            first and final drafts in guided and cooperative writing tasks;




 8f15       produce pieces of writing in a variety of simple forms (e.g., lists,
            dialogues, illustrated stories), following and making adaptations to a
            model;


 8f16       proofread and correct final drafts, focusing on grammar,
            punctuation, and spelling;




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    French as a Second Language

Core French (None) Expectations                                              Grade 8

 8f17       use and spell the vocabulary appropriate for this grade level.




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    French as a Second Language

Extended French (None) Expectations                                                 Grade 8

                                                     Oral Communication

Overall Expectations


 8x1         listen and respond to a wide range of spoken texts and media
             works;




 8x2         express ideas and opinions clearly and coherently on a range of
             topics, using correct pronunciation and appropriate intonation.



Listening


 8x3         demonstrate an understanding of a variety of spoken texts and
             media works (e.g., tapes, videos, song lyrics, radio broadcasts)
             (e.g., by asking and answering questions, restating the main ideas,
             taking notes, and expressing a point of view);

 8x4         listen and respond to the viewpoints of others in oral reports and
             discussions (e.g., by asking relevant questions, giving personal
             opinions, and challenging the ideas put forward);


 8x5         listen to and take notes on presentations, reports, and discussions;




 8x6         demonstrate the ability to concentrate on the topic under
             discussion (e.g., by staying on topic).



Speaking


 8x7         contribute to classroom activities and group discussions by
             expressing and responding to ideas and opinions clearly and
             coherently;




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    French as a Second Language

Extended French (None) Expectations                                                 Grade 8

 8x8         talk about everyday occurrences by asking for information,
             identifying and describing events, making predictions, agreeing and
             disagreeing, stating opinions, and comparing points of view;


 8x9         organize their thoughts and information to convey a message
             clearly and coherently;




 8x10        use effective strategies in developing ideas and addressing
             problems in group activities (e.g., restate suggestions put forward,
             ask questions to clarify points of view);


 8x11        prepare and give oral presentations on topics under study;




 8x12        create media works of some technical complexity (e.g., television or
             radio reports, videos), using appropriate technologies.



Application of Language Conventions


 8x13        recognize and use appropriate language structures in oral
             communication activities;




 8x14        use varied sentence structures and sentence types (e.g.,
             declarative, interrogative, exclamatory) to add interest to their
             speech;


 8x15        observe the rules of pronunciation and intonation in their speech;




 8x16        correct errors in their spoken French (e.g., vocabulary, language
             and sentence structures, anglicisms).




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    French as a Second Language

Extended French (None) Expectations                                                  Grade 8

                                                               Reading

Overall Expectations


 8x17        read a variety of fiction and non-fiction and demonstrate
             understanding through a broad range of oral and written responses.



Comprehension and Response to Text


 8x18        explain their interpretation of reading materials, supporting it with
             evidence from the text and from their own knowledge and
             experience;


 8x19        explain how various elements in a story (e.g., setting, plot,
             character development)relate to one another;




 8x20        identify the main ideas in informational materials and explain how
             the details support the main ideas;




 8x21        describe and compare the characteristics of various forms of writing
             (e.g., mystery stories, science-fiction stories, biographies, poems,
             short stories);


 8x22        plan and execute a research project, using appropriate resources
             and technologies (e.g., reference books, encyclopedias,
             magazines, CD-ROMs, the Internet).


Application of Language Conventions


 8x23        recognize and use appropriate language structures in their response
             to written texts;




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    French as a Second Language

Extended French (None) Expectations                                                   Grade 8

 8x24        use reading strategies (e.g., reread, skim text, take notes) to
             facilitate comprehension of reading materials;




 8x25        read aloud, with expression, observing the rules of pronunciation
             and intonation;




 8x26        use and interpret conventions of formal text (e.g., table of contents,
             headings, sub-headings, captions, quotations, endnotes, glossary,
             index) to find information and aid comprehension;


 8x27        use French-English dictionaries to determine the meaning of
             unfamiliar vocabulary.



                                                               Writing

Overall Expectations


 8x28        produce clear, coherent written texts in a variety of forms, adjusting
             the language to suit the purpose and audience.



Communication of Information and Ideas


 8x29        communicate ideas, opinions, and facts clearly and coherently for
             various purposes (e.g., to inform, explain, persuade);




 8x30        select an appropriate form and use appropriate language in writing
             for specific purposes;




 8x31        write short texts in a variety of forms (e.g., summaries, book
             reports, descriptions) to convey facts, personal opinions, and ideas;




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    French as a Second Language

Extended French (None) Expectations                                                 Grade 8

 8x32        write narratives and descriptions, using vocabulary and sentence
             structures appropriately and effectively;




 8x33        write a story that incorporates setting, mood, plot, and character
             development;




 8x34        rewrite a story or part of a story in a different form (e.g., turn a
             narrative into a dialogue);




 8x35        organize information, using linked paragraphs that clearly convey a
             central idea and provide relevant supporting details;




 8x36        take notes on and summarize articles, presentations, films, videos;




 8x37        plan and write a research report, using appropriate resources.




Application of Language Conventions


 8x38        use appropriate language structures in their writing;




 8x39        use and spell correctly the vocabulary appropriate for this grade
             level;




 8x40        extend their use of punctuation to include the following: the use of
             ellipsis points to show that words have been omitted or that a
             sentence is unfinished; the use of hyphens in subject/verb
             inversions;

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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    French as a Second Language

Extended French (None) Expectations                                               Grade 8

 8x41        use a variety of sentence structures and sentences of varying
             length;




 8x42        use a thesaurus to expand their vocabulary;




 8x43        revise, edit, and proofread their writing, focusing on grammar,
             spelling, punctuation, and conventions of style;




 8x44        use French-English dictionaries to verify spelling and clarify the
             meaning of unfamiliar vocabulary.



                                                      Language Structures

Overall Expectations


 8x45        identify and use appropriate language conventions during oral
             communication activities, in their responses to reading materials,
             and in their written work.


Nouns and Pronouns


 8x46        object pronouns y and en;




 8x47        object pronouns with verbs in the impératif (e.g., Parlez-moi.).




Verbs




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    French as a Second Language

Extended French (None) Expectations                                                Grade 8

 8x48        passé récent using venir de (e.g., Je viens de faire mes devoirs.);




 8x49        imparfait of -er, -ir, and -re verbs and être, avoir, faire, aller.




Sentence Structure


 8x50        partitive article with negation (Je n’ai pas de...);




 8x51        complex sentences using connecting words (e.g., parce que, car,
             donc, en effet ).




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    French as a Second Language

French Immersion (None) Expectations                                               Grade 8

                                                     Oral Communication

Overall Expectations


 8i1         listen and respond to a wide range of spoken texts and media
             works;




 8i2         express ideas and opinions on a wide range of topics clearly and
             coherently, using correct pronunciation and appropriate intonation.



Listening


 8i3         demonstrate an understanding of a variety of spoken texts and
             media works (e.g., radio and television programs, recorded
             readings, presentations by guest speakers) (e.g., by asking and
             answering questions, interpreting for others, taking notes,
             summarizing content, presenting dramatizations);

 8i4         listen and respond critically to the view-points of others in oral
             reports and discussions (e.g., by asking focused questions, giving
             personal opinions, and challenging the ideas put forward);


 8i5         analyse and interpret the message conveyed in spoken texts and
             media works;




 8i6         demonstrate the ability to concentrate on the topic under
             discussion (e.g., by staying on topic).



Speaking


 8i7         organize their thoughts and information to convey a message
             clearly and coherently;




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    French as a Second Language

French Immersion (None) Expectations                                                 Grade 8

 8i8         use effective strategies in developing ideas and analysing problems
             in group activities(e.g., restate and clarify ideas put forward, make
             suggestions for reconciling conflicting points of view);


 8i9         prepare and give oral presentations, incorporating varied vocabulary
             and sentence structure and using appropriate figurative language
             (e.g., similes, metaphors);


 8i10        create media works of some technical complexity (e.g., television or
             radio reports, videos), using appropriate technologies.



Application of Language Conventions


 8i11        recognize and use appropriate language structures in oral
             communication activities;




 8i12        use varied sentence structures to add interest to their speech;




 8i13        correct errors in their spoken French (e.g., vocabulary, language
             and sentence structures, anglicisms);




 8i14        speak spontaneously and with expression, observing the rules of
             pronunciation and intonation and providing verbal and non-verbal
             cues (e.g., volume and tone of voice, facial expressions, gestures).


                                                             Reading

Overall Expectations


 8i15        read a wide variety of fiction and non-fiction and demonstrate
             understanding through a broad range of responses.




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    French as a Second Language

French Immersion (None) Expectations                                                 Grade 8

Comprehension and Response to Text


 8i16        explain their interpretation of reading materials, supporting it with
             detailed evidence from the text and from their own knowledge and
             experience;


 8i17        explain how various elements in a story relate to one another (e.g.,
             plot, setting, mood, characters);




 8i18        identify the main ideas in informational materials, explain how the
             details support the main ideas, and question and evaluate the
             author’s point of view;


 8i19        describe and compare the characteristics of various forms of writing
             (e.g., novels, short stories, biographies, articles, reports);




 8i20        plan and execute a research project, using appropriate resources
             and technologies (e.g., reference books, encyclopedias,
             magazines, CD-ROMs, the Internet).


Application of Language Conventions


 8i21        recognize and use appropriate language structures in their response
             to written texts;




 8i22        use reading strategies (e.g., reread, skim text, take and review
             notes) to facilitate comprehension of reading materials;




 8i23        read aloud, with expression, observing the rules of pronunciation
             and intonation;




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    French as a Second Language

French Immersion (None) Expectations                                                  Grade 8

 8i24        identify and explain the use of stylistic devices in literary works
             (e.g., similes, metaphors, personification);




 8i25        use and interpret conventions of formal text (e.g., footnotes,
             endnotes, index) to find information and aid comprehension;




 8i26        use their knowledge of word origins and derivations to determine the
             meaning of unfamiliar words and expressions;




 8i27        use French-English and French dictionaries to determine the
             meaning of unfamiliar vocabulary.



                                                                Writing

Overall Expectations


 8i28        produce clear, coherent written texts in a variety of forms, adjusting
             the language to suit the purpose and audience.



Communication of Information and Ideas


 8i29        communicate ideas, opinions, and facts clearly and coherently for
             various purposes (e.g., to inform, explain, persuade);




 8i30        select an appropriate form and use appropriate language in writing
             for specific purposes;




 8i31        write narratives, descriptions, and reports, using vocabulary and
             sentence structures effectively;




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    French as a Second Language

French Immersion (None) Expectations                                                Grade 8

 8i32        write a short story that incorporates setting, mood, plot, and
             character;




 8i33        take notes on and summarize articles, presentations, films, videos;




 8i34        rewrite a story or part of a story in a different form (e.g., turn a
             narrative into a dialogue);




 8i35        plan and write a research report, using appropriate resources.




Application of Language Conventions


 8i36        use appropriate language structures in their writing;




 8i37        use and spell correctly the vocabulary appropriate for this grade
             level;




 8i38        extend their use of punctuation to include use of ellipsis points to
             show that words have been omitted or that a sentence is unfinished;




 8i39        use a variety of sentence structures and sentences of varying
             lengths;




 8i40        use a thesaurus to expand their vocabulary;




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    French as a Second Language

French Immersion (None) Expectations                                              Grade 8

 8i41        revise, edit, and proofread their writing, focusing on grammar,
             spelling, punctuation, and conventions of style;




 8i42        use French-English and French dictionaries to verify spelling and
             determine the meaning of unfamiliar vocabulary.



                                                      Language Structures

Overall Expectations


 8i43        identify and use appropriate language conventions during oral
             communication activities, in their responses to reading materials,
             and in their written work.


Nouns and Pronouns


 8i44        object pronouns with verbs in the impératif (e.g., Parlez-moi.);




 8i45        relative pronouns ce qui, ce que;




 8i46        indefinite pronouns (e.g., rien, personne, tout, plusieurs).




Verbs


 8i47        distinctions in the use of the passé composé and the imparfait;




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    French as a Second Language

French Immersion (None) Expectations                                                       Grade 8

 8i48        formation of the conditionnel of -er, -ir, -re verbs and irregular verbs;




 8i49        introduction of the subjonctif présent of frequently used verbs (e.g.,
             avoir, être, aller, faire, savoir ) with the impersonal expression il faut.



Prepositions and Conjunctions


 8i50        use of ainsi que, tandis que.




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Geography

Geography (None) Expectations                                                            Grade 8

                                                 Patterns in Human Geography

Overall Expectations


 8g1         identify the main patterns of human settlement and identify the
             factors that influence population distribution and land use;




 8g2         use a variety of geographic representations, resources, tools, and
             technologies to gather, process, and communicate geographic
             information about patterns in human geography;


 8g3         compare living and working conditions in countries with different
             patterns of settlement, and examine how demographic factors could
             affect their own lives in the future.


Knowledge and Understanding


 8g4         identify the three main patterns of human settlement linear,
             scattered, and clustered;




 8g5         identify and explain the factors affecting population distribution (e.g.,
             history, natural environment, technological development,
             immigration trends/patterns);


 8g6         compare the characteristics of places with high and low population
             densities;




 8g7         explain how site and situation influence settlement patterns;




 8g8         identify and describe the types of land use (e.g., residential,
             recreational, institutional, commercial, industrial, agricultural; for
             transportation, communication, utilities; public space);


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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Geography

Geography (None) Expectations                                                          Grade 8

 8g9         summarize the factors that affect patterns of urbanization,
             industrialization, and transportation.



Inquiry/Research and Communication Skills


 8g10        formulate questions to guide and synthesize research on the study
             of population characteristics and patterns (e.g.,What conditions are
             needed to maintain a high quality of life? What is the relationship
             between literacy rate and GNP? What action can students take to
             aid a developing nation?);

 8g11        locate relevant information from a variety of primary and secondary
             sources (e.g., primary sources: interviews, field studies, surveys;
             secondary sources: statistics, maps, diagrams, illustrations, print
             materials, videos, CD-ROMs, Internet sites);

 8g12        communicate the results of inquiries for specific purposes and
             audiences using computer slide shows, videos, websites, oral
             presentations, written notes and reports, illustrations, tables,
             charts, maps, models, and graphs (e.g., create graphs to compare
             factors affecting quality of life; create an illustrated brochure
             outlining positive features of a developing nation; map the ten
             highest and lowest countries on the Human Development Index;
             interpret population pyramids to predict population trends in other
             countries);

 8g13        use appropriate vocabulary (e.g., site, situation, rural, developed,
             developing, urbanization, population density, population distribution,
             gross domestic product [GDP], gross national product [GNP],
             correlation, birth and death rates, literacy rate, life expectancy ) to
             describe their inquiries and observations.

Map, Globe, and Graphic Skills


 8g14        create and use a variety of maps for specific purposes (e.g., to
             show land use, transportation routes, population distribution,
             popular tourist destinations);


 8g15        produce and interpret simple scatter graphs to determine the
             correlation between population characteristics;




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:      Geography

Geography (None) Expectations                                                       Grade 8

 8g16         construct and examine population pyramids to make predictions
              about future trends in population characteristics.



Application


 8g17         compare key characteristics (e.g., quality of life, level of
              industrialization and urbanization) of a number of developed and
              developing countries;


 8g18         research job trends and predict the skills that will be needed to
              meet the challenges of Canada's changing demographics.



                                                        Economic Systems

Overall Expectations


 8g19         describe the characteristics of different types of economic systems
              and the factors that influence them, including economic
              relationships and levels of industrial development;


 8g20         use a variety of geographic representations, resources, tools, and
              technologies to gather, process, and communicate geographic
              information about regional, national, and international economic
              systems;

 8g21         compare the economies of different communities, regions, or
              countries, including the influence of factors such as industries,
              access to resources, and access to markets.


Knowledge and Understanding


 8g22         outline the fundamental questions that all economic systems must
              answer: what goods are produced; how they are produced; for
              whom they are produced; by whom they are produced; and how
              they are distributed;




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Geography

Geography (None) Expectations                                                          Grade 8

 8g23        describe the characteristics of different types of economic systems
             (e.g., traditional, command, market) and explain why most
             countries, including Canada, have a mixed economy that includes
             features from more than one system;

 8g24        explain how the availability of particular economic resources (e.g.,
             quantity and quality of land, labour, capital, entrepreneurial ability)
             influences the economic success of a region;


 8g25        identify and give examples of the three major types of industries
             primary (resource), secondary (manufacturing), and tertiary (service)
             and describe how these industries have developed in Canada.


Inquiry/Research and Communication Skills


 8g26        formulate questions to guide and analyse research on economic
             influences and relationships (e.g.,Where would be the best place to
             start a new logging industry in Canada? How have the types of
             industries in Canada changed since the nineteenth century? How
             has technology changed a specific industry?);

 8g27        locate relevant information from a variety of primary and secondary
             sources (e.g., primary sources: statistics, interviews, published field
             studies, a field trip to a local industry; secondary sources: maps,
             illustrations, print materials, videos, CD-ROMs, Internet sites);

 8g28        communicate the results of inquiries for specific purposes and
             audiences, using computer slide shows, videos, websites, oral
             presentations, written notes and reports, illustrations, tables,
             charts, maps, models, and graphs (e.g., use a brief dramatization
             to explain an industry to the class; produce a map showing the
             locations of natural resources and raw materials needed by an
             industry);

 8g29        use appropriate vocabulary (e.g., economy; traditional, command,
             market, and mixed economies; supply and demand; production;
             goods; services; consumer; market; distribution; imports; exports;
             land; entrepreneurial; capital; primary, secondary, and tertiary
             industries ) to describe their inquiries and observations. .

Map, Globe, and Graphic Skills




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:      Geography

Geography (None) Expectations                                                          Grade 8

 8g30         use thematic maps to identify economic patterns (e.g., the location
              of industries in relation to sources of raw materials, markets, and
              transportation; the proportional flow of trade between countries;
              sources of labour).

