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									2002 Basic Education Curriculum
        Secondary Level



     Department of Education
BUREAU OF SECONDARY EDUCATION
 DepEd Complex, Meralco Ave., Pasig City
INTRODUCTION
     This Handbook aims to provide the general public – parents, students,
researchers, and other stakeholders – an overview of the Science program at the
secondary level. Those in education, however, may use it as a reference for
implementing the 2002 secondary education curriculum, or as a source document to
inform policy and guide practice.

      For quick reference, the Handbook is outlined as follows:

      ∗   The description defines the focus and the emphasis of the learning area as
          well as the language of instruction used.
      ∗   The unit credit indicates the number of units assigned to a learning area
          computed on a 40-minute per unit credit basis and which shall be used to
          evaluate a student’s promotion to the next year level.
      ∗   The time allotment specifies the number of minutes allocated to a learning
          area on a daily (or weekly, as the case may be) basis.
      ∗   The expectancies refer to the general competencies that the learners are
          expected to demonstrate at the end of each year level.
      ∗   The scope and sequence outlines the content, or the coverage of the learning
          area in terms of concepts or themes, as the case may be.
      ∗   The suggested strategies are those that are typically employed to develop the
          content, build skills, and integrate learning.
      ∗   The materials include those that have been approved for classroom use. The
          application of information and communication technology is encouraged,
          where available.
      ∗   The grading system specifies how learning outcomes shall be evaluated and
          the aspects of student performance which shall be rated.
      ∗   The learning competencies are the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values
          that the students are expected to develop or acquire during the teaching-
          learning situations.
      ∗   Lastly, sample lesson plans are provided to illustrate the mode of integration,
          where appropriate, the application of life skills and higher order thinking skills,
          the valuing process and the differentiated activities to address the learning
          needs of students.

      The Handbook is designed as a practical guide and is not intended to structure the
operationalization of the curriculum or impose restrictions on how the curriculum shall
be implemented. Decisions on how best to teach and how learning outcomes can be
achieved most successfully rest with the school principals and teachers. They know the
direction they need to take and how best to get there.
CONTENTS

                                                                                                                 Page


Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    i

Course Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          1

Unit Credit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Time Allotment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Expectancies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .      2

Scope and Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 –16

Suggested Strategies and Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                    16 – 17

Grading System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

Learning Competencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 – 36

Prototype Lesson Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 – 57
COURSE DESCRIPTION

       The Science Program at the secondary level is designed to promote students’
awareness of the relevance of science in life and develop critical and creative thinking
as well as skills in problem solving through the teaching of science in an outdoor
environment and cooperative learning.       More than the understanding of science
concepts, emphasis is given on the application of these concepts to improve the
environment and the quality of life.


       In First Year, Integrated Science builds on elementary Science, and weaves
together bits of earth science, biology, chemistry and physics which flow sequentially in
a more unified and meaningful pattern of study.


       In Second Year, the learners focus on Biology, which deals with the living world
of human and non-human species, human interactions and relationships with the
environment, and the problems we face relative to health, reproduction and heredity,
food production, resource management and conservation.


       In Third Year, the learners focus on Chemistry, which deals with the properties
and chemical behavior of matter, atomic structure, chemical changes, and technology
affecting the environment and society.


UNIT CREDIT/TIME ALLOTMENT

      See DepEd Order No. 37, s. 2003, “ Revised Implementing Guidelines of the
2003 Secondary Education Curriculum Effective School 2003-2004”
EXPECTANCIES IN SCIENCE


     The learner is expected to apply scientific knowledge, skills and values in
identifying and solving problems of the environment, its conservation and in evolving
better ways and means of doing things in daily living.




                                        CHEMISTRY
       At the end of the Third Year Science Program, the learner should be able to
demonstrate understanding of the science concepts in chemistry; develop skills to know
the structure, composition, properties and classification of matter and to explain different
chemical processes/reactions, changes in matter/energy and its applications to daily life
and a discriminating appreciation of technology.




                                         BIOLOGY
       At the end of the Second Year Science Program, the learner should be able to
explain the interrelationship between the different biological processes; demonstrate
scientific skill with competence and confidence; initiate activities in the preservation and
conservation of the environment.




                                 INTEGRATED SCIENCE
       At the end of the First Year Science Program, the learner should be able to
demonstrate understanding of basic science concepts, skills and attitudes needed to
explore biology, chemistry, physics and earth science with an integrative understanding
and application of these scientific disciplines .
SCOPE AND SEQUENCE

Integrated Science
First Year


I.    Introduction

      1. Local superstitions, beliefs and practices/ways related to science and
         technology

      2. Scientific values in decision making and problem-solving

      3. Desirable qualities of scientists

      4. Contributions of outstanding Filipino and foreign scientists


II.   Scientific Method

      1. Steps in the scientific method

         1.1    Definition of problem, hypothesis, experimental design, variables,
                observation, conclusion, theory and law
         1.2    Independent/dependent variables
         1.3    Experimental/control groups

      2. Precision and accuracy in data gathering

         2.1    Qualitative and quantitative observations
         2.2    Measurement in scientific investigations
         2.3    Laboratory apparatus and equipment, their uses and precautionary
                measures
         2.4    Measuring instruments
         2.5    Significant figures in four fundamental operations
         2.6    Scientific notations
         2.7    Conversion of units
         2.8    Masses and volumes of solids/liquids/gases
         2.9    Density of solids/liquids/gases

      3. Analysis of Data

         3.1    Making inferences
         3.2    Presentation of a set of Data
         3.3    Data Interpretation
III.   Matter and Its Properties

       1. Natural phenomena in terms of properties of matter

       2. Properties, classification and composition of matter

          2.1    Substances and mixtures
          2.2    Matter in the environment
          2.3    Law of Conservation of Mass
          2.4    Atoms and molecules

       3. Physical and chemical changes

          3.1    Examples of physical and chemical changes used in daily life
          3.2    Energy involved in changes that matter undergoes


IV.    Living Things and Their Environment

       1. Highly organized structure of living organisms

          1.1    Important characteristics of living organisms
          1.2    Cell as fundamental unit of structure of living organism
          1.3    Basic parts of a typical plant cell and animal cell and their functions

       2. Interactions between living and non-living things

          2.1    Ecological system
          2.2    Food Chain and Food Web
          2.3    Flow of matter and energy in an ecosystem

       3. Interrelationships among organisms and between organisms and their
          environment

          3.1    Effect of population size/density on food, space and relationship
                 among organisms

       4. Maintenance/Restoration of the integrity/balance of an ecosystem

          4.1    Importance of natural resources
          4.2    Conservation of soil, forest, wildlife
V.    Changes in the Environment

      1. Resources of the earth

         1.1    Raw materials from land, air and water
         1.2    Processes on how raw materials become finished products

      2. Hydrosphere

         2.1    Density currents and upward movements of nutrients
         2.2    River formation and its effects on the environment
         2.3    Evidences of natural pollution in bodies of water

      3. Atmosphere

         3.1    Weather and Climate
         3.2    Weather changes and periodic patterns
         3.3    Monsoon winds
         3.4    Weather prediction

      4. Precautionary measures in cases of typhoon, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions

      5. Lithosphere

         5.1    Theories of continental drift, sea floor spreading and plate tectonics
         5.2    Formation of mountains
         5.3    Geological structure
         5.4    Rock formation
         5.5    Types of rocks
         5.6    Weathering
         5.7    Soil transfer


VI.   The Earth and Its Neighbors

      1. Physical features of planet earth

      2. Effects of earth’s motion

         2.1    Different motions of the earth
         2.2    Day and night, seasonal changes

      3. Moon-earth system

         3.1    Tides and Eclipses
       4. Other members of the Solar system

          4.1    Composition of the solar system
          4.2    Size, distance and characteristics of the planets of the solar system
          4.3    Comets and meteors

       5. Beyond the Solar system

          5.1    Star map and constellations
          5.2    Characteristics of stars and other heavenly bodies
          5.3    Birth and death of a star
          5.4    Star clusters, galaxies and other celestial formation


VII.   Force, Work and Energy

       1. Interaction of matter

          1.1    Conceptual meaning of force
          1.2    Contact and non-contact forces
          1.3    Gravitational, magnetic, electric and nuclear forces
          1.4    Effects of forces in matter
          1.5    Work and its operational definition
          1.6    Work done in different situations
          1.7    Different kinds of simple machines and their uses
          1.8    Work done using simple machines

       2. Energy, its forms and transformation

          2.1    Different forms of energy
          2.2    Transformations of energy

       3. Energy resources

          3.1    Sources of energy in the Philippines
          3.2    Conventional and non conventional sources of energy

       4. Understanding energy problems

          4.1    Current energy problems
          4.2    Solutions to energy problems
          4.3    Local resources
          4.4    Energy technology
        5. Importance of using energy wisely




BIOLOGY
Second Year


I.      Introduction

        1. Nature of biology as a science of life

           1.1    Unifying ideas in biology

        2. Biological concepts as applied in technology

           2.1    Implications and responsibilities of any biotechnology

        3. Contributions of Filipino and foreign scientists in Biology

           3.1    Contributions of Filipino and foreign scientists in the field of biology and
                  biotechnology

        4. The compound microscope

           4.1    Parts of the compound microscope
           4.2    Special tools in research and technology


II.     Ecosystem

        1. Similarities and differences of ecosystems

           1.1    Natural and man-made ecosystems
           1.2    Managed and unmanaged ecosystems

        2. Man’s role in maintaining balance in nature

           2.1    Environmental issues
           2.2    Prevention of ecological problems


 VII.   Cell Structure and Function
       3. The Cell- a highly organized structure

          1.1    Parts of the cell
          1.2    Plant cells and animal cells
          1.3    Unicellular and multicellular organisms
          1.4    Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

       4. Discoveries on cellular structures and functions that have led to useful
          technologies

          2.1    Activities of cell organelles used to promote food production and health

       5. Cellular exchange of materials with the environment

          3.1    Osmosis and diffusion
          3.2    Active and passive transport
          3.3    Phagocytosis and exocytosis


III.   Biodiversity

       1. Diverse forms of living things

          1.1    Distinguishing characteristics of organisms
          1.2    Common viruses and their effects on host cells

       2. Potential value of organisms

          2.1    Economic importance of organisms
          2.2    Conserving economically important organisms


IV.    Evolution

       1. Theories of evolution

          1.1    Darwin’s theory of evolution
          1.2    Lamarck’s theory of evolution

       2. Direct and indirect evidences of evolution

          2.1    Distinguishing direct from indirect evidence of evolution
          2.2    Indirect evidences of shared ancestry
      3. Evolutionary pattern in plants, animals and human beings

