Hard CasH soft Power by huanghengdong



humani­t arian­
   aFFairs­ ­

Hard CasH                       proFiLe
                                Eva Joly: French
                                Presidential Candidate

soft Power                      perspectives
                                Joseph Nye:
                                Global Power Shifts
As global economic power        microcredit
shifts, the face of trade and   No Miracle Cure
aid is changing.
 A global telecommunications
 company. Built around local
 businesses, local needs
 and local people like us.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Content 0111
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        PERSPEcTIVE – a humaNITaRIaN aNd FOREIgN aFFaIRS magazINE

 At Telenor Group, we think it’s possible to be both global and local at the same
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 You’ll also find a business acting with commitment and respect. And you’ll find
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        06    OP-ED
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Valerie Amos, head of the UN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              emergency relief agency, sums
 the resources and skills of a leading multinational telecoms company being                                                                                                                                                   up the key challenges facing
 applied to benefit local communities and help meet local needs.                                                                                                                                                              the aid sector in a time when
 To find out more about how the Telenor Group operates in your area,                                                                                                                                                          natural disasters like, the 2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Pakistan-flood, may become
 visit www.telenor.com and see how we are ‘built around people.’                                                                                                                                                              the new norm.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        18    PrOfilE:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Eva jOly
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Eva Joly started out as an
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              au-pair and became France’s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              most militant anti-corruption
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              magistrate. Now she is aiming
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              to be elected President of the

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        22    GlOBal POWEr SHifTS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Joseph Nye, Harvard profes-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              sor and former US Assistant
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Secretary of Defence for Inter-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              national Security Affairs, dis-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              cusses whether the US will be
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              able to compete with China in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              the future.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        30    THE afriCaN DrEaM
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Chinese state businesses are
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              heavily involved in construc-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              tion and industrial devel-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              opment in Africa. Less well
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              known is the fact that small-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              scale Chinese shopkeepers and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              café owners are creating their
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              own African dream.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Foto: Scanpix
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        50    WHy MiCrOfiNaNCE DOES
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              NOT WOrK
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Critics claim that not only is
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              microfinance failing to lift peo-

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  10 THE CHaNGiNG faCE Of aiD
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Emerging powers are entering the humanitarian field, thereby changing the face of aid.
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         NO. 01.2011   3
Growth comes from truly understanding the needs of people to drive relevant change.
                                                                                                                                                DR CONGO
editorial                                                                                                                                       AFGHANISTAN
                                                                                                                                                              43 MILLION DISPLACED
The Dilemmas of
                                                                                                                                                SRI LANKA
                                                                                                    PersPective is on sale in the following
                                                                                                    countries: Australia, Austria, Belgium,     KENYA

a Changing World                                                                                    Canada, Cyprus, France, Italy, Japan,
                                                                                                    Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New
                                                                                                    Zealand, Portugal, Spain, the UK and
                                                                                                    the US.
                                                                                                                                                IVORY COAST
                                                                                                    editor in chief Erik Giercksky
                                                                                                    editor Harriet K. Rudd                      OPT
                                                                                                                                                              MAKE A DIFFERENCE
        s this edition of Perspective goes to     humanitarian aid, and the giving of aid has       Production manager Erik Tresse

                                                                                                                                                              SUPPORT OUR WORK
        press we were all impressed how, in       always had at least two motives: firstly to al-
        the face of strong opposition, young      leviate suffering, thereafter to transform cash
                                                                                                    Writers and contributors                    DR CONGO
                                                                                                    Marianne Alfsen, Olaf Gunnar Alteren,
and inexperienced protesters in Tunisia and       gifts into political influence. Over the years,   Valerie Amos, Gunhild Forselv, Grete
Egypt mobilized popular support for democ-        Western powers have shaped a set of com-          Gaulin, Linda Jeanette Gresslien, Kaia      SUDAN
racy and better leadership. Despite police        mon rules to try and balance out these two        Haldorsen, Robin Hammond, Amr               AFGHANISTAN
                                                                                                    Hamzawy, Roald Høvring, Ragnhild
violence and the threat of military interven-     objectives. The rules are not always followed,    M.W. Jordheim, Joeph Nye, Elisabeth
tion, they returned to the streets day after      but they have set a standard that state donors    Rasmusson, André Savik, Richard             SOMALIA
day: committed, disciplined and united.           - at least in principle - try to live up to.      Skretteberg, Birgit Vardal, Rolf Vestvik,   SRI LANKA

                                                     New state donors do not necessarily            Tonje M. Viken and Adam Zyglis
n Libya, however, broke whatever illusions        agree with all these rules – or they may still    circulation services                       KENYA
we might have had about peaceful revolu-          be formulating their aid policies. Differing      Naweed Ahmed
tions. Gaddafi went to war on his people,         ways of providing aid, however, are triggeri-
                                                                                                                                                IVORY COAST   The Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) is an inde-
and the United Nations authorized military        ng debates on what constitutes “good aid”.
action to protect civilians - an admirable,       In the article Changing the Face of Aid we
                                                                                                    sales                                       LIVBERIA      pendent, humanitarian non-governmental organisation
                                                                                                    Pineapple Media Limited,
if highly unclear, mission. The news was to       examine what characterizes the aid-giving         172 Northern Parade, Hilsea                 IRAQ          which provides assistance, protection and durable so-
go from bad to worse. Following the war           of the newer regional powers, and discusses       Portsmouth, Hempshire PO2 9LT UK            PAKISTAN      lutions to refugees and internally displaced persons
in Libya and the natural disaster in Japan,       whether they are revolutionising the whole                                                    OPT           worldwide.
                                                                                                    design Teft Design as
countries such as Bahrain, Syria and Yemen        concept of aid provision.                                                                     LEBANON
cracked down on protesters.                                                                         Printing Gamlebyen Grafiske                 COLOMBIA
                                                  n The article African Dream explains why          circulation 20,000                          DR CONGO
n Given this situation it is even more impor-     many African countries are of the opinion                                                     GEORGIA
tant that the protesters in Egypt and Tunisia     that Chinese infrastructure projects and          cover Photo Scanpix
are able to achieve substantial change. If the    investments are more advantageous than            Publisher
protesters wish to influence future develop-      Western aid money. None the less, there is        The Norwegian Refugee Council
ments, they must be able to transform from        no doubt that China also focuses its atten-
                                                                                                    Questions regarding the nrc should
non-ideological activists to political actors     tions on areas that can provide energy and
                                                                                                    be directed to:
taking part in political processes. Perspective   raw materials for its domestic industry.          Rolf.Vestvik@nrc.no
has asked two leading experts on Arab poli-       From a humanitarian point of view, it is im-
tics whether - in their opinion - the protest-    portant that donors adhere to norms that en-
                                                                                                     The views expressed in Perspective
ers will be able to shape future politics. You    sures aid is not reduced to simply being an
                                                                                                     do not necessarily reflect the views
can read their answers in the article Revolu-     implement of foreign policy or a means by          of the NRC.
tions without politics.                           which recipient governments gain political
                                                  advantages over opposing groups. However,
                                                                                                    norWegian refugee council
n Earlier this year, a less symbolic, but more    it is important that we do not one-sidedly        Box 6758 St. Olavs Plass
fundamental change in world order oc-             focus on the weaknesses of new donors.            0130 Oslo
curred. China passed Japan as the second          Western government are not always princi-         Norway
largest economy in the world - and China is       pled donors. Nothing undermines standards
not the only rising star on the horizon. Coun-    more than double standards. Consequent-
tries such as Brazil, India, South Africa, and    ly, if the humanitarian community wishes to
Turkey are becoming regional powers, with         promote principles of humanitarian assis-
both the ambitions and the abilities to influ-    tance, it is imperative that donors are evalu-
ence world politics.                              ated on the basis of their actions, rather than   The Norwegian Refugee Council
                                                  their rhetoric.                                   (NRC) is an independent, humanitarian
n Economic and political power have always                                                          non-governmental organisation which
                                                                                                    provides assistance, protection and
determined the politics and principles of                                                           durable solutions to refugees and in-
                                                                                                    ternally displaced persons worldwide.

4     PersPective
      NO. 01.2011
Given the complexity of the environment in which we operate, the main
challenge in the years ahead will be ensuring that the aid sector operates
as effectively and cohesively as possible.

Coordinated Action is
the Only Way Forward

                                he demand today for humanitarian aid is un-        And we have responded. Over 350 aid agencies
                                precedented. Global humanitarian needs are       work together on disaster preparedness, and on
                                rising because of long-running conflicts in      improving the relationship between emergency re-
                        places such as Somalia and the Democratic Repub-         sponse, recovery and development.
                        lic of the Congo, and new ones in Cote d’Ivoire and        The generosity of donors, be they governments,
                        Libya.                                                   individuals, companies or foundations, have also
                                                                                 improved and the most urgent humanitarian needs
  valerie amos is the   NaTural disasTers are happening more frequently          are usually funded. However, we still need to do
United Nations Under-   and with more ferocity than ever before. Unpredict-      more to keep the many chronic, underfunded
Secretary-General for   able and unprecedented weather patterns across           emergencies in the public eye to maintain support
 Humanitarian Affairs
and Emergency Relief
                        Africa, Central America, and South and East Asia         and funding.
          Coordinator   routinely displace millions of people. Large-scale
                        disasters such as the flooding across Pakistan last      TackliNg iNsecuriTy , and its impact on our work,
                        year may well become the new normal, making us           is an area that requires all of our attention. In re-
                        think again about the speed, scale, and effective-       sponse to growing concerns regarding the insecuri-
                        ness of our response.                                    ty of aid operations and the resulting decline in hu-
                nn         Population growth, resource scarcity, and vola-       manitarian access, a study recently commissioned
        Maximising      tile food and fuel prices are compounding an al-         by the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitar-
        efficiencies    ready difficult situation in many countries.             ian Affairs (OCHA) has identified and documented
                                                                                 strategies and practices that have enabled humani-
    and minimising      aT a Time wheN aid is mosT Needed , humanitarian work-   tarian organisations to maintain effective opera-
       overlaps will    ers face more danger. The level of threats and the       tions in places with high security risks.
    give us a better    number of deliberate attacks on aid organizations
                        – our people, equipment and facilities – have risen      we Now kNow more ThaN ever about what’s working in
          chance of     dramatically. Afghanistan, Pakistan and Somalia          high risk environments, and why, and what lessons
        reaching all    lead the way in the numbers of deaths, kidnappings       we can learn from each other. Best practice in the
     those in need.     and attacks, but Sudan, Chad and DRC, for exam-
                        ple, are becoming increasingly dangerous places to
                                                                                 way aid workers can manage risks and still deliver
                                                                                 on the ground have been identified. As a commu-
                        work. Over the last decade, aid- worker casualties       nity we have started to identify ways to balance hu-
                        tripled, reaching over 100 deaths per year.              manitarian principles against the increasing need
                           And if negotiating these challenges were not          for armed protection in some places, and to ensure
                        enough, the humanitarian community is also deal-         national staff is getting an adequate level of care
                        ing with increasing financial pressure. We are being     and protection, equal with that of their internation-
                        urged to do more with less because of the global         al counterparts. Now we need to turn those lessons
                        economic downturn, and also because the peo-             into practice.
                        ple in donor countries want to know more about              The need for principled, coordinated humanitar-
                        how the money is being spent. They want value for        ian action is as clear today as it ever was.
                        money, and they want recipient Governments to               Given the scale of the challenges we face, we
                        be accountable.                                          must continue to work together if we are to make a
                                                                                 difference. n
                        maximisiNg efficieNcies and minimising overlaps will
                        give us a better chance of reaching all those in need.
                                                                                                                                         illusTraTioN by adam Zyglis: Zyglis is the staff cartoonist for The Buffalo News. His cartoons are internationally syndicated and have appeared in many
                                                                                                                                         publications around the world, including The Washington Post, USA Today, The New York Times and Los Angeles Times.