Application


 8g31         compare the economies of some top trading nations and explain the
              reasons for their success, taking into account factors such as
              industries, access to resources, and access to markets;


 8g32         investigate and explain the advantages and disadvantages of
              Canada's involvement in major trade associations/agreements (e.g.,
              North American Free Trade Agreement [NAFTA],World Trade
              Organization [WTO]);

 8g33         investigate and describe how a new or existing industry affects the
              economy of a region.



                                                               Migration

Overall Expectations


 8g34         identify factors that affect migration and mobility, describe patterns
              and trends of migration in Canada, and identify the effects of
              migration on Canadian society;


 8g35         use a variety of geographic representations, resources, tools, and
              technologies to gather, process, and communicate geographic
              information about migration and its effects on people and
              communities;

 8g36         connect the real experiences of Canadians to information about the
              causes and effects of migration.



Knowledge and Understanding




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Geography

Geography (None) Expectations                                                               Grade 8

 8g37        identify the push and pull factors that influence people to move
             (e.g., push: drought, war, lack of freedom, discrimination and
             persecution; pull: employment opportunities, security, climate);


 8g38        identify barriers to migration (e.g., physical, financial, legal, political,
             emotional);




 8g39        describe how technology has improved human mobility;




 8g40        explain how the components of culture (e.g., language, social
             organization, educational systems, beliefs and customs) can be
             affected by migration;


 8g41        describe the effects that migration has had on the development of
             Canada (e.g., its multicultural character, rural and urban
             resettlement, interprovincial movement, the brain drain).


Inquiry/Research and Communication Skills


 8g42        formulate questions to guide and analyse research on migration and
             mobility (e.g.,What barriers exist today for new immigrants? In
             which time period would it be harder for people to immigrate to
             Canada now or a hundred years ago? Where would be the best
             place to migrate to in Canada?);

 8g43        locate relevant information from a variety of primary and secondary
             sources (e.g., primary sources: surveys, statistics, interviews, field
             studies; secondary sources: maps, illustrations, print materials,
             videos, CD-ROMs, Internet sites);

 8g44        communicate the results of inquiries for specific purposes and
             audiences, using computer slide shows, videos, websites, oral
             presentations, written notes and reports, illustrations, tables,
             charts, maps, models, and graphs (e.g., write a story/journal
             relating the difficulties faced by past or present immigrants; create a
             slide show to show how technological changes have affected
             mobility; create a video presentation encouraging immigrants to
             come and live in Canada);

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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:      Geography

Geography (None) Expectations                                                            Grade 8

 8g45         use appropriate vocabulary (e.g., accessible, barriers, migration,
              mobility, immigration, emigration, refugees, modes of
              transportation, push factors, pull factors ) to describe their inquiries
              and observations.

Map, Globe, and Graphic Skills


 8g46         use thematic maps to identify patterns in migration (e.g., location of
              regions that were sources of significant immigration to Canada,
              proportional flow along migrational routes to Canada).


Application


 8g47         use a decision-making model to select an ideal place to live, and
              present this decision to other members of the class;




 8g48         investigate the migrational roots of the members of the class and
              relate them to Canada's cultural development.




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:      Health and Physical Education

Health and Physical Education (None) Expectations                                           Grade 8

                                                                Living skills

Overall expectations


 8p1           1. demonstrate personal and interpersonal skills and the use of
               critical and creative thinking processes as they acquire knowledge
               and skills in connection with the expectations in the Active Living,
               Movement Competence, and Healthy Living strands for this grade.

1. Living Skills


 8p2           Personal Skills (PS) 1.1 use self-awareness and self-monitoring
               skills to help them understand their strengths and needs, take
               responsibility for their actions, recognize sources of stress, and
               monitor their own progress, as they participate in various physical
               activities, develop movement competence, and acquire knowledge
               and skills related to healthy living (e.g., Active Living: explain how
               knowing themselves – their likes, dislikes, strengths, and abilities –
               can help them determine which health related and skill-related
               components of fitness to focus on when developing their fitness
               plan; Movement Competence: monitor improvements in their body
               control as they apply their understanding of the phases of
               movement – preparation, execution, follow-through – to the
               refinement of a variety of movement skills; Healthy Living: describe
               the importance of self-awareness in developing stress-management
               strategies)

 8p3           Personal Skills (PS) 1.2 use adaptive, management, and coping
               skills to help them respond to the various challenges they
               encounter as they participate in physical activities, develop
               movement competence, and acquire knowledge and skills related to
               healthy living (e.g., Active Living: manage their improvement of
               different health-related components of fitness by monitoring the
               frequency of their physical activity, the intensity of their activity, the
               types of activities they choose, and the length of time they are
               being active; Movement Competence: experiment with shifting
               weight and changing body position to find ways to make smoother
               transitions when performing a series of balances with a partner;
               Healthy Living: identify the type of support that is available to help
               with the various physical, emotional, cultural, social, and
               psychological issues that can arise in connection with sexuality
               and sexual health)




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Health and Physical Education

Health and Physical Education (None) Expectations                                      Grade 8

 8p4         Interpersonal Skills (IS) 1.3 communicate effectively, using verbal or
             non-verbal means, as appropriate, and interpret information
             accurately as they participate in physical activities, develop
             movement competence, and acquire knowledge and skills related to
             healthy living (e.g., Active Living: give examples of how to
             communicate information clearly and concisely in an emergency
             situation; Movement Competence: congratulate opponents on a
             good play in a sincere way; Healthy Living: make adjustments to
             suit particular audiences – parents, peers, younger students,
             community members – when communicating to promote healthy
             eating)

 8p5         Interpersonal Skills (IS) 1.4 apply relationship and social skills as
             they participate in physical activities, develop movement
             competence, and acquire knowledge and skills related to healthy
             living to help them interact positively with others, build healthy
             relationships, and become effective team members (e.g., Active
             Living: cooperate with others by respecting their choice of activities;
             encourage others when participating in activities like cross-country
             running; Movement Competence: work with a partner to try out
             different types of passes to evade opponents; Healthy Living:
             explain the positive aspects and the risks associated with close
             personal relationships and different levels of physical intimacy)

 8p6         Critical and Creative Thinking (CT) 1.5 use a range of critical and
             creative thinking skills and processes to assist them in making
             connections, planning and setting goals, analysing and solving
             problems, making decisions, and evaluating their choices in
             connection with learning in health and physical education (e.g.,
             Active Living: track and analyse changes in their health-related
             components of fitness over a designated period of time, and make
             any necessary adjustments in their fitness plans; plan ways to
             promote the involvement of all the students in the school in “healthy
             schools” activities such as litterless lunch programs and active
             recess activities; Movement Competence: explain how developing
             movement competence and building confidence influence the extent
             to which people participate in physical activity; Healthy Living:
             analyse potentially dangerous situations and devise solutions for
             making them safer)

                                                          A. Active living

Overall expectations




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:     Health and Physical Education

Health and Physical Education (None) Expectations                                       Grade 8

 8p7          A1. participate actively and regularly in a wide variety of physical
              activities, and demonstrate an understanding of how personal
              motivational factors can be used to encourage participation in
              physical activity;

 8p8          A2. demonstrate an understanding of the importance of being
              physically active, and apply physical fitness concepts and practices
              that contribute to healthy, active living;


 8p9          A3. demonstrate responsibility for their own safety and the safety of
              others as they participate in physical activities.



A1. Active Participation


 8p10         A1.1 actively participate according to their capabilities in a wide
              variety of program activities (e.g., individual, small-group, and
              large-group activities; movement and rhythmic activities; dance;
              outdoor pursuits) [PS, IS]
              Teacher prompt: “In the next ten minutes, you will have the
              opportunity to go to three different fitness stations. Think about what
              stations you will choose to visit.”
              Student: “I am going to pick two stations that connect to my fitness
              goals and one for fun. I am going to go to the exercise band station
              because I need to work on my arm strength. I am going to go to the
              stability ball station because I am working on my core strength and
              balance. I’m going to pick skipping as my third station because my
              friend and I are having a contest to see who can skip rope the
              longest without stopping.”




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Health and Physical Education

Health and Physical Education (None) Expectations                                         Grade 8

 8p11        A1.2 demonstrate an understanding of factors that contribute to
             their personal enjoyment of being active (e.g., being able to adapt
             activities to suit individual needs and preferences; having a choice of
             activities and choices within activities; being comfortable with the
             activities, both socially and emotionally; being able to take part in
             activities in a natural environment; being able to take part in
             activities that are culturally relevant), as they participate in a diverse
             range of physical activities in a variety of indoor and outdoor
             environments [PS]
             Teacher prompt: “In class, we play in different groups to experience
             working with different people who have different skill levels. What
             kinds of groups do you find most comfortable to participate in?”
             Student: “I’m comfortable playing with people who are at my skill
             level, but I also like playing with people who are better than I am,
             because it gives me a good challenge and I can learn from playing
             with them.”
             Teacher prompt: “Activities are more enjoyable when you can play
             at a level that is challenging but still not too difficult. How does this
             badminton activity do this?”
             Student: “With this activity, you can choose to serve the shuttle
             from any of three lines. If you choose the distance that allows you
             to get the shuttle over the net most of the time and into one of the
             three areas marked on the floor with pylons, then you are choosing
             the distance that is not too easy and not too hard.”

 8p12        A1.3 demonstrate an understanding of factors that motivate
             personal participation in physical activities every day (e.g., gaining
             health benefits, including release from stress; having interpersonal
             interactions; becoming more independent in daily living activities;
             experiencing personal enjoyment), and explain how these factors
             can be used to influence others (e.g., friends, family, members of
             the community) to be physically active [CT]
             Teacher prompt: “How can your participation in physical activity
             have an impact on others?”
             Students: “By being active, you can be a good role model and
             influence others. At school I am a fitness buddy for a Grade 2
             student. Our classes get together and we help the younger
             students participate in physical activities.” “Sometimes just by
             participating, you can motivate others to join you. Because I play
             water polo, my younger sister wants to try it.” “On the weekends
             when I go for a bike ride, my father often comes with me. He might
             not go out on his own if I were not going.”

A2. Physical Fitness




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Health and Physical Education

Health and Physical Education (None) Expectations                                     Grade 8

 8p13       A2.1 Daily physical activity (DPA): participate in sustained
            moderate to vigorous physical activity, with appropriate warm-up
            and cool-down activities, to the best of their ability for a minimum of
            twenty minutes each day (e.g., capture the flag, four-corner soccer,
            ball fitness activities) [PS]

 8p14       A2.2 recognize the difference between health-related components of
            personal fitness (i.e., cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular
            strength, muscular endurance, flexibility) and skill-related
            components (i.e., balance, agility, power, reaction time, speed, and
            coordination), and explain how to use training principles to enhance
            both components [CT]
            Teacher prompt: “How do you use training principles, such as
            considering the frequency and intensity of your workout and the
            timing and types of activities you choose, to improve your
            health-related fitness, particularly cardiorespiratory fitness? What
            does Canada’s Physical Activity Guide for Youth recommend?”
            Student: “I need to decide what activities to do, and how often and
            how long I need to be active to get the fitness benefits I want. To
            improve my cardiorespiratory fitness, I need to choose activities that
            will raise my heart rate and make my heart and lungs work harder.
            Doing something like swimming for forty minutes three days a
            week, for example, would improve my cardiorespiratory fitness. The
            physical activity guide recommends that young people improve their
            fitness by increasing the time they currently spend on physical
            activity each day and reducing non-active time.”
            Teacher prompt: “Health-related components of fitness contribute to
            your overall health and well-being. Skill-related components of
            fitness help improve the quality of your movements during activity.
            Agility is a skill-related component of fitness. Explain what agility
            is. Why is it important?”
            Student: “Agility is the ability to change directions and change
            smoothly and easily from one movement to another. It is helpful
            when playing sports like soccer or basketball but also when
            participating in recreational activities like in-line skating or
            skateboarding. Having good agility helps you move more smoothly
            and efficiently and makes the activity more fun.”




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:     Health and Physical Education

Health and Physical Education (None) Expectations                                      Grade 8

 8p15        A2.3 assess their level of health-related fitness (i.e.,
             cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular
             endurance, flexibility) during various physical activities and monitor
             changes in fitness levels over time (e.g., by tracking heart rates,
             recovery time, how they feel during and after activity, level of
             participation; noting increase in range of motion when doing yoga
             stretches; tracking increases in the number of repetitions when
             doing arm curls with exercise bands) [PS, CT]
             Teacher prompt: “How has monitoring your work on different fitness
             components helped improve your fitness?”
             Student: “Seeing improvements over time has given me
             encouragement to keep working and become even more fit.
             Tracking my progress on different components has also helped me
             focus on those that need more work, so my overall fitness has
             become better.”

 8p16        A2.4 develop, implement, and revise a personal plan to meet short-
             and long-term health-related fitness and physical activity goals [PS,
             CT]
             Teacher prompt: “What have you chosen as your goal? When
             setting your goal and developing your plan to achieve it, consider
             your time frame as well as your assessment information. Is your
             goal short-term or long-term? How do you know that your goal is
             realistic? How will you know whether you’ve achieved your goal?
             What will help you achieve your goal? How will achieving this goal
             help you?”
             Student: “I’m working at improving my long-distance
             running/wheeling to improve my overall fitness. I want to run/wheel
             the 1500-metre event at the track meet in the spring. I am also
             thinking of doing a 10K charity run/wheel. I think my goal is
             realistic. It is October, so this is a long-term goal – and I have time
             to train. And I did complete the 1500-metre event last year, although
             it was fairly challenging. Here is my plan to accomplish my goal: I
             plan to practise three times a week for the next ten weeks. And if I
             work with a partner, I think I will be more successful, because my
             partner can give me tips, suggestions, and encouragement. I can
             also talk with my partner about my plan and consider whether I
             need to change anything I am doing. I don’t have a goal to complete
             the race in any set time. Finishing the race will be my goal. I will
             definitely be more fit and I will be really proud of myself if I can do
             this.”

A3. Safety




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Health and Physical Education

Health and Physical Education (None) Expectations                                       Grade 8

 8p17        A3.1 demonstrate behaviours and apply procedures that maximize
             their safety and that of others (e.g., following appropriate procedures
             and guidelines; demonstrating social responsibility; encouraging
             others to act safely; wearing sunscreen, long sleeves, sunglasses,
             and a hat to limit UV exposure) in a variety of physical activity
             settings (e.g., school, community recreational facilities, outdoor
             recreational venues) [PS, IS]
             Teacher prompt: “Other than school facilities, what are some local
             indoor and outdoor recreational venues in our community that we
             can use for physical activities? What safety considerations do you
             need to think about, whether you are participating in physical
             activity at school or in the community?”
             Student: “We have several parks, including a skateboard park, as
             well as fields, hiking trails, bike paths, a rink, and a lake that is
             close by. Wherever we participate in physical activities, we need to
             be aware of ourselves and others in our surroundings. Different
             activities have specific safety considerations and rules that we need
             to think about and follow. We also need to use and wear the proper
             safety equipment for these activities. Using good judgement,
             thinking for yourself, following posted rules and signs, and thinking
             before you act are good general guidelines.”

 8p18        A3.2 demonstrate a basic understanding of how to deal with
             emergency situations that may occur while participating in physical
             activity (e.g., remain calm, know when more help is needed or when
             to call 9-1-1, know where to get more help, know how to recognize
             symptoms of asthma or anaphylaxis, move objects that may be a
             safety hazard away from the injured person, know what an
             automated external defibrillator (AED) is and be aware of where they
             are located in community facilities) [PS, CT]

                             B. Movement Competence: Skills, Concepts, and Strategies

Overall expectations


 8p19        B1. perform movement skills, demonstrating an understanding of
             the basic requirements of the skills and applying movement
             concepts as appropriate, as they engage in a variety of physical
             activities;

 8p20        B2. apply movement strategies appropriately, demonstrating an
             understanding of the components of a variety of physical activities,
             in order to enhance their ability to participate successfully in those
             activities.



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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Health and Physical Education

Health and Physical Education (None) Expectations                                     Grade 8

B1. Movement Skills and Concepts


 8p21       B1.1 perform smooth transfers of weight and rotations, in relation to
            others and equipment, in a variety of situations involving static and
            dynamic balance (e.g., display control while stepping and turning on
            and off steps during an aerobic routine; move smoothly between
            positions and twists during a Pilates activity; work with a partner to
            create a sequence that involves holding a partner’s partial or whole
            weight when transferring from one balance to another) [PS, IS]
            Teacher prompt: “Create a series of tableaux that demonstrates the
            different phases of your favourite physical activity, such as the three
            phases involved in sprinting or in swinging a cricket bat, showing
            how you get ready, showing the action itself, and showing the
            follow-through. Be sure to show three distinct movements and a
            smooth transition from each movement to the next.”

 8p22       B1.2 perform a wide variety of locomotor movements, with and
            without equipment, while responding to a variety of external stimuli
            (e.g., approach, take off, and land when doing a triple jump into a
            pit; strive to beat a time record in orienteering; choreograph a dance
            sequence in response to music; perform step aerobics at different
            tempos; change styles of cross-country skiing depending on snow
            and terrain conditions, using a skate technique on open, flat
            sections and a classic technique on narrower trails) [PS]
            Teacher prompt: “How might you modify the movements in your
            dance sequence as the music changes or as you develop new
            movement sequences using different types of music?”
            Student: “With slower, more lyrical music, my movements would be
            slower and bigger. With fast music, I would use quicker and
            stronger steps in response to the fast tempo.”