         3.1    Factors affecting the pattern of evolution in some plants, animals and
                human beings
         3.2    Effects of some technologies on the evolution of organisms


V.    Life Energy

      1. Understanding how organisms obtain energy

         1.1    Cell part involved in obtaining energy
         1.2    Energy location and function of chlorophyll pigments
         1.3    Requirements of photosynthesis
         1.4    Light and dark reactions of photosynthesis
         1.5    Characteristics of plants that make them efficient producers
         1.6    Role of green plants as energy suppliers
         1.7    Scientific explanations behind farming practices


      2. Understanding how organisms produce energy

         2.1    Cell part involved in producing energy
         2.2    Requirements of cellular respiration
         2.3    Stages of cellular respiration
         2.4    Interdependency of living things for important gases through oxygen-
                carbon dioxide cycles


VI.   Organ Systems

      1. Interaction of cells, tissues, organ systems in maintaining the life of an
         organism

         1.1    Coordinated functions of cells, tissues, organ systems in maintaining
                the life of plants, animals and human beings
         1.2    Necessity of an organized system for proper growth development and
                survival of the organism
         1.3    Importance of the body systems in the overall functioning of the
                organism

      2. Anatomy and physiology of plants and animals

         2.1     Parts and functions of the different organ systems
         2.2     Requirements of plants for growth
          2.3    Absorption and transportation of materials and water in plants

       3. Human anatomy and physiology

          3.1    Parts and functions of the different organ systems
          3.2    Parts of the different organs systems in the human body
          3.3    Functions of the different organ systems

       4. Technologies that help defective organ systems function properly

          4.1    Identifying technologies that help scientific defective organ system
                 function properly


VII.   Reproduction

       1. Importance of cell division

          1.1    Cell cycle
          1.2    Explaining mitosis and meiosis
          1.3    Differentiating mitosis from meiosis


       2. Cellular reproduction among plants, animals and human beings

          2.1    Sexual and asexual reproduction in a variety of organisms

       3. Human Reproduction

          3.1    Parts and functions of the human reproductive system
          3.2    Stages of development of the fertilized embryo and fetus

       4. Problems and issues related to fertility and population growth

          4.1    Analyzing some problems on fertility
          4.2    Ways of planning population growth

       5. Ill effects of human sexually transmitted diseases

          5.1    Risks of contamination to various sexually transmitted diseases
                 specially AIDS
VIII.   Genetics

        1. Chromosomal basis of inheritance and the role of DNA as a blue print of life

           1.1     Explaining the chromosomal basis of inheritance
           1.2     Importance of DNA in the transmission of traits

        2. Fundamental role of chromosomes and genes in hereditary variations

           2.1     Discussing how chromosomes and genes are related to each other

        3. Mendelian Principles of Heredity

           3.1     Mendel’s experiment on garden peas illustrating Mendelian Principle’s
                   of Inheritance
           3.2     Traits that follow Mendelian patterns of heredity
           3.3     Solving monohybrid crosses given the phenotypes and genotypes of
                   parents

        4. Non Mendelian Patterns of Heredity

           4.1     Inferring that certain traits do not always follow the Mendelian
                   Principles of Heredity

        5. Different chromosomal aberrations

           5.1     Explaining how mutation occurs

        6. Issues concerning advanced technologies in genetics

           6.1     Effects of genetic engineering
           6.2     Genetically Modified Organisms or Food
           6.3     Problems concerning cloning and gene splicing




CHEMISTRY
Third Year

I.      Introduction

        1. Importance of Chemistry
         1.1    Importance of Chemistry to daily life Role of Chemistry in society and
                industry
         1.2    Contributions of Chemistry to other sciences
         1.3    Different tasks of a chemist

      2. Achievements of     Filipino and foreign scientists in chemistry   and related
         technology

         2.1    Researches in Chemistry conducted by Filipino scientists
         2.2    Contributions of Filipino and foreign scientists in the field of chemical
                technology

      3. Different apparatus used in a Chemistry laboratory

         3.1    Uses of the different apparatus’ in a Chemistry laboratory
         3.2    Safety precautions to be observed in a Chemistry laboratory

      4. Mathematical concepts in Chemistry

         4.1    Significant figures
         4.2    Mathematical concepts in problem solving using scientific notation
         4.3    Conversion in length, volume, temperature, pressure, etc.
         4.4    Basic concept of a mole


II.   Classifying matter

      1. Identification of different chemical systems

         1.1    Homogeneous and heterogeneous systems
         1.2    Differences between pure substances and mixtures
         1.3    Types of mixtures
         1.4    Differences between elements and compounds
         1.5    Classification of elements as metals and non-metals
         1.6    Classification of compounds whether acid, base or salts
         1.7    Classifications of compounds whether organic or inorganic substances

      2. Elements and compounds in daily life

         2.1    Basic elements and compounds present in daily life
         2.2    Elements and compounds used in industries which are vital to our
                national economy

      3. Techniques in preparing, separating and purifying matter
          3.1     Methods of separation of mixtures
          3.2     Preparation of useful mixtures
          3.3     Separation of components of a mixture
          3.4     Recovery of useful chemicals


III.   Solutions

       1. Properties of solutions

          1.1     Types of solutions
          1.2     How the dissolving process occurs
          1.3     Relationship between the dissolving process and energy changes
                  involved in the process
          1.4     Saturated, supersaturated and unsaturated solutions
          1.5     Factors affecting solubility
          1.6     Colligative properties
          1.7     Relationship between the mole concept and concentration of solutions
          1.8     Problems on concentration of solutions (% by volume, molarity,
                  molality, normality, mole fraction, etc.)

       2. Solutions and the environment

          2.1     Importance of colligative properties of solutions to daily life
          2.2     Water pollution in relation to solutions
          2.3     Importance of electrolyte balance in the body


IV.    Colloids

       1. Properties, preparation and uses of colloids

          1.1     Classification of colloids
          1.2     Properties of colloids and their behavior
          1.3     Methods and principles involved in purification of colloids
          1.4     Preparation of useful colloids

       2. Importance of colloids to daily life

          2.1     Colloids in technology
          2.2     Importance of colloids to daily life
          2.3     Biological and environmental impact of colloids
          2.4     Gas mixtures and air pollution
V.    Gases

      1. Behavior of gases

         1.1    Properties and behavior of gases based on Kinetic Molecular Theory
         1.2    Relationship among molecular interactions, boiling points, vapor
                pressure and phases of matter
         1.3    Diffusion of gases
         1.4    Relationship between rate of diffusion and the molecular mass of a
                substance
         1.5    Boyle’s law
         1.6    Charles’ law
         1.7    Relationship between concept of a mole and volume of gases
         1.8    Variables that describe the state of gases (P, T, V, n…)

      2. Problem solving using mathematical calculations

         2.1    Boyle’s, Charles’, Avogadro’s, and Dalton’s law of partial pressure

      3. Gas law principles and common household technologies

         3.1    Storage of gases and volatile liquids
         3.2    Application of gas laws in daily occurrences
         3.3    Technologies involved pressure cooker, refrigerators, bicycle pump,
                generators, etc.
         3.4    Properties of gases and air pollution


VI.   Inside the atom

      1. Scientists involved in the early development of the atomic theory

         1.1    Significance of the contributions of early scientists in the development
                of the atomic theory
         1.2    Radioactive elements in the treatment of diseases

      2. The structure of the atom

         2.1    Dalton’s atomic theory
         2.2    Law of chemical changes and Dalton’s atomic theory
         2.3    Cathode ray and the atom
         2.4    Rutherford’s experiment
         2.5    The subatomic particles
           2.6   Number of protons, number of neutrons and number of electrons
                 present in an atom/ion
           2.7   Relationship between atomic mass and isotopes
           2.8   Electrons in definite energy levels
           2.9   Properties of atoms and their valence electrons


 VII.   Order among elements

        1. Properties of elements based on the periodic table

           1.1   Chemical symbols of elements
           1.2   The arrangement of elements in the periodic table
           1.3   Chemical behavior of elements in the periodic table
           1.4   Relationship of group number of the element and the valence
                 electrons of the elements
           1.5   Trends in the periodic table

        2. Properties of elements and their uses in technology

           2.1   Properties and uses of elements
           2.2   Properties of elements, its application to modern technology and its
                 effect to the environment
           2.3   Importance of alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and transition metals
                 in the human body


VIII.   Ties that chemically bind

        1. How atoms combine

           1.1   Formation of ionic, covalent and metallic bonds
           1.2   Type of bond formed between two elements and their position in the
                 periodic table
           1.3   Electronegativity values and type of bond formed
           1.4   Chemical formula of covalent and ionic compounds
           1.5   Molecular and empirical formula
           1.6   Polar and non-polar bonds
           1.7   Forces of attraction between molecules

        2. Chemical bonds in relation to the properties and uses of compounds

           2.1   Biological importance of ions in the human body and the environment
           2.2   Properties of metals and the type of bond formed
IX.   Changes in matter

      1. Practical applications of chemical/phase changes

         1.1    Practical applications of phase/chemical changes in the homes,
                community and industry
         1.2    Importance of these applications in technologies that help improve
                the quality of life
         1.3    Evidences of a chemical reaction

      2. Laws governing chemical changes

         2.1    Solving for the number of moles given mass of a compound or vice
                versa

         2.2    Chemical formula of compounds given the mass ratio and the atomic
                masses of elements present
         2.3    Law of conservation of mass
         2.4    Mole concept to determine the % composition of a compound

      3. Chemical equations

         3.1    Types of reactions
         3.2    Information gathered from a balanced equation
         3.3    Identification of type of reaction involved given a balanced equation
         3.4    Chemical reactions involved in soap making and car
                batteries


X.    Change, energy and time

      1. How chemical reactions occur

         1.1    Exothermic and endothermic reactions
         1.2    Factors affecting rates of chemical reactions
         1.3    Chemical reaction in decay of foods, growth of plants, digestion of
                food, etc

      2. Importance of controlling rates of reactions in technology

         2.1    Scientific principle behind commercial and industrial products using
                heat of reactions
         2.2    Application of factors affecting rates of reactions in food preservation,
                fire control, pollution, corrosion and materials production, etc.
SUGGESTED STRATEGIES AND MATERIALS

A.   Suggested Strategies

     1. Discovery Learning

        It is the hands-on and experiential learning that requires a teacher’s full
        knowledge of content, pedagogy and child development to create an
        environment in which new learnings are related to what has come before and
        to that which will follow.