6      PersPective
       NO. 01.2011
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               NO. 01.2011     7
                 Hot Spots                                                                                                          27.5
                                                                                                                                                                          million inTERnAllY DiSPlACED PERSonS.
                                                                                                                                                                          At the end of 2010, the number of people internally displaced
                                                                                                                                                                          by armed conflict, generalised violence, and human rights viola-
                                                                                                                                                                          tions stood at approximately 27.5 million worldwide.                      12, 2 %
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Increase last
                                                                                                                                                                          SOuRCe: NOrwegiaN refugee COuNCil /                                          5 years
                                                                                                                                                                          iNterNal DiSplaCemeNt mONitOriNg CeNtre
                                                                                      3                                             IDPs In MIllIOns
                                                                                            1                                       2006                               2007                                 2008                       2009

                                                                                                                                    24.5 26                                                                 26                         27.1
                 1     Yemen: police storm protesters                             4
                 2     Afghanistan: air strike kills children
                 3     Libya: Gaddafi wages war on rebels
                 4     Ivory Coast: armed conflict is forcing people to flee

                     yemen                                                                                                                                                                                                               lIbyA
                     A COUNTRY DIVIDED                                                                                                                                                                                                   WAR
                     March 2011, Yemen’s capital Sanaa:                                                                                                                                                                                  Inspired by the success-
                     Mourners shout slogans at the funeral                                                                                                                                                                               ful uprisings in Tunisia
                     of anti-government protesters. The                                                                                                                                                                                  and Egypt, serious un-
                     popular uprisings in the Arab world                                                                                                                                                                                 rest broke out in Libya in
                     spread from North Africa to the Mid-                                                                                                                                                                                mid-February 2011. After
                     dle East.                                                                                                                                                                                                           armed rebels took control
                        In Yemen large demonstrations                                                                                                                                                                                    over several towns in the
                     forced President Saleh to promise to                                                                                                                                                                                east, Muammer Gaddafi
                     step down in 2013, and give assuranc-                                                                                                                                                                               threatened war against
                     es that the presidency would not be                                                                                                                                                                                 his own population, and
                     handed over to his son. However, pro-                                                                                                                                                                               launched military attacks
                     reform demonstrations continued,                                                                                                                                                                                    against rebel-held areas.
                     and in March Yemeni police stormed a                                                                                                                                                                                   When Gaddafi stepped

                                                                                                                   PhOTO: Scanpix
                     protest camp, killing several and injur-                                                                                                                                                                            up his military campaign,
                     ing hundreds.                                                                                                                                                                                                       the United Nations passed
                        Several ministers have resigned                                                                                                                                                                                  a resolution authorising
                     from the government since the pro-                                                                                                                                                                                  “all necessary means”
                     tests started, the army is divided, and                   AfghAnISTAn                                                                                                                                               to protect civilians from
                     several military officers have joined                     CIVILIANS                                                                                                                                                 Gaddafi’s forces.
                     the ranks of the protesters.                              UNDER FIRE
                        Yemen has been plagued by internal                     An effigy of President Obama
                     unrest for several years. There are sep-                  being burnt at an anti-NATO
                     aratist groups both in the north and                      demonstration in Kabul in

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        PhOTO: Scanpix
                     south of the country and, in addition,                    March 2011. Following an allied
                     Yemen is an Al-Qaeda stronghold.                          air strike that killed nine chil-
                                                                               dren in the Kunar province, Af-
                                                                               ghan president, Hamid Karzai,
                                                                                                                                    IVORy COAST
                                                                               asked NATO and the US to stop
                                                                               all military operations in the                       ON THE BRINK OF CIVIL WAR
                                                                               country. Casualty figures indi-                      Unrest has continued to escalate after last year’s presidential elec-
                                                                               cate that the number of civil-                       tions. The two presidential candidates are still in deadlock over who
                                                                               ians killed in Afghanistan may                       won the election. Incumbent president Laurent Gbagbo pronounced
                                                                               reach a new record high this                         himself winner, but his opponent Alassane Dramane Ouattara was
                                                                               year. In 2010, 2,777 civilians                       endorsed by the UN, The African Union, the US and EU. In Decem-
                                                                               were killed as a result of the                       ber, UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon rejected a demand by Mr
                                                                               conflict, the highest number                         Gbagbo that UN and French forces leave the country. In February the
                                                                               since the ISAF forces were de-                       UN warned that increased violence between rival groups had brought
                                                                               ployed. Several countries tak-                       Ivory Coast close to civil war. In April and March several hundred
PhOTO: Scanpix

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        PhOTO: Scanpix
                                                                               ing part in the fight against the                    thousand people fled their homes because of heavy fighting between
                                                                               Taliban will start withdrawing                       government forces and groups loyal to Mr Ouattara. An estimated
                                                                               their troops this year.                              one million refugees have fled the violence.

                 8      PersPective
                        NO. 01.2011
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      NO. 01.2011   9
■  INTerNaTIoNal affaIrs Emerging Donors

                                                                                                    neW donors: a man waves the Chi-
Aid to poor countries is no longer the sole domain of                                               nese flag as the first group of 60
rich, Western states. Countries which belong to what                                                Chinese disaster relief personnel
                                                                                                    destined for Haiti board an Air Chi-
is traditionally referred to as third world are emerg-                                              na flight in Beijing on 13 January,
                                                                                                    2010.                 Photo: Scanpix
ing as regional powers. They are now looking to
translate their growing economic clout into regional
influence by giving aid.

the Face
of Aid
By: Harriet K. Rudd og Tonje M. Viken
Photo: Scanpix

Now, countries such as Brazil, Russia In-       are a more influential force, and everyone
dia, China (the BRIC countries), Saudi          is looking for patterns in their behaviours,”
Arabia and the United Arab Emirates are         says Stacey White, senior research consult-
entering the playing field, but not neces-      ant at the Center for Strategic and Interna-
sarily by Western rules. This shake-up of       tional Studies in Washington DC.
the traditional aid landscape has caused
a blend of unease, criticism and curiosity      a matter of definition
among the traditional donors and human-         There are various definitions of who the
itarian organizations.                          new donors are, and whether they should
                                                in fact be called “new” at all. For instance,
Looking for Patterns                            China has provided aid to Mali since the
Since the end the Cold War, the so-called       1960s, and India ran aid programs in Nepal
architecture of aid has changed fundamen-       as early as the 1950s. One way of angling
tally. “Aid architecture” refers to the num-    the issue is to distinguish between North-
ber of countries who donate money for
aid, how the money is disbursed, and how
projects are run in the field. During the       ■ ■ We enter a
last 20 years, the number of state donors
has increased significantly, and the over-      world which is very
all aid contributions have also increased.
Recipient countries have to deal with an
                                                disorderly. The world
increasing number of donor nations, from
an average of 12 in the 1960s to 33 by 2005.
                                                is no longer bipolar,
Currently, at least 30 countries are jug-       but multipolar.
gling more than 40 donors each.
                                                stacey White, senior research consultant at the
   “We enter an era which is very disorderly.   Center for Strategic and International Studies in
In this multipolar world, emerging powers       Washington DC.

10    PersPective
      NO. 01.2011
                                                                                                                     NO. 01.2011    11
■  INTerNaTIoNal affaIrs Emerging Donors

vietnam War: Red Cross personnel assisting a soldier wounded in the Vietnam War. Conflict and       Long history: the debate over principles for       saudi aid: the arrival of aid supplies from Saudi Arabia for Pakistani flood victims in 2010. Several new donors have given substantial contributions to
natural disasters are often the reason for humanitarian crises.                                     ”good” aid dates back to the time when mission-    natural disaster emergencies over the last years.
                                                                                                    aries ran schools and hospitals in the colonies.

South and South-South cooperation. An-                                                              tion, lack of transparency, bilateralism           ly, India is not capable of efficient coor-                                                                their scope for humanitarian aid. Since
other possibility is to distinguish between          humanitarian giving as                         and constricted geographical focus.                dination with other actors in the field,                humanitarian aid 2000-                             2005, Gulf donors have started to give
DAC and non-DAC donors, i.e. donors that             Percentage of nominaL gdP                         The example of India clearly confirms           Subhash explains. For example, India is                 2008- ten Largest non-dac                          more humanitarian aid to other regions.
are members of the Development Assis-                – toP 8 non-dac donors                         this notion. When it comes to coordi-              in Afghanistan, but does not coordinate                 contriButors                                         Another characteristic has been the
tance Committee (DAC) of the Organization                                                           nation, Subhash Agrawal, analyst and               with other donors. The same applies to                                                                     penchant for bilateral giving, meaning
for Economic Cooperation and Develop-                1.     Russia                                  founder of the private think-tank India            India’s operations in Africa. India does                1. Saudia Arabia                                   that emerging donors prefer to disburse
ment (OECD), and those who are not.
                                                     2.     India
                                                                                                    Focus, points to the lack of a national cen-       not coordinate its operations with other                2. South-Korea                                     their money directly to the host govern-
  Exactly who constitutes the members                                                               tralized aid agency. Various actors, such          major donors. “To put it bluntly: India’s                                                                  ment, instead of organizations such as
of this group of many names, is also a
                                                     3.     Brazil                                  as the Reserve Bank of India, the Ministry         aid ambitions have exceeded its capacity                3. United Arab                                     the UN. This is, however, much less pro-
matter of dispute. Most include the BRIC                                                            of Power, the Ministry of Social Welfare as        to give aid,” he says.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Emirates                                       nounced than it used to be. There has
countries and the Gulf States. Some also             4.     Mexico                                  well as specialized desks within the Min-                                                                                                                     been a marked shift among a majority
count Indonesia, South Africa, and a few                                                            istry of External Affairs are all involved         the donor next door                                     4. Kuwait                                          of the non-DAC donors towards giving a
Eastern European countries. At the heart             5.     Turkey                                  with various aspects of India’s foreign aid.       A marked feature of the emerging do-
                                                                                                                                                                                                               5. Russia                                          larger share of their humanitarian aid to
of the matter, however, is the fact that all                                                        The most organized and resourceful or-             nors is their inclination to concentrate                                                                   multinational institutions.
the new donors are countries that have               6.     China                                   ganization in India when it comes to aid is        their aid in their immediate neighbour-                 6. Turkey                                            In 2005, India donated all of its hu-
experienced rapid economic growth, and                                                              in fact the army, which was called to pro-         hood. India, for example, focuses mainly                                                                   manitarian aid bilaterally. By 2010, less
are fast becoming regional powers.
                                                     7.     Indonesia                               vide aid in times like the Asian Tsunami           on Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhu-
                                                                                                                                                                                                               7. China                                           than 40 per cent was channelled directly
                                                     8.     South Africa                            in 2004. “There are huge overlaps and              tan and Afghanistan. Russia is heavily                  8. Quatar                                          to recipient countries. Russia, Turkey
strong amBitions ‒ Weak coordination                                                                no lines of demarcation. Even the Prime            involved in Eastern Europe and Central                                                                     and the Gulf States are part of this trend.
Even though emerging donors constitute               (Gulf States are not included in this table)   Minister of India does not really know             Asia, whereas Brazil is a key player in Hai-            9. South Africa                                    However, figures show that Indonesia,
a diverse group, there are some general              2010 statistics                                how much India gives,” Subhash says.               ti. The Gulf countries, on their hand, op-              10. India                                          Mexico and China have gone the opposite
trends in the way that they are perceived.                                                             This diffuse structure also hampers col-        erate in Somalia, Sudan and the Occupied                                                                   way. More than 80 per cent of aid from
                                                     source: Emerging Powers, Emerging Donors                                                                                                                  source: Humanitarian Policy Group
Emerging donors are associated with lack                                                            lective learning, efficient reporting and          Palestinian Territories. There are how-                                                                    these countries is given bilaterally.
of internal, as well as external coordina-                                                          budgetary transparency. Consequent-                ever signs that some donors are widening                                                                     There are however recent examples posi-

12    PersPective
      NO. 01.2011
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 NO. 01.2011      13
■  INTerNaTIoNal affaIrs Emerging Donors

tive coordination efforts among other non-      White, it seems to be a strategic priority
traditional donors. In 2009 the United Arab     for emerging powers to develop regional
Emirates sat down the UAE Office for Co-        disaster management capabilities and
ordination of Foreign Aid (OCFA), which is      even demonstrate regional leadership in
tracking all foreign aid provided by the gov-   the aftermath of disaster.
ernment, and the following year the OCFA          Natural disasters are costly and po-
published the first coordination report for     tentially destabilising. Several emerging
foreign aid from the UAE in history.            powers are situated in regions heavily af-
                                                fected by natural disasters. It is therefore
gLoBaL trends                                   important for them to increase both their
The emergence of new aid actors coin-           own and neighbouring countries’ ability
cides with some sinister global develop-        to respond and recover quickly, so as to
ments, such as the financial crisis, climate    mitigate expenses and refugee flows. In
change and the peak of the oil age. The         this, they have a mutual interest with tra-
financial crisis is adding pressure to de-      ditional donor governments, who want
liver more efficient aid for less money. At     to prevent large scale migration flows.
the same time, there is increasing rivalry
between nations to satisfy their growing        Less sPace for humanitarianism
need for energy in a time where oil and         Climate change and resource scarcity has
gas resources are running low. White ar-        put a new spin on the debate over how aid
gues that this will also affect humanitar-      should be best conducted. Traditionally,
ian development actions.                        there has been a fundamental agreement
   A poignant example is China, which           that humanitarian aid should be provided
clearly invests in countries that can pro-      on the basis of needs, with a view to alle-
vide oil and raw materials for its domestic     viate humanitarian suffering. In practical
industry. “Certainly China’s role in some       terms, humanitarian aid after for instance a
countries may be related to longer- term        tsunami typically consists of going in quick-
strategic thinking about securing natural       ly to provide tents, food, water and blan-
resources for the future,” says White. To       kets, and to make sure that no group or po-
a certain extent, this also applies to India.   litical elites are favoured or denied help.
“Both countries are population giants and           Development work, on the other hand,
are looking to secure the well-being of         focuses on long term results through
their own peoples while at the same time        strengthening institutions and building
actively pursuing a role in foreign aid.”       capacity. This requires close cooperation
   Another driving factor is the increasing     with host governments and can be prob-
number and severity of natural disasters        lematic in cases of ongoing conflicts, par-
linked to climate change. According to          ticularly if the government is perceived as
                                                corrupt or illegitimate. In short, handing
  toP 5 humanitarian donors 2008                out food supplies according to independ-
  in US dollars                                 ent priorities is very different from provid-   china in Pakistan: Chinese aid workers arrive in Thatta, in   September 2010 to take part in the humanitarian mission following the devastating floods in Pakistan.
  us 4.4 billion                                ing high quality seed to a village by one
  ec 2 billion                                  particular ethnic group at the request of a
  uk 1 billion                                  government belonging to that same group.
  germany 751 million                               The humanitarian community is under
  saudi araBia 727 million                      increasing pressure as the space for im-

