Science Technology and Society in Science Education

					New Education in a New Science for a New Society



         DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA
            University of Porto - PORTUGAL




Bridging Education into Society
  the 22th Conference of the European Schools
              Project Association




 DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA       New Education in a New Science for a New Society
                                               NOTE


      In order to optimize the effect of this conference I thought of referring it to my
              book in 2 vols (1st Volume Foundations, 2nd Volume Practices) :
                  Nova Educação na Nova Ciência para a Nova Sociedade,
                         Editora da Universidade do Porto (2007)

       ...allowing interested people to deepen their knowledge on specific subjects of
                              the recently published 1st volume...

     ...and also, either during the Q/A period or afterwards, through the fora available
                                         in the book site:
                                      www.novaecs.net
                                  ...or directly to my e-mail:
                                      dcpereir@fc.up.pt
      ...giving feed back to the author for the second volume of this work, which is
                          attempted to be shaped at this conference.

                       Thank you in advance for your collaboration!



DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA         New Education in a New Science for a New Society
                                  Starting Point:
                   SCIENCE EDUCATION



    Its Fashions

    Its Foundations


DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA   New Education in a New Science for a New Society
                  The “Fashions” in Science Education


    •   1960- Learning by discovery,                 •    Pupil as Scientist. Teaching Scientific
        conditioned by either the history or              Method. Behavioral Objectives.
        the logic of the discipline.                      Behaviorist Paradigm

    •   1970-Learning conditioned by                 •    Teaching suitable for the available learning
        mental development.                               schemes. Piaget Paradigm

    •   1980- Learning conditioned by                •    Learning as growing (Ausubel) or change
        existing (previously acquired)                    (Bachelard) of cognitive structure.
        knowledge.                                        Alternative Conceptions Paradigm.

    •   1990- Learning conditioned by                •    Teaching from concrete cases (everyday
        Society and Technology                            life or technological examples) to the
                                                          concepts . STS Paradigm.
    •   2000- Learning conditioned by
        Society, Technology and                      •    STS strategy with special attention to
        Evironment                                        environmental issues. STSE Paradigm.




DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA        New Education in a New Science for a New Society
            The Foundations of Science Education
     CONTEMPORARY GENENERAL THEORIES OF EDUCATION




DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA   New Education in a New Science for a New Society
          EDUCATION


           CONTENTS




LEARNER               SOCIETY
 SCIENCE EDUCATION


       SCIENCE




MIND             SOCIETY
      WHAT SCIENCE EDUCATION?


                       WHAT IS
                    SCIENCE?-chap 1




HOW DOES THE MIND                     HOW IS
FUNCTION?-chap 3                      CONTEMPORARY
                                      SOCIETY?-chap 2
      WHAT SCIENCE EDUCATION?

                    WHAT IS SCIENCE? - chap 1




HOW DOES THE MIND                                HOW IS
FUNCTION?- chap 3                                CONTEMPORARY
                      WHAT RELATION BETWEEN      SOCIETY? - chap 2
                      MIND AND SOCIETY?-chap 6
                       WHAT IS SCIENCE?- Chap 1



• In the “adventure” of Science looking for its Education that the
  book attempts to describe, Science is first described (Chap 1)
  through its philosophy, epistemology and discourse, the most
  important conclusion being that Science emerges:

• as a project of knowledge,
• and not as an object of knowledge .




DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA    New Education in a New Science for a New Society
                       WHAT IS SCIENCE?- Chap 1

Other important characteristics of contemporary Science
  discussed are:
• Proximity of the two cultures scientific and humanistic
• Evolution of the concept of Science
• New trends in the Philosophy of Science
• Evolution and characterization of the current discourse of
  Science
• Understanding the whole as more than the sum of its parts
• Change from a positivist epistemology to a constructivist
  epistemology with all its corolaries



DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA     New Education in a New Science for a New Society
  WHAT IS SCIENCE?- Chap 1
  Proximity of the two cultures scientific and humanistic:



     – abandon of causality (deterministic principle),

     – acceptance of paradox (eg duality particle / wave),

     – admission of uncertainity (Heisenberg principle, Copenhagen interpretation of
       Quantum Mechanics),

     – no fear of complexity (chaos, fractals, emergence,auto-organization,...).




DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA      New Education in a New Science for a New Society
    WHAT IS SCIENCE?
    Evolution of the concept of Science - Chap 1



    •   Objective                               •     Subjective
    •   Unquestionable                          •     Controversial
    •   Empiricist                              •     Methodologicaly versatile
    •   Linear                                  •     Complex
    •   Dogmatic                                •     Non dogmatic (Flexible)
    •   Elitist                                 •     Non elitist
    •   Individualist                           •     Based on groups
    •   Socialy neutral                         •     Dependent on power
    •   Descontextualized                       •     Dependent from context


DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA   New Education in a New Science for a New Society
     WHAT IS SCIENCE?
     NEW TRENDS OF THE PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE - Chap                        1



•   Inductivism (naif and probabilistic)

• Falsificationism (Popper)

• Revolutionism (Kuhn)

• Competitionism (Lakatos)

• Naturalism (Giere)

• Anarchism (Feyerabend)


DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA    New Education in a New Science for a New Society
     WHAT IS SCIENCE?
     DISCOURSE OF SCIENCE FROM DESCARTES TO NOW - Chap                     1




• “Discours de la méthode pour bien conduire sa raison et chercher la
  VÉRITÉ dans les Sciences”- DESCARTES




• Negociation of meaning VEREDICTION - HABERMAS




DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA    New Education in a New Science for a New Society
   WHAT IS SCIENCE?- DISCOURSE OF SCIENCE PRECEPTS - Chap 1




    • DESCARTES                                 • NOW

    •   Evidence                                • Pertinence

    • Reductionism                              • Globalism

    • Causality                                 •     Teleologism

    • Exaustivity                               • Agregativity




DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA   New Education in a New Science for a New Society
             WHAT IS SCIENCE?- DISCOURSE OF SCIENCE
       Definition of Scientific Concepts as triangulation (Le Moigne) - Chap            1




                                         Ontologic Pole




    Functional Pole                                                          Genetic Pole




DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA      New Education in a New Science for a New Society
     WHAT IS SCIENCE?- -Understanding the whole as
        more than the sum of its parts - Chap 1




    • Rise of systems theory
    • Need of precision in measure specially
      regarding non-linear phenomena, due to
      their extreme sensitivity to initial
      conditions (Chaos theory)
    • Rise of complexity
    • The concepts of emergence and self-
      organization

DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA   New Education in a New Science for a New Society
                      WHAT IS SCIENCE?
           EPISTEMOLOGY OF SCIENCE (evolution) - Chap 1




       POSITIVIST                                     CONSTRUCTIVIST

    • Science as object of                      • Science as project of
      knowledge                                   knowledge

    • Basis: ontologic e                        • Basis: phenomonologic
      determinist                                 and teleologic

    • Metodology: analitic                      • Metodology: systemic
      modelling and sufficient                    modelling and intelligent
      reason.                                     action
DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA   New Education in a New Science for a New Society
    HOW IS SOCIETY?- Chap 2


    Is contemporary Society similar to the one in which the
       School as we know it developed?

    NO!...

    A great change took place starting in the last decades of
      the XXth century:

    From industrial society(started late XVIIIth century...
    ...to the information society

DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA   New Education in a New Science for a New Society
    HOW IS SOCIETY?- Chap 2

    This contemporary information society is characterised
      by different authors through its aspects of:
    • Network society
    • Risk society
    • Timeless time
    • Space of flows
    • Culture of real virtuality (influenced by technology)
    • Economy: knowdge capitalism (where innovation is
      fundamental, the market is global and important
      concepts are creative destruction winds and
      colaborative competition (coopetition).
DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA   New Education in a New Science for a New Society
    HOW IS SOCIETY?- Chap 2

    • This New Society is still served by the “old” Industrial
      Society School, very efficient for this type of society but
      unable to cope with the challenges of the very different
      contemporary society.

    • Among the challenges for this transition, there is the
      need for changing the rigid and hierarchical
      organizations of the industrial society into learning
      organizations.
    • This, according to Peter Senge, could be done through
      the learning of five disciplines (two directed to the
      individuals, two aimed at improving the function of
      human groups and a last one- the fifth discipline-
      supporting a new form of thinking, systemic thinking,
      essential to successfuly tackle the complex
      contemporary issues (see Chap 1).
DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA   New Education in a New Science for a New Society
    HOW DOES MIND FUNCTION?- Chap 3




Change of paradigm
   From...
    Behavioral Psychology (still much in use in Education)
    To...
    Cognitive (chap 3) and Discursive (chap 6)
    Psychology

DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA   New Education in a New Science for a New Society
    HOW DOES MIND FUNCTION?- Chap 3



