Scoping Stages of Project Management

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Scoping Stages of Project Management Powered By Docstoc
					                                                    Risk Analysis Scoresheet

External                Value                     Scor Problem                                       Counter Measure
Dependency                                        e
Multiple vendors /      Y = 2, N = 0                 0 Coordination.                                 Ensure adherence to standards, both
contractors?                                                                                         technical and managerial. Emphasize the
                                                                                                     importance of regular status reporting.

Poor vendor support?    Y = 1, N = 0                 0 Time wasted waiting for response to            Impose contractual
                                                       queries or due to rework arising from          constraints/safeguards. Request
                                                       mistaken assumptions made by the               documentation in advance. Ensure
                                                       project team in the interim.                   effective account manager. Identify a
                                                                                                      user group with other clients.
Critical dependence on Y = 2, N = 0                  2   May miss milestones waiting for              Ensure suppliers are aware of schedule
external suppliers?                                      deliverables.                                commitment. Request interim status
                                                                                                      reports and review of partially complete
                                                                                                      deliverables so that the project team can
                                                                                                      verify the supplier's estimates of the
                                                                                                      effort to go. Impose contractual
Number of inter-      < 3 = 0, 3-5 = 3, > 5 =        0   Time wasted awaiting completion of           Have a co-ordination project with the
project dependencies? 5                                  other projects not within the stage          critical path specified in terms of
                                                         manager's control.                           projects. Recommend a strategic /
                                                                                                      architectural plan is produced.
Overlapping scope with Y = 3, N = 0                  0   Parallel, or duplicate, development of       Establish cross-project standards to
other projects?                                          similar areas with different approaches      ensure consistency. Establish change
                                                         causing confusion and irritation to the      control procedures to manage the
                                                         user.                                        different changes proposed by different
                                                                                                      systems. Recommend a
                                                                                                      strategic/architectural plan is produced.
Contradicts LRSP        Y = 10, N = 0                0   Project initiated for no justifiable reason, Ensure Project Board and Strategy
direction?                                               e.g., political.                             Committee are aware of the situation.
Plan requires extensive Y = 2, N = 0                 0   Time and expense                             Investigate training current resources.
recruitment of                                                                                        Plan gradual take on to allow for
resources?                                                                                            familiarization and training. Investigate
                                                                                                      viability of using short term experienced
External Dependency                                  2   Low Risk

Number of user areas    Equal to number of           3 Not obtaining consensus.                      Identify key representative. Establish
and decision makers?    user areas / decision                                                        decision making process/responsibilities.
Multiple geographical   Equal to number of           1 Time to distribute deliverables and co-       Select a pilot implementation site then a
locations?              geographical areas             ordinate activities.                          phased implementation. Establish focal
                        divided by the number                                                        point for development activities.
                        of implementation sites

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                                                  Risk Analysis Scoresheet

Previous user IS           Y = 0, N = 1              0 Unrealistic expectations. Lack of             Schedule briefing and training sessions
project experience?                                    communication. Lack of knowledge of           early in project. Increase user
                                                       roles and commitment.                         involvement/participation.
Size of departments        < 200 = 0, 200-500 =      0 (This is the number of people whose           Training requirements and
impacted?                  1, 500-2000 = 3, >          function will be changed as a                 implementation logistics. Consider
                           2000 = 5                    consequence of the new system)                phased implementation if self-contained
                                                       Complexity of requirements and                increments can be identified. Plan
                                                       possibility of conflicts.                     implementation as early as possible.

Inappropriate level of     Y = 10 N = 0              0 When a problem arises, the sponsor may Extend project board to include a more
sponsorship?                                           not have the authority, or perspective, to appropriate sponsor.
                                                       support the project adequately.

Key users unavailable? Y = 5, N = 0                  0 Lack of understanding of requirements.    Use techniques which are less dependent
                                                       Lack of involvement of users in           on user input, e.g., relational data
                                                       production of deliverables with a         analysis rather than data modeling. Use
                                                       consequential lack of commitment to       user representative on Project Board to
                                                       project.                                  "encourage" user participation. Extend
                                                                                                 review activities.
Organizational changes     Y = 2, N = 0              2   Resistance to system by organization.   Hold briefings throughout project on
required (in terms of                                                                            what the repercussions will be. Increase
structure /                                                                                      user involvement. Obtain top
responsibility)?                                                                                 management commitment.
Level of changes           High = 3, Moderate =      3   Users inadequately prepared for a       Increase level of user training, use of
required to user           2, Low = 1                    successful implementation and handover. prototypes and presentations of the new
procedures?                                                                                      procedures, both system and manual.
Are users dually           Y = 0, N = 3              0   Lack of commitment to assuring quality Increase user participation in the
involved in the                                          of technical deliverables and to plan.  technical activities by use of JAD, and
management and                                                                                   the interactive sessions, to gather
execution of the                                                                                 information and create models.
project?                                                                                         Determine user roles in the project
                                                                                                 organization (Project Board, Project
Will extensive             Y = 2, N = 0              2   Inadequate budget and time frame for    Include prior walkthrough of the training
education be required                                    training.                               sessions and materials to gain
to facilitate use of the                                                                         commitment from user management.
Organizational Total                                11 Moderate Risk