  toP 5 dac-donor reciPients
                                                partial, neutral and need based assistance      ■ ■ There are huge                                                       requirements. This pragmatic approach               across the board, not just among the so-     sation and Relations Management, Inter-
                                                is shrinking. Contributing to this shrink-                                                                               on behalf of the emerging donors is tanta-          called emerging powers but more broadly      national Federation of Red Cross and Red
  1. sudan
  2. afghanistan
                                                age is the growing preference by military       overlaps and no lines                                                    lizing to recipient countries, but is subject       across the whole of the international hu-    Crescent Societies, elaborates the point:
  3. ethioPia
  4. occuPied PaLestinian territories
                                                armies to use aid for strategic purposes
                                                in conflicts such as Afghanistan, Iraq and      of demarcation. Even                                                     to some criticism from traditional donors.
                                                                                                                                                                            The ones who seem to be most con-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             manitarian community,” says White.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Climate changes causes disaster to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          “Is it right to have a humanitarian portfolio
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          to deal with the drought in Ethiopia, and
  5. somaLia                                    the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
                                                                                                the Prime Minister of                                                    cerned about maintaining a sharp distinc-
                                                                                                                                                                         tion between humanitarian and develop-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             happen more frequently. There is also
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             a very real danger that disasters such as
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          a development portfolio to deal with food
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          security? They are intrinsically linked“,
                                                                                                India does not really
  toP 5 non-dac reciPients
                                                contested division                                                                                                       ment aid are the original OECD players. In          droughts and changing rain patterns may      he says. “You cannot give millions to the
  1. china
                                                A main criticism of emerging donors is                                                                                   some cases, these large aid organizations           become chronic. It seems increasingly        emergency, and nothing to prepare for the
  2. yemen
  3. occuPied PaLestinian territories           that they tend not to distinguish between       know how much                                                            or international NGOs who used to direct            harder to explain why it is a good idea to   next disaster. That is why I see this division
  4. myanmar                                    aid and development. They also tend to                                                                                   the agenda are now being side lined by a            distribute food in an area with frequent     as artificial. It has to be one cycle.”
  5. sudan                                      move more quickly from aid to develop-          India gives.                                                             whole new pattern of engagement.                    drought, while at the same time not pro-
  Source: GHA report 2010                       ment than traditional donors, who have          suBhash agraWaL, analyst and founder of the                                “The modalities for disaster response            viding irrigation systems.                   «dark africa»
                                                more rigid budget lines and assessment          private think-tank India Focus                                           and humanitarian assistance are changing               Simon Missiri, Head Resource Mobili-      The debate over principles for good do-

14    PersPective
      NO. 01.2011
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       NO. 01.2011   15
■  INTerNaTIoNal affaIrs Emerging Donors

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            totaL officiaL deveLoPment aid in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            BiLLion us doLLars
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2006 103.2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2009 130.1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            gLoBaL humanitarian assistance 2006 and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2009 in BiLLion us doLLars

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            totaL: 12                         9.3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Governments: 9.3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Private donors: 2.7         2.7

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            totaL: 15.1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Governments: 11
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Private donors: 4.1         4.1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Source: GHA report 2010

goodWiLL amBassador: Princess Haya Bint Al Hussein of Jordan, with Secretary-General Koffi        china-african hoPe: the China-African Hope project, an edu cational aid program, was launched by the Chinese Business Association and the China Youth Development Foun-
Annan and head of OCHA, Jan Egeland at UN headquarters in 2007. The Princess was at that time     dation in March 2011. On the picture, a Chinese entrepreneur poses for a photo during the foundation laying ceremony at a school in Tanzania.
Goodwill Ambassdor for the World Food Programe.

norship is rooted in a long history of aid
dating back to the time when missionar-
                                                 and equality,” says Djénéba Traore, re-
                                                 gional coordinator, Educational Research
                                                                                                  ■ ■ You cannot give                                                   raise your flag and make sure that your
                                                                                                                                                                        constituencies see it. You can still be rec-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          lessons from emerging donors could ben-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          efit both national response mechanisms
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            will ever be finished,” says Missiri. “I don’t
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            think there will ever be pure humanitarian
ies operated schools and hospitals in «the
heart of darkness». Over the decades, DAC
                                                 Network for West and Central Africa.
                                                     “An important factor is that aid for de-
                                                                                                  millions to the emer-                                                 ognized and thanked for your contribu-
                                                                                                                                                                        tion, but you will be much more efficient,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          and the foreign aid thinking of traditional
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          donors. “One might argue that we could
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            aid. I have not seen it once. The only thing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            we can do, is to push both donor commu-
countries have come to question the char-        velopment bestowed by the new donors is          gency, and nothing                                                    your money will work better, and it will          actually be learning from some emerging           nities and recipient communities to stay
ity driven aid of yesteryears, which placed      not conditioned by the forced implementa-                                                                              be much better for the beneficiaries if you       donors when it comes to mechanisms                along the already established lines for good
the recipient in a passive and dependent         tion of democracy and human rights rules,        to prepare for the                                                    are part of the international group. “            for our own response efforts. It is no se-        donorship, listen to the recipients, coordi-
relationship to their gracious do-gooders.
   South-South cooperation grew out of
                                                 as required by the countries of the North,”
                                                 says Traore. Traditional donors view this        next disaster. That                                                      Missiri praises the Gulf countries for
                                                                                                                                                                        participation in what he describes as a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          cret that we [US] need to work on our
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          domestic capabilities post-Katrina, and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            nate, and don’t compete.” ■

the movement of non-Aligned states,
which was founded in 1961 as a coopera-
                                                 as non-conditionality on behalf of the non-
                                                 DC countries as uncritical. On the other
                                                                                                  is why I see this divi-                                               “constructive dialogue”. “We just ask
                                                                                                                                                                        questions we think are good. Why do you
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          following the BP Deepwater Horizon oil
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          spill in the Gulf of Mexico,” she says.           sources: Stacey White, “Emerging Powers,
tion project between Yugoslavia, India,
Egypt, Ghana and Indonesia. The move-
                                                 hand, this makes non-DAC donors attrac-
                                                 tive partners for recipient countries.
                                                                                                  sion as artificial. It                                                give preference to countries that are pre-
                                                                                                                                                                        dominantly Moslem, and not countries              state of concern
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Emerging Donors: Teasing out Development Pat-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            terns,” A report of the CSIS Program on Crisis,
ment dedicated itself to struggle against           This goes to the core of a very difficult     has to be one cycle.                                                  which are vulnerable? And they come               Thirdly, “donor governments of all kinds,         Conflict and Cooperation, February 2011.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ”A brave new world of ‘emerging, ‘’non-dac’ do-
imperialism, colonialism, and all forms of       dilemma for aid workers. To what degree                                                                                back to us and say, well, look, we have           both traditional and non-traditional, are         nors and their differences from traditional donors,”
                                                                                                  simon missiri, Head Resource Mobilisation and
foreign aggression, occupation, and inter-       should they cooperate with governments           Relations Management, International Federation                        our brotherhood. This is our preference,          realizing that they cannot ignore the state       NORRAG News, september 2010.
ference. At the core of their solidarity pro-    who might also be party to an internal con-      of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies                               our view of the world. We help those we           anymore”, White says. She is critical of es-      Adele Harmer and Ellen Martin (eds.),”Diversity in
ject lie the principles of non-intervention      flict, abuse human rights or hamper de-                                                                                feel are closer to us. And from this argu-        tablishing delivery systems parallel to gov-      Donorship: Field lessons”, HPG Report 30, Hu-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            manitarian Policy Group, March 2010.
and respect for other states’ sovereignty.       mocracy and a fair economic distribution?                                                                              ment flows quite a healthy debate.” Mis-          ernment institutions in emergencies unless        Axel Dreher, Pete Nunnenkamp, and Rainer Thiele,
    “My personal thought is that the inter-         In reality, the extent to which traditional   engaging the neWcomers                                                siri gives credit to the Gulf States for their    absolutely necessary. “In the aftermath of        “Are ‘New’Donors Different? Comparing the Allo-
vention of non-DAC donors has brought            donors demand democracy in return for            “One of our priorities is to engage with                              growing will to coordinate with the tradi-        a disaster, it is critical that governments are   cation of Bilateral Aid between non-DAC and DAC
significant changes in the way traditional       aid varies. Nonetheless, there is a genuine      emerging donors,” says Missiri. There is                                                                                permitted to perform and to nurture the           Countries”, Kiel Working Paper No 1601, Kiel Insti-
                                                                                                                                                                        tional donors. The BRIC countries, how-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            tute for the World Economy, March 2010.
donors look at Africa. The setting up of         concern that the aid will not reach the in-      a need to challenge them to do better and                             ever, are lagging behind in this respect.         state-society contract through responsive-        Kemal Dervis, Homi Kharas, and Noam Unger,
the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness       tended recipients it is channelled through       contribute to established and collective                              “Maybe because they are newer in this             ness and accountability.”                         “Aiding Development Assistance Reform for the
in 2005 is one of the consequences. It is        regimes with no regard for democracy or          systems for aid. We are passing on the                                business”, he muses and adds that “we                Both White and Missiri recognize the           21st Century”, Brookings Blum Roundtable 2010.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Adele Harmer and Lin Cotterrell, ”Diversity in
to hope that the goal of non-DAC donors          non-corruption. This concern, however,           message, at various levels and in differ-                             are talking to them quite intensively”.           danger of eroding neutrality as the hu-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            donorship: The changing landscale of official hu-
is to free Africa from the economic and          reflects a lack of trust that does not ring      ent forums through our member national                                   Every new disaster brings new insight          manitarian aid component is increasingly          manitarian aid,” HPG Report 20, Humanitarian
technical dependence and to build a part-        well with concepts such as mutual respect        societies, that it is good to be coordinat-                           to the table, and White argues that with          linked to development. “That is not a fin-        Policy Group, September 2005.
nership based on respect, human dignity          and partnership with recipient countries.        ed in a multilateral fashion. You can still                           very real disaster experience themselves,         ished debate. To be frank, I doubt that it        Global Humanitarian Assistance report 2010.

16    PersPective
      NO. 01.2011
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            NO. 01.2011    17
■  profile Eva Joly

For Eva Joly, the tailor’s daughter from Oslo turned Green party politician,
a more just system will be the main campaign issue as she stands for presi-
dent of France. Perspective met her in Brussels and Strasbourg.

From Au-pair to
Presidential Candidate
BY: Birgit Vartdal, Brussels

“This is a great day for me,” says Eva Joly, closing the door be-       over the huge desk where she keeps her documents sorted in
hind her as she enters one of the many conference rooms in              tidy stacks.
Brussels’ European Parliament building. Joly has just chaired a            “But I believe politics have been hijacked by professional poli-
meeting in the Committee on Development, and her enthusiasm             ticians who have been in ‘the business’ for forty years or more.
is clearly visible. Her upcoming report on tax havens was among         I consider their way of doing things to be old-fashioned. I look
the issues voted on.                                                    myself as someone who represents civil society, someone who
   “I made almost all my points,” she smiles, adding “develop-          can prove that politics can be conducted differently. Politics is
ment policy is pointless as long as we allow Western corporations       not just for the people who have worked the party systems. It is
to loot developing countries by utilizing tax havens. This report is    for citizens with ideas and opinions as well. If I were to become
the reason why I stood for election. I have worked fourteen years       president, I would not discharge my duties in the same way that
for this. So I am happy, but exhausted. I have had almost no sleep.     Sarkozy does. I would respect the Constitution and assemble a
At four o’clock this afternoon I am going to Tunisia, but I have sev-   cabinet that does its job properly. I want a functioning parlia-                                                                                                                             EVA JOLY
eral speeches to make before that,” and with that she disappears        ment, functioning institutions, and a judiciary that is truly inde-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     BORN: 1943 in Oslo, Norway.
through the door on her way to the next meeting.                        pendent. That is the goal.”
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     PROfESSION: barrister at law.
                                                                           “And why me?” she asks, and answers the question herself.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     fAmILY: she became a French citi-
BUSY SCHEDULE                                                              “Because of my record. During my investigation, I was con-                                                                                                                                zen when she married Pascal Joly,
Eva Joly’s timetable is not for the faint-hearted. It is so crammed     fronted with the roadblocks of French society, but I managed to                                                                                                                              the eldest son in the family where
that she employs several assistants at the European Parliament,         move on, despite the thousands of people who told me to quit,”                                                                                                                               she worked as an au-pair.
both in Brussels and Strasbourg, to help her keep track of inquir-      she says.                                                                                                                                                                                    fIgHtINg CORRUPtION: in the
ies and appointments, and to read the approximately 4,000 in-                                                                                                                                                                                                        1990s, she led the investigation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     into allegations of corruption by the
coming e-mails that arrive every month. When she is not travel-         RESILIENCE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     French oil corporation, Elf Aquit-
ling the world she commutes between the two cities and Paris,           Once Eva Joly has started talking, it is hard to interrupt her.                                                                                                                              aine. The investigation led to the
where she has an apartment, children and grandchildren. Life            Asked to describe herself, the first word that she came up with                                                                                                                              conviction of a number of industri-
became no easier for this member of the European Parliament             was the French resilience.                                                                                                                                                                   alists and several leading French
when she became the front runner for the Green party’s candi-             “It is the ability to start over as if nothing had happened, never
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     POLItICS: Member of the European
dacy in the upcoming French presidential elections. The prepa-          mind how exhausting things have been. Large amounts of men-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Parliament for Europe Écologie, the
rations for the election campaign have now been given priority          tal resilience! My parents taught me that doing things is actually                                                                                                                           French green party, since 2009.
over everything else.                                                   quite easy. All you have to do is set a goal and start placing one
   We had met in her office in Strasbourg’s circular parliament         foot in front of the other. In the end, you’ll get there,” she ex-
building the previous week. She had been dressed in black, but was      plains.
not wearing her characteristically conspicuous red reading-glasses.       Eva Joly attained her law degree by following this rule of life;
Her voice was mild and cordial, except when she mentioned Presi-        she studied for two hours a day whilst working as a secretary. By
dent Sarkozy who, since he came to power, has mostly been on the        the time she passed her final exam she was 38 years old . After a
receiving end of her pungent criticism. This critic is now aiming to    few years working for Ciri, an organization that assists troubled
take over the presidential palace herself. What makes a Norwegian-      companies, her career skyrocketed. In the 1990s she was the in-
born woman believe she can become President of France?                  vestigative judge investigated allegations of corruption by the the
                                                                        French oil company, Elf Aquitaine, resulting in the indictment,
AUDACIOUS                                                               and subsequent conviction, of prominent French politicians and         tImE Off: Eva Joly in Ile de Groix, Brittany, where she has a second home. She often stays there when she has the possibility of having a break. Here she
“It is a pretty audacious goal, is it not?” She laughs, and leans       industrialists.                                                        can read, relax, and enjoy the company of her grandchildren.                                                                                Photo: Scanpix.