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Health and Physical Education

Health and Physical Education (None) Expectations                                   Grade 8

 8p23       B1.3 use and combine sending, receiving, and retaining skills in
            response to a variety of external stimuli, while applying basic
            principles of movement (e.g., shift weight and use all joints for
            maximum force when throwing against the wind; put an appropriate
            spin on the ball when throwing a football or rolling a ball around an
            obstacle in front of a target; sprint to catch a pass that has been
            thrown short to an open space away from defenders; while moving
            to music, transfer a rhythmic gymnastics ball from one hand to the
            other, using the momentum of the movement to hold on to the ball;
            show awareness of others’ positions when taking off and landing in
            a basketball layup; move body to retain an object in flag tag while
            evading defenders; keep the basketball on their lap while moving
            and evading a defender in wheelchair basketball) [PS, IS]
            Teacher prompt: “How will you adjust for the wind when throwing an
            object?”
            Student: “I will need to throw harder or softer, or adjust my aim,
            depending on the direction of the wind.”

 8p24       B1.4 demonstrate an understanding of the phases of movement
            (i.e., preparation, execution, follow-through) and apply this
            understanding to the refinement of movement skills in a variety of
            physical activities (e.g., assume a ready position, swing, and follow
            through in a badminton stroke; reach, pull, and recover when doing
            the back crawl) [PS]
            Teacher prompt: “How does the preparation phase for sprinting differ
            from the preparation phase for cross-country running?”
            Student: “With sprinting, you stay low to the ground and prepare to
            explode from the start. With cross-country running, you want to
            start in more of an upright position, and you start more slowly
            because you want to conserve energy and pace yourself all the way
            through the run.”

B2. Movement Strategies




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Health and Physical Education

Health and Physical Education (None) Expectations                                   Grade 8

 8p25       B2.1 demonstrate an understanding of the components of a range of
            physical activities (e.g., movement skills, game structures, basic
            rules and guidelines, conventions of fair play and etiquette), and
            apply this understanding as they participate in a variety of physical
            activities in indoor and outdoor environments [IS, CT]
            Teacher prompt: “Working in your small group, consider what rule
            you could change in this activity to make it more or less
            challenging.”
            Student: “When playing ultimate disc, we could change the rules so
            that everyone has to throw with their non-dominant hand. That gives
            everyone good practice and also makes the play a little more equal
            because it makes it challenging for everyone.”
            Teacher prompt: “Now change the activity again, considering how
            you might adapt the activity for a person in your group who has
            different needs; for example, you may adapt the activity for
            someone who doesn’t understand the language or someone who
            may not understand the rules of the activity.”
            Student: “We might change the rules to make it a lot simpler – for
            example, we would not worry about the rules about the number of
            seconds you can hold the disc or the number of steps you are
            allowed to take with the disc. Once everyone seems to understand
            the game, we could add those rules back in. Or we might play the
            game with a person who needs help paired up with a more
            experienced player, or with everyone working in pairs, so people
            can help each other follow the game. In this variation, both players
            would handle the disc – for example, one catches it and the other
            throws it – before it goes on to another pair.”




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Health and Physical Education

Health and Physical Education (None) Expectations                                       Grade 8

 8p26       B2.2 demonstrate an understanding of how movement skills,
            concepts, and strategies are transferable across different physical
            activities within various categories (e.g., individual, target, net/wall,
            striking/fielding, territory), and identify skills, concepts, and
            strategies that they found effective while participating in a variety of
            physical activities in different categories [CT]
            Teacher prompt: “Think about activities you do at school and those
            you do on your own time. How can knowing how to do an activity
            well affect your performance in that activity and in other activities?”
            Students: “At school, we did cross-country running. I also go
            running sometimes at home. Learning how to pace myself when I
            run has made it a lot easier for me to run in my neighbourhood.”
            “We worked on our stability and balance when we did fitness and
            developmental gymnastics at school. My balance has improved and
            that has helped me with trail riding when I am working on strategies
            for riding over logs and bumps. The better I get, the more confident I
            get and the more I am able to do. I can also use the skills, like
            balance, and the strategies, like ways of negotiating bumps and
            jumps, when I do other activities, like skateboarding.”
            Teacher prompt: "What are some common elements of a variety of
            individual activities, such as yoga, qigong, and track and field?
            What about common elements among team sports such as soccer,
            rugby, and softball?"
            Student: “Activities like yoga and qigong involve core strength,
            balance, and flexibility. Paying attention to breathing is also really
            important. There is also a certain etiquette that you should follow in
            these activities – for example, you shouldn’t talk while doing the
            activity. You should focus on your own practice. In team activities
            like soccer, rugby, and softball, you use sending, receiving, and
            carrying skills. You need an understanding of the basic rules. You
            need to be aware of the boundaries and work together as a team.”




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Health and Physical Education

Health and Physical Education (None) Expectations                                        Grade 8

 8p27        B2.3 apply a variety of tactical solutions to increase chances of
             success as they participate in physical activities (e.g., individual
             activities: use conscious breathing to enhance movement during a
             fitness activity; toss balls or beanbags in an even pattern and keep
             eyes focused at the peak of the toss when learning to juggle with
             three objects; target activities: position balls or rocks in a place that
             makes it difficult for the opposing team to score in games such as
             bocce or curling; net/wall activities: choose the type of shot and
             consider the placement of the shot to gain an offensive advantage;
             striking/ fielding activities: send the object away from the defenders
             to allow for more time to score before the fielders retrieve the object;
             territory activities: send a pass that places the object closer to the
             goal; keep their body between the object and the defender while
             moving; practise using a fast transition from offence to defence) [IS,
             CT]
             Teacher prompt: “How do you use a breathing rhythm, planning
             when to inhale and when to exhale, to help you when doing
             activities such as push-ups, curl-ups, and stretches?”
             Student: “I find it easier to do curl-ups when I concentrate on
             breathing in when I’m lying back and on breathing out when I’m
             sitting up.”
             Teacher prompt: “What are some important ideas that transfer
             across different types of activities done in the natural environment,
             such as canoeing, hiking, and skiing?”
             Student: “When taking part in any activity in the natural
             environment, you should always respect the environment and all
             who live in it. Your activities should not harm or significantly change
             the environment. You should also take steps to ensure your safety.
             Monitor the weather conditions, have an emergency action plan,
             and always make sure others know where you will be and when you
             will return.”

                                                          C. Healthy living

Overall expectations


 8p28        C1. demonstrate an understanding of factors that contribute to
             healthy development;




 8p29        C2. demonstrate the ability to apply health knowledge and living
             skills to make reasoned decisions and take appropriate actions
             relating to their personal health and well-being;



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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Health and Physical Education

Health and Physical Education (None) Expectations                                   Grade 8

 8p30       C3. demonstrate the ability to make connections that relate to
            health and well-being – how their choices and behaviours affect both
            themselves and others, and how factors in the world around them
            affect their own and others’ health and well-being.

 8p31       (Growth and Development 1998) identify the physical, emotional,
            interpersonal, and spiritual aspects of healthy sexuality (e.g.,
            respect for life, ethical questions in relationships, contraception);


 8p32       (Growth and Development 1998) identify local support groups and
            community organizations (e.g., public health offices) that provide
            information or services related to health and well-being;


 8p33       (Growth and Development 1998) apply living skills (e.g.,
            decision-making, problem-solving, and refusal skills) to respond to
            matters related to sexuality, drug use, and healthy eating habits.


C1. Understanding Health Concepts


 8p34       Healthy Eating C1.1 demonstrate an understanding of different
            types of nutrients (e.g., macronutrients and micronutrients) and
            their functions
            Teacher prompt: “Different kinds of nutrients are needed to achieve
            optimal health and prevent disease. Nutrients can be divided into
            two types – macronutrients and micronutrients. What are these,
            and why is each kind of nutrient needed for good health?
            Student: “Macro means big. Macronutrients include carbohydrates,
            fats, and proteins. They provide our bodies with energy for growth
            and activity. Micro means small. Micronutrients are the vitamins
            and minerals in our food. They help regulate body functions such as
            vision, healing, and muscle movement.”




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Health and Physical Education

Health and Physical Education (None) Expectations                                      Grade 8

 8p35        Personal Safety and Injury Prevention C1.2 identify situations that
             could lead to injury or death (e.g., head injuries in contact sports,
             spinal cord injuries from falls or diving into unknown water, injuries
             in car accidents) and describe behaviours that can help to reduce
             risk (e.g., wearing protective gear, especially helmets; thinking
             before acting; avoiding conflicts that could lead to violence; avoiding
             diving into unknown water; being cautious when driving or riding
             ATVs, tractors, boats, or snowmobiles; being aware of food safety
             when cooking and preparing food) [CT]
             Teacher prompt: “Unintentional injury is a leading cause of death for
             children and youth in Canada. Adolescents need to be aware of the
             potential results associated with higher-risk activities. What are
             some possible consequences of injuries to the spinal cord or
             head?”
             Student: “Spinal cord injuries can cause complete or partial
             paralysis. Severe head injuries can cause brain damage that may
             result in impairments of movement, sight, hearing, speech, cognitive
             functioning, or sensation or that may even lead to death.”

 8p36        Substance Use, Addictions, and Related Behaviours C1.3 identify
             and describe the warning signs of substance misuse or abuse,
             addictions, and related behaviours (e.g., changes in behaviour,
             gradual withdrawal from social circles, a drop in academic
             performance) and the consequences that can occur (e.g.,
             aggressive behaviours related to alcohol use that can lead to
             gender-based violence, dating violence, or sexual assault; financial
             problems resulting from online gambling; overdose as a result of
             misuse of prescription medications, including pain relievers; inability
             to make good decisions as a result of drug use; binge drinking and
             alcohol poisoning; injury, death, or legal charges resulting from
             accidents caused by impaired driving; self-harming behaviours,
             including cutting, related to mental illnesses such as depression
             that are exacerbated by substance abuse; fetal alcohol spectrum
             disorder [FASD] in children as a result of alcohol abuse by the
             mother during pregnancy)

C2. Making Healthy Choices




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Health and Physical Education

Health and Physical Education (None) Expectations                                     Grade 8

 8p37       Healthy Eating C2.1 evaluate personal food choices on the basis of
            a variety of criteria, including serving size, nutrient content, energy
            value, and ingredients (e.g., fats, carbohydrates, protein, vitamins
            and minerals, calories, additives, allergens), preparation method,
            and other factors that can affect health and well-being [CT]
            Teacher prompt: “Why is paying attention to nutrients more valuable
            than counting calories?”
            Student: “Paying attention to nutrients helps you focus on eating in
            a balanced way. Calories are only one thing to consider and, by
            themselves, don’t provide information about nutrition. By following
            Canada’s Food Guide, I can make sure that I am meeting my
            energy and nutrient needs. It’s important to get all of the different
            nutrients that my body needs. By considering nutrient content, I
            can make sure I get enough vitamins and minerals – for example, I
            need to eat orange vegetables like carrots and orange peppers to
            get Vitamin A. And if I make soup with milk instead of water, I’ll get
            more calcium and Vitamin D.”
            Teacher: “Serving size is one thing to consider when making food
            choices. How many servings of fruits and vegetables are
            recommended for teenagers?”
            Student: “Canada’s Food Guide recommends that teens eat seven
            to eight servings of vegetables and fruit per day.”
            Teacher prompt: “If you do not eat breakfast, how does that affect
            how you feel during the day?”
            Student: “I feel sluggish in the morning, and I’m starving by ten
            o’clock. When I’m so hungry, I’m more likely to eat less nutritious
            food at break.”




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Health and Physical Education

Health and Physical Education (None) Expectations                                    Grade 8

 8p38       Personal Safety and Injury Prevention C2.2 demonstrate the ability
            to assess situations for potential dangers (e.g., getting into a car
            with a stranger or an impaired, unlicensed, or inexperienced driver;
            dependencies or coercion in dating relationships; joining gangs;
            participating in violence; attending a party where alcohol or drugs
            are being used; using cosmetic procedures or treatments such as
            piercing, tattooing, crash diets, or artificial tanning that involve
            potential health risks), and apply strategies for avoiding dangerous
            situations [CT]
            Teacher prompt: “What are some things you could do instead of
            getting into a car with a driver who has been drinking?”
            Student: “I could call a family member or friend, stay over where I
            am, walk home with a friend if there is a safe route, or take a bus or
            taxi if one is available. I should have a plan and, if I can, carry
            money or a phone, so that I do not have to depend on someone
            else to get home safely.”
            Teacher prompt: “What are some things to be aware of in a
            relationship to keep yourself safe?”
            Student: “Thinking about what makes a relationship healthier is a
            good start. Things that could lead to danger in relationships include
            an uneven balance of power in the relationship and situations that
            involve alcohol or drugs. I can stay safer by defining my own limits,
            listening to my gut feelings, and letting others know what I am doing
            and where I am going. If something does not feel good or right, I
            need to have the confidence to tell the other person to stop
            immediately.”




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Health and Physical Education

Health and Physical Education (None) Expectations                                        Grade 8

 8p39        Substance Use, Addictions, and Related Behaviours C2.3 explain
             how stress affects mental health and emotional well-being, and
             demonstrate an understanding of how to use a variety of strategies
             for relieving stress and caring for their mental health (e.g., engaging
             in physical activity, listening to music, resting, meditating, talking
             with a trusted individual, practising smudging) [PS]
             Teacher prompt: “Maintaining good mental health and emotional
             well-being involves balancing the different aspects of life: the
             physical, intellectual, social, emotional, and spiritual. It involves the
             ability to think, feel, act, and interact in a way that allows you to
             enjoy life and cope with challenges that arise. Signs of potential
             mental health difficulties can include being frequently sad or
             depressed, anxious, or rebellious; having difficulty paying attention;
             having problems with eating, sleeping, or getting along at school; or
             being addicted to substances. Everyone is vulnerable to emotional
             or mental stresses. What can you do to take care of your mental
             health?”
             Student: “Being aware of my feelings and monitoring them can help.
             So can understanding that anyone can experience mental health
             difficulties and that getting help makes a big difference.”
             Teacher prompt: “Stress can be positive and negative. Stress can
             motivate you to get things done, but it is also connected to things
             over which you have less control, like illness, death, or divorce,
             financial concerns, or environmental issues. Identify a situation in
             which students often feel stressed. How can you manage stress
             effectively?”
             Student: “
             Students often feel stressed when they have too much to do. To
             cope, you need to plan your time and set priorities. Do the most
             important things first. Include some time for taking breaks and being
             active. Check off what you get done as you do it. Plan with a friend,
             if that helps you. Stress can be managed or relieved in many ways.
             Some people find that taking some personal time to reflect and
             think and do quiet things like rest, write, read, meditate, or listen to
             music works best for them. Others find that being physically active
             or interacting with others by talking through problems is helpful.
             Different things work for different people, and you have to find the
             way that works best for you. Some cultures have special ways of
             relieving stress. Some First Nation people, for example, use
             smudging to relieve stress. This is a practice in which people fan
             smoke from herbs like sage or sweetgrass over their bodies to
             cleanse them of bad feelings and get rid of negative thoughts and
             energy. Afterwards, they feel renewed, physically, emotionally,
             mentally, and spiritually.”

C3. Making Connections for Healthy Living


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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Health and Physical Education

Health and Physical Education (None) Expectations                                    Grade 8

 8p40       Healthy Eating C3.1 identify strategies for promoting healthy eating
            within the school, home, and community (e.g., implementing school
            healthy food policies, launching healthy-eating campaigns,
            choosing healthy food items to sell in fundraising campaigns,
            getting involved in family meal planning, learning food preparation
            skills, urging local restaurants to highlight healthy food choices)
            [CT]
            Teacher prompt: “How could you promote healthy eating at home?”
            Student: “I could help with meal planning, shopping, and
            preparation, or discuss healthy eating with my family.”
            Teacher: “Where can you get more information about healthy eating
            in your community?”
            Student: “The public health unit, registered dieticians, medical
            clinics, family health centres, and reputable websites are all good
            sources of information about healthy eating.”
            Teacher: “What might you do to promote healthy eating at school?”
            Student: “I could ask about healthy food policies and join clubs or
            groups to support healthy eating at school. I could model healthy
            eating. As a class, we could put together information about
            healthier food choices to share with younger students. Instead of
            selling chocolates to raise funds, we could do something healthy
            like have a dance-a-thon.”

 8p41       Personal Safety and Injury Prevention C3.2 analyse the impact of
            violent behaviours, including aggression, anger, swarming, dating
            violence, and gender-based or racially based violence, on the
            person being targeted, the perpetrator, and bystanders, and
            describe the role of support services in preventing violence (e.g.,
            help lines, school counsellors, social workers, youth programs,
            shelters, restorative justice programs) [CT]Teacher prompt:
            "Managing emotions in heated situations is an essential skill.
            Consider this situation:Students are playing basketball on the
            playground; someone gets pushed aggressively and tempers flare.
            What is the impact on those playing and those watching?"Student:
            "This situation could escalate into a fight. Someone could be hurt,
            and that could lead to suspension or assault charges and damage
            the relationships between the players on and off the court and in the
            classroom. It could scare or injure the people watching."Teacher
            prompt: "Gender-based violence includes any form of behaviour -
            psychological, physical, and sexual - that is based on an individual?
            s gender and is intended to control, humiliate, or harm the
            individual. When we say "gender-based violence", we are often
            referring to violence against women and girls. Can you give me
            some examples?"Student: "It can include physical assault in a
            relationship, sexual assault, or rape. It can also include things like
            having your rear end pinched in the hallway, having your top pulled
            down or lifted up, or being held down and touched."
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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Health and Physical Education

Health and Physical Education (None) Expectations                              Grade 8

 8p42       (Growth and Development 1998) explain the importance of
            abstinence as a positive choice for adolescents;




 8p43       (Growth and Development 1998) identify symptoms, methods of
            transmission, prevention, and high-risk behaviours related to
            common STDs, HIV, and AIDS;


 8p44       (Growth and Development 1998) identify methods used to prevent
            pregnancy;




 8p45       (Growth and Development 1998) apply living skills (e.g.,
            decision-making, assertiveness, and refusal skills) in making
            informed decisions, and analyse the consequences of engaging in
            sexual activities and using drugs;

 8p46       (Growth and development 1998) identify sources of support (e.g.,
            parents/guardians, doctors) related to healthy sexuality issues




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    History

History (None) Expectations                                                             Grade 8

                                                           Confederation

Overall Expectations


 8h1         describe the internal and external political factors, key
             personalities, significant events, and geographical realities that led
             to the creation of the Dominion of Canada in 1867, and to the
             growth of Canada as other provinces and territories joined
             Confederation;

 8h2         use a variety of resources and tools to gather, process, and
             communicate information about the needs and challenges that led
             to the formation and expansion of the Canadian federation;


 8h3         compare Canada as it was in 1867 to the Canada of today,
             including political, social, and other issues facing the country in
             both periods.