Planning Factor
Dependent on scarce     Y = 5, N = 0                 5 Competition for resources or personnel        Make resource requirements known as
resources / skills?                                    with appropriate skills.                      early as possible.
Complex task            Y = 3, N = 0                 0 Critical dependencies unknown,                Increase level of planning. Tighten
dependencies?                                          increased chance of slippage.                 project control.
Critical implementation Y = 5, N = 0                 0 May have to cut back on quality and/or        Verify significance of date. Ascertain
date?                                                  functionality, or project discarded if date   which portions of system are required for
                                                       missed.                                       that date. Consider incremental
                                                                                                     development. Plan and control at
                                                                                                     detailed level.

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                                                  Risk Analysis Scoresheet

Informal control        Y = 5, N = 0                 0 Inaccurate Project Status information.    Encourage take on of formal controls by
procedures?                                                                                      training and provision of project
                                                                                                 management software.
Effort versus elapsed   Effort time/Elapsed          2 The greater this ratio, the greater the   Increase control procedures and
time?                   time                           number of simultaneous tasks.             introduce additional level of
                                                       Increased staff associated with           management. Divide into achievable sub-
                                                       development and associated overheads.     systems.
Number of major         < 3 = 1, >= 3 = 3            1 Managing Interfaces.                      Have a co-ordination project. Establish
subsystems?                                                                                      overall architectural plan. Minimize
                                                                                                 project interdependencies.
Subsystem more than 3 Y = 2, N = 0                   0                                           Increase the number or control points.
elapsed years?
Subsystem more than Y = 2 N = 0                      0 Increased chance of slippage due to       Increase the number or control points.
12 elapsed months?                                     possible changes in requirements or
                                                       scope over longer elapsed time.
Level of confidence?    >85% = 1, <85% = 3           1 Level of planning experience of           Ensure management tolerances and
                                                       unknowns within the plan may make         contingencies are identified.
                                                       estimates low.
Key dates set by        Y = 0, N = 3                 0 No commitment to plan, unachievable       Verify significance and justification for
project team from the                                  date.                                     dates. Produce a plan.
Experience of project   High = 0, Moderate =         0 Plans may not exist. Control procedures Provide training and support from
manager?                1, Low = 3, None               may not be adequate.                    experienced project manager. Increase
                        allocated = 4                                                          involvement by Project Board.
Planned resources       Y = 0, N = 5                 5 New plan will be required to fit with
available?                                             maximum resource constraint or project
                                                       could be canceled/postponed.
Planning Factor Total                               14 Low Risk

Business Case
Major increase in costs Y = 3, N = 0                 0 If greater than +/-5%, then likely to miss Set appropriate tolerance levels.
possible?                                              stage end targets.                         Investigate mechanisms for further
                                                                                                  controlling costs.
Evolving business       Y = 5, N = 0                 3 Do not know where project should be        Use iterative development approach.
requirements?                                          heading, difficulty in justification,      Establish detailed scoping study.
                                                       significant rework likely.                 Increase user involvement.
Incomplete definition   Y = 5, N = 0                 1 Cannot estimate effort as a lot of rework Involve more senior user representatives.
of scope /                                             is likely.                                 Establish detailed scoping study.
requirements?                                                                                     Increase time spent in analysis.

Ill-defined benefits?   Y=2, N=0                     2 Difficult to select optional solution,    Use CRA to help define tangible
                                                       potential for project being canceled.     benefits. Establish focused sessions with
                                                                                                 user to evaluate benefits.
Lead time for return on Twice development            2 May never achieve pay-back.               Reduce scope of system to include most
investment              time = 2, Five times or                                                  profitable segments.
                        more the development
                        time = 5
Mission critical        Y = 5, N = 0                 0 Business may fail if project fails.       Increase planning and level of control.

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                                               Risk Analysis Scoresheet

Fundamental to IS       Y = 5, N = 0                5 Foundation system impacting other          Increase planning and level of control.
strategy?                                             developments.
Business commitment     High = 1, Low = 3           1 System perceived as belonging to I.S.      Hold assessments requiring user sign-off.
to development?                                       department.                                Increase user involvement. Produce
                                                                                                 detailed Business Case.
Business Case Total                                14 High Risk

Inappropriate           Y = 2, N = 0                0 Required tools unavailable.                Review tools and associated justification.
development tools?                                                                               Evaluate other productivity areas.