18     PersPective
       NO. 01.2011
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       NO. 01.2011   19
■  profile Eva Joly

   Both. I have Norwegian brown goat                Jogging
   cheese on my crisp bread every morning,
   and I have been doing that for forty years.   f. OBAmA OR SARkOzY?
   Facebook                                      g. SEA OR mOUNtAIN?
   BBC                                           H. A wOmENS BESt YEARS – 30 s OR 60 s ?
                                                    My life is certainly better now that I am over
D. gARDENINg OR tHE kItCHEN?                        sixty than what it was when I was in my
   The garden                                       thirties.

SENEgAL: Joly speaking to Senegalese women during the World Social Forum in Dakar,                   VICtORY: Eva Joly, together with fellow party members of the   French Green Party, celebrating her 2009 election to the European Parliament.          DEmANDINg AN END tO NUCLEAR POwER: Eva Joly taking part in a demon-
8 February 2011.                                                                 Photo: Scanpix                                                                                                                                          Photo: Scanpix.   stration in Paris, 13 March 2011, demanding an end to nuclear power in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           the wake of the nuclear emergency in Japan.                Photo: Scanpix

SAVOIR fAIRE                                                                OPINION POLLS                                                                                      velopment she flies around the globe, but at home she has at-               ny can earn 400 times more than a blue collar worker? If you
When Joly is portrayed in the French media, emphasis is of-                 The enemies she made in the 1990s have not disappeared, even                                       tempted to offset that part of her CO2 balance sheet.                       have an annual income of half a million euros, you can afford a
ten placed on her climb up the social ladder – from au pair                 though it has been years since she needed body guards. It remains                                     “I have sold my car. Well, that is not entirely true. I have a car at    high income-tax rate. Currently, people with low and medium
to presidential candidate. Has this ascent changed her as a                 to be seen whether she will again have a need for hired protection.                                my home in the country, but I only use it in summer to ferry babies,        incomes are those who contribute most to taxes. People who
person?                                                                     The last polls, published by the paper Liberation, show she has a                                  grandchildren, folding chairs and parasols to the beach, so it clocks       make a bundle pay very little. I want to change that.” The need to
   “I still feel I am the same. The only difference is that I have          support rating of eight to ten percent in a possible bid for the pres-                             up no more than about 300 kilometers a year. When I am in Paris I           increase tax revenues in France is not just a question of justice.
learned savoir faire, i.e. how to behave in different circum-               idency, depending on the candidate on the socialist ballot.                                        often ride the tram, even though I am hardly, if ever, left alone. My       The national budget deficit amounts to 150 000 million euros.
stances. I have passed exams and learned the rules of public                  “You cannot get caught up in opinion polls,” she smiles. “The                                    60-square-meter apartment only has one radiator, and the windows              “For the last thirty years, French politicians have not had
speaking. Some doors that were previously closed to me have                 election campaign will show if I can become president. I have to                                   face south, so I find I have little need to heat it up. And I use the       the political courage to exact taxes. They have financed society
also been opened. Now I can appreciate good music, litera-                  be able to convince the French people that my solutions will work,                                 country house mainly in summer, so the energy consumption there             through loans,” she says.
ture, art, and beauty. In a way, the French system refines you,             that all those small things you can do to protect the environment                                  is also low. But when I travel to Norway, it is obviously by plane. I         “What are the most pressing challenges for Europe and the Eu-
but it does not alter the essence of your being.”                           can make a positive contribution. I have to make them understand                                   feel it is very important to be environmentally responsible, but I do       ropean Union today?”
   “Some French newspapers portray you as being cold. Why                   that working for greater economic growth no longer makes sense.                                    not lead an ecology-based, boring lifestyle,” she points out.                 “To stick together, and not allow the financial crisis to bring
is that?”                                                                   Our resources are limited. The growth model that was supposed                                                                                                                  about disintegration, and to continue to build our peace project
   “I was very shocked when that image began to gain accept-                to lead people to affluence does not work anymore. That is why                                     JUStICE                                                                     and to improve our institutions. We have experienced a back-
ance in the media because, in a way, it sticks to me. I believe             we have to start living our lives in another way. In order to secure                               Eva Joly reveals that justice will be her main campaign issue. Not          lash. Right now, the situation in Europe does not fill me with
it derives from my role as investigative leader and judge, both             our own future, and that of our children and grandchildren, we                                     just in judicial terms, but also in the social context. If she is elected   pride. National populism is on the rise. But that does not mean
authoritarian functions. But it is more than that. I also be-               have to take care of our planet.”                                                                  president, her first interior policy move will be to establish a com-       we give in. We will continue the struggle and we want reforms,”
lieve this supposed trait of character is being maliciously pro-                                                                                                               mittee charged with assessing how the tax burden is distributed             says a battle-ready Eva Joly. ■
pounded by people who want to make things difficult for me,”                SOLD HER CAR                                                                                       across the country. Joly wants a top-bracket capital gains tax.
she says.                                                                   As chairperson of the European Parliament’s Committee on De-                                       “How can you have a just society when the owner of a compa-                 tRESLAtED BY: André Savik

20 PersPective
   NO. 01.2011
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  NO. 01.2011   21

Global Power Shifts

                                      he twenty-first century began with                a multinational corporation, maybe the catholic
                                      a very unequal distribution of power re-          church – but you had to be pretty wealthy. now,
                                      sources. with five per cent of the world’s        anybody has that capacity, if they have the price of
                               population, the united states accounted for about        entry into an internet cafe – the last time i looked,
                               a quarter of the world’s economic output, was re-        it was something like a pound an hour – and if you
                               sponsible for nearly half of global military expendi-    have skype, it is free. so capabilities that were once
                               tures, and had the most extensive cultural and edu-      restricted are now available to everyone.
                               cational soft power resources. All this is still true.      that does not mean that the age of the state is        economic disTribuTion: The Chinese economy is growing rapidly, but is a      miliTary poWer: The US has strong political and military allegiances in
 Joseph s. nye Jr.                however, global power is changing, and there          over. the state still matters. But the stage is crowd-    long way behind the US when it comes to per capita income, and China still   the Pacific. This picture is from the US-Japan military exercise in the Pa-
       is University Distin-                                                                                                                      has large underdeveloped areas.                           Photo: Scanpix     cific Ocean, December 2010. As China grows stronger, these relations are
guished Service Profes-        are two types of changes i want to discuss. One          ed. the state is not alone. there are many, many                                                                                       growing in strategic importantance.                            Photo: Scanpix
 sor and former dean of        is power transition, which is a change of power          actors. some of that is good, for example Oxfam, a
 the Harvard’s Kennedy         amongst states. And that is the simple version of        great non-governmental actor. some of it is bad. Al
 School of Government.
   He has served as U.S.
                               the message, it is moving from west to east. the         Qaeda, another non-governmental actor. But think
   Assistant Secretary of      other is power diffusion, the way power is mov-          of what it does to how we think in traditional terms
      Defense for Interna-     ing from all states, west or east, to non-state ac-      and concepts. we think in terms of war and inter-
    tional Security Affairs,   tors. those two things are the huge shifts of power      state war. And you can think back to 1941, when the
Chair of the National In-
  telligence Council, and      in our century. And i want to tell you about them        government of Japan attacked the united states at         there. the narratives that we use now tend to be                states. But be very careful of believing that such pro-
    Deputy Under Secre-        each, separately, and then how they interact and         Pearl harbor. it is worth noticing that a non-state       the rise and fall of the great powers. And the cur-             jections give you an accurate picture of power tran-
   tary of State for Secu-     why in the end, there may be some good news.             actor attacking the united states in 2001 killed          rent narrative is all about the rise of china and the           sition in this century. Let me mention three reasons
rity Assistance, Science                                                                more Americans than the government of Japan did           decline of the united states. indeed, with the 2008             why it is too simple. first of all, it’s a linear projec-
           and Technology.
                               When We Talk abouT power transition, we often talk       in 1941. you might think of that as the privatization     financial crisis, many people said this was the be-             tion. history is not linear. there are often bumps
                               about the rise of Asia. it really should be called the   of war. so we are seeing a great change in terms of       ginning of the end of American power. the tectonic              along the road, accidents along the way. the second
                               recovery, or return, of Asia. in 1800 more than half     diffusion of power.                                       plates of world politics were shifting. And President           thing is that if the chinese economy passes the u.s.
                               of the world’s people lived in Asia and they made                                                                  Medvedev of russia, for example, pronounced in                  economy in, let us say, 2030, which it may, that will             nn
                               more than half the world’s product. now fast for-        The problem is that we are not thinking about it in       2008 this was the beginning of the end of the united            be a measure of total economic size, but not of per               We need a
                               ward to 1900: half the world’s people – more than
                               half – still live in Asia, but they are making only a
                                                                                        very innovative ways. so let me step back and ask:
                                                                                        what is power? Power is simply the ability to affect
                                                                                                                                                  states power. But in fact, this metaphor of decline
                                                                                                                                                  is often very misleading. if you look at history, in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  capita income – it will not tell you about the compo-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  sition of the economy. china still has large areas of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    new narrative
                               fifth of the world’s product. what happened? the         others to get the outcomes you want, and you can          recent history, you will see the cycles of belief in            underdevelopment. And per capita income is a bet-                 if we are to
                               industrial revolution, which meant that all of a sud-    do it in three ways. you can do it with threats, of       American decline come and go every 10 or 15 years               ter measure of the sophistication of the economy.                 understand
                               den, europe and America became the dominant
                               center of the world. what we are going to see in
                                                                                        coercion – sticks, you can do it with payments – car-
                                                                                        rots, or you can do it by getting others to want what
                                                                                                                                                  or so. in 1958, after the soviets put up sputnik, it
                                                                                                                                                  was “that’s the end of America.” in 1973, with the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  And when it comes to per capita income the chinese
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  will not catch up or pass the Americans until some-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    power in the 21st
  Asia is gradually            the 21st century is Asia gradually returning to being    you want. And that ability to get others to want          oil embargo and the closing of the gold window, that            where in the latter part, after 2050, of this century.            century. It is not
returning to being             more than half of the world’s population and pro-        what you want, to get the outcomes you want, with-        was the end of America. in the 1980s, as America                                                                                  just prevailing at
    more than half             ducing more than half of the world’s product. that
                               is important, and it is an important shift.
                                                                                        out coercion or payment, is what i call soft power.
                                                                                        And that soft power has been much neglected and
                                                                                                                                                  went through a transition in the reagan period, be-
                                                                                                                                                  tween the rust belt economy of the Midwest to the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The oTher poinT that’s worth noticing is how one-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  dimensional this projection is. it looks at economic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    war, though war
     of the world’s                                                                     much misunderstood. And yet it is tremendously            silicon Valley economy of california, that was the              power measured by GDP. it does not tell you much                  still persists.
   population and              To undersTand power diffusion it is important to
                               comprehend that computing and communications
                                                                                        important. indeed, if you can learn to use more soft
                                                                                        power, you can save a lot on carrots and sticks. tra-
                                                                                                                                                  end of America. But in fact, what we have seen is
                                                                                                                                                  none of those were true. indeed, people were over-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  about military power, does not tell you very much
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  about soft power. it is all one-dimensional. And also,
  producing more               costs have fallen a thousandfold between 1970 and        ditionally, the way people thought about power was        enthusiastic in the early 2000s, thinking America               when we think about the rise of Asia, or return of
   than half of the            the beginning of this century. that is a big, abstract   primarily in terms of military power. for example,        could do anything, which led us into some disas-                Asia, as i called it a little bit earlier, it is worth re-
  world’s product.             number, but to make it more real, if the price of
                               an automobile had fallen as rapidly as the price of
                                                                                        the great Oxford historian, A.J.P. taylor, defined a
                                                                                        great power as a country able to prevail in war. But
                                                                                                                                                  trous foreign policy adventures, and now we are
                                                                                                                                                  back to decline again.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  membering Asia is not one thing. if you are sitting
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  in Japan, or in new Delhi, or in hanoi, your view of
                               computing power, you could buy a car today for           we need a new narrative if we are to understand              the moral of this story is that all these narratives         the rise of china is a little different than if you are sit-
                               five dollars. now when the price of any technology       power in the 21st century. it is not just prevailing at   about rise and fall and decline tell us a lot more              ting in Beijing. indeed, one of the advantages that the
                               declines that dramatically, the barriers to entry go     war, though war still persists. it’s not whose army       about psychology than they do about reality. Gold-              Americans will have in terms of power in Asia is all
                               down; anybody can play in the game. so in 1970, if       wins; it’s also whose story wins. And we have to          man sachs has projected that the chinese economy                those countries which want an American insurance
                               you wanted to communicate from Oxford to Johan-          think much more in terms of narratives and whose          will surpass that of the u.s. by 2027. so we have got,          policy against the rise of china. so these simple pro-
                               nesburg to new Delhi to Brasilia simultaneously,         narrative is going to be effective.                       what, 17 more years to go before china’s bigger. now            jections of the Goldman sachs type are not telling us
                               you could do it, the technology was there. But to be       now let me go back to the question of power             someday, with a billion point three people getting              what we need to know about power transition.
                               able to do it, you had to be very rich – a government,   transition between states and what is happening           richer, they are going to be bigger than the united                But you might ask, well so what? why does it mat-