Knowledge and Understanding


 8h4         identify key social, political, economic, and physical characteristics
             of the British North American colonies between 1850 and 1860
             (e.g., British, French, First Nation, and Black communities);


 8h5         identify external and internal factors and events leading to
             Confederation (e.g., political deadlock, intercolonial trade,
             reciprocity, Britain’s repeal of the Corn Laws, the Fenian raids, the
             U.S. doctrine of Manifest Destiny, transportation and defence
             issues);

 8h6         identify the roles of key individuals (e.g., Sir George-Étienne Cartier,
             Sir John A. Macdonald), the main events leading to the signing of
             the British North America Act (e.g., the Charlottetown, Quebec, and
             London Conferences; coalition government in the Canadas), and the
             reasons for the exclusion of certain groups from the political
             process (e.g., First Nation peoples, women, the Chinese and
             Japanese).

Inquiry/Research and Communication Skills




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:      History

History (None) Expectations                                                             Grade 8

 8h7          formulate questions to guide research on issues and problems
              (e.g.,Why did Nova Scotia join Confederation in 1867 while Prince
              Edward Island did not? What qualities made Louis Riel a good
              leader?);

 8h8          use a variety of primary and secondary sources to locate relevant
              information about the regional interests of each colony/province
              before and after joining the Dominion of Canada (e.g., primary
              sources: artefacts, journals, letters, statistics, field trips, period
              documents and maps; secondary sources: maps, illustrations, print
              materials, videos, CD-ROMs, Internet sites);

 8h9          describe and analyse conflicting points of view about a historical
              issue or personality (e.g., British versus Canadian points of view
              about trade and defence; Queen Victoria, Sir John A. Macdonald,
              Joseph Howe, Louis Riel);

 8h10         construct and use a wide variety of graphs, charts, diagrams, maps,
              and models to organize and interpret information (e.g., a
              decision-making chart showing the advantages and disadvantages
              of joining Confederation for each colony);

 8h11         analyse, synthesize, and evaluate historical information (e.g.,
              determine the changes in Canada's boundaries in 1867, 1870, 1871,
              1873, 1898, 1905, 1949, and 1999, using a series of maps);


 8h12         communicate the results of inquiries for specific purposes and
              audiences, using media works, political cartoons, oral
              presentations, written notes and descriptions, drawings, tables,
              charts, and graphs (e.g., create captions for political cartoons of the
              time);

 8h13         use appropriate vocabulary (e.g., Confederation, conference,
              political deadlock, reciprocity, intercolonial trade, Corn Laws,
              Fenians, Manifest Destiny) to describe their inquiries and
              observations.

Application




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    History

History (None) Expectations                                                           Grade 8

 8h14        illustrate the growth of Canada, using outline maps or other tools,
             identifying the physical regions of Canada, the colonies that joined
             Confederation, and their boundaries and dates of entry (e.g., 1867
             Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia; 1870 Manitoba, as
             a province, and Northwest Territories, as a territory; 1871 British
             Columbia; 1873 Prince Edward Island; 1898 Yukon, as a territory;
             1905 Alberta, Saskatchewan; 1949 Newfoundland; 1999 Nunavut,
             as a territory);

 8h15        use sections 91 and 92 of the British North America Act to outline
             how and why responsibilities are divided between the federal and
             provincial governments and relate these divisions to some
             present-day disagreements between the two levels of government
             (e.g., federal responsibilities for First Nation peoples, health care,
             the environment, trade, telecommunications).

                                            The Development of Western Canada

Overall Expectations


 8h16        outline the main factors contributing to the settlement and
             development of the Prairie provinces, British Columbia, and Yukon,
             and describe the effects of development on various groups of people
             in the region from a variety of perspectives;

 8h17        use a variety of resources and tools to gather, process, and
             communicate information about conflicts and changes that occurred
             during the development of western Canada;


 8h18        show how the history of the Canadian west has influenced both
             artistic/imaginative works and Canadian institutions.



Knowledge and Understanding


 8h19        describe the everyday life of various groups (e.g., First Nation
             peoples, Métis, Europeans) in western Canada in the late
             nineteenth century;




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    History

History (None) Expectations                                                             Grade 8

 8h20        explain the factors that led to the settlement of the Canadian west
             (e.g., federal government policy of opening up the prairies for
             European settlement, protective tariffs, railroad construction);


 8h21        analyse how treaties and the Indian Act of 1876 transformed the
             lifestyles of First Nation peoples in the Canadian west;




 8h22        describe the role of the Canadian Pacific Railway in furthering
             Canada's expansion, and identify the key individuals (e.g., Donald
             Smith,William Van Horne) and groups (e.g., Chinese workers)
             whose efforts led to the railway's completion;

 8h23        describe the causes and results of the Red River Rebellion of
             1869-70 and the North-West Rebellion of 1885 and explain the role
             of key individuals and groups (e.g., Louis Riel, Gabriel Dumont, the
             North-West Mounted Police,Thomas Scott, Big Bear, Poundmaker,
             General Wolseley, Catherine Schubert);

 8h24        explain the effects of post-Confederation immigration, new wheat
             strains, and the Klondike gold rush on the expansion of western
             Canada and British Columbia (e.g., the development of prairie
             towns, the entry of the Yukon Territory into Confederation, the
             growth of Dawson City).

Inquiry/Research and Communication Skills


 8h25        formulate questions to guide research on issues and problems
             (e.g.,Why did Big Bear receive the treatment he did from Canada's
             legal system?);


 8h26        use a variety of primary and secondary sources to locate relevant
             information about the building of the railway, the settling of the land,
             and social and cultural life in the developing west (e.g., primary
             sources: photographs of Chinese labourers and prairie sodbusters,
             the poetry of Robert W. Service; secondary sources: maps,
             illustrations, print materials, videos, CD-ROMs, Internet sites);

 8h27        analyse, synthesize, and evaluate historical information (e.g.,
             trends in immigration, the impact of Treaties 1 to 8);




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:      History

History (None) Expectations                                                           Grade 8

 8h28         describe and analyse conflicting points of view about a historical
              event (e.g., the Pacific Scandal, the hanging of Louis Riel, the
              imprisonment of Big Bear);


 8h29         communicate the results of inquiries for specific purposes and
              audiences, using media works, political cartoons, oral
              presentations, written notes and reports, drawings, tables, charts,
              and graphs (e.g., create diary entries depicting Louis Riel as a hero
              or a traitor);

 8h30         use appropriate vocabulary (e.g., treaties, Métis, Rupert's Land,
              provisional government, prospector, panning for gold, staking a
              claim) to describe their inquiries and observations.


Application


 8h31         compare the image and duties of the North-West Mounted Police to
              the image and duties of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police today;




 8h32         show how examples of art, poetry, music, and video reflect the
              history of the Canadian west (e.g., the art of Emily Carr, "The
              Cremation of Sam McGee" by Robert W. Service, "The Canadian
              Railroad Trilogy" by Gordon Lightfoot, Paul Yee's writings).

                                                 Canada: A Changing Society

Overall Expectations


 8h33         describe key characteristics of Canada between 1885 and 1914,
              including social and economic conditions, the roles and
              contributions of various people and groups, internal and external
              pressures for change, and the political responses to these
              pressures;

 8h34         use a variety of resources and tools to gather, process, and
              communicate information about the factors that shaped Canada as
              it was entering the twentieth century;




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    History

History (None) Expectations                                                           Grade 8

 8h35       compare living and working conditions, technological developments,
            and social roles near the beginning of the twentieth century with
            similar aspects of life in present-day Canada.


Knowledge and Understanding


 8h36       describe the factors contributing to change in Canadian society
            (e.g., immigration, technology, politics, globalization);




 8h37       describe the achievements of individuals and groups in Canada who
            have contributed significantly to the technological development of
            Canada and the world (e.g., Martha Black, Guglielmo Marconi,
            Alexander Graham Bell, J.A.D. McCurdy, Samuel McLaughlin,
            George Ross, Adam Beck) and analyse the impact on society of
            new technologies (e.g., prospecting, radio, the telephone, the
            automobile, electricity);

 8h38       describe the social and working conditions of Canadians around the
            beginning of the twentieth century (e.g., in mining, forestry, factory
            work; on farms; in cities);


 8h39       describe how specific individuals and events helped change the
            position of women and children in Canada (e.g., Nellie McClung,
            Emily Carr, Lucy Maud Montgomery, Pauline Johnson; the
            Temperance Movement, laws establishing compulsory education);

 8h40       outline the advantages and disadvantages of Clifford Sifton's
            immigration policy in the Laurier era;




 8h41       identify and explain the factors that led to Laurier's electoral defeat
            in 1911 (e.g., the reciprocity issue, political compromise,
            French-English tensions);


 8h42       identify key events that illustrate Canada's role within the British
            Empire and explain their significance (e.g., the Boer War, the Naval
            Question, Canada's participation in Imperial conferences);




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:      History

History (None) Expectations                                                           Grade 8

 8h43         describe the treaties, alliances, events, and people that contributed
              to the start of the First World War, and explain their relevance to
              Canada.


Inquiry/Research and Communication Skills


 8h44         formulate questions to facilitate research on particular topics
              (e.g.,Why did Canadians support Laurier's leadership for fifteen
              years? Who started the First World War?);


 8h45         use a variety of primary and secondary sources to locate relevant
              information (e.g., primary sources: immigration posters,
              photographs of working conditions, journals and diaries; secondary
              sources: print materials, videos, CD-ROMs, Internet sites);

 8h46         analyse, synthesize, and evaluate historical information (e.g.,
              immigration tables, population growth tables);




 8h47         describe and analyse conflicting points of view about a historical
              issue (e.g., child labour, the Boer War, the causes of the First
              World War);


 8h48         communicate the results of inquiries for specific purposes and
              audiences, using media works, political cartoons, oral
              presentations, written notes and reports, drawings, tables, charts,
              and graphs (e.g., prepare a report on a selected topic and
              individual);

 8h49         use appropriate vocabulary (e.g., advocate, movement, temperance,
              reciprocity, entrepreneurs, multiculturalism, alliance, entente ) to
              describe their inquiries and observations.


Application


 8h50         create an immigration campaign to attract immigrants to Canada
              around the beginning of the twentieth century and today, using
              media appropriate to the period (e.g., poster, pamphlet);




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    History

History (None) Expectations                                                       Grade 8

 8h51       compare the challenges facing farmers and workers at the
            beginning of the twentieth century to those facing farmers and
            workers today;


 8h52       compare family roles at the beginning of the twentieth century to
            family roles today (e.g., responsibilities and roles of men, women,
            and children).




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Language

English Language (2006) (None) Expectations                                           Grade 8

                                                      Oral Communication

Overall Expectations


 8e1         1. listen in order to understand and respond appropriately in a
             variety of situations for a variety of purposes;




 8e2         2. use speaking skills and strategies appropriately to communicate
             with different audiences for a variety of purposes;




 8e3         3. reflect on and identify their strengths as listeners and speakers,
             areas for improvement, and the strategies they found most helpful in
             oral communication situations.


1. Listening to Understand


 8e4         Purpose 1.1 identify a range of purposes for listening in a variety of
             situations, formal and informal, and set goals appropriate to specific
             listening tasks (e.g., to evaluate the effectiveness of the arguments
             on both sides of a class debate on an environmental, social, or
             global issue; to respond to feedback in peer conferences and
             student/teacher conferences)

 8e5         Active Listening Strategies 1.2 demonstrate an understanding of
             appropriate listening behaviour by adapting active listening
             strategies to suit a wide variety of situations, including work in
             groups (e.g., follow the conversation and make relevant
             contributions in a group discussion; express interest in what is
             being said by commenting and questioning)




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Language

English Language (2006) (None) Expectations                                          Grade 8

 8e6        Comprehension Strategies 1.3 identify a variety of listening
            comprehension strategies and use them appropriately before,
            during, and after listening in order to understand and clarify the
            meaning of increasingly complex and challenging oral texts (e.g.,
            use background knowledge about the structure of oral texts such as
            debates, interviews, speeches, monologues, lectures, and plays to
            make predictions and identify important ideas while listening; ask
            questions for clarification or further information; use a range of
            note–taking strategies to keep track of or summarize important
            points; use self–questioning to monitor understanding of what is
            being said)

 8e7        Demonstrating Understanding 1.4 demonstrate an understanding of
            the information and ideas in increasingly complex and difficult oral
            texts in a variety of ways (e.g., compare views about an oral text
            with two other classmates and prepare a joint summary to present
            to the class; cite details from an oral text to support their opinions
            about it in a small–group discussion; use visual art, music, or
            drama to represent important ideas in an oral text)

 8e8        Making Inferences/Interpreting Texts 1.5 develop and explain
            interpretations of oral texts using the language of the text and oral
            and visual cues to support their interpretations. Teacher prompt:
            “Why might different audiences interpret the same oral text in
            different ways? Give examples to support your opinion.”

 8e9        Extending Understanding 1.6 extend understanding of oral texts,
            including increasingly complex or difficult texts, by connecting,
            comparing, and contrasting the ideas and information in them to
            their own knowledge, experience, and insights; to other texts,
            including print and visual texts; and to the world around them (e.g.,
            respond in role as a character from an oral text while being
            interviewed by another student; discuss similarities and differences
            between oral and print texts on the same topic, focusing on specific
            elements such as the accuracy and relevance of information;
            debate the wisdom of the choices made by a historical personage
            depicted in an oral biography, based on ideas about what their own
            choices might have been)

 8e10       Analysing Texts 1.7 analyse a variety of complex or challenging oral
            texts in order to identify the strategies that have been used to
            inform, persuade, or entertain, and evaluate the effectiveness of
            those strategies (e.g., compare the tone and the ideas emphasized
            in speeches about non–smoking regulations by a tobacco company
            representative and a person with asthma and suggest how each
            approach would influence an audience)


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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Language

English Language (2006) (None) Expectations                                         Grade 8

 8e11       Point of View 1.8 explain what the use of irony or satire in an oral
            text reveals about the speaker 's purpose and perspective. Teacher
            prompts: “What cues help you to recognize the use of irony or
            satire in a text?” “How does recognizing irony or satire help you to
            understand what is being said?”

 8e12       Presentation Strategies 1.9 identify a wide variety of presentation
            strategies used in oral texts, evaluate their effectiveness, and
            suggest other strategies that might have been as effective or more
            so (e.g., compare two oral presentations, with a focus on the
            effectiveness of the presentation strategies used by each speaker).
            Teacher prompt: “Did the speakers use facial expressions, vocal
            effects, and body language appropriately? Did the use of these
            strategies make the message more convincing?”

2. Speaking to Communicate


 8e13       Purpose 2.1 identify a range of purposes for speaking in a variety of
            situations, both straightforward and more complex, and explain how
            the purpose and intended audience might influence the choice of
            speaking strategies (e.g., to introduce a speaker; to support the
            resolution in a debate; to dramatize a favourite poem; to explain a
            complex procedure to an individual or group; to work towards the
            solution to a problem with a partner)

 8e14       Interactive Strategies 2.2 demonstrate an understanding of
            appropriate speaking behaviour in most situations, using a variety of
            speaking strategies and adapting them to suit the purpose and
            audience (e.g., paraphrase different points of view on an issue to
            clarify alternative perspectives; affirm the contributions of others
            before responding; avoid making highly personal remarks in public
            or in formal situations)

 8e15       Clarity and Coherence 2.3 communicate in a clear, coherent
            manner, using a structure and style appropriate to the purpose, the
            subject matter, and the intended audience (e.g., combine logic with
            an appeal to emotion in a charity fund–raising speech; use a
            cause–and-effect structure in a report on the rise of a political
            movement or the emergence of a contentious Aboriginal issue)




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Language

English Language (2006) (None) Expectations                                              Grade 8

 8e16        Appropriate Language 2.4 use appropriate words, phrases, and
             terminology from the full range of their vocabulary, including
             inclusive and non–discriminatory language, and a range of stylistic
             devices, to communicate their meaning effectively and engage the
             interest of their intended audience (e.g., use imagery, figurative
             language such as similes and analogies, and other stylistic
             elements such as idioms and onomatopoeia to evoke a particular
             mood in a dramatic monologue or an appeal for support)

 8e17        Vocal Skills and Strategies 2.5 identify a range of vocal effects,
             including tone, pace, pitch, volume, and a variety of sound effects,
             and use them appropriately and with sensitivity towards cultural
             differences to communicate their meaning (e.g., use changes in
             pitch to differentiate voices in a story-telling session; use tone and
             volume to clarify implied messages in a rap poem)

 8e18        Non–Verbal Cues 2.6 identify a variety of non–verbal cues, including
             facial expression, gestures, and eye contact, and use them in oral
             communications, appropriately and with sensitivity towards cultural
             differences, to help convey their meaning (e.g., rehearse and use
             hand gestures and increased volume to emphasize points during a
             formal presentation)

 8e19        Visual Aids 2.7 use a variety of appropriate visual aids (e.g.,
             photographs, multimedia, diagrams, graphs, charts, costumes,
             props, artefacts) to support and enhance oral presentations (e.g.,
             use a chart to clarify the order of events in a report about a scientific
             breakthrough; use a video clip from an animated cartoon to show
             how sound is used to complement the image)

3. Reflecting on Oral Communication Skills and Strategies


 8e20        Metacognition 3.1 identify what strategies they found most helpful
             before, during, and after listening and speaking and what steps they
             can take to improve their oral communication skills. Teacher
             prompts: “What listening strategies help you to contribute effectively
             in a group discussion?” “What questions do you ask yourself to
             check whether you are understanding what is being said?” “Can you
             identify the most effective elements in your oral presentation? How
             do you know they were effective?” “What would you do differently
             next time?”