    • Cognitive Psychology:
      – implies the possibility of modelling what occurs
        in the brain and not only, as behaviorism
        stipulated, the observable stimuli and
        responses.
      – Consists of positivist Cognitive Psychology
        (information processing) and constructivist
        Cognitive Psychology



DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA   New Education in a New Science for a New Society
              HOW DOES MIND FUNCTION?- Chap 3

                                      MODELS


    • Behavioral models are only based on observable elements
      (stimuli and responses)

    • Cognitive models, contrary to the behavioral ones assume the
      existence and operationality of a cognitive structure and may be
      divided in:

        – Positivist Models- which represent the external world
          through algoritmic processes (information processing)

        – Constructivist Models- which adapt to the external world
          through heuristic processes.


DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA   New Education in a New Science for a New Society
    WHAT RELATION BETWEEN SCIENCE AND SOCIETY?- Chap 4


    • Chapter 4 deals with the complex relation
      between Science and Society in the
      Information Society, where , according to
      Gibbons, not only Science “speaks” to
      Society but Society “speaks back” to it.




DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA   New Education in a New Science for a New Society
    WHAT RELATION BETWEEN SCIENCE AND SOCIETY?- Chap 4


  The most important distinction between
   Industrial and Information Society concerns
   the
  knowledge production mode (Mode 2 and
   even Mode 3 of Scientific Production,
   instead of Mode 1 of the Industrial Society)




DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA   New Education in a New Science for a New Society
    WHAT RELATION BETWEEN SCIENCE AND SOCIETY?- Chap 4




 • Mode 1                                         • Mode 2
     – Academic context                                  – Application Context
     – Disciplinar                                       – Multidisciplinar
     – Perceptually homogeneous                          – Perceptually heterogeneous
     – Internal definition of quality                    – External definition of quality and
       and relevance by peers                              relevance
     – Hierarchic and static structure                   – Non-hierarchic, horizontal
       organization                                        structures, ad-hoc organizations
     – Internal responsibility                           – External responsibility
     – Academic freedom and                              – Interests and stake-holders
       demand of knowledge                                 defining the agenda


DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA     New Education in a New Science for a New Society
    WHAT RELATION BETWEEN SCIENCE AND SOCIETY?- Chap 4


 • Also important is the Science conditioning
   by the network Society (Network Science),
   which demands that Science be:

     – not only reliable (as in the Industrial Society)

     – but also socially robust

     – and capable of transdisciplinarity
DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA   New Education in a New Science for a New Society
    WHAT RELATION BETWEEN SCIENCE AND SOCIETY?- Chap 4




• Also very important to the contemporary
  SCIENCE / SOCIETY RELATIONSHIP are:

    – the conditioning of Scientific Knowledge by
     Nature (Sustainability Science),

    – and the complex relation among Science,
     Society and Governement (Triple Helix Model).
DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA   New Education in a New Science for a New Society
    WHAT RELATION BETWEEN SCIENCE AND MIND?- Chap 5


     Chapter 5 attempts to characterize the relation Science /
      Mind through the key concepts:
        – Cognitive Distribution (knowledge distribution among man,
          artifacts and other men)
        – Cognitive Scaffolding (use of tools helping cognition)
        It also describes two of the great consequences of this
            problematic:
        – The development of the need for a scientific literacy
          (understanding and use of scientific concepts)
        – The appearing of a third culture (where scientists write to the
          public in general).


DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA    New Education in a New Science for a New Society
    WHAT RELATION BETWEEN MIND AND SOCIETY?- Chap 6


    • In chapter 6 the emergent science of communication, its most
      important models and the philosophies (representative,
      expressive e confusionant)on which they are based.
    • The question of competences which is very important
      (currently considered above both behaviors and contents in
      the contemporary formulation of curricula for instance in the
      Bologna process) is delt with, in particular the transferable
      competences,extremely important as warrants of
      employability in the contemporary society.
    •    Theoretical models possble for the interaction mind society
        are finally presented : Socio- Cognitive Constructivism
        (Vygotsky) and Social Constructionism.


DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA   New Education in a New Science for a New Society
    WHAT EDUCATION? HOW CAN IT BE ACHIEVED? - Chap 7




    • Chapter 7 is a kind of syncretic vision of the
      theories encountered in the other chapters that
      may be used in Education.
    • Some of the uses are exemplified but the
      systematic applications will be delt in vol 2
      for which this chapter is a kind of launching
      platform.

DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA   New Education in a New Science for a New Society
    WHAT EDUCATION? HOW CAN IT BE ACHIEVED? - Chap 7



    • Reforming the existing school, which is a
      blend from :
        – Industrial Society School, as far as the
          production line metaphor applies
        – Medieval, monastich,School as far as it is
          ruled by bells...
    • Towards a Learning School (Senge, 2000)


DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA   New Education in a New Science for a New Society
            WHAT EDUCATION? HOW CAN IT BE ACHIEVED? - Chap 7

•    THE SCHOOL WE HAVE                                   •     THE SCHOOL WE MUST HAVE
      –   VERY EFFICIENT FOR THE INDUSTRIAL                      –   ADEQUATE TO INFORMATION SOCIETY
          SOCIETY
                                                                 –   AIMED AT EMPOWERING INDIVIDUALS
      –   INSPIRED ON THE PRODUCTION LINE AND                        FOR EACH SITUATION
          PRODUCING UNIFORMIZATION
                                                                 –   BASED ON LIFE-LONG LEARNING
      –   BASED ON INITIAL CERTIFICATE
                                                                 –   BASED ON THE WHOLE DEVELOPMENT
      –   BASED ON A “CRITICAL CORPUS” TO ALLOW                      OF THE LEARNER BOTH FOR WORK AND
          PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITY                                      FOR LEISURE

                                                                 –   FLEXIBLE AND MOTIVATING
      –   VERY RESISTANT TO CHANGE
                                                                 –   PREDOMINANT USE OF CONSTRUCTIVIST
      –   PREDOMINANT USE OF TRANSMISSIVE                            METHODOLOGIES
          METHODOLOGIES
                                                                 –   BASED ON COLLABORATION AND
      –   BASED ON COMPETITION                                       PROMOTING SOCIALIZATION

      –   INFLUECED BY OBSOLETE PSYCHOLOGICAL                    –   DEPARTS FROM CONTEXTS TO CONCEPTS
          CURRENTS LIKE BEHAVIORISM                                  WITHOUT FEAR OF
                                                                     COMPLEXITYMETACOGNITIVE AND
                                                                     PROBLEM SOLVING STRATEGIES VERY
                                                                     IMPORTANT


    DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA         New Education in a New Science for a New Society
            …WHAT EDUCATION? HOW CAN IT BE ACHIEVED? - Chap 7




    This would originate a new type o citizens:

    • Not receptors or knowers as Mode 1 Society required


    • and...producing instead learners


    •    That is, constructors, knowing how to apply the
        various forms of constructivism (including
        construccionism) found in each of the chapters of vol
        1 (last section).


DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA   New Education in a New Science for a New Society
    Knower (Mode 1 Citizen)                    Learner (Mode 2 Citizen)


• Consults information from                 • Projects information in the future
  past
• Accomodates facts and                     • Creates, applies and experiments
  concepts                                    knowledge
• Stores concepts without                   • Creates conceptual networks
  relating them
• Applies knowledge to                      • Creates specific solutions for
  specific problems                           each problem
• Modifies the external stimuli             • Modifies a comprehension to
  in order to adapt to                        explain stimuli
  comprehension
• Passive –waiting for                      • Proactive-looks continuously for
  information to reach him.                   new experiences
DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA   New Education in a New Science for a New Society
             …WHAT EDUCATION? HOW CAN IT BE ACHIEVED?
               CONSTRUCTIVISM IN EDUCATION - chap 7


    • Constructivism in Education implies the acceptance of the
      following 4 dimensions of construction:

        – That Knowledge is constructed physically by learners involved in
          active learning,

        – That Knowledge is constructed siymbolicaly by learners
          interiorizing the action representation

        – That Knowledge is constructed socialy by learners attempting to
          communicate their meaning to others

        – That Knowledge is constructed theoretically by learners trying to
          explain things that they do not understand completely.

        This implies that the major task of the teachers is
        – Not the planning of instruction (as it was in Mode 1 School)
        – But the design of learning



DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA     New Education in a New Science for a New Society
         …WHAT EDUCATION? HOW CAN IT BE ACHIEVED? - Chap 7
       CONSTRUCTIVIST LEARNING DESIGN IN EDUCATION


    • CONSTRUCTIVIST LEARNING DESIGN implies the consideration
             of the following elements (Gagnon & Collay):
                         http://prainbow.com
        – Situations- That students have to explain

        – Groupings – of materials and students

        – Bridges-between what the students already know and what is
          intended they learn

        – Questions-to formulate and answer

        – Show – of student thinking notes shared with others

        – Reflections – that students must do about their learning

        ( Objectives, products and results are usually imposed from outside in
           basic and secondary school but must be produced in many tertiary
           and vocational situations))



DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA     New Education in a New Science for a New Society
          …WHAT EDUCATION? HOW CAN IT BE ACHIEVED? - Chap 7
             Constructivism in the Teaching of Science

      http://exploratorium.edu/IFI/resources/research/constructivism.html

                             Constructive Principles...