        Processes for discovery learning:

        a.   Exploration
        b.   Concept Introduction
        c.   Concept Application

     2. Process Skills Development

        It is the development of very different but important skills used in a classroom
        learning environment that has discovery learnings as its central focus. These
        skills are:

        a.    Observing
        b.    Using space/time relationship
        c.    Using numbers
        d.    Classifying
        e.    Measuring
        f.    Communicating
        g.    Predicting
        h.    Inferring

     Integrated Process Development

        d.    Controlling variables
        e.    Interpreting data
        f.    Formulating hypotheses
        g.    Defining operationally
        h.    Experimenting

     3. Teaching science in an outdoor environment

        Science is taught with the use of the things or materials present in the
        environment.
     4. Cooperative Learning

        Science students work together in small groups to learn academic and
        interpersonal skills. It fosters academic, personal and social success to all
        students.

B.   Materials

     All DepEd approved Textbooks/Teachers’ Manual




Grading System:

           PERIODICAL TEST                         25%
           LABORATORY WORK                         25%
           ORAL DISCOURSE                          15%
           QUIZZES                                 15%
           PROJECT                                 10%
           HOMEWORK/JOURNAL WRITING                10%

           TOTAL                                   100%
LEARNING COMPETENCIES


INTEGRATED SCIENCE

First Year
Specific Competencies


    After undergoing the Grade 7 Science Program, the learner shall have
developed the following competencies:


I.    Introduction

      1.   Relate how science and technology affect one’s belief, practices, and
           ways of thinking

           1.1 Give examples of science and technology activities and/or products
               that affect their daily life.
           1.2 Discuss the basis of local superstitions, beliefs and/or practices.
           1.3 Discuss the importance of scientific values in decision making and
               problem-solving in daily life

      2.   Appreciate the contributions of outstanding local and foreign scientists to
           science and technology

      3.   Demonstrate understanding of the basic processes of science.

           3.1 Make qualitative observations given a situation or material or when
               watching events.
           3.2 Use appropriate measuring instruments with precision and accuracy
               to observe characteristics/features of materials/events (e.g., for
               measuring mass, volume, length)
           3.3 Organize qualitative and quantitative data in the form of charts,
               tables, and/or graphs
           3.4 Compare data and look for patterns and trends.
           3.5 Interpret data
           3.6 Draw conclusions based on the data


II.   Scientific Method

      1.   Discuss the scientific research of some scientists which illustrate how they
           solve problems.

      2.   Identify the important steps in conducting a scientific investigation.
       3.   Conduct simple scientific investigations.

            3.1   Identify the problem
            3.2   Formulate a hypothesis
            3.3   Design a procedure to test the hypothesis
            3.4   Collect data and present them in appropriate format
            3.5   Observe trends and patterns
            3.6   Make generalizations/conclusions
            3.7   Identify limitations and make recommendations for further study

       4.   Recognize the role of scientific investigations in gathering scientific
            knowledge and in improving ways of doing things.


III.   Matter and Its Properties

       1.   Use some laboratory apparatus and equipment correctly and safely.

            1.1 Classify laboratory apparatus based on their uses.
            1.2 Demonstrate safe ways of using the apparatus/equipment.
            1.3 Explain the significance of the symbols and devices in doing
                laboratory work.

       2.   Classify matter in the environment.

            2.1 Differentiate solids, liquids, and gases based on observable
                properties.
            2.2 Differentiate the observable characteristics of substances and
                mixtures, elements and compounds, metals and nonmetals, acids
                and bases based on properties such as hardness, conductivity,
                malleability/ductility, solubility, specific heat, density, acidity/basicity.

       3.   Investigate physical and chemical changes taking place in the
            environment.

            3.1 Identify indicators of physical and chemical changes.
            3.2 Discuss the effects of these changes in the environment.
            3.3 Infer that energy is involved in these changes.

       4.   Describe the properties of matter in terms of its component atoms or
            molecules.

            4.1 Use simple models to describe atoms and molecules.
            4.2 Show how the molecular theory explains some properties like surface
                tension and capillarity.
            4.3 Recognize the symbols of common atoms and molecules.
            4.4 State the reactions of common elements and/or compounds.
            4.5 Describe some chemical reactions occurring in the environment.
      5.   Conduct investigatory projects on topics related to matter and their
           properties or changes in the environment.


IV.   Force and Energy

      1.   Explain the nature of force.

           1.1 Differentiate among gravitational, magnetic and electrical nuclear
               strong and weak forces.
           1.2 Illustrate how pressure is affected by force and area where the force
               is exerted.
           1.3 Give situations that show the effect of force on motion.


      2.   Demonstrate understanding of energy, its forms and transformations.

           2.1 Discuss work and the advantages derived from machines.
           2.2 Differentiate the forms of energy.
           2.3 Give examples of the different uses of energy.
           2.4 Identify energy sources and how they are transformed and
               transferred.
           2.5 Explain energy conservation.
           2.6 Analyze how energy is transferred from one body to another.

      3.   Show awareness and understanding of energy problems.

           3.1 Discuss the current energy problems.
           3.2 Present possible solutions to energy problems.
           3.3 Investigate some local resources that may be a substitute energy
               source.
           3.4 Evaluate the energy technology appropriate in the community given
               criteria.
           3.5 Discuss/practice wise use of energy.

      4.   Conduct an investigatory project on what household activities/practices
           contribute to high electrical energy consumption.


V.    Living Things and their Interactions

      1.   Identify the common characteristics of ecological systems.

           1.1 Observe the components of our environment.
           1.2 Differentiate between ‘environment’ and ‘ecosystem’.
           1.3 Differentiate the different kinds of ecological systems.
           1.4 Compare the different ecological systems to arrive at characteristics
               common to all.
           1.5 Analyze the conditions required by life forms on Earth to survive.
           1.6 Investigate the conditions of the different kinds of ecosystems in the
               community or in the country.

      2.   Understand the interactions between living and non-living things in an
           ecosystem.

           2.1 Illustrate how living things depend on other living things to survive.
           2.2 Illustrate how living things interact with the nonliving components of
               the ecosystem.
           2.3 Explain the cyclic flow of matter in an ecosystem.
           2.4 Explain the one-way flow of energy in an ecosystem.
           2.5 Show how different ecosystems are interconnected.

      3.   Show how human beings disturb the interrelationship among organisms
           and between organisms and their environment.

           3.1 Discuss the effects of population size/density on resources (e.g.,
               food, space, carrying capacity)
           3.2 Predict what will happen in the Philippine population continue to
               increase at its present rate.

      4.   Show how humans maintains/restores the integrity/balance of an
           ecosystem.

           4.1 Describe the physical features of Earth based on the globe or
               topographic map.
           4.2 Identify the resources of the Earth (from land, air, water).
           4.3 Illustrate how natural resources can be used wisely.
           4.4 Discuss specific technologies/activities to conserve/protect balance in
               nature.


VI.   Changes in the Environment

      1.   Demonstrate understanding of the changes in the lithosphere.

           1.1 Cite evidences supporting continental drift and seafloor spreading
               hypotheses, and the plate tectonics theory.
           1.2 Discuss how folding and faulting of rocks form mountains.
           1.3 Infer the origin of a place, given the present geological structure.
           1.4 Discuss formation of rocks.
           1.5 Collect and identify types of rocks and the minerals found in them.
           1.6 Give examples of minerals found in the home, locality and in the
               country.
           1.7 Trace soil formation due to biological, physical, and chemical
               weathering.
           1.8 Discuss how soil is transferred to other places by different means and
               how it affects the environment.
           1.9 Conduct investigations on how to improve the quality of soil in their
               homes or school for planting vegetables or root crops.
     1.10 Analyze the cause of the different Earth phenomena (e.g.,
          earthquake, lahar, tsunami)
     1.11 Discuss technologies to predict and/or warn people when disasters
          strike.
     1.12 Suggest precautionary measures in cases of earthquakes, volcanic
          eruptions, mass wasting.

2.   Demonstrate understanding of the changes in the hydrosphere.

     2.1 Explain the water cycle and how it maintains the quantity of water on
          Earth.
     2.2 Observe the different uses of bodies of water in your community
          (e.g., domestic, agricultural and industrial, for transportation and
          energy generation, as habitat for living things, in changing landforms,
          and in maintaining air temperature).
     2.3 Classify the body of water (e.g., river) according to type and uses.
     2.4 Conduct investigatory projects on the quality of surface or
          underground water and its surrounding environment for human
          consumption and as habitat for water organisms (e.g., turbidity,
          salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, biological
          and chemical contamination, bank erosion and sedimentation, stream
          depth and flow)
     2.5 Show in a concept map how the factors affect each other.
     2.6 Trace the stages in the formation of a body of water (e.g., river
          including how it flows to the sea) and how it affected the community.
     2.7 Analyze how human activities inland affect the quality of coastat
          waters including mangrove areas and coral reef ecosystems.
     2.8 Interpret diagrams, graphs and tables about the extent of damage of
          these ecosystems.
     2.9 Relate density currents and upward movements of nutrients to food
          productivity.
     2.10 Help organize/participate in the community campaign.
     2.11 Monitor/find ways to improve the quality of a water body near your
          home or school, overtime.

3.   Demonstrate understanding of the changes in the atmosphere.

     3.1 Explain the importance of a coordinate system in locating places on
         Earth.
     3.2 Discuss ways by which land, air and water interact.
     3.3 Describe the different layers of the atmosphere.
     3.4 Infer that some of the energy received at the equator is transferred to
         the poles.
     3.5 Discuss how circulation in the atmosphere and oceans contribute to
         the energy exchange between equatorial and polar areas.
     3.6 Explain why the weather occurs only in the troposphere.
     3.7 Explain how changes in different atmospheric factors affect the
         weather.
     3.8 Keep a record of weather changes, for at least a week.
     3.9 Explain how weather affects different livelihood in the community.
         3.10 Discuss how weather is predicted.
         3.11 Explain the occurrence of seasons.
         3.12 Explain the climatic conditions in the different regions based on the
              general circulation of the atmosphere.
         3.13 Explain the interrelation between changes in the atmosphere and
              oceans.
         3.14 Conduct investigations on the point and non-point sources of pollution
              in the community
         3.15 Participate in community programs to control air pollution.