 8e21        Interconnected Skills 3.2 identify how their skills as viewers,
             representers, readers, and writers help them improve their oral
             communication skills. Teacher prompt: “How does your experience
             of creating media texts help you understand oral texts?”

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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Language

English Language (2006) (None) Expectations                                           Grade 8

                                                                Reading

Overall Expectations


 8e22        1. read and demonstrate an understanding of a variety of literary,
             graphic, and informational texts, using a range of strategies to
             construct meaning;


 8e23        2. recognize a variety of text forms, text features, and stylistic
             elements and demonstrate understanding of how they help
             communicate meaning;


 8e24        3. use knowledge of words and cueing systems to read fluently;




 8e25        4. reflect on and identify their strengths as readers, areas for
             improvement, and the strategies they found most helpful before,
             during, and after reading.


1. Reading for Meaning


 8e26        Variety of Texts 1.1 read a wide variety of increasingly complex or
             difficult texts from diverse cultures, including literary texts (e.g.,
             short stories, novels, poetry, essays, science fiction, memoirs,
             scripts, satire), graphic texts (e.g., graphs and graphic organizers,
             charts and tables, surveys, maps, spreadsheets), and informational
             texts (e.g., essays, Canadian and global print and online sources,
             electronic texts, textbooks, dictionaries, thesauri, websites,
             transcripts)

 8e27        Purpose 1.2 identify a variety of purposes for reading and choose
             increasingly complex or difficult reading materials appropriate for
             those purposes (e.g., several online or print articles by the same
             author to identify consistency or change in the author 's point of
             view; websites for information on a topic from different sources;
             stories from different cultures, including Aboriginal cultures, to
             compare treatments of similar themes)




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Language

English Language (2006) (None) Expectations                                           Grade 8

 8e28       Comprehension Strategies 1.3 identify a variety of reading
            comprehension strategies and use them appropriately before,
            during, and after reading to understand increasingly complex or
            difficult texts (e.g., activate prior knowledge on a topic through
            dialogue or by developing mind maps; use visualization and
            comparisons with images in other texts or media to clarify
            impressions of characters, scenes, or concepts; ask questions to
            monitor and clarify understanding; identify important ideas;
            synthesize ideas to broaden understanding)

 8e29       Demonstrating Understanding 1.4 demonstrate understanding of
            increasingly complex and difficult texts by summarizing important
            ideas and explaining how the details support the main idea (e.g.,
            theme or argument and supporting evidence in reviews, essays,
            plays, poems; key information and related data in public
            documents, online and print reference articles, manuals, surveys,
            graphs, tables and charts, websites, transcripts)

 8e30       Making Inferences/Interpreting Texts 1.5 develop and explain
            interpretations of increasingly complex or difficult texts using stated
            and implied ideas from the texts to support their interpretations.
            Teacher prompt: “How do the stated and unstated messages in the
            dialogue between these characters complicate the plot of this
            story? What details in the dialogue support your interpretation?”

 8e31       Extending Understanding 1.6 extend understanding of texts,
            including increasingly complex or difficult texts, by connecting the
            ideas in them to their own knowledge, experience, and insights, to
            other texts, and to the world around them. Teacher prompts: “Do
            you have knowledge or experiences that affect the way you interpret
            the author's message?” “How does the author's approach differ from
            the approach in other articles you have read on this topic?”

 8e32       Analysing Texts 1.7 analyse a variety of texts, including complex or
            difficult texts, and explain how the various elements in them
            contribute to meaning and influence the reader's reaction (e.g.,
            narrative: rising action holds attention and creates suspense; report
            on an investigation: the opening paragraph tells the reader about the
            purpose, goals, and audience for the report). Teacher prompts:
            “Why does the author spend so much time describing the
            preparation for the race?” “How does the information in the opening
            paragraph help you understand the rest of the report?”




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Language

English Language (2006) (None) Expectations                                            Grade 8

 8e33        Responding to and Evaluating Texts 1.8 evaluate the effectiveness
             of a text based on evidence taken from that text. Teacher prompts:
             “Were the instructions for doing the experiment clear and easy to
             follow? Why or why not?” “Were the author's arguments well
             supported by credible evidence? Did the arguments make sense?
             Why, or why not?” “Identify three uses of imagery in the poem and
             explain how they help the poet communicate the theme effectively.”

 8e34        Point of View 1.9 identify the point of view presented in texts,
             including increasingly complex or difficult texts; give evidence of any
             biases they may contain; and suggest other possible perspectives
             (e.g., determine whether an environmental argument should include
             an economic perspective or an economic argument should include
             an environmental perspective). Teacher prompt: “How will the
             addition of another perspective affect the impact or appeal of the
             text?”

2. Understanding Form and Style


 8e35        Text Forms 2.1 analyse a variety of text forms and explain how their
             particular characteristics help communicate meaning, with a focus
             on literary texts such as a memoir (e.g., the author's personality
             and/or special experience of the subject are an important part of the
             narrative, even if the author is not the subject of the narrative),
             graphic texts such as a map (e.g., the different colours for land and
             water help readers understand what geographical features they are
             looking at), and informational texts such as a magazine article
             (e.g., sidebars allow minor themes to be developed in detail without
             interrupting the main narrative)

 8e36        Text Patterns 2.2 analyse increasingly complex texts to identify
             different types of organizational patterns used in them and explain
             how the patterns help communicate meaning (e.g., a
             “before–and–after”comparison in an advertisement; time order and
             cause and effect in an online magazine or newspaper article)

 8e37        Text Features 2.3 identify a variety of text features and explain how
             they help communicate meaning (e.g., tree diagrams, tables,
             endnotes, and “Works Cited”or “References” lists help readers
             locate information and understand its context). Teacher prompt:
             “What do the types of sources in the ‘References' list tell you about
             the author's research?”




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:     Language

English Language (2006) (None) Expectations                                            Grade 8

 8e38         Elements of Style 2.4 identify a range of elements of style –
              including symbolism, irony, analogy, metaphor, and other rhetorical
              devices – and explain how they help communicate meaning and
              enhance the effectiveness of texts (e.g., the use of dramatic irony,
              in which the audience understands the implications of words or
              actions better than the characters do themselves, can create
              humour or a sense of foreboding)

3. Reading With Fluency


 8e39         Reading Familiar Words 3.1 automatically read and understand
              most words in a wide range of reading contexts (e.g., words from
              grade–level texts; terminology used in discussions and posted in
              the classroom; words from shared–, guided–, and
              independent–reading texts, electronic texts, and resource material
              used in the curriculum subject areas)

 8e40         Reading Unfamiliar Words 3.2 predict the meaning of and rapidly
              solve unfamiliar words using different types of cues,
              including:semantic (meaning) cues (e.g., base words, prefixes,
              suffixes, phrases, sentences, and visuals that activate existing
              knowledge of oral and written language);syntactic (language
              structure) cues (e.g., word order and the relationship between
              words, language patterns, punctuation);graphophonic (phonological
              and graphic) cues (e.g., familiar words within larger words, syllables
              within larger words, similarities between words with known spelling
              patterns and unknown words). Teacher prompt: “Read to the end of
              the paragraph and see if the context will help you solve the word. Is
              the word essential to your understanding? If so, reread and see if
              you can solve the word by…”

 8e41         Reading Fluently 3.3 read appropriate texts with expression and
              confidence, adjusting reading strategies and reading rate to match
              the form and purpose (e.g., orally read to entertain a younger class,
              using suitable emphasis, intonation, and phrasing)

4. Reflecting on Reading Skills and Strategies




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Language

English Language (2006) (None) Expectations                                           Grade 8

 8e42        Metacognition 4.1 identify the strategies they found most helpful
             before, during, and after reading and explain, in conversation with
             the teacher and/or peers or in a reader's notebook/reflective journal,
             how they can use these and other strategies to improve as readers.
             Teacher prompts: “What strategies do you use most consistently to
             help you understand a new text?” “What types of questions do you
             ask yourself to help you monitor your reading?” “What ‘fix–up'
             strategies do you use when you don't understand?” “What
             strategies do you use confidently and effectively?”

 8e43        Interconnected Skills 4.2 explain, in conversation with the teacher
             and/or peers or in a reader's notebook/reflective journal, how their
             skills in listening, speaking, writing, viewing, and representing help
             them make sense of what they read. Teacher prompts: “Did
             watching the television program about space exploration help you
             when you were reading the newspaper reports of the space probe?”
             “How does creating online texts help you read electronic texts?”
             “What lessons have you learned as a writer/listener that will make
             you a better reader?”

                                                               Writing

Overall Expectations


 8e44        1. generate, gather, and organize ideas and information to write for
             an intended purpose and audience;




 8e45        2. draft and revise their writing, using a variety of informational,
             literary, and graphic forms and stylistic elements appropriate for the
             purpose and audience;


 8e46        3. use editing, proofreading, and publishing skills and strategies,
             and knowledge of language conventions, to correct errors, refine
             expression, and present their work effectively;


 8e47        4. reflect on and identify their strengths as writers, areas for
             improvement, and the strategies they found most helpful at different
             stages in the writing process.


1. Developing and Organizing Content


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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Language

English Language (2006) (None) Expectations                                           Grade 8

 8e48        Purpose and Audience 1.1 identify the topic, purpose, and audience
             for more complex writing forms (e.g., a personal memoir about the
             school experience to share with classmates, family, and friends at
             graduation; a report on a topic of current interest in the style of a
             newspaper article, including headlines, for a school or community
             newspaper; a campaign flyer or brochure to promote a candidate for
             school government)

 8e49        Developing Ideas 1.2 generate ideas about more challenging topics
             and identify those most appropriate to the purpose




 8e50        Research 1.3 gather information to support ideas for writing, using a
             variety of strategies and a wide range of print and electronic sources
             (e.g., produce a plan and timeline for carrying out research tasks;
             interview people with knowledge of the topic; identify and use
             graphic and multimedia resources; record sources used and
             information gathered in a form that makes it easy to understand and
             retrieve)

 8e51        Classifying Ideas 1.4 sort and classify ideas and information for
             their writing in a variety of ways that allow them to manipulate
             information and see different combinations and relationships in their
             data (e.g., by using electronic graphic organizers, tables, charts)

 8e52        Organizing Ideas 1.5 identify and order main ideas and supporting
             details and group them into units that could be used to develop a
             summary, a debate, or a report of several paragraphs, using a
             variety of strategies (e.g., making jot notes; making sketchboard
             outlines of a procedure or series of events) and organizational
             patterns (e.g., combined/multiple orders such as order of
             importance and cause and effect)

 8e53        Review 1.6 determine whether the ideas and information they have
             gathered are relevant, appropriate, and sufficiently specific for the
             purpose, and do more planning and research if necessary (e.g.,
             check for depth and breadth of coverage of the topic)

2. Using Knowledge of Form and Style in Writing




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Language

English Language (2006) (None) Expectations                                           Grade 8

 8e54       Form 2.1 write complex texts of a variety of lengths using a wide
            range of forms (e.g., a memoir of a significant Canadian; a report
            comparing the economies of two nations and explaining how a new
            industry might affect each nation's economy; briefing notes for an
            oral debate outlining both sides of an argument, including appeals
            to both logic and emotion; a narrative in the style of a particular
            author, adding to or extending a text by that author; an original
            satirical, science–fiction, or realistic fiction piece modelled on the
            structures and conventions of the genre; a free verse or narrative
            poem, or a limerick)

 8e55       Voice 2.2 establish a distinctive voice in their writing appropriate to
            the subject and audience, (e.g., use emotive language to persuade
            the audience to share their feelings, and explain the effect they
            think it will have on the audience)

 8e56       Word Choice 2.3 regularly use vivid and/or figurative language and
            innovative expressions in their writing (e.g., adjective phrases: The
            car with the fluorescent red racing stripe; adverb phrases: He
            walked with the gait of a sailor; specialized vocabulary and
            terminology; analogies and idioms). Teacher prompt: “Identify three
            language choices you have made and explain the effect they will
            have on a reader.”

 8e57       Sentence Fluency 2.4 vary sentence types and structures for
            different purposes (e.g., to alter the pace or mood), with a focus on
            using a range of relative pronouns (e.g., who, which), subordinate
            conjunctions (e.g., whenever, because, although), and both the
            active and passive voice

 8e58       Point of View 2.5 identify their point of view and other possible
            points of view, evaluate other points of view, and find ways to
            respond to other points of view, if appropriate. Teacher prompt: “How
            can you address in your writing the questions that would come from
            others who hold a different point of view?”

 8e59       Preparing for Revision 2.6 identify elements in their writing that need
            improvement, selectively using feedback from the teacher and
            peers, with a focus on depth of content and appropriateness of tone.
            Teacher prompts: “Are there any key ideas that are missing or need
            more explanation?” “Does your writing have an identifiable tone
            (e.g., sincerity, humour, horror, irony, pathos)? Is the tone
            appropriate to the subject matter? Does it accurately reflect your
            point of view?”




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Language

English Language (2006) (None) Expectations                                             Grade 8

 8e60        Revision 2.7 make revisions to improve the content, clarity, and
             interest of their written work, using a variety of strategies (e.g., use
             sticky notes while rereading to record questions and ideas; cut and
             paste to improve logic of organization; add or substitute words and
             phrases, including vocabulary from other subject areas; use idioms,
             figurative language, and rhetorical devices such as analogy to
             achieve particular effects; adjust sentence length, type, and
             complexity to suit the audience and purpose; use patterns such as
             repetition with variations to emphasize important points and hold the
             attention of the audience). Teacher prompt: “Could you use two
             different sentence lengths and patterns to highlight the two points of
             view in your argument?”

 8e61        Producing Drafts 2.8 produce revised draft pieces of writing to meet
             identified criteria based on the expectations (e.g., adequate
             development of information and ideas, logical organization,
             appropriate use of form and style, appropriate use of conventions)

3. Applying Knowledge of Language Conventions and Presenting Written Work Effectively


 8e62        Spelling Familiar Words 3.1 spell familiar words correctly (e.g.,
             words from their oral vocabulary, anchor charts, and shared–,
             guided–, and independent–reading texts; words used regularly in
             instruction across the curriculum)

 8e63        Spelling Unfamiliar Words 3.2 spell unfamiliar words using a variety
             of strategies that involve understanding sound–symbol relationships,
             word structures, word meanings, and generalizations about spelling
             (e.g., orally emphasize differences in easily confused words:
             affect/effect, technicality/technically; compare complicated words to
             words with known letter patterns; use knowledge of the history of a
             word to help spell it: sheep herder/shepherd; use knowledge of
             familiar words to spell technical terms)

 8e64        Vocabulary 3.3 confirm spellings and word meanings or word choice
             using a wide variety of resources appropriate for the purpose (e.g.,
             locate entry words, pronunciation keys, prefixes, and information
             about word origins in online and print dictionaries, including
             thematic dictionaries such as a dictionary of synonyms, antonyms,
             and homonyms, a science dictionary)




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:     Language

English Language (2006) (None) Expectations                                              Grade 8

 8e65         Punctuation 3.4 use punctuation appropriately to communicate their
              intended meaning in more complex writing forms, including forms
              specific to different subjects across the curriculum, with a focus on
              the use of: commas to separate introductory phrases from the main
              part of a sentence and to separate words, phrases, and clauses in
              a series; quotation marks to distinguish words being discussed as
              words and to indicate titles; ellipses (…) and dashes to indicate
              sentence breaks, ambiguities, or parenthetical statements

 8e66         Grammar 3.5 use parts of speech correctly to communicate their
              meaning clearly, with a focus on subject/verb agreement and the
              use of nouns, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, and prepositions


 8e67         Proofreading 3.6 proofread and correct their writing using guidelines
              developed with peers and the teacher (e.g., an editing checklist
              specific to the writing task)


 8e68         Publishing 3.7 use a wide range of appropriate elements of effective
              presentation in the finished product, including print, script, different
              fonts, graphics, and layout (e.g., use legible printing and cursive
              writing; use an imaginative text layout, drawings, and a table of
              contents in a class poetry anthology for the school library; use a
              spreadsheet to display detailed specific information)

 8e69         Producing Finished Works 3.8 produce pieces of published work to
              meet identified criteria based on the expectations (e.g., adequacy of
              information and ideas, logic and effectiveness of organization,
              effective use of form and stylistic elements, appropriate use of
              conventions, effective presentation)

4. Reflecting on Writing Skills and Strategies


 8e70         Metacognition 4.1 identify a variety of strategies they used before,
              during, and after writing, explain which ones were most helpful, and
              suggest future steps they can take to improve as writers (e.g., use
              a three–column reflection journal to monitor the writing process:
              What I learned/How I learned it/How I can use it). Teacher prompt:
              “Explain how you used your writer's notebook/journal to help you
              identify your strengths as a writer and your next steps for writing.”




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Language

English Language (2006) (None) Expectations                                           Grade 8

 8e71        Interconnected Skills 4.2 describe how their skills in listening,
             speaking, reading, viewing, and representing help in their
             development as writers. Teacher prompts: “How does assuming the
             role of the reader of your own writing help you revise your writing?”
             “How do you think listening to oral texts has helped you become a
             better writer?” “How can reading texts from different cultures improve
             your writing?”