        – Knowledge is in the individuals and not outside...
        – Words are not packages of concepts and their meaning
          needs to be negotiated...
        – The learning strategy is usualy problem-solving...
        – Others are very importantes, causing perturbations that
          being solved leed to cooperative learning
        – Experience is very important aiming at the partial fit with
          reality, as the senses are not channels through which truth
          is transmitted from outside...
        – Science under a constructivist perspective is not so much
          the search for truth but the attempt to make sense of the
          world...
        – Previous knowledge of the learners is very important...




DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA    New Education in a New Science for a New Society
          …WHAT EDUCATION? HOW CAN IT BE ACHIEVED? - Chap 7
             Constructivism in the Teaching of Science

    http://exploratorium.edu/IFI/resources/research/constructivism.html
                          Constructive PRACTICES...
    – It is directly opposed to the objectivist practice aiming at
       having people attentive and passive...
    – Learners need time to reflect in their experiences and to relate
       them with what they already know
    – An important part of learning should be the negotiation of
       meaning, comparing with what they already know, with what
       the others say and solving the discrepancies...
    – The learning process cannot stop at class level; it is important
       that students compare the knowledge built in the classroom
       with the knowledge built by the scientific community...
    – Instead of having quiet and attentive they must be encouraged
       to speak, not only with the teacher but among them...
    – The main task of the teacher is to establish and maintain a
       learning environment with certain characteristics we will
       mention later...
    – CLEs (Constructive Learning Environments) are the main
       multimedia contribution to this perspective.


DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA   New Education in a New Science for a New Society
          …WHAT EDUCATION? HOW CAN IT BE ACHIEVED? - Chap 7
            IMPLICATIONS TO EDUCATION (cf Graham Hills)
                        Change of Paradigm




                          OLD
           Teachers in Conventional Classrooms

                           NEW
  ISLE (intensive supported learning environment),
        computers, learning laboratories, projects)
                             +
 Tutorials of small groups, laboratory exercises, case
          studies, training skills and competences


DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA   New Education in a New Science for a New Society
          …WHAT EDUCATION? HOW CAN IT BE ACHIEVED? - Chap 7
            IMPLICATIONS TO EDUCATION (cf Graham Hills)
                        Change of Paradigm




    • OLD                                       • NEW
        –   Static                                     –   Dynamic
        –   Impassive                                  –   Supportive
        –   Single medium                              –   Multimedia
        –   Synchronous                                –   Asynchronous
        –   Passive                                    –   Active
        –   Unidirectional                             –   Interactive
        –   Local                                      –   Network
        –   Audience                                   –   Person
        –   Real                                       –   Virtual

DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA   New Education in a New Science for a New Society
              …WHAT EDUCATION? HOW CAN IT BE ACHIEVED? - Chap 7
                IMPLICATIONS TO EDUCATION (cf Graham Hills)
                            Change of Paradigm
•    OLD                                         •    NEW

      – Fragmentation of Knowledge                      – Holistic, not reductionist
      – Internal referencing, peer                      – Context driven, not subject driven
        review, cronysm and social                      – Mission oriented research, not
        corruption                                        blue skies
      – Absence of context. Flight from                 – Team work, not individual scholar
        reality                                         – Multi-authored publications and
      – Objectivity taken to extreme.                     heterogeneous knowledge bases
        Dehumanization of science                       – Divergent not convergent thinking
      – Authoritarian attitudes to                      – Reflexive philosophy rather than
        knowledge and success                             objective statement
      – Competition between knowledge                   – Fundamental criterion: does it
        bases leads to internal                           work?
        uniformity and external
        conformity                                      – This is the world outside academia
      – Academic values prevail, theory
        prevails over




    DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA   New Education in a New Science for a New Society
           …WHAT EDUCATION? HOW CAN IT BE ACHIEVED? - Chap 7
             IMPLICATIONS TO EDUCATION (cf Graham Hills)
                     Change of Paradigm : Transition