22      PersPective
        NO. 01.2011
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         NO. 01.2011   23
                   ter? who cares? is this just a game that diplomats and       ize networks to deal with these kinds of problems and
                   academics play? the answer is it matters quite a lot.        to be able to get cooperation.
                   Because, if you believe in decline and you get the an-          Another way of putting it is that as we think of pow-
                   swers wrong on this, the facts, not the myths, you           er in the 21st century, we want to get away from the
                   may have policies which are very dangerous. Let me           idea that power is always zero sum – my gain is your
                   give you an example from history. the Peloponnesian          loss and vice versa. Power can also be positive sum,
                   war was the great conflict in which the Greek city           where your gain can be my gain. if china develops
                   state system tore itself apart two and a half millennia      greater energy security and greater capacity to deal
                   ago. what caused it? thucydides, the great historian         with its problems of carbon emissions, that is good for
                   of the Peloponnesian war, said it was the rise in the        us as well as good for china, as well as good for every-
             nn    power of Athens and the fear it created in sparta. no-       body else. so empowering china to deal with its own
      How do we    tice both halves of that explanation.                        problems of carbon is good for everybody, and it’s
 produce global    many people argue that the 21st century is going to re-
                                                                                not a zero sum. now i do not mean to be Pollyannaish
                                                                                about this. wars persist. Power persists. Military pow-
   public goods,   peat the 20th century, in which world war One, the           er is important. Keeping balances is important. hard
 which are good    great conflagration in which the european state sys-         power is there, and it will remain. But unless you learn
for us, but good   tem tore itself apart and destroyed its centrality in
                   the world. that was caused by the rise in the power
                                                                                how to mix hard power with soft power into strategies
                                                                                that i call smart power, you’re not going to deal with
 for everyone at   of Germany and the fear that it created in Britain.          the new kinds of problems that we are facing.
the same time?     there are people who are telling us this is going to
                   be reproduced today, that what we are going to see           so The key quesTion that we need to think about as we
                   is the same thing now in this century. no. i think that      look at this is how do we work together to produce
                   is wrong. it’s bad history. for one thing, Germany           global public goods, things from which all of us can
                   had surpassed Britain in industrial strength by 1900.        benefit? how do we define our national interests so
                   And as i said earlier, china has not passed the united       that it is not just zero sum, but positive sum? in that
                   states. But also, if you have this belief and it creates a   sense, if we define our interests, for example, for the
                   sense of fear, it leads to overreaction. And the great-      united states, the way Britain defined its interests in
                   est danger we have of managing this power transi-            the 19th century, keeping an open trading system,
                   tion of the shift toward the east is fear. to paraphrase     keeping a monetary stability, keeping freedom of the
                   franklin roosevelt from a different context, the great-      seas – those were good for Britain, they were good for
                   est thing we have to fear is fear itself. we do not have     others as well. And in the 21st century, you have to do
                   to fear the rise of china or the return of Asia. And if      an analog to that. how do we produce global public

                                                                                                                                            Take an international masters
                   we have policies in which we take into account that          goods, which are good for us, but good for everyone
                   larger historical perspective, we’re going to be able to     at the same time?
                   manage this process.                                            there are ways to define our interests in which,
                                                                                while protecting ourselves with hard power, we can

                                                                                                                                            degree in International Studies
                   leT me say a word now about the distribution of power        organize with others in networks to produce, not only
                   and how it relates to power diffusion and then pull          public goods, but ways that will enhance our soft pow-
                   these two types together. if you ask how power is dis-       er. so if one looks at the statements that have been

                                                                                                                                            or Peace and Conflict Studies
                   tributed in the world today, it is distributed much like     made about this, i am impressed that when hillary
                   a three-dimensional chess game. On the top board:            clinton described the foreign policy of the Obama ad-
                   military power among states. the united states is the        ministration, she said it was going to be smart power,
                   only superpower, and it is likely to remain that way         as she put it, “using all the tools in our foreign policy
                   for two or three decades. china is not going to replace      tool box”. And if we are going to deal with these two
                   the u.s. on this military board. the middle board of         great power shifts that i have described, the power
                   this three-dimensional chess game: economic power            shift represented by transition among states, the pow-
                   among states. Power is multi-polar. there are balanc-        er shift represented by diffusion of power away from        One semester in Norway, courses developed and taught by PRIO
                   ers. the u.s., europe, china, Japan can balance each         all states, we are going to have to develop a new narra-
                   other. the bottom board of this three-dimensional,           tive of power in which we combine hard and soft pow-        (Peace Research Institute Oslo). Remaining semesters taught at Stellenbosch
                   the board of transnational relations, things that cross      er into strategies of smart power. And that is the good
                   borders outside the control of governments, things           news i have. we can do that. n                              University, South Africa or The Australian National University, Canberra.
                   like climate change, drug trade, financial flows, pan-
                   demics. here nobody is in charge. it makes no sense          This article was originally a talk given by Joseph Nye
                   to call this unipolar or multi-polar. Power is chaotical-    for TedTalks. The lecture is drawn from Nye’s new book
                   ly distributed. And the only way you can solve these         “The Future of Power”.
                   problems – and this is where many of the greatest chal-        The article is published with the permission of
                   lenges are coming in this century – is through coopera-       TED.com. You can hear the speech at http://www.ted.
                   tion, through working together, which means that soft        com/speakers/joseph_nye.html
                                                                                                                                            For more information:
                   power becomes more important, that ability to organ-                                                                     www.prio.no/education
24   PersPective
     NO. 01.2011
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  cricos code
■  WORLD FOOD SItUatION                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Jentesoldater i Uganda tema ■

For many years it hast been an accepted truth that we must either
reduce global fertility rates or face widespread hunger. Today,
new evidence suggests otherwise: given the will it is possible
to feed the entire population of the world.

Food for All
BY: Grete Gaulin

Pessimists have long warned that the           anism is on the offensive – paradoxically -    land, 400 million hectares of which the
world is quickly reaching that point in        because we are living in an era where fer-     FAO defines as highly fertile soil. In ad-
time when the planet will not be able          tility rates, even in developing countries,    dition to increasing croplands, food pro-
to sustain its growing population. Now,        are decreasing dramatically, and there is      duction can be increased by improving
however, the United Nations and food ex-       enough food to feed 10, or even 20 000         yields, raising cropping intensity, and
perts are challenging that belief. They say    millions. According to both the UN, and        reducing losses. For example, while Rus-
the planet can produce enough food as          to experts on food security and global ag-     sia’s cornfields yield only 1.85 tons of
long as we use our resources sensibly.         ricultural potential, the outlook for the      corn per hectare, the UK produces 6.36
   The Malthusian doctrine is based            immediate future looks extremely posi-         tons per hectare, whilst India’s annual
on premises that we all – more or less         tive. There is almost a queue of reports       crop loss is a staggering 30 per cent. All
– accept without question. Firstly, the        proclaiming that it will be possible to feed   this contradicts Malthus’ theory of land
earth’s population is growing faster than      the world’s growing population, even           limitations as a barrier to prosperity.
its resources can support and, secondly,       though we take into account that, on av-          “The quantity of land has stopped be-
the problem of over-population does not        erage, people will eat more than they do       ing the primary determinant of a coun-
originate and, therefore, cannot be solved     today – and, despite the fact that, in some    try’s output. We can make a lot more
in the West. The solution to over-popula-      areas, we must expect lower agricultural       stuff in a lot less space,” according to
tion is to be found in Africa, where birth     productivity because of climate change.        an article by development economist
and fertility rates are constantly high. Or       Two years ago The Food and Agricul-         Charles Kenny in Foreign Policy.
as – Malthusian par excellence – Jeffrey       tural Organization of the United Nations          Will it be possible to repeat the green
Sachs, expresses it in his book Common         (FAO) published statistics on the world’s      revolution that trebled global food pro-
Wealth – Economics for a Crowded Planet:       agricultural reserves. They showed that        duction from 1950 to 1980? According
“If the fertility rates remain constant, the   while the world’s arable lands constitute      to the experts it is. Climate change will
global population will soar to nearly un-      almost four billion (4.000,000,000) hec-       make it more difficult to increase food
imaginable levels, and will almost surely      tares, only 1.5 billion hectares are cur-      production in the south, but also result in
trigger Malthus’ “positive checks” (war,       rently used for crops. A shift from meat       more arable land in the north. Further-
disease, famine). The stunning fact is that    to corn production, in other words, using      more, this coincides opportunely with
all of the world’s population will growth      arable land to grow corn for human con-        the world’s population peak – an estimat-
come in today’s developing countries.”         sumption rather than grazing or animal         ed maximum of ten billion in 2060. The
   In other words the world must speed         feed, would be an important contribu-          population will not grow beyond that
up the process of demographic transition       tion toward doubling food production in        point, and consequently – says the Brown
– the shift within a given population from     the developed world. This is the level of      University’s World Hunger Program – we
high to low fertility and mortality rates,     growth that experts have estimated will        will have enough cultivated and arable        THOMAS MALTHUS: published his Essay on           two hundred years the world’s population has      THE BOTTOM BILLION: Why the Poorest Coun­
                                                                                                                                            the Principle of Population in 1798. His cen­    grown by 5 thousand million. At the same time     tries are Failing and What Can Be Done about
thus creating demographic stability. Con-      be necessary in order to feed nine billion     land to feed the world forever.               tral theory is that population increases in a    we are better nourished today than ever be­       It is a book by the British Professor of Eco­
sequently, Jeffrey Sachs argues, we must       people in 2050.                                                                              geometric ratio (1,2,4,8,16), while means of     fore. None the less, Malthusians have both set    nomics, Paul Collier. In his book, Collier exam­
renew our efforts to reduce fertility rates                                                   THE PROBLEM OF DISTRIBUTION                   subsistence increases in an arithmetic ra­       the premises for, and dominated the debate on     ines why the poorest countries of the world,
in countries where birth rates are high:       MALTHUS GOT IT WRONG                           Despite these very promising prospects,       tio (1,2,3,4,5). In other words, humanity was    poverty, not least in the 1960s, when western     The Bottom Billion, are failing to make pro­
                                                                                                                                            doomed to a miserable life of poverty, hunger,   feminists conducted mass sterilizations of poor   gress and create better living conditions for
predominantly countries in Africa.             In Russia alone, 20 million hectares of        it is obvious that millions of people are     wars and sickness.                               women in India and China with support from the    their citizens.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Foto: Scanpix
                                               wheat fields lie fallow – an area equal to     already suffering from food shortage and      Today we can somewhat more optimistically        governments of Norway, Sweden and the US.
PARADOXES                                      all the arable land in the UK. In Africa       starvation – even before we have reached      conclude that Malthus was wrong. Over the last   And now they are on the offensive once again.
Sachs is not alone in this view. Malthusi-     there are 1 billion hectares of unutilized     the demographic peak. And what is the