VII. The Earth and Its Neighbors

    1.   Demonstrate understanding of the solar system.

         1.1 Identify the members of the solar system; including the newest
             member.
         1.2 Compare the sizes of planets in relation to the size of the solar
             system.
         1.3 Classify the planets based on different criteria.
         1.4 Explain why the solar system is mostly empty space.

    2.   Explain the cause and effect of different phenomena related to Sun, Earth
         and Moon System.

         2.1 Simulate activities on the sun’s surface to explain why they occur.
         2.2 Explain the characteristics of the Moon and why we only see on side
             of it.
         2.3 Demonstrate the different motions of the Earth using a model.
         2.4 Discuss the phenomena that result from the different motions of the
             Earth (day and night, seasonal changes).
         2.5 Describe how tides occur.
         2.6 Discuss how tides affect people’s lives.
         2.7 Discuss how eclipses occur and the safety precautions in observing
             solar eclipse
         2.8 Discuss how scientists predict the occurrences of tides and eclipses.

    3.   Demonstrate understanding of the other members of the solar system.

         3.1 Explain the occurrence of comets, meteor showers and other
             phenomena.
         3.2 Research on technologies used in studying other heavenly bodies
             (e.g., space telescopes, space probes) and their uses on Earth.
         3.3 Discuss the implications of findings about the possibility of life in other
             planets to life on Earth.
    4.     Show understanding of what lies beyond the solar system.

           4.1 Express the distances of stars in terms of appropriate units (e.g.,
               astronomical unit (AU) and light year).
           4.2 Demonstrate the use of constellations in locating other celestial
               objects.
           4.3 Cite scientific evidence to prove that one’s future cannot be dictated
               by the position of the stars in the zodiac.




Values Integration in Integrated Science


      1.    Spirit of gratitude
      2.    Positive attitudes/behavior
      3.    Resourcefulness and creativeness
      4.    Cooperation and patience
      5.    Importance of accuracy and precision
      6.    Intellectual honesty/respect
      7.    Recognition of individual differences
      8.    Value of sensitivity
      9.    Active participation in the community
      10. Restoration/Maintenance of a balanced ecosystem
      11. Vigilance, awareness and open mindedness
      12. Proper waste disposal/hygiene
      13. Value of family solidarity
      14. Moral responsibility
BIOLOGY

Second Year

Specific Competencies

   After undergoing the Second Year Science & Technology Program, the learner shall
have developed the following competencies:


I.    Introduction

      1. Understand the nature of biology as a science of life

         1.1 Identify the unifying ideas in biology
         1.2 Explain the different life processes
         1.3 Design simple experiments following the scientific method

      2. Understand biological concepts as applied in technology

         2.1 Explain biological concepts in given technology
         2.2 Assess the implications and responsibility of any biotechnology

      3. Appreciate the contributions of Filipino and foreign scientists in the
         development of biology and biotechnology

         3.1 Describe the contributions of Filipino and foreign scientists in the field of
             biology and biotechnology

      4. Know how to operate the compound microscope

         4.1 Identify the parts of the compound microscope
         4.2 Give uses of the compound microscope
         4.3 Name the special tools in research and technology


II.   Cell Structure and Function

      1. Appreciate the cell as a highly organized structure

         1.1 Identify the different parts of the cell
         1.2 Differentiate plant cells from animal cells
         1.3 Differentiate unicellular organisms from multicellular organisms
         1.4 Differentiate prokaryotic from eukaryotic cells
       2. Understand how discoveries on cellular structures and functions have led to
          useful technologies

          2.1 Point out that the activities of certain cell organelles are used to promote
              food production and health
       3. Appreciate cellular exchange of materials with the environment

          3.1 Explain how osmosis is related to diffusion
          3.2 Distinguish between active and passive transport
          3.3 Differentiate phagocytosis from exocytosis


III.   Life Energy

       1. Understand how organisms obtain energy

          1.1   Describe the cell part involved in obtaining energy
          1.2   Describe the energy location and function of chlorophyll pigments
          1.3   State the requirements of photosynthesis
          1.4   Explain light and dark reactions of photosynthesis
          1.5   Identify the characteristics of plants that make them efficient producers
          1.6   Analyze the role of green plants as energy supplier to the ecosystem
          1.7   Give scientific explanations behind farming practices

       2. Understand how organisms produce energy

          2.1   Describe the cell part involved in producing energy
          2.2   State the requirements of cellular respiration
          2.3   Explain the stages of cellular respiration
          2.4   Evaluate the importance of the interdependency of living things for
                important gases through oxygen-carbon dioxide cycles


IV.    Organ Systems

       1. Understand the interaction of cells, tissues, organs an systems I in
          maintaining the life of an organism

          1.1 Illustrate the coordinated functions of cells, tissues, organ systems in
              maintaining the life of plants, animals and human beings
          1.2 Recognize the necessity of an organized system for proper growth
              development and survival of the organism
          1.3 Assess the importance of each of the body systems in the overall
              functioning of the organism
     2. Understand the anatomy and physiology of plants and animals

        2.1 Describe the parts and functions of the different organ systems in plants
        2.2 State requirements of plants for growth
        2.3 Illustrate how materials and water are absorbed and transported in plants.

     3. Understand human anatomy and physiology

        3.1 Describe the parts and functions of the different organ systems
        3.2 Identify the parts of the different organ systems in the human body
        3.3 Give the functions of the different organ systems

     4. Appreciate the technologies that help defective organ systems functions
        properly

        4.1 Identify the technologies that help the scientific defective organ system
            function properly


V.   Reproduction

     1. Understand and appreciate the importance of cell division

        1.1 Describe the cell cycle

        1.2 Explain mitosis and meiosis
        1.3 Differentiate mitosis from meiosis

     2. Recognize cellular reproduction among plants, animals and human beings

        2.1 Differentiate sexual from asexual reproduction in a variety of organisms

     3. Understand the process of human Reproduction

        3.1 Identify the parts and function of the human reproductive system
        3.2 Describe the stages of development of the fertilized embryo and fetus

     4. Know the problems and issues related to fertility and population growth

        4.1 Analyze some problems on fertility
        4.2 Suggest ways of planning population growth

     5. Demonstrate understanding of the ill effects of human sexually transmitted
        diseases
          5.1 Identify the risks of contamination to various sexually transmitted diseases
              specially AIDS


VI.    Genetics

       1. Understand the chromosomal basis of inheritance and the role of DNA as a
          blue print of life
          1.1 Explain the chromosomal basis of inheritance
          1.2 Give the importance of DNA in the transmission of traits

       2. Understand the fundamental role of chromosomes and genes in hereditary
          variations

          2.1 Discuss how chromosomes and genes are related to each other

       3. Demonstrate understanding of the Mendelian Principles of heredity

          3.1 Analyze Mendel’s experiment on garden peas to illustrate Mendelian
              principles of inheritance
          3.2 Identify the traits that follow Mendelian patterns of heredity
          3.3 Solve monohybrid crosses given the phenotypes and genotypes of
              parents

       4. Explain the Non Mendelian patterns of heredity

          4.1 Infer that certain traits do not always follow the Mendelian principles of
              heredity

       5. Cite some pressing issues concerning advanced technologies in genetics

          5.1 Analyze the effects of genetic engineering
          5.2 Explain what Genetically Modified Organisms or Food are
          5.3 Analyze some problems concerning cloning and gene splicing


VII.   Continuity Through Evolution

       1. Understand the theories of evolution

          1.1 Explain Darwin’s theory of evolution
          1.2 Differentiate Lamarck’s theory of evolution from Darwin’s theory

       2. Discuss the direct and indirect evidences for evolution
           2.1 Distinguish between direct and indirect evidence for evolution
           2.2 Describe some indirect evidences of shared ancestry


VIII.   Biodiversity

        1. Appreciate the existence of diverse forms of living things

           1.1 Describe the distinguishing characters of the different groups of
               organisms
           1.2 Describe some common viruses and their effects on host cells

        2. Be aware of the potential value of organisms

          2.1 Evaluate the economic importance of organisms
          2.2 Propose ways to conserve economically important organisms
IX.     Ecosystem

        1. Be aware of the similarities and differences of ecosystems

           1.1 Differentiate natural from man-made ecosystems
           1.2 Identify plant and animal life in controlled (managed) and uncontrolled
               (unmanaged) ecosystems

        2. Understand man’s role in maintaining balance in nature

           2.1 Analyze the different environmental issues relevant to the community
           2.2 Suggest ways of minimizing or preventing ecological problems
Values Integration in Biology



         1.   Exercise traits of honesty, prudence and cooperation

         2.   Make correct ethical judgment or decisions

         3.   Demonstrate open mindedness and respect for the ideas of others

         4.   Realize the value of sincerity

         5.   Promote a sense of responsibility

         6.   Realize the value of patience

         7.   Appreciate the value of being systematic

         8.   Appreciate the value of curiosity and orderliness

         9.   Consider the value of flexibility

         10. Consider moral and social implications
CHEMISTRY

Third Year
Specific Competencies


      After undergoing the Third Year Science Program, the learner shall have
developed the following competencies:


I.   Introduction

     1.   Appreciate the importance of Chemistry to daily life

          1.1 Relate the importance of Chemistry to daily life
          1.2 Describe the role of Chemistry to society and industry
          1.3 Cite contributions of Chemistry to other sciences like medicine,
              nursing, nutrition, psychology, etc.
          1.4 Enumerate the different tasks of a chemist

     2.   Appreciate the achievements of Filipino and foreign scientists in the
          development of chemistry and related technology

          2.1 Give examples and discuss researches conducted by Filipino scientists
              which find applications in chemistry
          2.2 Cite contributions of Filipino and foreign scientists in the field of
              chemical technology

     3.   Appreciate and understand the uses of the different apparatus used in a
          chemistry laboratory

          3.1 Identify and give the uses of some important apparatus used in
              chemistry laboratory
          3.2 Enumerate and explain the safety precautions to be observed in a
              chemistry laboratory

     4.   Demonstrate understanding of mathematical concepts in chemistry

          4.1 Recognize the importance of significant figures in scientific calculations
          4.2 Identify the different mathematical concepts involved in solving
              problems using scientific notation
          4.3 Solve problems involving conversions in length, volume, temperature,
              pressure, etc.
          4.4 State and explain the basic concept of a mole
II.    Classifying Matter