 8e72        Portfolio 4.3 select pieces of writing that they think reflect their
             growth and competence as writers and explain the reasons for their
             choice


                                                         Media Literacy

Overall Expectations


 8e73        1. demonstrate an understanding of a variety of media texts;




 8e74        2. identify some media forms and explain how the conventions and
             techniques associated with them are used to create meaning;




 8e75        3. create a variety of media texts for different purposes and
             audiences, using appropriate forms, conventions, and techniques;




 8e76        4. reflect on and identify their strengths as media interpreters and
             creators, areas for improvement, and the strategies they found most
             helpful in understanding and creating media texts.


1. Understanding Media Texts




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Language

English Language (2006) (None) Expectations                                           Grade 8

 8e77       Purpose and Audience 1.1 explain how a variety of media texts
            address their intended purpose and audience (e.g., this stage
            production based on a popular novel uses music and lighting to
            enhance the original and appeal to its fans; this commercial for a
            sports car uses fast–paced editing and rock music to appeal to the
            target audience – young, single men and women). Teacher
            prompts: “Why might a producer think that yet another version of
            this well–known story would attract a wide audience?” “What kind of
            driver is this car advertisement designed to appeal to?”

 8e78       Making Inferences/Interpreting Messages 1.2 interpret increasingly
            complex or difficult media texts, using overt and implied messages
            as evidence for their interpretations (e.g., compare the coverage of a
            lead story in a morning newspaper to the coverage of that story on
            the evening news; compare the order in which news stories are
            reported on two different television channels and suggest reasons
            for the differences; compare the treatment of a historical figure in a
            movie to his or her treatment in a print biography). Teacher prompts:
            “Did the newspaper and the television news program use the same
            lead story? Why or why not? Did the different news sources provide
            different information on the same topic? Did they take a different
            position?“ “Which historical portrait is more convincing? More
            accurate? More interesting? Why?”

 8e79       Responding to and Evaluating Texts 1.3 evaluate the effectiveness
            of the presentation and treatment of ideas, information, themes,
            opinions, issues, and/or experiences in media texts (e.g., explain
            how a series of newspaper stories on a controversial issue captured
            and maintained their interest; explain the similarities and differences
            in the treatment of a particular topic or theme in different media
            texts and evaluate the relative effectiveness of the treatments; as a
            class, evaluate the media's coverage of a social or environmental
            issue over a two–week period)

 8e80       Audience Responses 1.4 explain why different audiences (e.g., with
            respect to gender, age, culture, race, income level) might have
            different responses to a variety of media texts (e.g., predict how a
            member of a particular age/gender/ ethnocultural/socio–economic
            group might react to a controversial article in a print or online news
            magazine and give reasons for their prediction). Teacher prompt:
            “Do you think all members of a particular group would react the
            same way to this issue? Could an older person react the same way
            as a teenager? Why, or why not?”




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Language

English Language (2006) (None) Expectations                                            Grade 8

 8e81        Point of View 1.5 demonstrate understanding that different media
             texts reflect different points of view and that some texts reflect
             multiple points of view (e.g., a television broadcast of a sports game
             presents the views of fans, the announcers, the sponsors, and the
             television network; different media texts represent people of different
             age, gender, income level, or ethnocultural background differently,
             communicating obvious or subtle messages that might indicate bias
             or stereotyping; different points of view are often presented in a
             news report of a conflict). Teacher prompts: “What different groups
             are represented in the text? Are the different groups treated
             differently? If so, how?” “In this news report about a conflict between
             two countries, does the reporter appear to favour one side over the
             other? Give evidence for your view.”

 8e82        Production Perspectives 1.6 identify who produces various media
             texts and determine the commercial, ideological, political, cultural,
             and/or artistic interests or perspectives that the texts may involve
             (e.g., a music company's interest in a recording may be different
             from that of the artist; the company that produces a video game and
             the game's creator may have different views on how the game
             should be promoted). Teacher prompt: ”How are commercial and
             artistic interests reflected in the contents and presentation of this
             CD by your favourite group?” ”Explain how a more ideological
             approach might affect the appeal of this magazine for its current
             broad range of readers.”

2. Understanding Media Forms, Conventions, and Techniques


 8e83        Form 2.1 explain how individual elements of various media forms
             combine to create, reinforce, and/or enhance meaning (e.g., print
             advertisements use text, images, colour, different fonts, and
             different camera angles in a seamless combination to create an
             effect). Teacher prompt: ”Why do you think each of these elements
             is included? How are the elements combined to create a coherent
             message?”

 8e84        Conventions and Techniques 2.2 identify the conventions and
             techniques used in a variety of media forms and explain how they
             help convey meaning and influence or engage the audience (e.g.,
             website conventions: home pages provide users with a convenient
             preview of the types of information available; website techniques:
             “sidebars” with inviting audio/video elements entice viewers to
             browse and explore new topics that might not have been their first
             priority)

3. Creating Media Texts

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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Language

English Language (2006) (None) Expectations                                            Grade 8

 8e85       Purpose and Audience 3.1 explain why they have chosen the topic
            for a media text they plan to create (e.g., a poster advertising a
            class fund–raising campaign to appeal to local parent groups,
            businesses, or service organizations), and identify challenges they
            may face in engaging and/or influencing their intended audience.
            Teacher prompt: “What are the challenges involved in reaching each
            of these groups? How can you appeal to all of the groups in a single
            poster? If you were to develop three posters, one for each of them,
            how would the posters differ?”

 8e86       Form 3.2 identify an appropriate form to suit the purpose and
            audience for a media text they plan to create (e.g., a multimedia
            resentation about their class or grade, to be presented to parents
            during graduation ceremonies) and explain why it is an appropriate
            choice. Teacher prompt: “What different types of media could you
            use for the presentation? How would they be organized and
            combined?”

 8e87       Conventions and Techniques 3.3 identify conventions and
            techniques appropriate to the form chosen for a media text they
            plan to create, and explain how they will use the conventions and
            techniques to help communicate their message (e.g., conventions
            in advertisements for a product to appeal to different age groups
            among the students: text, images, “free offer” promotional
            gimmicks; techniques: use of age–appropriate content in all
            elements of the advertisement). Teacher prompt: “What are the
            important things you need to know about your audience when
            designing your media text?”

 8e88       Producing Media Texts 3.4 produce a variety of media texts of
            some technical complexity for specific purposes and audiences,
            using appropriate forms, conventions, and techniques (e.g.,
             a multimedia presentation examining two or more elements of a
            narrative, such as theme, plot, setting, or character;
             a one–minute video advertising a class fund–raising project;
             a website based on the content of a unit of study;
             a report on school sports events to be presented during morning
            announcements;
             magazine advertisements for a particular product, aimed at different
            age groups among the students in the school;
             an interview with a family member about his or her cultural heritage
            for publication in a school or community magazine/newspaper;
             a public–service announcement on a current issue that is relevant
            to their fellow students, such as daily physical activity, literacy, or
            bullying;
             a storyboard for a video of a favourite song that is not available as a
            video)



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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:     Language

English Language (2006) (None) Expectations                                           Grade 8

4. Reflecting on Media Literacy Skills and Strategies


 8e89         Metacognition 4.1 identify what strategies they found most helpful in
              making sense of and creating media texts, and explain how these
              and other strategies can help them improve as media
              viewers/listeners/producers. Teacher prompt: “Why was it helpful to
              think about your audience's needs or wants before creating your
              advertisement?”

 8e90         Interconnected Skills 4.2 explain how their skills in listening,
              speaking, reading, and writing help them to make sense of and
              produce media texts. Teacher prompt: “How could reading about
              food and health help you when you are trying to create an
              advertisement for a ‘healthy eating' ad campaign?”




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:     Mathematics

Mathematics (None) Expectations                                                         Grade 8

                                              Mathematical Process Expectations

Problem Solving


 8m1           develop, select, apply, and compare a variety of problem-solving
               strategies as they pose and solve problems and conduct
               investigations, to help deepen their mathematical understanding.


Reasoning And Proving


 8m2           develop and apply reasoning skills (e.g., recognition of
               relationships, generalization through inductive reasoning, use of
               counter-examples) to make mathematical conjectures, assess
               conjectures and justify conclusions, and plan and construct
               organized mathematical arguments.

Reflecting


 8m3           demonstrate that they are reflecting on and monitoring their thinking
               to help clarify their understanding as they complete an investigation
               or solve a problem (e.g., by assessing the effectiveness of
               strategies and processes used, by proposing alternative
               approaches, by judging the reasonableness of results, by verifying
               solutions).

Selecting Tools and Computational Strategies


 8m4           select and use a variety of concrete, visual, and electronic learning
               tools and appropriate computational strategies to investigate
               mathematical ideas and to solve problems.


Connecting


 8m5           make connections among mathematical concepts and procedures,
               and relate mathematical ideas to situations or phenomena drawn
               from other contexts (e.g., other curriculum areas, daily life, current
               events, art and culture, sports).

Representing




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:     Mathematics

Mathematics (None) Expectations                                                      Grade 8

 8m6         create a variety of representations of mathematical ideas (e.g.,
             numeric, geometric, algebraic, graphical, pictorial; onscreen
             dynamic representations), connect and compare them, and select
             and apply the appropriate representations to solve problems.

Communicating


 8m7         communicate mathematical thinking orally, visually, and in writing,
             using mathematical vocabulary and a variety of appropriate
             representations, and observing mathematical conventions.


                                               Number Sense and Numeration

Overall Expectations


 8m8         represent, compare, and order equivalent representations of
             numbers, including those involving positive exponents;




 8m9         solve problems involving whole numbers, decimal numbers,
             fractions, and integers, using a variety of computational strategies;




 8m10        solve problems by using proportional reasoning in a variety of
             meaningful contexts.



Quantity Relationships


 8m11+C673   express repeated multiplication using exponential notation (e.g., 2 x
             2 x 2 x 2 = 24);




 8m12        represent whole numbers in expanded form using powers of ten
             (e.g., 347 = 3 x 102 + 4 x 101 + 7);




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Mathematics

Mathematics (None) Expectations                                                       Grade 8

 8m13       represent, compare, and order rational numbers (i.e., positive and
            negative fractions and decimals to thousandths);




 8m14       translate between equivalent forms of a number (i.e., decimals,
            fractions, percents) (e.g., 3/4 = 0.75);




 8m15       determine common factors and common multiples using the prime
            factorization of numbers (e.g., the prime factorization of 12 is 2 x 2
            x 3; the prime factorization of 18 is 2 x 3 x 3; the greatest common
            factor of 12 and 18 is 2 x 3 or 6; the least common multiple of 12
            and 18 is 2 x 2 x 3 x 3 or 36).

Operational Sense


 8m16       solve multi-step problems arising from real-life contexts and
            involving whole numbers and decimals, using a variety of tools (e.g.,
            graphs, calculators) and strategies (e.g., estimation, algorithms);


 8m17       solve problems involving percents expressed to one decimal place
            (e.g., 12.5%) and whole-number percents greater than 100 (e.g.,
            115%) (Sample problem: The total cost of an item with tax included
            [115%] is $23.00. Use base ten materials to determine the price
            before tax.);

 8m18       use estimation when solving problems involving operations with
            whole numbers, decimals, percents, integers, and fractions, to help
            judge the reasonableness of a solution;


 8m19       represent the multiplication and division of fractions, using a variety
            of tools and strategies (e.g., use an area model to represent 1/4
            multiplied by 1/3);


 8m20       solve problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, and
            division with simple fractions;




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Mathematics

Mathematics (None) Expectations                                                         Grade 8

 8m21        represent the multiplication and division of integers, using a variety
             of tools [e.g., if black counters represent positive amounts and red
             counters represent negative amounts, you can model 3 x (-2) as
             three groups of two red counters];

 8m22        solve problems involving operations with integers, using a variety of
             tools (e.g., two-colour counters, virtual manipulatives, number lines);




 8m23        evaluate expressions that involve integers, including expressions
             that contain brackets and exponents, using order of operations;




 8m24        multiply and divide decimal numbers by various powers of ten (e.g.,
             "To convert 230 000 cm3 to cubic metres, I calculated in my head
             230000 ÷ 106 to get 0.23 m3.") (Sample problem: Use a calculator
             to help you generalize a rule for dividing numbers by 1 000 000.);

 8m25        estimate, and verify using a calculator, the positive square roots of
             whole numbers, and distinguish between whole numbers that have
             whole-number square roots (i.e., perfect square numbers) and those
             that do not (Sample problem: Explain why a square with an area of
             20 cm2 does not have a whole-number side length.).

Proportional Relationships


 8m26        identify and describe real-life situations involving two quantities that
             are directly proportional (e.g., the number of servings and the
             quantities in a recipe, mass and volume of a substance,
             circumference and diameter of a circle);

 8m27        solve problems involving proportions, using concrete materials,
             drawings, and variables (Sample problem: The ratio of stone to sand
             in HardFast Concrete is 2 to 3. How much stone is needed if 15
             bags of sand are used?);

 8m28        solve problems involving percent that arise from real-life contexts
             (e.g., discount, sales tax, simple interest) (Sample problem: In
             Ontario, people often pay a provincial sales tax [PST] of 8% and a
             federal sales tax [GST] of 7% when they make a purchase. Does it
             matter which tax is calculated first? Explain your reasoning.);




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Mathematics

Mathematics (None) Expectations                                                    Grade 8

 8m29        solve problems involving rates (Sample problem: A pack of 24 CDs
             costs $7.99. A pack of 50 CDs costs $10.45. What is the most
             economical way to purchase 130 CDs?).


                                                         Measurement

Overall Expectations


 8m30        research, describe, and report on applications of volume and
             capacity measurement;




 8m31        determine the relationships among units and measurable attributes,
             including the area of a circle and the volume of a cylinder.



Attributes, Units, and Measurement Sense


 8m32        research, describe, and report on applications of volume and
             capacity measurement (e.g., cooking, closet space, aquarium size)
             (Sample problem: Describe situations where volume and capacity
             are used in your home.).

Measurement Relationships


 8m33        solve problems that require conversions involving metric units of
             area, volume, and capacity (i.e., square centimetres and square
             metres; cubic centimetres and cubic metres; millilitres and cubic
             centimetres) (Sample problem: What is the capacity of a cylindrical
             beaker with a radius of 5 cm and a height of 15 cm?);

 8m34        measure the circumference, radius, and diameter of circular
             objects, using concrete materials (Sample Problem: Use string to
             measure the circumferences of different circular objects.);




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Mathematics

Mathematics (None) Expectations                                                         Grade 8

 8m35        determine, through investigation using a variety of tools (e.g., cans
             and string, dynamic geometry software) and strategies, the
             relationships for calculating the circumference and the area of a
             circle, and generalize to develop the formulas [i.e., Circumference of
             a circle = pi x diameter; Area of a circle = Π x (radius)2] (Sample
             problem: Use string to measure the circumferences and the
             diameters of a variety of cylindrical cans, and investigate the ratio of
             the circumference to the diameter.);

 8m36        solve problems involving the estimation and calculation of the
             circumference and the area of a circle;




 8m37        determine, through investigation using a variety of tools and
             strategies (e.g., generalizing from the volume relationship for right
             prisms, and verifying using the capacity of thin-walled cylindrical
             containers), the relationship between the area of the base and
             height and the volume of a cylinder, and generalize to develop the
             formula (i.e., Volume = area of base x height);

 8m38        determine, through investigation using concrete materials, the
             surface area of a cylinder (Sample problem: Use the label and the
             plastic lid from a cylindrical container to help determine its surface
             area.);

 8m39        solve problems involving the surface area and the volume of
             cylinders, using a variety of strategies (Sample problem: Compare
             the volumes of the two cylinders that can be created by taping the
             top and bottom, or the other two sides, of a standard sheet of
             paper.).

                                                 Geometry and Spatial Sense

Overall Expectations


 8m40        demonstrate an understanding of the geometric properties of
             quadrilaterals and circles and the applications of geometric
             properties in the real world;


 8m41        develop geometric relationships involving lines, triangles, and
             polyhedra, and solve problems involving lines and triangles;




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Mathematics

Mathematics (None) Expectations                                                         Grade 8

 8m42        represent transformations using the Cartesian coordinate plane, and
             make connections between transformations and the real world.



Geometric Properties


 8m43        sort and classify quadrilaterals by geometric properties, including
             those based on diagonals, through investigation using a variety of
             tools (e.g., concrete materials, dynamic geometry software)
             (Sample problem: Which quadrilaterals have diagonals that bisect
             each other perpendicularly?);

 8m44        construct a circle, given its centre and radius, or its centre and a
             point on the circle, or three points on the circle;




 8m45        investigate and describe applications of geometric properties (e.g.,
             properties of triangles, quadrilaterals, and circles) in the real world.



Geometric Relationships


 8m46        determine, through investigation using a variety of tools (e.g.,
             dynamic geometry software, concrete materials, geoboard),
             relationships among area, perimeter, corresponding side lengths,
             and corresponding angles of similar shapes (Sample problem:
             Construct three similar rectangles, using grid paper or a geoboard,
             and compare the perimeters and areas of the rectangles.);

 8m47        determine, through investigation using a variety of tools (e.g.,
             dynamic geometry software, concrete materials, protractor) and
             strategies (e.g., paper folding), the angle relationships for
             intersecting lines and for parallel lines and transversals, and the
             sum of the angles of a triangle;

 8m48        solve angle-relationship problems involving triangles (e.g., finding
             interior angles or complementary angles), intersecting lines (e.g.,
             finding supplementary angles or opposite angles), and parallel lines
             and transversals (e.g., finding alternate angles or corresponding
             angles);




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Mathematics

Mathematics (None) Expectations                                                          Grade 8

 8m49        determine the Pythagorean relationship, through investigation using
             a variety of tools (e.g., dynamic geometry software; paper and
             scissors; geoboard) and strategies;


 8m50        solve problems involving right triangles geometrically, using the
             Pythagorean relationship;




 8m51        determine, through investigation using concrete materials, the
             relationship between the numbers of faces, edges, and vertices of a
             polyhedron (i.e., number of faces + number of vertices = number of
             edges + 2) (Sample problem: Use Polydrons and/or paper nets to
             construct the five Platonic solids [i.e., tetrahedron, cube,
             octahedron, dodecahedron, icosahedron], and compare the sum of
             the numbers of faces and vertices to the number of edges for each
             solid.).