26 PersPective
   NO. 01.2011
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               NO. 01.2011   27

                                                   cause of this sad fact? The answer to
                                                   that is the unequal distribution of food
                                                   – a problem the experts label as “more
                                                   Marx, than Malthus”. A contributory fac-
                                                   tor was also a feeling of self-satisfaction
                                                                                                   is consumed in the West - where the esti-
                                                                                                   mated number of over-weight people has
                                                                                                   now reached 1.6 billion. However, to the ir-
                                                                                                   ritation of many developing countries, the
                                                                                                   living standards in Asia and Africa are of-
                                                                                                                                                      WORLD FOOD CONSUMPTION
                                                   that developed in the 1980s when the in-        ten blamed for high food prizes. Two years
                                                                                                                                                      Kilos per person, 2006/2007                                 SOURCE: U.S. Department of Agriculture
                                                   ternational community, after thirty years       ago the Indian government became so an-
                                                   of hard work, concluded that they had           noyed about the increasing tendency to
                                                   successfully managed to rectify global          blame India (and other developing coun-
                                                   underproduction of food.                        tries) for rising food prices that it officially
                     2,5                              Institutions working on increased food
                                                   security were financially smothered. Rich
                                                                                                   recommended Americans to reduce their
                                                                                                   food consumption, instead of ascribing                                  us         EUROPE         CHINA               INDIA
                                                   countries cut funding for agricultural de-      price rises to increasing prosperity in Asia.
                                                   velopment in the developing world by               In the US an average person eats
                                                   more than 50 per cent, and the World            3,770 calories a day. An average Indian
                                                   Bank reduced its agricultural loans from        eats 2,440 calories. The ten per cent of
                                                   almost eight billion US dollars in 1980 to      people who make up the world’s poor-

     THE WORLD                                     a two billion in 2004. The world’s leading      est only receive 0,6 per cent of global

                                                   institute for research on rice, the Inter-      income, and Sub-Saharan Africa only
                                                   national Rice Research Institute, believes      contributes two per cent to the world’s
                                                   that it has the answer to how the world’s       green-house gas emissions. It is not Afri-
                                                   poor can increase their rice production,        ca that is threatening world resources.
          2,38                      2,89
                                    6,37           but lacks the funds to do tests in the field.                                                                         44,5 kilos    15,3 kilos     7,6 kilos              1,8 kilos
                                                   Funding for combating plant pests and           OVERCONSUMPTION
       ALGERIA                     EGYPT           diseases is also in short supply.               But despite all these facts, would not a re-
                                                                                                   duction in population growth still have a

                                                   UNSTABLE MARKETS                                positive effect? No, say demographers.
                                                   Into this deplorable web is woven a dis-        The women who will be giving birth to
                                                   pute over organic food and small-scale          the greater part of the children who will
          7,17                      7,48
                                    4,96           production versus industrialized farm-          contribute to the demographic peak have
                                                   ing and/or genetically modified produce.        already been born. In other words it is al-
                                                   That debate, however, is more about how
                                                                                                                                                                          101 kilos    252 kilos      76 kilos               64 kilos
                                                                                                   ready too late to reduce expected popula-
       ETHIOPIA                    KENYA           to feed the world, rather than whether it       tion growth over the next 40 to 50 years.
                                                   is possible to do so.                           In addition fertility rates in Africa have
                                                      Far more important is the fact that the      plunged by 50 per cent over the last 50

                                                   world’s food markets have become more           years.
                                                   unstable, and that dramatic increases           African women of today give birth to the
         7,18                        6,0
                                    3,40           in food prices are forcing many people          same number of children European wom-
                                                   to cut down on their food consumption.          en did in the 1960s. Furthermore, the UN
     MOROCCO                     NAMIBIA           Soaring food prizes are the result of sev-      Population Division long ago concluded
                                                                                                                                                                         41,8 kilos    17,5 kilos     5,4 kilos              1,3 kilos
                                                   eral factors: increased demand from the         that countries without population-control
                                                   new middle classes in the poorer coun-          programs have had the same demograph-
                                                   tries, the transition to biofuels, export re-   ic curve as countries without such pro-

                                                   strictions, and speculation.                    grammes, with one exception – China.
         6,55                       5,04
                                    5,97              Food has become a stock-market com-             The problem in the world today is not
                                                   modity and is therefore subject to the          over-population but over-consumption.
       NIGERIA                   SENEGAL           same mechanisms as all other products              “It is clear that, population boom or
                                                   on the market, but higher food prices are       not, there simply isn’t enough of the Eu-                              753 kilos    122,8 kilos    107 kilos               13 kilos
                                                   not being triggered by reduced supply as        ro-American way of life to go around,”
                                                   a result of lower production. According         says Julian Cribb in his book The Coming
                                                   to FAO the wheat harvest of 2010 was the        Famine: The Global Food Crisis and What
                                                   third largest ever, and last year’s rice har-   We Can Do to Avoid It.
                                                   vest was even larger than that in the re-          And that problem does originate in               RICE
                                                   cord year of 2008/2009.                         the West – US cows eat the same amount
        SUDAN                 SOUTH-AFRICA                                                         of food as that required to feed the en-
                                                   ”THE BOTTOM BILLION”                            tire bottom billion of the world’s popu-
Fertility in Africa – selected countries in 1950   The problem is that only a small amount         lation. ■                                                               13 kilos    5,4 kilos     95,8 kilos             76,5 kilos
and 2025. Projections based on already de­         of world food production ends up on the
clining ratios. Source: UN Population Division
                                                   table of the bottom billion. The greater part   TRANSLATED BY: Harriet K. Rudd

28   PersPective
     NO. 01.2011
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   NO. 01.2011   29
■  the chinese in AfricA

                           Everywhere in Africa today, no matter how remote the
                           village or town, you will find a Chinese restaurant, a
                           Chinese shop, or a local Chinese trader. Chinese small-
                           scale entrepreneurs dream of a better life in Africa, but
                           are these profit-seeking Chinese with their Made-in-
                           China products contributing to prosperity in Africa?

                           The African
                           BY: Linda Jeanette Gresslien

                           China is now Africa’s largest trading part-    Frontier Advisory; South Africa’s lead-
                           ner. Earlier this year the Chinese govern-     ing research and strategy consulting firm
                           ment announced that its two-way trade          specialising in emerging markets, China
                           with Africa had increased by almost 45         is trying to replicate its own recipe for
                           per cent in 2010 to reach a record of 114.8    economic success in Africa. The basic in-
                           billion US dollars.                            gredient of this recipe, says Dr Davies,
                              China needs more natural resources          is the establishment of dedicated zones
                           such as oil, gas, and minerals to feed its     of foreign and domestic capital. Such
                           rapidly growing economy. Roughly 70            zones were established, as experiments
                           per cent of African export to China comes      in market liberalization, along the Chi-
                           from four countries; Angola, South Af-         nese coastal provinces in the mid 1980s.
                           rica, The Democratic Republic of Congo         They attracted capital, technology and
                           and Sudan. 70 per cent of this export con-     management skills into China’s domestic
                           sists of crude oil.                            economy. The approach was formally ini-
                              Chinese engagement in Africa is often       tiated in 2006 when the Chinese govern-
                           criticized in the West, and perhaps most       ment committed itself to establishing five
                           strongly for exploiting the continent in or-   zones across Africa.
                           der to extract its natural resources. Many        Ian Taylor is a professor at the Univer-
                           Africans, however, consider the Chinese        sity of St. Andrews’ School of Interna-
                           are doing an excellent job. So, why is Chi-    tional Relations. He agrees that China has
                           na, despite an obvious interest in getting     managed to bring much needed invest-
                           its hands on Africa’s raw materials and        ments and capital to Africa. In his opin-
                           energy sources, so popular in Africa?          ion, one major difference between the
                                                                          western and the Chinese approach in
                           CUT AND PASTE FROM CHINA                       Africa is that China provides investment
                           For African countries, China is a trad-        but does not really question governance
                           ing partner, investor, and a developmen-       issues. The west, on the other hand, fo-
                           tal actor. Several experts claim that Chi-     cuses on governance issues but its pri-
                           na, unlike the West, is implementing a         vate business sector is not that interest-
                           business-driven model of development,          ed in investing. “Which approach is best
                           rather than just coming up with band-aid       depends on whether you think develop-
                           solutions for a continent requiring wide-      ment or democracy should come first,”
                           spread structural development.                 Taylor says.
                             According to Martyn Davies, CEO of              Martyn Davies’ “cut and paste” theory

30 PersPective
   NO. 01.2011
                                                                                                     NO. 01.2011   31
■  the chinese in AfricA