       1.    Demonstrate skill in identifying chemical systems and classification of
             matter

             1.1   Differentiate between homogenous and heterogeneous systems
             1.2   Name and give examples of pure substances and mixtures
             1.3   Enumerate and describe three (3) types of mixtures
             1.4   Operationally differentiate between elements and compounds
             1.5   Classify elements as metals or non-metals based on their properties
             1.6   Detect compounds whether acids, bases and salts, using indicators
             1.7   Group compounds into organic and inorganic substances using
                   formulas

       2.     Appreciate understanding of elements and compounds present in daily life

             2.1 Cite elements and compounds which are basic to our daily existence
                 like building components of teeth and bones; food preparations and
                 medicines
             2.2 Identify elements and compounds used in industries which are vital to
                 the national economy

       3. Demonstrate simple techniques in preparing, separating and purifying matter

            3.1    Discuss different methods of separating mixtures
            3.2    Prepare useful mixtures from easily available resources in      the
                   Community
            3.3    Separate the components of a mixture
            3.4    Recover useful chemicals/materials as a result of the separation of
                   mixtures


III.   Solutions

       1. Gain understanding of solutions

            1.1    Identify types of solutions
            1.2    Describe the changes that occur in the dissolving process substances
            1.3    Relate the changes that accompany this process to energy changes
                   and molecular interactions
            1.4    Enumerate and explain the difference among saturated, unsaturated
                   and supersaturated solutions
            1.5    Explain the factors affecting solubility
            1.6    State and explain the colligative properties of a solution
           1.7    Identify the relationship of the mole concept to concentration of
                  solutions
           1.8    Solve problems on solution concentrations (% by volume & molarity)

      2.   Appreciate solutions at work in the natural environment

           2.1    Apply knowledge of the importance of colligative properties of solutions
                  to daily living
           2.2    Relate solutions to water pollution caused by toxic substances
                  dissolved in water (heavy metals, pesticides, detergents)
           2.3    State the importance of electrolyte balance in the body


IV.   Colloids

      1.     Demonstrate understanding of the properties, preparations and uses of
            colloids

            1.1   Classify colloids
            1.2   Relate the properties of colloids to their behavior
            1.3   Discuss the methods and principles applied in purifying colloids as in
                  dialysis
            1.4   Prepare useful colloids

      2.    Appreciate the importance of colloids to daily life

            2.1 Explain how the properties of colloids are utilized in technology
            2.2 Evaluate the importance of colloids to daily life
            2.3 Describe the biological and environmental impact of colloids like
                aerosols sprays, hair gel and smoke
            2.4 Relate the property of gas mixtures to air pollution


V.    Gases

      1.    Demonstrate understanding of the behavior of gases

            1.2 Enumerate and explain the properties and behavior of gases based on
                kinetic molecular theory
            1.3 State the relationship among molecular interactions and phases of
                matter
            1.4 Compare the diffusion of gases at standard pressure and
                temperature
            1.3 Infer the relationship between the rate of diffusion and the molecular
                mass of a substance
            1.4 Derive from     given data the relationship between volume and
                pressure of a confined gas at constant temperature
            1.5 Derive from     given data the relationship between volume and
                temperature of a confined gas at constant pressure
            1.6 Relate the concept of a mole to volume of gases
            1.7 Define the variable that describe the state of a gas(V, P, T, n….)

       2.   Show skill in solving problems using mathematical calculations

            2.1 Solve problems involving Boyle’s, Charles’, Avogadro’s,
                   Dalton’s law of partial pressure

       3.   Understand gas laws and principles involved in some technologies

            3.1 Cite safety measures to be observed in storing gases and volatile
                quids
            3.2 Apply gas laws in explaining daily occurrences
            3.3 Enumerate and explain some technologies such as pressure cooker,
                bicycle pump, etc.
            3.4 Relate the properties of gases to air pollution


VII.   Inside the Atom

       1.   Appreciate the contributions of early scientists in the development of
            atomic theory

            1.1  Recognize the significance of the contributions of early scientists in
                the development particularly the Laws of Conservation of mass,
                Definite Composition and Multiple Proportion
            1.2 Explain    how    radioactive   elements      are    utilized in    the
                diagnosis/treatment of diseases, the risks involved and the methods of
                protection

       2.   Gain understanding of the structure of the atom

            2.1 Explain Dalton’s atomic theory
            2.2 Explain the law of chemical changes in terms of Dalton’s atomic theory
            2.3 Discuss what cathode rays and radioactivity reveal about the atom
            2.4 Explain Rutherford’s experiment to prove the existence of the nucleus
            2.5 Name and describe the sub atomic particles
            2.6 Determine the number of protons, number of neutrons and number of
                electrons in an atom/ion
            2.7 Cite the relationship     between atomic mass        and the relative
                abundance of isotopes
             2.8 Explain how the emission spectra of elements provide evidence
                 for the existence of energy levels, and that electrons have definite
                 energy levels
             2.9 Describe the reactivity of the atom in terms of its valence electrons


VIII.   Order Among Elements

        1.   Demonstrate understanding of the properties of elements based on periodic
             atomic properties

             1.1 Write chemical symbols of elements or name the elements given the
                 chemical symbol
             1.2 State the basis of the arrangement of elements in the periodic table
             1.3 Use the periodic table to predict the chemical behavior of an element
             1.4 Relate the number of valence electrons of elements to their group
                 number in the periodic table
             1.5 Infer trends in atomic        sizes, ionization energy, metallic and
                 nonmetallic properties and electronegativity across the period and
                 down the family

        2.   Appreciate the importance of knowing the properties of elements and how
             they are used in technology

             2.1 Enumerate and describe the properties of elements and their uses
             2.2 Cite the importance of knowing the properties of elements and how
                 they are applied particularly in modern technologies and those
                 concerning the environment
             2.3 Discuss the importance of some alkali metals, alkaline earth metals
                 and transition metals in the human body


VIII.   Ties That Chemically Bind

        1.   Understand how atoms combine

             1.1 Illustrate the formation of ionic, covalent and metallic bonds
             1.2 Relate the type of bond formed between two or three elements to their
                 location in the periodic table
             1.3 Deduce which atoms have the tendency to form covalent bonds or
                 ionic bonds given the electronegativity values of the elements
             1.4 Write formulas of covalent and ionic compounds
             1.5 Distinguish between molecular and empirical formulas
             1.6 Compare and contrast polar and non polar covalent bonds
           1.7 Enumerate and explain the forces of attraction that exists between
               molecules

      2.   Demonstrate understanding of chemical bonds and how they relate to the
           properties and uses of compounds

           2.1 Discuss the biological importance of certain ions to the human body
                 and ions in the environment
             2.2    Relate the properties of metals to the type of bond formed


IX.   Changes in Matter

      1.   Appreciate the practical applications of phase/chemical changes

           1.1 Explain the application of phase/chemical changes used at home, in
               the community and industry
           1.2 Recognize the importance of these applications in technologies that
               help improve the quality of life
           1.3 Evaluate evidences of chemical changes

      2.   Demonstrate understanding of the laws governing chemical changes

           2.1 Convert number of moles to mass or vice versa and to the number of
               particles (atoms, ions, molecules) or vice versa
           2.3 Derive the chemical formula of a compound, given the mass ratio
               and the atomic masses of the elements present
           2.4 State and explain the law of Conservation of Mass
           2.5 Determine the percentage composition of a compound

      3.   Demonstrate the ability to use symbols, formulas and chemical equations in
           explaining chemical equations

           3.1   Identify and give examples of the four general types of chemical
               reactions
           3.2 Explain the implied information derived from a balanced equation
           3.3 Classify chemical reactions given balanced chemical equation
           3.4 Identify chemical equations involved in chemical processes as in soap
               making and car batteries


X.    Change, Energy and Time

      1.   Demonstrate understanding of how chemical reactions occur
               1.1 Differentiate exothermic from endothermic reactions
               1.2 Enumerate and explain the factors affecting rates of chemical reactions
               1.3 Describe chemical reactions taking place in the decay of foods, growth
                   of plants, digestion of foods, etc.

         2.    Appreciate the importance of controlling rates of reactions in technology

               2.1 Cite and explain the application of Heats of Reactions to commercial
                   and industrial processes
               2.2 State and explain how the factors affecting rates of chemical reactions
                   are applied in food preservation, control of fire, pollution, corrosion and
                   materials production


Values for Integration in Chemistry

   1.         Role of an individual in the promotion of conservation of the environment

   2.         Use of scientific method in solving problems in daily life

   3.         The value of patience and understanding

   4.         Correct decision making

   5.         The value of honesty and openmindedness

   6.         Socialization and understanding the basic trait/character of people

   7.         The value of inner/spiritual peace

   8.         Honesty and responsibility

   9.         Responsibilities of a member of the community

   10.        The value of one’s duties and responsibilities as a member of a society

   11.        Truthfulness

   12.        Duties and responsibilities for the preservation of the environment

   13.        Correct attitude towards the feelings of other people

   14.        Awareness of existing energy problems and its solutions

   15.        Moral obligations and accompanying privileges
PHYSICS

Fourth Year
Specific Competencies


  I.      Energy in Society

          1. Appreciate the importance of energy resources and energy use in
             development.

             1.1 Explain the role of energy in the development of human society from
                 the industrial age to the knowledge-based society.
             1.2 Discuss examples of the interaction among energy, technology and
                 society [e.g. effects of energy in the environment, economic growth
                 and energy demand; energy resources and energy crisis, etc.]
             1.3 Infer that the total mass-energy in the universe is constant.


  II.     Energy and the Environment

          1. Understand the principles behind different optical instruments. (3 weeks)

             1.1 Investigate the reflection and refraction properties of light using
                  simple optical devices (e.g. mirror and pinhole camera).
             1.2 Compare the similarities and differences of the principle of the
                  camera and the human eye.
             1.3 Explain the different kinds of eyesight defects and how lenses
                  correct these defects.
             1.4 Demonstrate total internal reflection, diffraction, interference, and
                  polarization properties of light.
             1.5 Explain and cite applications of internal reflection, diffraction,
                  interference, and polarization properties.
             1.6 Setup a simple telescope and microscope.
             1.7 Explain using ray diagrams how image is formed in a telescope and
                  a microscope.