Location and Movement


 8m52        graph the image of a point, or set of points, on the Cartesian
             coordinate plane after applying a transformation to the original
             point(s) (i.e., translation; reflection in the x-axis, the y-axis, or the
             angle bisector of the axes that passes through the first and third
             quadrants; rotation of 90°, 180°, or 270° about the origin);

 8m53        identify, through investigation, real-world movements that are
             translations, reflections, and rotations.



                                                       Patterning and Algebra

Overall Expectations


 8m54        represent linear growing patterns (where the terms are whole
             numbers) using graphs, algebraic expressions, and equations;




 8m55        model linear relationships graphically and algebraically, and solve
             and verify algebraic equations, using a variety of strategies,
             including inspection, guess and check, and using a "balance"
             model.

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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Mathematics

Mathematics (None) Expectations                                                          Grade 8

Patterns and Relationships


 8m56        represent, through investigation with concrete materials, the general
             term of a linear pattern, using one or more algebraic expressions
             (e.g., "Using toothpicks, I noticed that 1 square needs 4 toothpicks,
             2 connected squares need 7 toothpicks, and 3 connected squares
             need 10 toothpicks. I think that for n connected squares I will need
             4 + 3(n - 1) toothpicks, because the number of toothpicks keeps
             going up by 3 and I started with 4 toothpicks. Or, if I think of starting
             with 1 toothpick and adding 3 toothpicks at a time, the pattern can
             be represented as 1 + 3n.");

 8m57        represent linear patterns graphically (i.e., make a table of values
             that shows the term number and the term, and plot the coordinates
             on a graph), using a variety of tools (e.g., graph paper, calculators,
             dynamic statistical software);

 8m58        determine a term, given its term number, in a linear pattern that is
             represented by a graph or an algebraic equation (Sample problem:
             Given the graph that represents the pattern 1, 3, 5, 7, …, find the
             10th term. Given the algebraic equation that represents the pattern,
             t = 2n - 1, find the 100th term.).

Variables, Expressions, and Equations


 8m59        describe different ways in which algebra can be used in real-life
             situations (e.g., the value of $5 bills and toonies placed in a
             envelope for fund raising can be represented by the equation v = 5f
             + 2t);

 8m60        model linear relationships using tables of values, graphs, and
             equations (e.g., the sequence 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, … can be represented
             by the equation t = n + 1, where n represents the term number and
             t represents the term), through investigation using a variety of tools
             (e.g., algebra tiles, pattern blocks, connecting cubes, base ten
             materials) (Sample problem: Leah put $350 in a bank certificate that
             pays 4% simple interest each year. Make a table of values to show
             how much the bank certificate is worth after five years, using base
             ten materials to help you. Represent the relationship using an
             equation.);

 8m61        translate statements describing mathematical relationships into
             algebraic expressions and equations (e.g., for a collection of
             triangles, the total number of sides is equal to three times the
             number of triangles or s = 3n);


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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Mathematics

Mathematics (None) Expectations                                                        Grade 8

 8m62        evaluate algebraic expressions with up to three terms, by
             substituting fractions, decimals, and integers for the variables (e.g.,
             evaluate 3x + 4y = 2z, where x = 1/2, y = 0.6, and z = -1);


 8m63        make connections between solving equations and determining the
             term number in a pattern, using the general term (e.g., for the
             pattern with the general term 2n + 1, solving the equation 2n + 1 =
             17 tells you the term number when the term is 17);

 8m64        solve and verify linear equations involving a one-variable term and
             having solutions that are integers, by using inspection, guess and
             check, and a "balance" model (Sample problem: What is the value
             of the variable in the equation 30x - 5 = 10?).

                                              Data Management and Probability

Overall Expectations


 8m65        collect and organize categorical, discrete, or continuous primary
             data and secondary data and display the data using charts and
             graphs, including frequency tables with intervals, histograms, and
             scatter plots;

 8m66        apply a variety of data management tools and strategies to make
             convincing arguments about data;




 8m67        use probability models to make predictions about real-life events.




Collection and Organization of Data


 8m68        collect data by conducting a survey or an experiment to do with
             themselves, their environment, issues in their school or community,
             or content from another subject, and record observations or
             measurements;

 8m69        organize into intervals a set of data that is spread over a broad
             range (e.g., the age of respondents to a survey may range over 80
             years and may be organized into ten-year intervals);


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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Mathematics

Mathematics (None) Expectations                                                       Grade 8

 8m70        collect and organize categorical, discrete, or continuous primary
             data and secondary data (e.g., electronic data from websites such
             as E-Stat or Census At Schools), and display the data in charts,
             tables, and graphs (including histograms and scatter plots) that
             have appropriate titles, labels (e.g., appropriate units marked on the
             axes), and scales (e.g., with appropriate increments) that suit the
             range and distribution of the data, using a variety of tools (e.g.,
             graph paper, spreadsheets, dynamic statistical software);

 8m71        select an appropriate type of graph to represent a set of data, graph
             the data using technology, and justify the choice of graph (i.e., from
             types of graphs already studied, including histograms and scatter
             plots);

 8m72        explain the relationship between a census, a representative sample,
             sample size, and a population (e.g., "I think that in most cases a
             larger sample size will be more representative of the entire
             population.").

Data Relationships


 8m73        read, interpret, and draw conclusions from primary data (e.g.,
             survey results, measurements, observations) and from secondary
             data (e.g., election data or temperature data from the newspaper,
             data from the Internet about lifestyles), presented in charts, tables,
             and graphs (including frequency tables with intervals, histograms,
             and scatter plots);

 8m74        determine, through investigation, the appropriate measure of central
             tendency (i.e., mean, median, or mode) needed to compare sets of
             data (e.g., in hockey, compare heights or masses of players on
             defence with that of forwards);

 8m75        demonstrate an understanding of the appropriate uses of bar graphs
             and histograms by comparing their characteristics (Sample
             problem: How is a histogram similar to and different from a bar
             graph? Use examples to support your answer.);

 8m76        compare two attributes or characteristics (e.g., height versus arm
             span), using a scatter plot, and determine whether or not the
             scatter plot suggests a relationship (Sample problem: Create a
             scatter plot to compare the lengths of the bases of several similar
             triangles with their areas.);




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:      Mathematics

Mathematics (None) Expectations                                                         Grade 8

 8m77         identify and describe trends, based on the rate of change of data
              from tables and graphs, using informal language (e.g., "The steep
              line going upward on this graph represents rapid growth. The steep
              line going downward on this other graph represents rapid decline.");

 8m78         make inferences and convincing arguments that are based on the
              analysis of charts, tables, and graphs (Sample problem: Use data
              to make a convincing argument that the environment is becoming
              increasingly polluted.);

 8m79         compare two attributes or characteristics, using a variety of data
              management tools and strategies (i.e., pose a relevant question,
              then design an experiment or survey, collect and analyse the data,
              and draw conclusions) (Sample problem: Compare the length and
              width of different-sized leaves from a maple tree to determine if
              maple leaves grow proportionally. What generalizations can you
              make?).

Probability


 8m80         compare, through investigation, the theoretical probability of an
              event (i.e., the ratio of the number of ways a favourable outcome
              can occur compared to the total number of possible outcomes) with
              experimental probability, and explain why they might differ (Sample
              problem:Toss a fair coin 10 times, record the results, and explain
              why you might not get the predicted result of 5 heads and 5 tails.);

 8m81         determine, through investigation, the tendency of experimental
              probability to approach theoretical probability as the number of trials
              in an experiment increases, using class-generated data and
              technology-based simulation models (Sample problem: Compare
              the theoretical probability of getting a 6 when tossing a number
              cube with the experimental probabilities obtained after tossing a
              number cube once, 10 times, 100 times, and 1000 times.);

 8m82         identify the complementary event for a given event, and calculate
              the theoretical probability that a given event will not occur (Sample
              problem: Bingo uses the numbers from 1 to 75. If the numbers are
              pulled at random, what is the probability that the first number is a
              multiple of 5? is not a multiple of 5?).




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Native Languages

Native Languages (None) Expectations                                               Grade 8

                                       Oral Communication, Reading, and Writing

Overall Expectations


 8n1         communicate in various contexts and for a variety of purposes;




 8n2         demonstrate an understanding of ideas conveyed in various oral
             texts;




 8n3         discuss language structures and their functions;




 8n4         read for a variety of purposes in the writing system used in the
             program, including information and enjoyment;




 8n5         write in a variety of forms and for a variety of purposes using the
             writing system used in the program;




 8n6         use correctly the grammar and vocabulary elements specified for
             this grade;




 8n7         use information technology to communicate in the Native language;




 8n8         demonstrate a variety of research skills;




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Native Languages

Native Languages (None) Expectations                                                     Grade 8

 8n9        demonstrate knowledge and understanding of various aspects of the
            Native culture under study. Native-language teachers may wish to
            approach knowledgeable members of the community for assistance
            with this expectation.

Oral Communication


 8n10       express ideas, feelings, and opinions in conversations;




 8n11       use compound and complex sentences in conversations and
            discussions (e.g., If it rains, I will sleep; If it rains, I will take the
            clothes off the clothesline so they won’t get wet);


 8n12       demonstrate an understanding of oral language in a variety of
            situations (e.g., by following detailed instructions, by summarizing
            information given in audio and video presentations);


 8n13       demonstrate an understanding of a variety of language structures,
            including contractions, used by Native speakers;




 8n14       participate in a variety of oral language activities appropriate for the
            grade (e.g., describe personal experiences, play games using the
            language);


 8n15       give oral presentations on aspects of the Native culture studied,
            using information gathered through research (e.g., give a talk on
            Native values and traditions based on interviews with speakers of
            the Native language in the community).

Reading


 8n16       read a variety of written texts (e.g., works by Native authors, Native
            legends, articles dealing with Native values);




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Native Languages

Native Languages (None) Expectations                                                   Grade 8

 8n17       demonstrate an understanding of the information and ideas
            conveyed in written materials (e.g., identify the main ideas and
            supporting details in short stories and information materials);


 8n18       participate in a variety of reading activities appropriate for the grade
            (e.g., identify specific language structures in texts and discuss their
            uses, summarize detailed written instructions such as those given
            in a recipe);

 8n19       read independently using various reading strategies (e.g., draw on
            personal experience, use verbal cues, analyse context) to
            determine meaning;


 8n20       read their own work aloud, as well as the work of their peers, using
            proper pronunciation;




 8n21       use various sources to locate reading materials in the Native
            language.



Writing


 8n22       write for a variety of purposes using different forms (e.g., write a
            letter to communicate thoughts and feelings; write a composition to
            describe a personal experience; write a radio or television news
            report to present an analysis of an issue related to Native youth;
            write a story to illustrate how Native people view the relationship
            between humans and the land);

 8n23       use all the steps of the writing process to produce a polished piece
            of writing;




 8n24       use correctly the language structures and vocabulary specified for
            this grade;




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Native Languages

Native Languages (None) Expectations                                              Grade 8

 8n25       use information technology to communicate in the Native language
            with other students;




 8n26       use information technology to enhance their writing (e.g., create
            visual material for a presentation on a topic related to the Native
            culture under study);


 8n27       use correct spelling in their writing, drawing on a variety of
            resources (e.g., personal lexicon, classroom-displayed vocabulary
            lists, electronic dictionaries, spell-check feature of software
            programs);

 8n28       demonstrate knowledge and understanding of various aspects of the
            Native culture studied in their writing.



                                 Grammar, Language Conventions, and Vocabulary

Language elements: nouns and pronouns


 8n29       proximate and obviative forms of personal pronouns (third-person
            singular and plural) - Algonquian;




 8n30       various locative constructions (e.g., I left her behind, he works
            somewhere else );




 8n31       possessive form of independent nouns.




Language elements: verbs


 8n32       various kinds of conjunct verbs - Algonquian (e.g., verbs in
            interrogative sentences, content questions, complex sentences,
            conditional clauses);


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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:     Native Languages

Native Languages (None) Expectations                                                Grade 8

 8n33        active and passive voice;




 8n34        imperative inflections.




Language elements: interrogative constructions


 8n35        language structures used to form questions (e.g., How did it
             happen? When did it happen? Where did it happen? Why did it
             happen? What happened?).


Language elements: particles


 8n36        interrogative and locative particles;




 8n37        use of particles as adverbs to express time, manner, degree, and
             quantity (e.g., early in the morning; very, really; some, few );




 8n38        use of particles as conjunctions to join together sentences,
             clauses, phrases, or words (e.g., I’ll see him if he comes; Her coat
             and hat were found but not her shoes ).


Language elements: syntax


 8n39        obviative constructions with nouns and pronouns Algonquian (e.g.,
             John saw Fred as he [John] was walking on the road ).



Vocabulary




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Native Languages

Native Languages (None) Expectations                                                Grade 8

 8n40       words associated with outdoor and leisure activities, current events.




Spelling


 8n41       correct spelling of words and phrases studied;




 8n42       use of sounds and their related spelling patterns in the language
            studied;




 8n43       use of resources to confirm spelling (e.g., personal lexicon,
            classroom-displayed vocabulary lists, print and electronic
            dictionaries, spell-check feature of software programs).




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Science and Technology

Science and Technology (None) Expectations                                               Grade 8

                                         UNDERSTANDING LIFE SYSTEMS: Cells

Overall Expectations


 8s1         1. assess the impact of cell biology on individuals, society, and the
             environment;




 8s2         2. investigate functions and processes of plant and animal cells;




 8s3         3. demonstrate an understanding of the basic structure and function
             of plant and animal cells and cell processes.



1. Relating Science and Technology to Society and the Environment


 8s4         1.1 assess the role of selected technologies (e.g., the development
             of the electron microscope, the ability to infuse dyes into cells, in
             vitro fertilization) in enhancing our understanding of cells and cellular
             processes. Sample guiding questions: How have electron
             microscopes helped our understanding of cells and cell processes?
             What are some disadvantages of using this technology that might
             affect its availability or effectiveness? How might infusing dye into
             cells be a useful tool for diagnosing and/or treating diseases, or for
             understanding how cells work? How might the understanding of
             cells and cell processes help in treating disease?

 8s5         1.2 assess the potential that our understanding of cells and cell
             processes has for both beneficial and harmful effects on human
             health and the environment, taking different perspectives into
             account (e.g., the perspectives of farmers, pesticide manufacturers,
             people with lifethreatening illnesses). Sample issues: (a) Medical
             scientists can identify changes in a cell or in chromosomes that
             signal the development of medical problems. But because of the
             cost of the procedure, this service may not be available to everyone.
             (b) Scientists can develop pest-resistant crops that reduce the need
             for chemical pesticides. But there are some concerns that these
             crops may cross-breed with native plants and disrupt natural
             populations and balances.



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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Science and Technology

Science and Technology (None) Expectations                                              Grade 8

2. Developing Investigation and Communication Skills


 8s6         2.1 follow established safety procedures for handling apparatus and
             materials (e.g., wash hands after preparing materials for slides) and
             use microscopes correctly and safely (e.g., carry the microscope
             with both hands, place it near the centre of the desk, ensure that
             the sun cannot be directly focused through the instrument when
             sunlight is used for illumination, keep both eyes open when viewing
             to avoid eye strain)

 8s7         2.2 use a microscope correctly and safely to find and observe
             components of plant and animal cells (e.g., using an onion slice or
             a prepared slide of a protist) and make accurate drawings of their
             observations

 8s8         2.3 prepare dry- and wet-mount slides of a variety of objects for use
             with a microscope (e.g., a piece of newspaper, a hair)




 8s9         2.4 use scientific inquiry/experimentation skills (see page 12) to
             investigate the processes of osmosis and diffusion. Sample guiding
             questions: What question will your experiments try to answer?
             What do you predict might happen in your experiment? What
             variables might you need to consider? What conclusions might you
             draw from the results of your experiment? How closely do your
             predictions compare with what you actually observed in your
             experiments? How might what you have learned about osmosis and
             diffusion be useful in daily life (e.g., how might this help you to keep
             your houseplants from wilting?)

 8s10        2.5 use appropriate science and technology vocabulary, including
             organelle, diffusion, osmosis, cell theory, selective permeability,
             membrane, stage, and eyepiece, in oral and written communication


 8s11        2.6 use a variety of forms (e.g., oral, written, graphic, multimedia) to
             communicate with different audiences and for a variety of purposes
             (e.g., using the conventions of science, make a labelled drawing of
             a cell; create a slide show to explain the results of investigations
             into the processes of osmosis and diffusion)

3. Understanding Basic Concepts




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Science and Technology

Science and Technology (None) Expectations                                             Grade 8

 8s12        3.1 demonstrate an understanding of the postulates of the cell
             theory (e.g., the cell is the basic unit of life; all cells come from
             pre-existing cells; all living things are made up of one or more cells)


 8s13        3.2 identify structures and organelles in cells, including the nucleus,
             cell membrane, cell wall, chloroplasts, vacuole, mitochondria, and
             cytoplasm, and explain the basic functions of each (e.g., the
             nucleus holds all the information needed to make every cell in the
             body)

 8s14        3.3 compare the structure and function of plant and animal cells




 8s15        3.4 explain the processes of diffusion and osmosis and their roles
             within a cell




 8s16        3.5 identify unicellular organisms (e.g., amoebae) and multicellular
             organisms (e.g., invertebrates [worms], vertebrates [frogs]), and
             compare ways in which they meet their basic needs (e.g., nutrition,
             movement, gas exchange)

 8s17        3.6 describe the organization of cells into tissues, organs, and
             systems (e.g., groups of cells with similar functions combine to
             make up tissues; groups of tissues with similar functions combine
             to make organs; groups of organs work together as organ systems)

                   UNDERSTANDING STRUCTURES AND MECHANISMS: Systems in Action

Overall Expectations


 8s18        1. assess the personal, social, and/or environmental impacts of a
             system, and evaluate improvements to a system and/or alternative
             ways of meeting the same needs;


 8s19        2. investigate a working system and the ways in which components
             of the system contribute to its desired function;




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Science and Technology

Science and Technology (None) Expectations                                           Grade 8

 8s20        3. demonstrate an understanding of different types of systems and
             the factors that contribute to their safe and efficient operation.