• MODE 1                                      • MODE 2
   – Commune of homogeneous                          – Multidisciplinary teams;
     subjects                                          heterogeneous knowledge
   – Solitary scholar                                – Part of active network
   – Open publication and                            – Intellectual property
     freedom of knowledge                            – Mission-led projects, local
   – Universal themes                                  problem solving and final
   – Objectivity and                                   solutions
     disinterestedness                               – Serving practical interests
   – Fundamental, blue-skies                         – Context of application,
     research                                          collectivised problem choice
   – Life-long vocation                              – Professional teams and
                                                       entrepreneurial risk




 DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA   New Education in a New Science for a New Society
              …WHAT EDUCATION? HOW CAN IT BE ACHIEVED? - Chap 7
                IMPLICATIONS TO EDUCATION (cf Graham Hills)
                           Essential Skills (mode 2)



                                                 • Speaking, writing, debating,
• Personal                                         reporting and presenting

•    Personality                                 • Evaluation, criticism and
                                                   judgemental

• Intellectual                                   • Mathematical, language and
                                                   philosophical
                                                 • Computation, keyboard,
• Professional                                     marketing, financial, design
                                                   and management
• Craft                                          • Drawing, painting, technical,
                                                   and music

    DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA   New Education in a New Science for a New Society
            WHAT EDUCATION?   HOW CAN IT BE ACHIEVED? - VOL 2




      One can examine in more detail the
      evolution from Mode 1 Society into Mode 2
      Society studying separately a set of
      transitions contemplating each an everyone
      of the relevant changes taking place and the
      consequent curricular changes



DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA     New Education in a New Science for a New Society
                 WHAT EDUCATION?   HOW CAN IT BE ACHIEVED? - VOL 2


•      We claim that the transformation of School should primarily accompany the
       transformation of Society (Graham, 2003), that may be summarized in the
       following necessary transitions:

      1.    Mode 1 Welfare State (Keynes)  Mode 2 Workfare State (Schumpeter)
      2.    Mode 1 Nation-State Knowledge Control  Mode 2 Global Knowledge Democracy
      3.    Mode 1 Product-Time  Mode 2 Real-Time
      4.    Mode 1 Control Management  Mode 2 Emergence Management
      5.    Mode 1 Linearity  Mode 2 Complexity
      6.    Mode 1 Rationality  Mode 2 Risk
      7.    Mode 1 Knowledge Production  Mode 2 Knowledge Production
      8.    Mode 1 Disciplinarity  Mode 2 Transdisciplinarity
      9.    Mode 1 Competence  Mode 2 Capability
      10.   Mode 1 Modernity  Mode 2 Post- modernity
      11.   Mode 1 Knowledge Use  Knowledge Creation



    DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA      New Education in a New Science for a New Society
                WHAT EDUCATION?   HOW CAN IT BE ACHIEVED? - VOL 2

     1- Mode 1 Welfare State (Keynes)  Mode 2 Workfare State (Schumpeter)




    • Description:                                   • Curricular action:
    • Nation states are no more                      • Orienting curriculum to
      capable of aiming at a                                – Entrepreneurship
      welfare society, as they                              – Knowledge generation
      have to employ all their                              – Continuous improvement
      resources in innovation.                       • Achieving
    • Physical capital is                                   – Creativity
      replaced by knowledge                                 – Problem solving
      capital.                                              – Business dynamic
    • Knowledge Capitalism
      replaces Manufacture
      capitalism


DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA        New Education in a New Science for a New Society
                WHAT EDUCATION?   HOW CAN IT BE ACHIEVED? - VOL 2

 2- Mode 1 Nation-State Knowledge Control  Mode 2 Global Knowledge Democracy




    • Description:                                   • Curricular action:
    • Economy is not linear as                       • Orienting curriculum to
      Schumpeter thought, but                               – Global Knowledge Base
      networked, not limited by                             – Practice globaly interconnected
      national borders, but                                 – Networked education system
      global in a complex                            • Achieving
      hierarchy of networks,                                – Cooperativiness
      where the institutional and                           – Collaborative problem solving
      state control is
                                                            – Global awareness
      diminished.Capital
      knowledge and political
      influence are intertwined
      and globaly connected


DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA        New Education in a New Science for a New Society
                WHAT EDUCATION?   HOW CAN IT BE ACHIEVED? - VOL 2