          2. Appreciate the contribution of scientists in the development of the atomic
             theory and in understanding nuclear radiation

             2.1 Describe Rutherford’s experiment to prove the existence of nucleus
                 in an atom.
             2.2 Discuss the contributions of Becquerel, Pierre and Marie Curie on
                 radioactivity.
             2.3 Explain Einstein’s matter-energy equivalence.
         3. Understand basic concepts of atomic structure and nuclear radiation (2
            weeks)

            3.1  Name and describe the sub-atomic particles.
            3.2  Determine the number of protons, neutrons and electrons in an
                atom, given its atomic number and atomic mass.
            3.3 Discuss and compare the types and properties of ionizing radiation.
            3.4 Interpret equations on nuclear reactions.
            3.5 Calculate the mass defect and nuclear binding energy of an atom
                using the Einstein’s matter-energy equivalence.

         4 Appreciate the uses of nuclear radiation in society

            4.1  Explain the effects of these applications on living things and the
                 environment.
            4.2 Evaluate the risks and benefits derived from the applications of
               nuclear radiation.
            4.3 Explain the principle of radiation safety and its importance in society.


III. Energy in the Home

         1. Appreciate the contributions of Franklin, Coulomb, Volta, and Ohm in the
            understanding of electricity.

            1.1 Cite the contributions of Franklin, Coulomb, Volta, Ohm and other
                Filipino inventors.

         2. Understand the basic concepts and principles of electricity as used in
            home circuit connections.

            2.1    Trace the electrical connections from the meter to the appliances in
                   the different parts of the home
            2.2    Translate circuit diagrams into actual circuits and vice versa.
            2.3    Measure electric current through a conductor, voltage across it and
                   its resistance.
            2.4    Determine experimentally interrelationships among current, voltage
                   and its resistance.
            2.5    Apply Ohm’s Law to series and parallel circuits.
            2.6    Relate power to voltage and current.
            2.7    Discuss and practice safety measures in dealing with electricity.
            2.8    Compute electrical energy consumption.
            2.9    Suggest ways of using electrical energy wisely.
IV. Energy and the Economy

        1. Appreciate the role of energy generation, utilization and management and
           conservation in economic development.

             1.1 Describe the development of various energy resources in the country.
             1.2 Evaluate the risks and benefits associated with energy development.

        2.   Recognize the contributions of Oersted, Ampere and Faraday to
             electromagnetic theory.

             2.1 Demonstrate Oersted’s discovery.
             2.2 Compare the contributions of Faraday and Oersted to
                  electromagnetic theory.
             2.3 Cite the significance of Faraday’s contribution to the development of
                 human society.

        3. Demonstrate understanding of the technology of electrical energy
           generation and transmission, and use.

             3.1 Explain electromagnetic induction.
             3.2 Discuss how electromagnetic induction is applied to generators and
                 transformers
             3.3 Differentiate a step-up from a step-down transformer
             3.4 Describe the energy transformation in electrical power plants.
             3.5 Describe the transmission of electric energy from a power station to
                 the community
             3.6 Discuss the working principle of an electric motor
             3.7 Differentiate a motor from a generator.
             3.8 Discuss the transformation of electrical energy to different forms


V. Energy in Transportation

        1. Trace the developments in transportation facilities from the animal-driven
           to engine-powered vehicles.

             1.1 Discuss how the steam engine ushered in the industrial revolution.

        2. Demonstrate understanding of the relationship among force, power, work
           and energy.

             2.1 Explain the relationship of kinetic energy and potential energy to work
                 and cite applications
           2.2 Apply the Law of Conservation of Mechanical Energy in different
               situations.
           2.3 Discuss the Laws of Thermodynamics as applied to heat engines

        3. Understand concepts in force and motion as applied to land and air/sea
           transport.

           3.1 Apply Newton’s Laws of Motion to land transportation.
           3.2 Explain road safety measures using the Law of Conservation of
               Momentum.
           3.3 Explain how the concepts of stress and strain, pressure and the
               Archimedes principle apply to air and/or sea transport


VI. Energy in Communication and Information Technology

        1. Trace the development of communication technologies.

           1.1 Recognize the contributions of Graham Bell, Maxwell, Hertz and
               Marconi in the development of telecommunications.
           1.2 Explain how transistors revolutionized the telecommunications
               industry
           1.3 Describe communication in terms energy transfer and
               transformations

        2. Understand the transformation of energy in a telephone.

           2.1 Compare the transmission of sound through air with its transmission
               through solids, liquids, and a vacuum.
           2.2 Discuss the factors that affect the speed of sound.
           2.3 Explain how sound waves are produced, transmitted and propagated.
           2.4 Discuss how information is transmitted and received in terms of
               energy transfers and transformations in a telephone.

        3. Appreciate the properties of electromagnetic waves and how they are
           used in communication.

           3.1 Explain how electromagnetic waves are produced.
           3.2 Discuss the different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, their
               properties and uses.

        4. Understand the principles involved in radio communications

           4.1 Describe how radio signals are generated, transmitted and received.
             4.2 Explain how radio communication devices (eg. Cellphones, radio/TV
                 receivers) work.
             4.3 Discuss how LASER and fiber optics had improved
                telecommunication.

          5. Appreciate rapid transmission of information brought about by
             developments in electronics technology.

              5.1 Differentiate between discrete electronic components and integrated
                  circuits.
              5.2 Understand how logic circuits are used in common electronic
                  devices.
              5.3 Differentiate between digital and analog methods in sending
                  information.

      6. Realize the impact of modern communications technology in society.(1 week)

             6.1 Discuss how the information superhighway has influenced the affairs
                 of daily living.




Values for Integration in Physics


   1. Manifest intellectual honesty, accuracy and perseverance in gathering and
      reporting data.

   2. Show open-mindedness and objectivity in dealing with data, observations, issues
      and concerns.

   3. Demonstrate patience when performing laboratory activities.

   4. Demonstrate concern for others and the environment.

   5. Promote positive attitudes towards science.

   6. Accept the tentative nature of scientific theories.


   7. Suspend judgment.
Prototype Lesson Plans


                           Lesson Plan in Integrated Science

I. Target:

      At the end of the activities, the students should be able to:

      1.   Define molecule.
      2.   Cite evidences that molecules of a material are in constant motion.
      3.   Prove that there are spaces between molecules.
      4.   Describe diffusion
      5.   Explain diffusion in terms of the kinetic molecular model of matter.
      6.   Practice proper waste disposal and observe proper hygiene.

II.   Subject Matter:

      A. Topic:

           1. What is Matter made of?
              Molecules
              Molecular theory

      B. Reference:

           1. Science and Technology I by Gutierrez Textbook pp. 116-119
              Teacher's Manual pp. 106-109
           2. Science and Technology I by Rabago Textbook pp. 84-86
              Teacher's Manual pp. 47-49

      C. Materials:

              For the student:

                      1 jelly ace (white)               glass of water
                      alcohol/perfume                   watch with second hand
                      ink or any colored liquid extract stick
                      a pinch of potassium permanganate

              For the teacher:

                      Visual Aids                      Manila Paper
III.    Learning Tasks:

       A. Recall

             Filipino Scientists and their achievement/contributions

       B. Motivation

             Have you experienced identifying the food your neighbors are cooking?
          Surely you can smell the difference between kaldereta and fried tuyo.

              Similarly, if you put a few drops of kalamansi juice into a glass of water,
          the whole glass of water will taste sour almost immediately. What will happen
          to the taste of water if you add a pinch of salt or sugar?

       C. Lesson Proper

          1. Pre-lab Discussion
             Instruction (See activity on diffusion)
          2. Lab Proper
             - Performance of the activity on diffusion.
          3. Post-lab Discussion
             Guide Questions:

               A. 1. What happen to the crystals of potassium permanganate? Did
                    you observe any change? Describe the change.
                2. Did you see any change in color of the gelatin?
                3. If so, what causes this change in color of the gelatin?
                4. Did your observations show that the potassium ermanganate
                    crystals spread in the gelatin?
                5. How long did it take the potassium permanganate crystals to
                    spread to down this far?

             B. 6. What happened to the drops of soy sauce as they fall into the glass
                   of water?
                7. What happened to the soy sauce and water after 2 minutes?
                8. How long did it take soy sauce to spread completely?

             C. 9. What happened when the bottle is uncovered?
                10. How long did it take for the odor to reach you?
                11. Did you smell the odor of the substance in the bottle?
                12. Was the odor a solid, a liquid or a gas?
                13. How did the odor reach you?
                14. How long did it take for the odor to reach you?
                15. Give examples of diffusion in liquid; in gas.
        4. Generalization:

            1. What are molecules?
            2. Define diffusion. How is this phenomenon explained?
            3. Where is the motion of molecules fastest? slowest?
            4. Where are intermolecular spaces widest? smallest
               Why can gases be compressed?
            5. State the molecular theory of matter.
            6. Illustrate examples of diffusion in daily life instances.

            Concept:

            1. Molecule is particle of matter with more than one atom. It is the
               smallest particle of matter.
            2. Diffusion is the spreading of one substance into another

            3. Molecular theory states that:
                  a. Matter is made up of molecules
                  b. There are spaces between molecules
                  c. Molecules are constantly moving
                  d. Molecules attract one another

            4. Comparison of the phases of matter



Basis of Comparison              Solid          Liquid               Gas

  a. Intermolecular space     smallest          bigger               biggest
  b. Molecular attractions    back and forth    slip and slide       moves freely
  c. Molecular motion         slowest           fast                 fastest

            5. Citing examples of diffusion in solid diffusion in gas and in liquid.

        5. Valuing

            In selecting your perfume or lotions, how do you decide getting one?
            What should be done with your open esteros or garbage dumped which
            are continuously giving off stinking odor?

            Application:

            a. Local drinks are improved in appearance by adding food colors
            b. Adding potassium permanganate to the water as mouth wash.
         6. Evaluation

            Answer briefly:

            1. Why can you smell the odor of the food your mother is cooking in the
               kitchen?

            2. Why does water flow?

            3. Draw the arrangement of molecules in solids, liquid and gases.


IV. Agreement

  Answer Briefly

     1. Why should you cover your nose when someone in the room is smoking?

     2. Many people from far away provinces opposed the operation of the Bataan
        Nuclear Power Plant because an accident in this plant would affect them. Do
        you think it is true? Why or why not?


                                 Activity
                                 Diffusion

    Materials:

            1 jelly ace (white)                       bottle of bagoong
            a pinch of potassium permanganate                watch with second hand
            soy sauce
            glass of water

    Procedure:

            A. Place a cube of jelly ace in the plate. Sprinkle a few grains of
               potassium permanganate on the surface of the gelatin. Record the
               time when you did this. Set cube aside for 5 or more minutes.
               Observe how long it will take for the potassium permanganate to
               penetrate in the gelatin. While waiting for the results, go to step B.