New / unfamiliar        Y = 5, N = 0                5 Time required for learning curve during    Conduct training. Recruit experienced
technology?                                           development.                               staff. Obtain vendor support.
Stable development      Y = 0, N = 5                0 Lost information. Time required for        Document in standard format as project
team?                                                 handover.                                  progresses. Increase attendance at
                                                                                                 reviews to spread knowledge.
Low team knowledge      Y = 1, N = 0                0 Increased reliance on users.               Increased user participation. Increase
of business area?                                                                                frequency and formality of reviews.
Project team skills?    Expert = 0, Balanced        1 If the balance of expertise is low, then   Increase the frequency of Quality
                        = 1, Trainee = 5.             there is an increased risk of defects.     Assurance Reviews and Project
                                                                                                 Checkpoints. Include experienced staff
                                                                                                 as specialized technical support.
                                                                                                 Account for experience levels when
Use of development      Y = 0, N = 2                0 Project team does not know what to do.     Implement a standard approach to
method / standards?                                   Tasks may be duplicated or omitted.        development, ensure staff familiarity.
(Project) Factor
Complexity of           Low = 0, Moderate =         2 Increased risk of defects.                 Increase effort in Logical Design to
functions?              2, High = 5                                                              validate. Increase level of reviews. Use
                                                                                                 formal techniques.
Complexity of           Low = 0, Moderate =         2 Performance problems.                      Increase data validation steps throughout.
database?               2, High = 5                                                              Ensure thorough Physical Design
                                                                                                 Tuning. Increase DBA involvement.

Database to be shared   Y = 3, N = 0                3 Difficult to tune successfully in Physical Attempt to establish overall volumes and
by a number of                                        Design.                                    requirements. Keep design flexible.
Number of physical      < 3 = 0, >= 3 = 3.          0 Increase risks of systems failure.         Increase time in defining interfaces in
system interfaces?                                                                               detail. Involve experts from associated
Clearly specified        Y = 0, N = 3               0 Rework may be necessary as systems         Increase user involvement.
requirements?                                         may not meet users' needs.
Number of design         0-25% = 0, 25-60% =        0 Rework may be necessary as system may Increase user involvement.
decisions at discretion 3, 60%+ = 5                   not meet user's needs
of systems architect (no
user involvement)?

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                                                 Risk Analysis Scoresheet

Is a package solution     Y = 0, N = 3              0 Effort required in design, construction      Ensure buy/build option is appropriately
available?                                            and testing.                                 conducted.
If using a package, was   Y =0, N = 3               2 Mismatch likely.                             Carry out evaluation if cost justified.
the package evaluated
and selected, based
upon detailed
specifications and
If using a package,       0-5% = 0, 5-15% = 3,      0 Required information may be difficult to Contract vendor to do changes. Evaluate
were package changes      over 15% = 5                obtain, or not supported.                alternative solutions. Minimize changes
required?                                                                                      to front/back ends.
Complex on-line           Y = 2, N = 0              2 Increased risk of technical problems     Add activities to prototype the on-line
networks?                                             (incompatibility, etc.)                  architecture. Involve technical experts in
                                                                                               physical design stage.
Multi-level hardware      Y = 2, N = 0              2 Interfaces, data distribution.           Separate technical feasibility project
requirement?                                                                                   started early. Ensure availability of
                                                                                               required skills.
Upward compatible         Y = 0, N = 3              0 Hardware constraints will increase           Increase time scheduled for physical
hardware?                                             problems in physical design and              design and construction stages. Involve
                                                      implementation.                              technical experts in physical design
24 hour availability?     Y = 3, N = 0              0 Tight timing constraints will increase       Increase time scheduled for physical
                                                      problems in physical design and              design and construction stages. Involve
                                                      construction.                                technical experts in physical design
Rapid response time       Y = 3, N = 0              0 Tight timing constraints will increase       Increase time scheduled for physical
(below 2 seconds) ?                                   problems in physical design and              design and construction stages. Involve
                                                      construction.                                technical experts in physical design
Small batch window?       Y = 3, N = 0              0 Tight timing constraints will increase       Increase time scheduled for physical
                                                      problems in physical design and              design and construction stages. Involve
                                                      construction.                                technical experts in physical design
High-volume               Y = 3, N = 0              0 Tighter performance constraints will         Increase time scheduled for physical
throughput?                                           increase problems in physical design and     design and construction stages. Involve
                                                      construction.                                technical experts in physical design
Very large database?      Y = 3, N = 0              0 Performance and storage constraints will     Increase time scheduled for designing the
                                                      increase problems in physical design and     database and for storage and
                                                      construction.                                performance predictions. Involve
                                                                                                   technical experts in physical design
Short recovery cycle?     Y = 3, N = 0              3 Tighter recovery constraints will increase   Increase time scheduled for physical
                                                      problems in physical design and              design and construction stages. Involve
                                                      construction.                                technical experts in physical design
Technical Total                                    22 Moderate Risk

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                                             Risk Analysis Scoresheet

Overall Project                                  63 Moderate Risk

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