                                                                                                                                                           INFRASTRUCTURE CORRIDOR
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               ZONES –OPERATIONAL
                                                                                                                                                           When joining the dots from the zones                                                                                                OR UNDER
                                                                                                                                                           (planned and operational) we get an
                                                                                                                                                           economic belt stretching from Lobuzo                                                                                                CONSTRUCTION
                                                                                                                                                           in Angola to Dar Es Salam in Tanzania.                                                                                              ZAMBIA
                                                                                                                                                           Dar Es Salam is actually the ending                                                                                                 China’s first SEZ was established
                                                                                                                                                           point of the Tanzam line built by the                                                                                               in February 2007, in Chambishi,
                                                                                                                                                           Chinese in the 1970s. The Chinese are                                                                                               in the heart of Zambia’s copper
                                                                                                                                                           currently in the process of rehabilitat-                                                                                            belt region. A sub-zone, still un-
                                                                                                                                                           ing the line, which links Zambia’s min-                                                                                             der construction, is located in Lu-
                                                                                                                                                           ing regions to the coast, and thus is of                                                 Republic                                   saka. Both zones focus primarily
                                                                                                                                                           high strategic importance to Zambia                                                      of congo        TAnzAniA    Dar es Salam   on copper mining. In 2009 the
                                                                                                                                                           and Tanzania.                                                              Lubito      Luao
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Malonga                               Chinese Ministry of Commerce
                                                                                                                                                            While the Tanzam line links Zambia to the east coast, the                                          Lubumbashi
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Benguela                                                     approved a grant of 450 million
                                                                                                                                                           Benguela line links the copper belt straddling Zambia                               angola    Zambia Kapiri Mposhi                  US dollars to these two zones. By
                                                                                                                                                           and the DRC to the west coast. Together the Tanzam and                                                                              2010, 3,500 local jobs had been
                                                                                                                                                           Benguela lines bisect sub-Saharan Africa, and will – for                                                                            created in Chambishi.
                                                                                                                                                           the first time- create a functioning east-west infrastruc-
                                                                                                                                                           ture corridor across the continent.                                                                                                 MAURITIUS
                                                                                                                                                           The locations of China’s SEZs have been chosen in light                                                                             The zone in Mauritius has been
                                                                                                                                                           of these infrastructure corridors. According to Davies,                                                                             granted offshore financial sta-
                                                                                                                                                           the challenge now is to include private business along the                                                                          tus. The zone has strong trad-
                                                                                                                                                           corridor.                                                                                                                           ing links with Africa, as well as
SINO-AFRICAN RELATIONS: In February 2007, Hu Jintao visited Lusaka,        HOPES FOR THE FUTURE: Liberian children welcome President Hu Jintao in                                                                                                                                              southern Asia, and is described
Zambia to inaugurate the economic zone in Zambia’s Copper belt province,   the capital Monrovia in February 2007. China’s investments in Africa are ex-                                                                                                                                        as China’s “springboard for en-
which has become a key source of copper for China’s growing economy.       pected to make a significant contribution to industrialization in Africa.                                                                                                                                           try into Africa”. It is expected
                                                          Photo: Scanpix                                                                  Photo: Scanpix                                                                                                                                       to earn an annual 200 million
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               US dollars in export when it be-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               comes operational, and China
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               is expected to invest up to 750
is supported by a report from The Afri-           increased investments, technology trans-           getting into it. The government’s role has            a free highway in the process, as well as             “When I sit with investors from the                                           million US dollars in the zone
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               over the next ten years. The
can Development Bank Group. Their fig-            fer, development of labour skills and ex-          been largely to drive growth through the              capitalizing the lending for a period of            Western part of the world, they do a pow-                                       SEZ in Mauritius is intended to
ures show that China’s increased direct           port promotion. The terms of the zones             enablement of capital formation by cre-               15 to 20 years,” Davies says. “Traditional          er point presentation, about projection,                                        serve as a manufacturing hub.
investment in Africa’s manufacturing              are negotiated between Beijing and Afri-           ating a phenomenal environment of ex-                 western firms on the other hand mostly              cash-flows, profit, income statements,                                          The government has just com-
industry is mainly through these special                                                             treme competition which again is driving              will perhaps offer a few roads, - round the         balance sheets, all these flamboyant                                            pleted constructing the off-site
                                                  can governments, who in return for re-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               infrastructure, including access
economic zones (SEZs).                            ceiving committed Chinese investments,             the growth,” Davies says.                             mine”, he continues. The Chinese have               graphs. I have never seen those with the                                        roads, sewage and water infra-
                                                  offer tax breaks, custom duty waivers,                According to Davies, Chinese econom-               already completed 30.000 kilometres                 Chinese. They probably do them on their                                         structure, and connecting the
SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONES                            and discounted land.                               ic success is based on three factors. Most            of roads in Africa.                                 own, but when they come here, they just                                         zone to the power grid.
The idea of economic zones is not new.               Today there are seven special econom-           important is the investment in infrastruc-            No wonder then                                      ask for the incentives. Where is the piece
There are many hundreds of economic               ic zones in Africa: one in Mauritius, two          tural projects such as railways, airports             that western min-                                   of land where we can begin to work? “                                           Nigeria is in the process of es-
zones or export-processing zones in Af-           in Zambia, two in Nigeria, one in Ethio-           and roads. Such investments have been                 ing companies are                                                                                                                   tablishing two SEZs - one in the
rica already, but most have failed, mainly        pia, and one in Egypt.                             the primary driver of China’s growth the              under great pres-                                   CHINESE POLICY                                                                  Lekki Free Trade zone and one
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               in Ogun State. These zones will
due to lack of government commitment                 “If successful, the zones may encour-           last 20 years. Secondly, education, and               sure if they want to                                In addition to criticism for not involving
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               mainly focus on manufactur-
and high costs in-                                age further liberalization by the host Af-         thirdly the direct allocation of capital              compete with the                                    themselves in human rights and democ-                                           ing machinery and mineral ex-
volved in building                                rican governments, thereby serving as              into projects – like the zones. “We can all           Chinese.                                            racy issues the Chinese are sometimes                                           traction.
                                                                                                                                                                                    MARTYN DAVIES
sufficient infra-                                 catalysts for broader industrial activity in       agree to infrastructure creating growth,                 Davies also em-                                  criticised for operating with sub-standard
                                                                                                                                                                                    Frontier Advisory                                                                                          EgYPT
structure, an es-                                 these economies,” Davies says.                     and that education is important to de-                phasise the ability      –Their jobs depend         working conditions, and with little inter-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               The zone in Suez is operational.
sential factor for                                   Davies emphasizes that China’s domes-           velopmentally succeed. The contentious                of the Chinese to        on good implemen-          est in environment and transparency in                                          The capital is invested in automo-
such zones to suc-                                tic success was not down to a few zones            area, however, is on how the capital is al-           `get things done´.       TaTion, and ThaT is        economic management.                                                            tive components, electronics, lo-
                                                                                                                                                                                    The China model;                                                                                           gistics and clothing sectors.
ceed.                                             alone: China succeeded because of free-            located.”                                             The Chinese way          brillianT implemen-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Taylor stresses the importance of re-
   In the Chinese-      IAN TAYLOR                market forces. He stresses the impor-                                                                    forward is by mak-       TaTion.                    membering two key points when evaluat-                                          ETHIOPIA
initiated zones the     University of             tance of understanding that thirty years           BRILLIANT IMPLEMENTATION                              ing a series of prag-                               ing Chinese business activities in Africa.                                      The Oriental Zone in Ethiopia is
                        St. Andrews
Chinese govern-                                   ago, private sector’s contribution to the          The Chinese are also quite willing to en-             matic decisions                                     “First, Chinese actors do not do anything                                       still under construction and plans
                        – WhiCh approaCh 
ment has allocated                                Chinese Gross Domestic Product (GDP)               gage in long-term commitments. Davies                 taken on a daily basis. Chinese bureau-             in Africa they do not do at home. Secondly,                                     to attract capital for extraction
                        is besT depends on 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               of mineral resources. China has
capital to develop      WheTher you Think         was negligible. Nowadays, approximate-             says that most western bankers have an                crats don’t question the plan, they im-             Sino-African relations are not part of a cen-                                   pledged to invest 100 million US
the required infra-     developmenT or            ly two- thirds of China’s GDP comes from           investment horizon of five minutes to five            plement it. “Their jobs depend on good              trally directed and controlled plan.” The                                       dollars in an industrial park where
                        demoCraCy should 
structure, while                                  private enterprise.                                years, while the Chinese horizon is from              implementation, and that is the China               Chinese Ministry of Commerce, he says, is                                       electric machinery and iron works
                        Come firsT.
private business-                                                                                    fifteen to twenty years. “The Chinese in-             model; brilliant implementation” Davies             often unaware of the presence, never mind                                       will be the main activities.
es are invited to                                 THE RECIPE FOR SUCCESS                             vestments allow for these packages of                 says.                                               the behaviour, of various Chinese actors in                                     In addition China has plans of es-
set up units. While the export -process-          “The great success of China is not so              construction to come together,” Davies                   How this implementation varies from              Africa. Taylor further explains that the mi-                                    tablishing logistic hubs in Angola,
ing zones are just industrial enclaves, the       much the story of a strong state, but rath-        says. When planning to invest, the Chi-               the Western approach is well described by           lieu in Africa is often a reflection of China’s                                 Mozambique and Tanzania.
SEZs are integrated townships with fully          er the extremely rapid creation of a pri-          nese will offer package deals of infrastruc-          the Trade and Industry minister of Zam-             own situation and does not necessarily
developed infrastructures.                        vate sector and this has been done by the          ture. “They will offer hundreds of miles              bia, Felix Mutati, when interviewed for             suggest a lack of respect for Africa, Afri-
   The zones are designed to encourage            state exiting the economy, rather than             of railways, a few schools and a port, and            the documentary When China met Africa.              cans, or African conditions.

32    PersPective
      NO. 01.2011
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 NO. 01.2011   33
■  the chinese in AfricA

    “What critics may not always realize is      businessmen were only allowed into the
that Chinese workers in China frequently         country as investors, not as ”vendors or                                                                                                                                                                                        DIRECT CAPITAL ALLOCATION
also work under often dangerous condi-           shoe-shiners.”
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 The Chinese approach avoids corruption
tions for little pay. China’s reform process
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 problems by channeling funds through the
and the attendant turn to capitalism (wide-      SMALL-SCALE CHINESE BUSINESS                                                                                                                                                                                                    Export – Import Bank of China (China Exim
ly applauded by the West) has arguably set       According to Davies there are three sorts                                                                                                                                                                                       Bank) and by granting Chinese contrac-
the stage for such conditions in China itself    of Chinese businesses moving into Africa:                                                                                                                                                                                       tors the responsibility for construction pro-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 jects, thereby making them accountable
; it can thus be no surprise that sharp prac-    state owned companies, private compa-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 for funds and progress.
tices, such as cutting corners even when         nies, and migrants or entrepreneurs.
it comes to employee safety and welfare,            The African Development Bank Group                                                                                                                                                                                           ■■ Infrastructure projects undertaken by
abound among some Chinese-owned busi-            reports that Chinese enterprises invest-                                                                                                                                                                                           Chinese companies are often financed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    by soft loans from the Chinese govern-
ness enterprises in Africa. This is not to let   ing in strategic sectors such as oil, ores
Chinese employers off the hook for such          or infrastructure are mostly state-owned                                                                                                                                                                                        ■■ The loans are disbursed by China Exim
behaviour but merely to put their activities     or subsidized with Chinese grants or by                                                                                                                                                                                            Bank, one of the largest institutions of
in their proper context.”                        state-owned banks. Chinese investments                                                                                                                                                                                             this kind in the world.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ■■ The construction companies are chosen
                                                 in Africa by medium to large-sized enter-                                                                                                                                                                                          by the Chinese government through a
JOBS ONLY FOR CHINESE                            prises are mainly found in manufacturing,                                                                                                                                                                                          competitive tendering process.
In addition to concern over working con-         telecommunications and wholesale trade                                                                                                                                                                                          ■■ Government-endorsed contracts en-
ditions in Chinese enterprises, there is         sectors. Small firms or so-called micro en-                                                                                                                                                                                        able Chinese companies to secure the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    necessary low-cost capital required to
growing concern that Chinese business-           trepreneurs are in the light industry and                                                                                                                                                                                          cover expensive start-up costs.
es and investments are not creating new          retail sectors.
jobs for Africans. New job opportunities            Due to weak African institutions the                                                                                                                                                                                         Source: China’s role in the Development
are instead being filled by imported Chi-        micro entrepreneurs are not properly                                                                                                                                                                                            of Africa’s Infrastructure. Report written by
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Lucy Corkin, Christopher Burke and Mar-
nese labour.                                     captured in official statistics. Conse-                                                                                                                                                                                         tyn Davies, Centre for Chinese Studies,
                                                 quently, although the SMEs certainly play                                                                                                                                                                                       Sellenbosch University.
                                                 an important role, and are present all
■■■ Regarding the                                over the continent, it is difficult to assess
                                                 exactly how many small Chinese busi-
micro entrepreneurs,                             nesses are present in Africa. However, as                                                                                                                                                                                       SEZ
                                                 we have heard, the inflow of Chinese en-
they just want to                                trepreneurs is obviously seen as a prob-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ■■ Special Economic Zones are desig-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    nated areas within a country that have
start a better life in                           lem in some African countries.
                                                     “Regarding the micro entrepreneurs,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    been granted advantageous economic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    regulations that differ from those in oth-

Africa. They see a                               they just want to start a better life in Af-
                                                 rica. They see a good opportunity,” Davies      CHINESE ENTREPRENEURS IN AFRICA: Once a private Chinese         sub-contractor undertakes a project, the company will use the opportunity to gain first-hand knowledge and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    er areas in the same country.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ■■ These regulations tend to contain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    measures that are conducive towards
good opportunity.                                says. He has observed many Chinese ar-          experience of the local environment in an attempt to identify
                                                                                                 than in China.
                                                                                                                                                                 additional opportunities. Due to intense competition in the home market, profits are usually higher in Africa      attracting foreign direct investment.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ■■ Conducting a business in a SEZ usually
                                                 riving with their suitcases at the airport,
MARTYN DAVIES Frontier Advisory                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     means that a company will receive tax in-
                                                 wearing flip-flops. Three years later, they                                                                                                                                                                                        centives and the benefits of lower tariffs.
                                                 are driving around in BMWs. “This is
   Neither Davies nor Taylor finds this          the African dream for Chinese entrepre-                                                                                                                                                                                         Source: www.fxtraderinvestopedia.com
criticism accurate. Davies stresses that in      neurs”, he says. “Africa is open for busi-      tially, a pattern emerges whereby one or                                    owned stores). Meanwhile, Africans                 SOURCES:
the special economic zones, the vast bulk        ness. Chinese traders are drawn towards         two Chinese entrepreneurs set up shops                                      simply see a Chinese incursion every-              Frontier Advisory: China’s developmental model
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                comes to Africa: The case of Special Economic
of labour will be local and Taylor says          the high profit margins in Africa, plugging     selling cheap products. These business-                                     where.                                             Zones, The African Development Bank Group.
that it is a mistake to presume that high-       into the supply chain back home to sell         es are quickly copied – either by the Chi-                                     So are these Chinese entrepreneurs              When China met Africa, a film by Nick and        BENEFICIAL IMPACTS
salary Chinese-created jobs are always           Chinese products.”                              nese nationals they formerly employed,                                      setting up shop all over Africa - the ul-          Marc Fancis, www.BBC.com
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Annual Report on Sino- African trade and         The SEZs have had the following benefi-
given to imported Chinese workers – but             Ian Taylor explains how manufactur-          or by other Chinese who have heard of                                       timate proof that China is colonizing                                                               cial impacts in many countries:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                economy, released by the Ministry of Com-
sometimes Chinese companies feel that            ers in China receive no more than ten           their success. However, since they all                                      Africa - or is it simply a sign that Africa        merce.
it often is more efficient and sometimes         per cent of total trade profits. Foreign        sell the same sorts of products, compe-                                     is becoming a flourishing place of busi-           The China Monitor – a report on China’s in-      ■■ Rapid employment generation, espe-
necessary to bring in Chinese because            brand owners, wholesalers and retailers,        tition between them increases, leading                                      ness? In Martyn Davies’ opinion the                volvement in African infrastructure bi Martyn       cially for women
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Davies and Christopher Burke. The centre for     ■■ Higher average pay levels
they have the skills and language to deal        mostly Americans, share the remaining           to a fall in prices and a decline in prof-                                  Chinese are of great benefit for Africa                                                             ■■ Higher economic growth rates
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Chinese studies issued the report in 2007
with the bosses.                                 ninety per cent. International conglom-         its. This in turn encourages some trad-                                     - providing the continent with the nec-                                                             ■■ Expansion of non-traditional export in-
   However, African communities are per-         erates like the American Wal-Mart cause         ers to seek out new markets in other                                        essary building blocks for creating eco-                                                               dustries
                                                 high competition on the domestic market         towns, where the process is repeated,                                       nomic growth and prosperity. And, he                                                                ■■ Generation of new skills
haps most concerned about the small-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ■■ Transfer of modern technology
scale Chinese shop-keepers and trad-             leading to oversupply, thereby encourag-        until one finds Chinese shopkeepers                                         says, because of the Chinese industri-                                                              ■■ Attraction of both local and foreign di-
ers that are appearing on their streets          ing Chinese factories to look elsewhere         eking out their livings in the smallest                                     ousness in Africa, the West is starting                                                                rect investment
and in their villages. Earlier this year the     for markets.                                    villages. In other words, dynamics in-                                      to sit up and take notice of what is hap-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Source: Report on the draft policy special
BBC reported that Chinese workers were              The pressure to export is propelling         trinsic to market competition explain                                       pening there. At least one thing seems
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 economic zones; Republic of Kenya, Min-
ordered out of Tanzania. The Deputy              the spread of small-scale, Chinese-run,         why African markets are saturated with                                      clear – as Martyn Davies says - “Africa                                                             istry of Trade ( 2010)
Minister in Tanzania said that Chinese           retail emporiums across Africa. Essen-          Chinese-made products (and Chinese-                                         is open for business.” ■