            B. Place a drop of soy sauce into a half glass of water. Record the time
               you dropped the soy sauce into the water. Watch the water for 2
               minutes without moving the glass. Observe.
             C. Place a small bottle of bagoong in a box. Open it in front of your
                classmate. Ask them to record the time when you opened the bottle
                and when they smelled the scent.


                            Lesson Plan in Integrated Science

                                        I.     Target

             At the end of the activities, the students should be able to:

             1. Show how the molecular theory explains surface tension and
                capillarity.
             2. Illustrate capillarity and surface tension by examples
             3. Differentiate adhesion from cohesion.
             4. Appreciate the value of sensitivity in solving problems.


II.   Subject Matter:

       A. Topic:

          1. Intermolecular attraction
          2. Capillarity

             a. Adhesion            b. Cohesion

       B. References:

          1. Science and Technology I by Rabago Textbook pp. 86-88 Teacher’s
             Manual pp. 48-49
          2. Science and Technology I by Gutierrez Textbook pp. 120-122 Teacher’s
             Manual pp.111-112
          3. Science and Technology I by Lianko Textbook pp.

       C. Materials:

             For the teacher:
                    Illustrations
                    Attraction between molecules within the surface of a liquid
                    Picture of any insect striding on the surface of the water

             Materials:

                       Spring of a ball point pen and basin of the water
             For the students:

                      Glass of Water             3 plastic straws with different
                      Needle                     diameter but with the same length

                      Detergent                 A clean bowl

III   Learning Tasks:

       A. Recall

          Remember the molecular theory of matter. Who can give some ideas about
          the theory?
          Illustrate molecular motion using the concept of diffusion.
          What are intermolecular spaces? Cite examples.


       B. Motivation

          Demonstration:

             Gently lay on top of the basin of water, a spring out of a ball point pen. If
          done properly spring floats. Why?

              Turn the ball point pen spring on end and touch it in the surface, and pull
          the spring upward. What happens? What force is it that allows the water to
          pulled up against gravity?

       C. Lesson Proper

          1. Pre-lab Discussion
             Discussion of Activity
          2. Lab Activity

             A. Surface Tension

                   Materials:

                   A glass of Water       a needle     a clean bowl detergent

                   Procedure:

                   1) First, carefully pour water into a clean bowl. Then, gently place a
                      dry needle horizontally on the surface of the water.
                   2) Next, place the needle into the water vertically.
      3) Repeat procedure A. Then, drop a small amount of detergent on
         one corner of the water. Observe.

   B. Capillarity

      Materials:

          3 colorless plastic straws with different diameter but with the same
          length a glass of colored water

          Procedure:

          Dip the 3 pieces of plastic straw into a glass of colored water.
          Observe the amount that enters in the straw.

3. Post-lab Discussion

   A. Surface tension

      1. In procedure A, did the needle float or sink?
      2. In the procedure B, did the needle float or sink? Explain.
      3. Have you watched insects called striders play on the surface of a
         pond? What have you observed?
      4. In procedure C, after dropping a small amount of detergent, what
         happens to the needle?

   B. Capillarity

      5. In which straw did the water rise the highest the one with the
         smallest diameter or one with the biggest diameter.

4. Generalization

   1. Explain the following phenomena
      a. Surface tension
      b. Capillarity

   2. Explain the rising of liquid inside the fine tubes?

   3. Differentiate:
      a. Adhesion
      b. Cohesion
   Concepts:

   1. Intermolecular attraction – attraction between molecules which is
      greatest in solids and weakest in gases.
      a. Surface Tension – the condition which causes the water molecules
          at the surface to behave as though they were being stretched.
      b. Capillarity – the rising of a liquid inside very fine tubes.
                       a. Adhesion – the attraction between two different
                          kinds of molecules. (attraction between the
                          molecules of the tube and those of water).
                       b. Cohesion – attraction between the same kind
                          (attraction between the molecules of water).

5. Valuing

          There should be solidarity or cohesion among the members of the
   family, especially when there are problems, or terrible needs.
   Togetherness or oneness will help solve the difficulties much easier. It will
   lighten the burden of the problem. Everyone in the family must adhere to
   the principles of the parents in focusing/solving life’s trials.

   Application:

         If water striders and other insects can walk on the surface of water,
   can humans do the same?

          In the critically-acclaimed movie “Crouching Tiger Hidden Dragon,”
   there was a scene when actors run on the surface of water. Is it possible?

          Why do liquids rise in the strain as you drink your soda/softdrink?

           While enjoying your softdrink (Coke), how do you account for the
   rise of the liquid in the straw to your mouth?

         Can you compare yourself to the water striders while playing near
   the pond? Give your reasons for your answer.

6. Evaluation

   Choose the best answer:

   1. The rise of water from the roots to all parts of the plants is called:

      a. Capillarity                          c. Gravitational force
      b. Cohesion and Adhesion                d. Surface tension
                2. Iron filings do not sink when placed slowly on the surface of the water
                   because of:

                    a. Adhesion                           c. Cohesion
                    b. Capillarity                        d. Surface Tension


                3. Intermolecular attraction is greatest in:

                    a. Gases                              c. Plasma
                    b. Liquids                            d. Solids

                Identify the following:

                4. Attraction between the same kind of molecules.
                5. Rising of liquid inside fine tubes


IV.      Agreement

         1. Give other examples of natural phenomena in matter.
         2. Define the following terms:
            mass             density            regular solids
            weight           volume             irregular solids

      References:

         Science and Technology I pp.69-80.


                                     Lesson Plan in Biology

I.       Target

         At the end of the activities, students should be able to:

         1. Classify technologies based on their nature and use.
         2. Give examples for each type.
         3. Appreciate the application of biology to realize biological concepts as applied
            in technology

II.      Subject Matter:

         A. Topic: Biotechnology
       B. Subtopics: Types of Technologies

       C. Materials: news articles, actual samples of technologies

       D. References: Science and Technology by Rabago, Joaquin, Lagunzad

III   Learning Tasks:

       A. Recall:

                                    Finding the Hidden Word

                 Find out the hidden words using the numbers that represent the letters
          of the alphabet (Ex. 1-A, 2-B)

                    2 9 15 20 5 3 8 14 15 12 15 7 25
                          (BIOTECHNOLOGY)

       B. Motivation

                The teacher asks the students to re-arrange the words to form a
          statement.

                 Many      From Are
                 Benefits There Science
                 Mankind That Derives
                 (There are many benefits that mankind derives from science)
                 What do you mean by this?

       C. Lesson Proper

          1. Preliminary Activity: Small Group Discussion

                Ask the group to classify the technologies in their news article based
             on their nature and use (gadgets, products, processes or techniques)

                        Reporting Back

             1. What are the technologies present in your news article?

             2. How did you classify your technologies?

             3. Of what importance are these technologies to us?
             4. What are the factors that we need to consider to determine what
                technologies are useful to us?

      D. Generalization:

            The types of technologies based on their nature and use are gadgets,
         products, processes and techniques.

             Factors to consider in determining what technologies are appropriate for
         use are (1) maintenance cost (2) availability of raw materials and manpower,
         (3) effect to ecosystem and (4) necessity.

      E. Application:

            You have discovered a medicine that could help cure AIDS but you do not
         have enough money to continue your research. What are you going to do?

      F. Evaluation:

            Classify the following technologies         whether   gadget,   products   or
         processes.

                    1.   Scanning microscope
                    2.   Laser device
                    3.   Safeguard
                    4.   Cosmetics
                    5.   Human Organ Transplant

IV.   Agreement:

         Have an interview with doctors, farmers or veterinarians about the common
      diseases of plants, animals and man in your community. You may include also
      the causes, effects and the ways of controlling or treating the disease.


                                 Lesson Plan in Biology

I.    Target

      At the end of the activities, students should be able to:

      1. Name some common diseases among plants, animals and man in the
         community
      2. Discuss its causes and effects.
       3. Suggest new techniques in disease control.
       4. Discuss the value of health.

II.    Subject Matter:

       A. Topic: Biotechnology

       B. Subtopics: New Techniques in Disease Control

       C. Materials: results of survey, illustration of macrophage trapping bacteria

       D. References: Science and Technology II, SEDP Series
                      Laboratory Activities in Science and Technology II
                           by Gatapia and Bernardo

III.   Learning Tasks:

       A. Recall:

             Put the sample illustrations of types of technologies in the proper column.
          (shampoo, pen, lipstick, dialysis machine, fermenting wine)

            Gadget                       Product                     Process




       B. Motivation

              Man goes through several stages of mental development and physical
          growth. A Filipino’s average life span is around 65 years old. The body’s
          ability to resist disease declines with age. Many diseases can befall man
          during his lifetime. There are many ways of preventing disease. Even the
          human body has barriers designed to prevent entry of disease-causing
          organisms. An illustration of a macrophage trapping bacteria will be shown to
          the class.

       C. Lesson Proper: Small Group Discussion

          1. Group yourselves according to the barangay or community you belong.
          2. Discuss within your group the results of the survey conducted.
   Reporting Back

   1.   What animal, man or plant diseases are common in your community?
   2.   What are the cause of the diseases ?
   3.   How do plant and animal diseases affect crop and livestock production?
   4.   What are the techniques in preventing diseases ?

D. Generalization:

       There are common diseases of plants, animals and man in a community.
   Microorganisms like bacteria, viruses and fungi cause diseases. Diseases
   can be prevented through vaccination, proper hygiene and eating a balanced
   diet. There are new techniques in controlling diseases, such as cell fusion,
   use of antibiotics and use of monoclonal antibodies.

E. Application/ Valuing

        Do you believe in the saying “Health is Wealth”? Explain your answer.

F. Evaluation:

        Write the letter of the correct answer:

        ________1. A new technique in controlling diseases wherein
                       two cells combine into one is called
                         a) cell fusion        c) MCA
                         b) hybrid             d) Vaccination

        ________2. Diseases can be prevented through
                         a) vaccination      c) eating a balanced diet
                         b) proper hygiene   d) all of the above

        ________3. Which of the following diseases are caused by
                         virus
                         a) AIDS                     c) TB
                         b) fever                    d) cough

        ________4. Bacterial diseases can be treated with
                         a) herbal plants              c) hybridomas
                         b) antibiotics        d) cell fusion

        ________5. Researches on the preparation of drugs using herbal/
                  medicinal plants are going on. Which among the following
                  plants are sources of drugs.
                                  a) Lagundi            c) Yerba Buena
                                  b) Tsaang Gubat       d) all of the above

IV.    Agreement:

       1. What are the different techniques in improving the growth of crops and
          livestock?

                               Lesson Plan in Chemistry

I.     Targets

       At the end of the activities, the students should be able to:

       1. Enumerate the factors affecting rates of chemical reactions;
       2. Explain how each factor affects the rate of chemical reactions; and
       3. Relate the value of working for our goals in life to the lesson.