                 3- Mode 1 Product-Time  Mode 2 Real-Time




 • Description:                                      • Curricular action:
 • The speed of knowledge                            • Orienting curriculum to
   production enabled by I T allows                         – Structuring the education and
   market to operate in real time, the                        training as a competitive ecosystem
   shortest possible lapse between                          – Role of system as intermediary
   ideal and action, empowering the                           between student and lecturer
   customer and disentermediating                             diminished
   the process, allowing the context                        – On-line self service and self
   to speak back, leading to an                               satisfaction for students knowledge
   entrepreneurial ecosystem and to                           generation
   the death of competition as it                           – Continuous improvement
   existed in manufacturing                          • Achieving
   capitalism.Availability of                               – Student progress facilitation
   everything everywhere, Need to
                                                            – Venture capitalist access for course
   pro-act rather than react to stimuli                       creation



DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA        New Education in a New Science for a New Society
                  WHAT EDUCATION?   HOW CAN IT BE ACHIEVED? - VOL 2

         4- Mode 1 Control Management  Mode 2 Emergence Management

•   Description:                                       •     Curricular action:
•   No centralized top donn structures from
    the industrial society can survive as              •     Orienting curriculum to
    competitive advantage is enhanced by                      – Decentralise education
    decentralised, bottom- up, self-
    organized models, reflecting the                          – Encouragement of
    principles of “emergence science”,                           experimentation aimed at
    where special attention must be drawn                        competitive innovation.
    to the innovative character of the
    structures spontaneously created by the            •     Achieving
    interactions of individual components.                    – Individuation
    Paradoxically the independence of the
    parts interacting freely allows the                       – Experimentation
    organization to behave much more                          – Flexibility
    efficiently than if it was                                – Collborative interdependence
    centralised.Workers must be prepared
    to work both independently and
    interdependently and the enterprise
    should be resilient to keep the
    apparently contradictory norms used.




DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA          New Education in a New Science for a New Society
                WHAT EDUCATION?   HOW CAN IT BE ACHIEVED? - VOL 2

                  5- Mode 1 Linearity  Mode 2 Complexity




    • Description:                                   • Curricular action:
    • Adam Smith´s reductionism of                   • Orienting curriculum to
      economic order,organized into                         – Study dynamic networking
      mechanistic subunits, inspired                        – Reduce the specialization of
      in the determinism and                                  labor, merging disciplines, if
      positivism of western science is                        possible transdisciplinarly.
      no longer applicable. The                             – Dismiss scientism as the only
      organization must be perceived                          premise of reliability
      as networked or linked and                            – Transcend the Nation-state as
      special attention should be                             the only source of power and
      drawn to the link dynamics and                          credentials
      the fitness of its nodes                       • Achieving
      (individuals).                                        – Flexible constructs
                                                            – Multiple methods of inquiry
                                                            – Transdisciplinary thinking



DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA        New Education in a New Science for a New Society
                 WHAT EDUCATION?   HOW CAN IT BE ACHIEVED? - VOL 2

                         6-Mode 1 Rationality  Mode 2 Risk




    •   Description:                                  •     Curricular action:
    •   In knowledge capitalism knowledge             •     Orienting curriculum to
        intervenes upon knowledge itself in                  – Global trade of education
        order to generate greater                               either on line or by franchise
        productivity demanding networked              •     Achieving
        innovation much more difficult to
        control than the linear innovation                   – Practices on methods to handle
        of scientism. Knowledge departs                         risk
        from the scientific university Mode                  – Communication and
        1 knowledge generation to the                           negotiation techniques to deal
        entrepreneurial risk venture with                       with new knowledge and its
        knowledge as capital. Mode 1                            associated risk
        education institutions designed to
        perpetuate state ideology are
        transformed in deregulated risk
        ventures subject to market forces
        and entrpreneurial competition.



DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA         New Education in a New Science for a New Society
                   WHAT EDUCATION?   HOW CAN IT BE ACHIEVED? - VOL 2

        7- Mode 1 Knowledge Production  Mode 2 Knowledge Production




    •    Description:                                   •     Curricular action:
    •    In Mode 2 Society the value of new             •     Orienting curriculum to
         knowledge is not only based on                        – Criteria for market competiveness
         peer review as it used to be in                         of knowledge, cost effectiveness of
         Mode 1 Society, but also (and                           knowledge and social acceptability
         possibly more) on market                                of knowledge
         competitiveness, cost effectiveness                   – Contextualized application of
         and social acceptability. This                          knoledge production
         implies a shift to still reliable but                 – Negotiation of knowledge in the
         also robust and context sensitive                       social robust and context sensitive
         knowledge. An inflation of new                          Agora
         markets resulting from the                     •     Achieving
         intervention of knowledge upon                        –   Networks
         knowledge emerge in several waves                     –   Social accountability
         characterizing a post- knowledge                      –   Negotiation
         economy, a post-post knowledge                        –   Reflexion
         economy, etc..



DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA           New Education in a New Science for a New Society
                 WHAT EDUCATION?   HOW CAN IT BE ACHIEVED? - VOL 2

             8- Mode 1 Disciplinarity  Mode 2 Transdisciplinarity

    •   Description:
                                                      •     Curricular action:
    •   The important transdiciplinar
        exercise has not the same meaning
        for various authors:                          •     Orienting curriculum to
    •   it has no pre-defined rules,strongly                 – Contextualization
        depending on the context and being                   – Transgressivness
        related to the transgressive nature                  – Hyper-rationality
        of Mode 2 (Gibbons)
    •   It involves transcendence learning            •     Achieving
        beyond disciplinarity and using                      – Problem solving generated and
        hyper rationality as a new mode of                     sustained in application
        thinking derived from quantum                        – Problem solving across,between
        mechanics (Nicolescu)                                  and beyond the disciplines
    •   It may be conceived as a                             – Analogous thinking in multiple
        methodology to distinguish the                         realities
        creation of new sciences with thyeir
        own concetual structure from the
        simple overlaping of disciplines of
        either interdisciplinarity or
        multidisciplinarity(Koyzumi).


DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA         New Education in a New Science for a New Society
                WHAT EDUCATION?   HOW CAN IT BE ACHIEVED? - VOL 2

                    9- Mode 1 Competence  Mode 2 Capability


    •   Description:                                 •     Curricular action:
    •   Distinction between knowledge                •     Orienting curriculum to
        about something, important in the                   – Conscious management of the
        Fordist perspective of competence                     autonomus development of
        based on task analysis, essential to                  individuals in the work context
        manufacture capitalism                              – Learning management
    •   and knowledge to do something,                      – Stress management
        where Polanyi´s tacit knowledge is                  – Communication
        the most important issue and                        – Collaboration
        capability as a quallity that                       – Value sensitivity
        integrates knowledge,skills, used in         •     Achieving
        response to new circunstances..
                                                            – Emphasis on attitudes and skills
    •   Capability extends the concept of                   – Just-in-time knowledge
        competence similarly as robustness                    accessibility
        extends reliability for knowledge                   – Positive attitude for
                                                              change,opportunity, collaboration
                                                              and life-long learning




DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA        New Education in a New Science for a New Society
                WHAT EDUCATION?   HOW CAN IT BE ACHIEVED? - VOL 2

                10- Mode 1 Modernity  Mode 2 Post- modernity




    • Description:                                   • Curricular action:
    • Post modern culture dominated                  • Orienting curriculum to
      by two effects                                        – Value of knowledge in
    • B effect : catastrophic sense of                        application
      critical and creative crisis + no                     – Value of provisionality
      future: anti-creation                                 – Value of mini-narratives and
    • C-effect viability of new moves,                        multiple truths
      new rules, new games: ante-                           – Seeing life as revolution with
      creation                                                the abandonment of limitations
                                                              of past and present
    • Traditional ideology of
      representation in crisis                       • Achieving
      although search for truth not                         – New moves
      abandoned                                             – New rules
                                                            – New games




DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA        New Education in a New Science for a New Society
                WHAT EDUCATION?   HOW CAN IT BE ACHIEVED? - VOL 2

                11- Mode 1 Knowledge Use  Knowledge Creation

•   Description:                                     •     Curricular action:
•   This reflects the transition from                •     Orienting curriculum to
    scientific reliability to social                 •     As OECD proposes the change of
    robustness                                             priorities KSA, Knowledge, Skills and
•   Distinction between Knowledge users                    Attitudes to ASK attitudes, Skills and
    and Knowledge creators becomes                         Knowledge
    anachronistic
•   In complex Mode 2 there is no correct            •     Achieving
    method of applying knowledge,                           – Positive attitudes: responsibility,
    because talking about doing, thinking                      hopefulness.confidence and trust
    about doing and worrying about doing,
    together with over-reliance in                          – Skills: communication,
    measurement and colleague                                  teamwork,organization and
    competition frequently impede action                       problem-solving




DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA        New Education in a New Science for a New Society
            THE END
                       http//:www.novaecs.net

                              dcpereir@fc.up.pt




DUARTE COSTA PEREIRA   New Education in a New Science for a New Society

				
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