1. Relating Science and Technology to Society and the Environment


 8s21        1.1 assess the social, economic, and environmental impacts of
             automating systems. Sample issues: (a) Automation was feared by
             some people who believed that replacing humans with automated
             systems would lead to high unemployment. However, others argued
             that automation would actually lead to higher employment, because
             it freed some of the labour force to enter higher-skilled,
             higher-paying jobs. (b) Although automation is often viewed as a
             way to minimize human error in systems, as the degree and
             sophistication of automation increase so do the chances of more
             serious errors and their consequences. (c) The effects of
             automation can be environmentally disastrous. Serious pollution
             coincided with the development of factories and the widespread use
             of coal to run their machinery. Although factories and automation
             continue to exist, we are more aware of what these systems can do
             to the environment. (d) Mass-produced furniture is made of
             lowquality materials, lacks durability, and involves minimal original
             craftsmanship, and it therefore can be purchased at a reasonable
             price. However, many consumers tend to discard it readily, and it
             often is sent to landfills, thus creating environmental problems.

 8s22        1.2 assess the impact on individuals, society, and the environment
             of alternative ways of meeting needs that are currently met by
             existing systems, taking different points of view into consideration.
             Sample issues: (a) A large city decides that it will put in more
             bicycle lanes and bikeways instead of expanding its existing public
             transit system. (b) A school system decides to have students and
             teachers in school year-round, instead of having everyone on
             vacation in July and August.

2. Developing Investigation and Communication Skills


 8s23        2.1 follow established safety procedures for working with apparatus,
             tools, materials, and electrical systems (e.g., tie hair back before
             working with drills, saws, and sanders)




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Science and Technology

Science and Technology (None) Expectations                                           Grade 8

 8s24       2.2 investigate the work done in a variety of everyday activities and
            record the findings quantitatively (e.g., calculate the work done
            when lifting dumbbells by measuring the force required to move the
            dumbbell and multiplying by the distance the dumbbell moves)

 8s25       2.3 use scientific inquiry/experimentation skills (see page 12) to
            investigate mechanical advantage in a variety of mechanisms and
            simple machines. Sample problems: Conduct experiments to
            determine what happens when the length of the effort arm and/or the
            load arm in a lever are changed, and note qualitative or quantitative
            changes in mechanical advantage. Conduct experiments to
            determine what happens when the diameter of the piston in a
            hydraulic system is changed, and note qualitative or quantitative
            changes in mechanical advantage. Conduct experiments to
            determine what happens when the number of pulleys that support a
            load is changed, and note qualitative or quantitative changes in
            mechanical advantage.

 8s26       2.4 use technological problem-solving skills (see page 16) to
            investigate a system (e.g., an optical system, a mechanical
            system, an electrical system) that performs a function or meets a
            need. Sample problem: Create a device that will carry a snack from
            one place to another. Describe the function of each component part,
            and examine the effects of making a change to one or more of the
            components. Sample guiding questions: What purpose or need
            does your device fulfil? When you tested your device, which
            component or components worked as intended? Which did not?
            Why do you think the problem occurred? Predict what will happen if
            you remove or change the size or direction of one or more of the
            components.

 8s27       2.5 investigate the information (e.g., owner’s manual for a car,
            weather advisories for a region, pest forecasts/warnings for a
            crop/region) and support (e.g., a technical support line for
            computers) provided to consumers/clients to ensure that a system
            functions safely and effectively. Sample guiding questions: What
            are the criteria for a good owner’s manual (for a car, an MP3 player,
            etc.) or for an effective help or support service? Why is it important
            to have this kind of information? What other information might have
            been included to make the manual more helpful? How might the
            help or support service be improved? What might be some
            consequences of not having this kind of help and support?

 8s28       2.6 use appropriate science and technology vocabulary, including
            mechanical advantage, input, output, friction, gravity, forces, and
            efficiency, in oral and written communication


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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Science and Technology

Science and Technology (None) Expectations                                              Grade 8

 8s29        2.7 use a variety of forms (e.g., oral, written, graphic, multimedia) to
             communicate with different audiences and for a variety of purposes
             (e.g., using appropriate mathematical conventions, create a graph
             to represent changes in mechanical advantage when certain factors
             in a mechanism are manipulated.

3. Understanding Basic Concepts


 8s30        3.1 identify various types of systems (e.g., mechanical systems,
             body systems, optical systems, mass transit systems, Aboriginal
             clan systems, health care systems)


 8s31        3.2 identify the purpose, inputs, and outputs of various systems
             (e.g., a garden – purpose: to grow things; input: seeds, water,
             fertilizer; output: flowers, food)


 8s32        3.3 identify the various processes and components of a system
             (e.g., robot, front-end loader/backhoe, heating system,
             transportation system, health care system) that allow it to perform
             its function efficiently and safely

 8s33        3.4 compare, using examples, the scientific definition with the
             everyday use of the terms work, force, energy, and efficiency




 8s34        3.5 understand and use the formula work = force × distance (W = F
             × d) to establish the relationship between work, force, and distance
             moved parallel to the force in simple systems


 8s35        3.6 calculate the mechanical advantage (MA = force needed without
             a simple machine divided by force needed with a simple machine) of
             various mechanical systems (e.g., a wheelbarrow allows a smaller
             force to lift a larger weight, a hockey stick allows a short movement
             of hands to move the blade a larger distance, a simple fixed pulley
             system redirects the effort force)

 8s36        3.7 explain ways in which mechanical systems produce heat, and
             describe ways to make these systems more efficient (e.g., friction
             produces heat, which can be reduced by lubrication)




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Science and Technology

Science and Technology (None) Expectations                                          Grade 8

 8s37        3.8 describe systems that have improved the productivity of various
             industries (e.g., robotic systems have increased the rate of
             production in factories that assemble the fine parts of wrist
             watches)

 8s38        3.9 identify social factors that influence the evolution of a system
             (e.g., growing concern over the amount of waste creates a need for
             recycling centres, and the recycling centres must grow as
             population and waste increase; the desire to make tasks easier
             creates a need for pulley systems, gear systems, and hydraulic
             and pneumatic systems; changes in traditional work hours created
             by technological advances can influence changes in a child care
             system)

                                    UNDERSTANDING MATTER AND ENERGY: Fluids

Overall Expectations


 8s39        1. analyse how the properties of fluids are used in various
             technologies, and assess the impact of these technologies on
             society and the environment;


 8s40        2. investigate the properties of fluids;




 8s41        3. demonstrate an understanding of the properties and uses of
             fluids.



1. Relating Science and Technology to Society and the Environment


 8s42        1.1 assess the social, economic, and environmental impacts of
             selected technologies that are based on the properties of fluids.
             Sample issues: (a) The use of heavy hydraulic equipment on
             construction sites increases productivity. It also reduces the need
             for manual labourers. (b) Dialysis and blood-separation techniques
             have decreased mortality rates. But the costs of the equipment can
             mean that the service is not available to everyone who needs it.




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Science and Technology

Science and Technology (None) Expectations                                              Grade 8

 8s43        1.2 assess the impact of fluid spills on society and the environment,
             including the cost of the cleanup and the effort involved. Sample
             issues: An oil tanker spills its load in B.C.’s inside coastal waters.
             A fuel truck jackknifes and is leaking gasoline onto a major highway
             and into local groundwater. A farm truck moving down a country
             road is leaking liquid fertilizer. The family car is in need of repair –
             there is brake fluid running down the driveway.

2. Developing Investigation and Communication Skills


 8s44        2.1 follow established safety practices for using apparatus, tools,
             and materials (e.g., use syringes and tubing for the purposes for
             which they were designed)


 8s45        2.2 determine the mass-to-volume ratio of different amounts of the
             same substance (e.g., water, corn syrup, copper pennies)




 8s46        2.3 investigate and compare the density of a variety of liquids (e.g.,
             water, salt water, corn syrup, liquid soap). Sample problem:
             Construct and calibrate a hydrometer and use it to find the density
             of a variety of liquids.

 8s47        2.4 investigate applications of the principles of fluid mechanics
             (e.g., in aeronautical research, shipping, food services, plumbing,
             hydrodynamic engineering)


 8s48        2.5 use scientific inquiry/experimentation skills (see page 12) to
             identify factors that affect the flow rates of various fluids. Sample
             problem: Devise an experiment to find out how the flow rate of a fluid
             is affected by changing its temperature; by changing the angle or tilt
             at which it is poured; by changing the diameter of the tube through
             which it is poured.

 8s49        2.6 use technological problem-solving skills (see page 16) to
             design, build, and test devices that use pneumatic or hydraulic
             systems. Sample problem: Use your knowledge of Pascal’s law to
             design, construct, and test a working model of a device (e.g., a
             dentist’s chair, an automobile hoist, a hydraulic brake, a backhoe)
             that operates using hydraulics and/or pneumatics.




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Science and Technology

Science and Technology (None) Expectations                                              Grade 8

 8s50        2.7 use appropriate science and technology vocabulary, including
             viscosity, density, particle theory of matter, hydraulic, and
             pneumatic, in oral and written communication


 8s51        2.8 use a variety of forms (e.g., oral, written, graphic, multimedia) to
             communicate with different audiences and for a variety of purposes
             (e.g., using appropriate scientific and/or technological conventions,
             create a technical drawing of a pneumatic/hydraulic device; create a
             brochure or a multimedia presentation outlining safe and unsafe
             uses of the device that was modelled)

3. Understanding Basic Concepts


 8s52        3.1 demonstrate an understanding of viscosity and compare the
             viscosity of various liquids (e.g., water, syrup, oil, shampoo,
             ketchup)


 8s53        3.2 describe the relationship between mass, volume, and density as
             a property of matter




 8s54        3.3 explain the difference between solids, liquids, and gases in
             terms of density, using the particle theory of matter (e.g., in
             general, solids are more dense than liquids, which are more dense
             than gases)

 8s55        3.4 explain the difference between liquids and gases in terms of
             their compressibility (e.g., gases are more compressible than
             liquids) and how their compressibility affects their usage (e.g.,
             pneumatic devices are used to operate bus doors because they
             work over a larger temperature range and are safer for this purpose
             than hydraulic devices)

 8s56        3.5 determine the buoyancy of an object, given its density, in a
             variety of fluids (e.g., less dense objects float, more dense objects
             sink)


 8s57        3.6 explain in qualitative terms the relationship between pressure,
             volume, and temperature when a liquid (e.g., water) or a gas (e.g.,
             air) is compressed or heated




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Science and Technology

Science and Technology (None) Expectations                                          Grade 8

 8s58        3.7 explain how forces are transferred in all directions in fluids
             (Pascal’s law)




 8s59        3.8 compare the ways in which fluids are used and controlled in
             living things to the ways in which they are used and controlled in
             manufactured devices (e.g., compare the role of valves in the
             circulatory system to the role of valves in an internal combustion
             engine; compare the role of a fish’s swim bladder to the role of the
             ballast tanks in a submarine)

                        UNDERSTANDING EARTH AND SPACE SYSTEMS: Water Systems

Overall Expectations


 8s60        1. assess the impact of human activities and technologies on the
             sustainability of water resources;




 8s61        2. investigate factors that affect local water quality;




 8s62        3. demonstrate an understanding of the characteristics of the
             earth’s water systems and the influence of water systems on a
             specific region.


1. Relating Science and Technology to Society and the Environment


 8s63        1.1 evaluate personal water consumption, compare it with personal
             water consumption in other countries, and propose a plan of action
             to reduce personal water consumption to help address water
             sustainability issues




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Science and Technology

Science and Technology (None) Expectations                                            Grade 8

 8s64       1.2 assess how various media sources (e.g., Canadian Geographic;
            the science section in newspapers; Internet websites; local,
            national, and international news on television and radio) address
            issues related to the impact of human activities on the long-term
            sustainability of local, national, or international water systems.
            Sample issues: (a) You are doing research on the implications of
            exporting water from Canada to other countries. Your sources are a
            national newspaper, a scientific magazine, and some selected
            Internet sites. Each has a slightly different opinion on the issue. (b)
            A farmer wants to ensure that her nutrient management strategies
            are not adversely affecting the local water system. She consults the
            agriculture section of a local newspaper, a Canadian magazine with
            an environmental focus, and local farm reports. She finds conflicting
            information. (c) The Protocol for Safe Drinking Water in First
            Nations Communities addresses drinking water concerns in First
            Nations communities. Various government agencies, news
            agencies, and interest groups have different perspectives on its
            development and release. Sample guiding questions: How does
            each of these texts address the purpose and the intended audience
            for the piece? Are there implied messages in the text, and if so,
            what are they? How does the information in each of the texts
            compare? Why might they take different positions? What different
            groups are represented in the texts? How does each text capture
            and maintain the interest of the reader? Why might different people
            or groups of people react differently to these texts?




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Science and Technology

Science and Technology (None) Expectations                                             Grade 8

 8s65        1.3 assess the impact on local and global water systems of a
             scientific discovery or technological innovation (e.g., enhancing the
             efficiency of naturally occurring bacteria that consume
             hydrocarbons from oil spills and convert them to carbon dioxide and
             water; development of desalination techniques to provide fresh water
             from sea water). Sample issues: (a) Bioremediation (e.g., the use of
             microorganisms to clean up contaminated soil or water) can
             eliminate contamination in many environments with a speed and
             thoroughness much greater than traditional methods and at
             significantly lower costs. However, it is effective on a limited number
             of contaminants; in some cases, the time involved is relatively long;
             and considerable knowledge and experience are needed to design
             and implement a successful bioremediation program. (b)
             Desalination is a method that allows sea water to be made into
             fresh water. The cost to do this is declining, while extracting water
             from rivers and lakes is becoming more expensive as well as
             ecologically harmful, and groundwater in many locations is
             depleted. However, not every area that needs a supply of fresh
             water is on a coastline. Sample guiding questions: What scientific
             discoveries or technologies are currently affecting Earth’s water
             systems? What kind of an impact are these advances having on
             water systems? What discoveries or technologies are available (or
             in development) that can help clean our water systems?

2. Developing Investigation and Communication Skills


 8s66        2.1 follow established safety procedures for the use of apparatus
             and chemicals (e.g., when using water-testing equipment and
             water-testing chemicals)


 8s67        2.2 investigate how municipalities process water (e.g., obtain it, test
             it, and treat it) and manage water (e.g., distribute it, measure
             consumption, and dispose of waste water)


 8s68        2.3 test water samples for a variety of chemical characteristics
             (e.g., pH, salinity, chlorine). Sample problem: Test the pH, salinity,
             and chlorine content of tap water, rain water, bottled water, filtered
             water, and water from a variety of other sources such as streams,
             rivers, ponds, or lakes. Record and compare the findings and draw
             conclusions from them.




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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Science and Technology

Science and Technology (None) Expectations                                              Grade 8

 8s69        2.4 use scientific inquiry/research skills (see page 15) to investigate
             local water issues. Sample guiding questions: Where does your
             local water supply come from? How is water used in the area where
             you live? How does the use of water in your community affect the
             local water supply? How might you find out? What are some local
             issues regarding the water supply for your area? Why have these
             become issues? How are they currently being addressed by your
             city, town, or region? How might you and your family have become
             aware of the issue? What are some things that you think others
             should know about their local water supply and how it is managed?

 8s70        2.5 use technological problem-solving skills (see page 16) to
             design, build, and test a water system device that performs a
             practical function or meets a need. Sample problem: Design, build,
             and test a filtration device that makes unclean water clean; build a
             working model of an irrigation system.

 8s71        2.6 use appropriate science and technology vocabulary, including
             water table, aquifer, polar ice-cap, and salinity, in oral and written
             communication


 8s72        2.7 use a variety of forms (e.g., oral, written, graphic, multimedia) to
             communicate with different audiences and for a variety of purposes
             (e.g. using appropriate scientific conventions, draw a labelled
             diagram of a water treatment facility; create a brochure about the
             safe use of wells and septic tanks)

3. Understanding Basic Concepts


 8s73        3.1 identify the various states of water on the earth’s surface, their
             distribution, relative amounts, and circulation, and the conditions
             under which they exist (e.g., water is a solid in glaciers, snow, and
             polar ice-caps; a liquid in oceans, lakes, rivers, and aquifers; and a
             gas in the atmosphere)

 8s74        3.2 demonstrate an understanding of the watershed as a
             fundamental geographic unit, and explain how it relates to water
             management and planning


 8s75        3.3 explain how human and natural factors cause changes in the
             water table (e.g., lawn watering, inefficient showers and toilets,
             drought, floods, overuse of wells, extraction by bottled water
             industry)


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Curriculum Expectations by Grade
Subject:    Science and Technology

Science and Technology (None) Expectations                                           Grade 8

 8s76       3.4 identify factors (e.g., annual precipitation, temperature, climate
            change) that affect the size of glaciers and polar ice-caps, and
            describe the effects of these changes on local and global water
            systems

 8s77       3.5 explain changes in atmospheric conditions caused by the
            presence of bodies of water (e.g., differences in temperature near
            large bodies of water; microclimates; storms off coastal areas)




 Printed:   16-September-2010                                                          Page:   118

								
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