II.    Subject Matter

       A. Topic

          Factors Affecting Rates of Chemical Reactions

       B. References

          Chemistry by Merrill pp. 448-452
          Chemistry by Addison Wesley pp. 492-494

III.   Learning Tasks

       a. Recall

          We learned from the past lesson that chemical system a chemical system
          either release or absorb energy. When do we say energy is
          released/absorbed in a chemical system?


       b. Motivation

          How fast can a reaction go? We say some are very fast, others are very
          slow. There are many reasons that may affect rates of reaction. Can you
          name some?

       C. Lesson Proper
1. Activity

   1.1 Effect of temperature

        Measure two 1 – gram sample of rock salt. Put each gram
        separately in small beaker. Pour 10 mL of tap water in one beaker
        and add 10 mL of hot water in the other. Observe the time it takes to
        dissolve each sample of salt.

   1.2 Effect of Particle size

        Measure one gram of rock salt. Put this on a small beaker. Measure
        one gram of granulated salt. Put this also in another small beaker.
        Pour 10 mL of tap water into each beaker. Compare the rate of
        dissolving of solids in the beaker.



   1.3 Effect of concentration

        Measure 10 mL of 3 M HCl and put this into a small beaker.
        Measure the same amount of 6 M HCl and put it in a different
        beaker. Measure 2 inches of Mg ribbon and roll this to make it
        compact. Add the 2 inch rolled Mg ribbon into each of the beakers
        simultaneously. Observe the reaction.

   1.4 Effect of catalyst (DEMO only)

        Measure 20 mL of Hydrogen Peroxide. Put this in a small beaker.
        Put a very small amount of Manganese dioxide in a spatula. Using a
        spoon with a long handle, (deflagrating spoon) drop the Mg ribbon
        to the beaker with Hydrogen Peroxide. Observe how fast the
        reaction occurs.

        Caution: Use goggles. Move as far back as possible from the
        reaction set up before mixing the reactants.

   1.5 Nature of Reactants

        Get 0.5 grams of NaCl. Stir this in a small beaker with 20 mL of
        water. Get another 0.5 grams of the salt and stir this in 20 mL of
        Ethyl Alcohol. Compare the results.

2. Post lab activity
Reaction rate is defined in terms of the disappearance of   one of the
reactants or it may be defined as the rate of appearance of one of the
products.

In our activity, we have observed that rate of reactions vary.       Let us
discuss the various factors

2.1 Effect of temperature

     According to the Kinetic Molecular Theory, the kinetic energy of
     molecules increases as the temperature increases. Increased kinetic
     energy increases the speed of particles, thus increased molecular
     collision takes place. Increased molecular action results in increased
     molecular activation energy, thus lowering activation energy level.

2.2 Effect particle size

     Smaller particles are more reactive. They are more energetic. Small
     particles have greater surface area exposed to reaction, thus
     increasing the frequency at which particles collide.

2.3 Effect of concentration

     The greater the number of reacting substances increases the rate of
     reaction. Crowded particles in a fixed volume increase the frequency
     of collision.

2.4 Effect of catalyst

     A catalyst is a substance that increases the rate of reaction without
     itself being used in the process. Catalysts act in one or more steps of
     reactions by lowering the reaction energy level. With lower activation
     energy level more collision will have sufficient energy to pass over
     the energy barrier. Thus, greater fraction of collision is effective at
     any given point.


2.5 Nature of reactant

     Ionic reactions occur almost instaneously. NaCl is highly soluble in
     another polar substance like water. This system demonstrate the “like
     dissolves like” reaction. In this system the oppositely charge collide,
     more often, thus causing effective reaction.
         3. Generalization

            There are 5 general factors affecting the rate of reaction; temperature,
            concentration, particles size, potency of catalyst and nature reactants. The
            rate of reaction depends upon the rate of effective collision, which are
            dependent upon the energy reactant particles and the barriers of the
            reaction. Therefore, reactions rate is made faster by: increasing
            temperature, increasing concentration, reducing the number of reactants
            or of similar nature e.g. polar to polar or non-polar to non-polar.

         4. Valuing/Application

            All of us have goals in life. We would wish to achieve these goals as best
            we can and at the soonest. To be successful, we look for ways we can
            overcome possible obstacle. Sometimes, we need the influences of other
            people. When we do ask for other peoples help, we see to it that they
            understand our situation in life.

         5. Evaluation

            1. How are each of the following concepts relate with the rate of reaction?

                a. frequency of collisions
                b. kinetic energy of collisions
                c. orientation of colliding particles

            2. How is the activation energy affected by the presence of catalyst

IV.   Agreement

      In the past lessons, we determined the various factors that effect reaction rates.
      In our next lesson, we shall try see how these learning’s are applied in common
      things we do in life. For example:

      1. How do we preserve or prolong the life of food?
      2. What happens during digestion?
                         Sample Lesson Plan in Chemistry
                                 Interfaced with
                         Technology and Home Economics
                         (Refrigeration and Air Conditioning)


I.     Targets:

       Given the necessary equipment and materials, 85% of the students are
expected to:

       1. Describe phase changes according to the Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) of
          Matter;

       2. Explain refrigeration cycle in relation to phase changes, properties of fluids
          and Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter; and

       3. Appreciate the importance of phase changes in the environment.

II.    Subject Matter:

       A. Topic:           Phase Changes According to the
                           Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter

       B. References:

             1.) Magno, Marcelita C.,Tan, Merle C.,Punzalan, Amelia E.
                          Science and Technology for a Better Life
                         Second Edition, pp. 41- 60

             2.) Althouse, Andew D., Bracciano, Alfred F., Turnguist, Carl H.,
                           Modern Refrigeration and Air Conditionin , pp. 75- 101

             3.)Johnson, William M., Whitman, William C.,
                      Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Technology
                      Second Edition, pp. 233- 235

             4.) Keenan & Wood, Modern Chemistry, 4th Edition, pp. 300-350

III.   Learning Tasks:

       A. Recall

             PowerPoint presentation of the Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter and
          the Properties of Gases.
B. Motivation

      What do you think will happen to this black solid if we apply heat to its
   container ? Let’s find out in today’s activities…

C. Lesson Proper

   1. Pre lab Activity: Learning Stations

   Station 1:   Arrange the set-up for sublimation process and explain how it
                occurs according to KMT.

   Station 2:   Assuming that each circle is a molecule of water, arrange them
                to illustrate freezing of water. Be able to explain how water
                freezes according to KMT.

   Station 3:   Assuming that the big square is a block of ice, illustrate and
                explain the melting process according to KMT.

   Station 4:   Arrange the set-up for boiling process and explain how boiling
                occurs according to KMT.

   Station 5:   a.)   Pour 10 ml of alcohol on your hand and observe what
                      happens.

                b)    Arrange the evaporation set-up and apply heat to 15 ml of
                      water.

                c.)   Explain how evaporation occurs according to KMT.

   Station 6:   a.)   Place chunks of ice in a drinking glass. Observe what
                      happens after 10 to 15 minutes.

                b.)   Be able to explain this phenomenon according to KMT.

   2. Post lab Activity:

             Brainstorming among group members follows after the activity.
      After 15 minutes, a representative from each group explains in front of the
      class the results of the activity performed in each station.

   3. Technological Applications:
                        Phase Changes in Refrigeration Cycle

           Science Concepts                             Technology Concepts
•   Evaporation is the process of changing        The liquid refrigerant circulates inside
    a liquid into gas by increasing the           the refrigerator absorbing heat from
    temperature.                                  the foods, drinks, and air inside it.

•   The molecules of liquids with higher          The evaporator increases the
    energies evaporate first leaving behind       temperature of the refrigerant thus
    those molecules with lower energies.          converting it into its gaseous phase.

    The pressure of a gas is directly         •   Temperature and pressure increase
    proportional to its temperature.              inside the compressor.

    Condensation is the process of                The condenser changes the vaporized
    changing a gas to liquid.                     refrigerant into its liquid phase by
                                                  removing heat from it and releasing
    Removing heat from a sample slows             such heat outside the refrigerator.
    down the movement of the molecules.


    Lowering the temperature of a liquid      After the liquid refrigerant passes through
    slows down the movement of the            the expansion valve, the pressure
    molecules thus decreasing the             decreases with simultaneously decrease in
    pressure                                  temperature

          4. Generalization:

             a. According to the Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter, the phase of a
                given sample of matter is determined by existing temperature and
                pressure.

             b. Refrigeration cycle is a continuous change of phase/ state,
                temperature, and pressure inside the major components of the
                refrigerator.

          5. Valuing:

                    Phase changes continuously occur in the environment. The water
             cycle consists of phase changes like evaporation that helps in
             maintaining a fairly comfortable temperature range in the atmosphere and
             condensation, which produces rain that washes the atmosphere of
             gaseous pollutants. Life sprouts from the interaction of the soil, air, and
             water in the environment.
            6. Evaluation:

                 FORMATIVE TEST (QUIZ: SELECTION TYPE)

A. Direction: From the choices listed below, encircle the letter of the correct answer.

      1. Which property of gas proves that the molecules are in constant motion?
           a. It is light.                      c. It is compressible.
           b. It is usually visible.            d. It leaks out of a container.

      2. Which of the following releases heat?
           a. Evaporation of water.                 c. Condensation of water in the
               atmosphere
           b. Sublimation of naphthalene            d. expansion of a gas at constant
               pressure

      3. Which of the following properties of a given quantity of substance changes when
         it changes from liquid to gas?
             a. Its mass                            c. Its density
             b. Its kind                           d. The particles it is made of.

      4. What is the condition of temperature and pressure of the refrigerant in the
         evaporator?
            a) Low temperature and low pressure
            b) High temperature and high pressure
            c) High temperature and low pressure
            d) Low temperature and high pressure.

      5. What is the phase change that occurs in the evaporator?
           a) Liquid to gas
           b) Gas to liquid
           c) Both a & b
           d) All of the above

IV.      Agreement:

      Directions: Answer the following questions:
.
      1. Give the difference between physical and chemical changes in matter.
      2. Be able to give 5 examples for each kind of change.

								
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