34 PersPective
   NO. 01.2011
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              NO. 01.2011   35
■  global review

Western sahara                                                                                                                                                 War-Wounded treated at Mogadishu hospitals in 2010                                                                               NUBMERS TREATED LAST

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                THREE YEARS:
Morocco Responsible for Civilian Deaths                                                                                                                                                                            In 2010, the number of war-wounded
A report by the Moroccan human rights organi-          not intended for publication, was leaked to the out-                                                                                                        treated In hospItals In mogadIshu                  Increase                   2008: 2,800
zation The Royal Advisory Council for Human
Rights (CCDH) holds Moroccan authorities re-
                                                       side world. Of the people identified in the report, a
                                                       majority, more than 200, including several children,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   reached Its hIghest number for a decade.               of                     2009: 5,000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   40 per cent of those treated were women
sponsible for the murder of 352 civilians in West-     were killed at military bases or in prison camps.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   and chIldren caught In cross-fIre.                   1,000
ern Sahara between 1958 and 1992. The CCDH             144 were killed in battle, but their families were                                                                                                          Source: International Committee of
is a national institution, and the report, which was   never informed of their fate.                                                                                                                                                                                                             2010: 6,000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   the Red Cross

Japan                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     huManitarian aid

Triple                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Uk Cuts Funding
Emergency                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 for Multinationals
Japan faces serious short and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             The UK government has cut fund-
long-term challenges in the after-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ing for four multinational organi-
math of the earthquake, tsuna-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            sations because of poor results.
mi and resultant nuclear power                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In March, the UK Department for Interna-
emergency in mid-March.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   tional Development (DFID) published a
On 11 March Japan was shook by an earth-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  multilateral aid review. The review looked
quake of magnitude 9 on the Richter scale.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                at the strengths and weaknesses of the 43
The quake triggered a tsunami that caused                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 multilateral organisations in which the UK,
enormous damage along Japan’s northeast                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   until recently, have invested aid money.
coast. The combined force of the earth-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   The organisations were evaluated on the
quake and tsunami caused major problems                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   extent to which they contributed to British
at several of Japan’s nuclear power plants.                                                                                                                                                                                                                               humanitarian and developmental goals.
At the Fuushima Dahichi plant, leaks of ra-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  As a result of the review the British
dioactivity caused dangerously high levels             challenges: A Japanese soldier looks out at the devastation reflected in the window. It has been                                                                                                                   government decided to cut funding for
                                                       estimated that damages amounting to some 235 billion US dollars were caused by the disaster.
of radioactivity both in the near vicinity, in                                                                                                                                                                                                                            four organisations because they did not
                                                                                                       Photo: Adam Dean/Panos Pictures /Felix Features
food produced in the wider region, and in                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 “make a significant difference on the
drinking water. Tens of thousands of peo-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ground, and whose work overlapped
ple died as a result of the natural disaster,          down temporarily, thereby causing concern               in the region also hold debts in Japanese yen                                                                                                              with more effective institutions”. The
and several hundred thousand were made                 that the Japanese economy would suffer                  and will suffer if inflation mounts.                                                                                                                       four organisations are the International
homeless, or had to be evacuated to avoid              a serious setback. Most experts, however,                  The disaster has also brought about a                                                                                                                   Labour Organisation, the UN Internation-
radiation. Despite severely stretched re-              seem to agree that the short term economic              broad international debate on the safety of                                                                                                                al Strategy for Disaster Reduction, UN-
sources, Japanese authorities, with the as-            losses will be offset by the boost in building          nuclear power plants, causing a number                                                                                                                     HABITAT, and the UN Industrial Develop-
sistance of a few international rescue teams,          and construction, and higher employment                 of countries to review their nuclear-pow-                                                                                                                  ment Organisation.
were able to implement rescue operations,              levels will be generated by extensive rebuild-          er programs. Nuclear power accounts for                                                                                                                    Of the organisations reviewed, DFID
and, in large measure, provide for the basic           ing operations. There is concern that the               about 14 per cent of the world’s electric-                                                                                                                 deemed nine to offer very good value for
needs of the population.                               widespread reconstruction efforts will result           ity supply, and has been widely advocated       aid value: On 2 February this year UK foreign minister William Hague visited Tunisa. During his visit      money, 25 to offer good or adequate value
                                                                                                                                                               he annonced 8 million US dollars in aid for Tunisia. The UK government has, on the other hand, decid-
   In the immediate aftermath, a number                in inflation, thereby weakening the export-             as a means of producing clean energy with       ed to cut funding for several multinational organisastions that do not offer “good value for money”.       for money, while nine were characterised
of Japanese factories and businesses closed            driven Japanese economy. Many countries                 which to replace fossil fuels.                                                                                                            Photo: Scanpix   as offering poor value for money.

   iMMigratiOn surveY                                  percentage Of peOple WhO think the gOvernMent is dOing a pOOr JOb in iMMigratiOn ManageMent:            arMed cOnclict is                       keY findings frOM the repOrt:

                                                                                                                                                                                                        613                                                     220
   Transatlantic Trends: Immigration 2010 is a
                                                                                                                                                               rObbing children Of
   comparative survey measuring the percep-
                                                                                                                                                               educatiOn                                                              In afghanIstan there                                      220 schools were
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      were 613 attacks on                                       destroyed In yemen

                                                           73 % 70 %                            61 % 58 % 54 % 43 %
   tion of immigrant groups and immigration and                                                                                                                The Education for All Global Moni-
   integration policies in Canada, France, Ger-                                                                                                                toring Report 2011 reveals that,                                       schools In 2009                                           between 2009-2010

                                                                                                                                                                                                       28.000.000 79 %
   many, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, the UK                                                                                                                 despite some progress in the num-
   and the US.                                                                                                                                                 ber of children receiving primary ed-
   The survey revealed that - compared to 2009                                                                                                                 ucation in poor countries, the posi-
   - more people overestimated the percentage                                                                                                                  tive trend has slowed down. In fact,                                                                       only 79 % of chIldren In conflIct-affected
   of the population that had been born abroad.                                                                                                                if the current trend continues, there   28 mIllIon chIldren do not attend school In conflIct-              countrIes are lIterate, compared to 93 %
                                                                                                                                                               will be fewer children enrolled in      affected poor countrIes, I.e. 41% of the world total.              In other poor countrIes.
   With the exception of Canada there was also                                                                                                                 school in 2015 than there is today.
   overwhelming disapproval with the immigra-                                                                                                                  The situation is especially worrying
   tion policies of the respective governments.                 us                uk               spain          france       netherlands       canada        in conflict-affected poor countries.

36 PersPective
   NO. 01.2011
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        NO. 01.2011    37
■  NORTH AFRICA Crumbling Dictatorships

                                                                                                                                                                                  Would you say             Also, the drive against corruption - a very          agendas (such as undermining the politi-
                                                                                                                                                                                  that these revolu-        significant factor - has led the revolutions         cal control of the judiciary) that are re-
                                                                                                                                                                                  tions are a-polit-        to target many leading businessmen who               sponsive to the revolutionary programs.
                                                                                                                                                                                  ical?                     had thrived on the economic changes of
                                                                                                                                                                                     No; just the op-       the past two decades. So I think they will           Is there a future for party politics in
                                                                                                                                                                                  posite. They are          make neo-liberal policies more difficult,            North Africa and the Middle East?

                                                                                                                                                         nathan J. BRown, pro-
                                                                                                                                                                                  deeply politi-            but otherwise they do not have a specific               Yes, the real question is whether pro-
                                                                                                                                                         fessor of political sci- cal. They are not         policy agenda.                                       test movements can transform them-
                                                                                                                                                         ence and internation-    driven by a spe-                                                               selves into political parties. It is often
                                                                                                                                                         al affairs at George     cific ideology, but       Will the revolutionary movements be                  said that the Islamists are the only organ-
                                                                                                                                                         Washington Univer-
                                                                                                                                                         sity, and non-resident
                                                                                                                                                                                  the agendas of the        able to influence the further political              ized political parties. They are indeed
                                                                                                                                                         senior associate to      opposition have           development in their respective coun-                organized, but the protest movements
                                                                                                                                                         the Carnegie Endow-      largely focused           tries?                                               have shown an ability to mobilize large
                                                                                                                                                         ment for International

Is there such
                                                                                                                                                                                  on remaking - or             Absolutely - at least in Egypt and Tu-            numbers of people. Those mobilization-
                                                                                                                                                                                  at least serious-         nisia, they are continuing to drive much             al skills could be translated into electoral
                                                                                                                                                                                  ly reforming - the        of the political process. For instance, in           ones if they are converted into perma-

a thing?
                                                                                                                                                         political system. A host of economic,              Egypt, they brought down not merely                  nent organizations with clear programs.
                                                                                                                                                         cultural, and other grievances have been           the president, but forced the military to            There are attempts to do that with liberal
                                                                                                                                                         presented in the form of demands for po-           appoint a different cabinet. As the pro-             groups, labour groups, and so on.
By: Nonje M. Viken and Harriet K. Rudd                                                                                                                   litical reform. Constitutional reform - and        cess of writing new constitutions goes
                                                                                                                                                         especially the concentration of authority          forward, they have articulated clear pro-
There seems to be a broad consen-                of the movements and individuals                                                                        in the hands of the executive - has been at        grams - for reining in the security ser-
sus that the revolutions sweeping                central to the uprisings is their lack                                                                  the centre of the entire controversy.              vices, for cleaner elections, for more
North-Africa and the Middle East are             of ideology and political experi-                                                                                                                          effective parliaments, and for judicial in-
rooted in deep social and political              ence. Being perceived as non-polit-                                                                     Can a-political groups or individuals              dependence. These demands will be dif-
dissatisfaction. The revolutions have            ical is increasingly associated with                                                                    provide solutions to political prob-               ficult to ignore.                                    ■ ■ The real ques-
been portrayed as led by a broad                 concepts such as integrity, credibil-                                                                   lems?
coalition of young adults with no                ity, fairness and unity. An expres-                                                                        The groups leading the rebellions were          Is it likely that technocratic cabinets              tion is whether pro-
ties to political parties or ideologi-           sion of this is the demand for so-                                                                      often less ideological (though Islam-              will have the strength to confront the
cal organizations. It took them only             called technocratic cabinets.                                                                           ists and leftists were involved). They are         old establishments and carry the rev-                test movements can
weeks to topple the governments of
Tunisia and Egypt. The question is
                                                    But is it possible for leaders with
                                                 neither political experience nor ide-
                                                                                                                                                         not pushing a specific set of policies, a
                                                                                                                                                         specific ideology, or even a specific ap-
                                                                                                                                                                                                            olution forward?
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Not by themselves but, if backed by
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 transform them-
what next for these countries, which
are in need of governments who can
                                                 ologically based beliefs to provide
                                                 credible and coherent solutions to
                                                                                                                                                         proach to policy. The solutions they are
                                                                                                                                                         pushing involve making a better political
                                                                                                                                                                                                            strong social and political movements,
                                                                                                                                                                                                            they might be able to. Technocratic cabi-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 selves into political
deal with broader political ques-                fundamentally political challenges?                                                                     system. That is not to say that their suc-         nets, where they were created in the past            parties.
tions such as job creation, taxation,               To what degree will the protest-                                                                     cess would bring no effects on policy. For         in the Arab world - such as Salam Fayy-
education and a fairer distribution              ers be able to two influence the pol-                                                                   instance, in Egypt, public sector workers          ad’s in Palestine—have served in a largely
of wealth. These questions are, how-             itics of the future?                                                                                    have played a significant role. If they gain       authoritarian context and had no political
ever, inherently political.                         Perspective put the question to                                                                      a greater voice in the political system,           basis. But the post-revolutionary ones in
   One of the perceived strengths                experts on Middle East politics.                                                                        this will work specific political effects.         Cairo and Tunis have been able to pursue

  17 DecemBeR 2010               28 DecemBeR                                    13 JanuaRy           14 JanuaRy               28 JanuaRy                 29 JanuaRy                      1 FeBRuaRy                   2 FeBRuaRy           4 FeBRuaRy                10 FeBRuaRy                 11 FeBRuaRy
  the spark                      Jasmine revolution                             president promised   Ben ali resigned         curfew                     new vice-president              march of a million           Fighting in tahrir   Day of departure          Fatal speech                victory
  The 26 year old street         The first demonstrations took place in pro-    to resign in 2014    Ben Ali stepped down     Following days of wide-    General Omar Suleiman was       More than a million peo-     square               Large numbers of pro-     Statements by mili-         President
  vendor, Mohamed                vincial towns, but unrest soon spread to       Tunisian president   and went into exile in   spread protests, Egyp-     appointed vice-president, and   ple took part in demon-      Fighting broke       testers gathered in       tary leaders suggest-       Mubarak
  Bouazizi, set fire to him-     the capital, Tunis. By this time, the demon-   Zine al-Abidine      Saudi Arabia.            tian President Mubarak,    thereby Mubarak’s successor.    strations across Egypt.      out between          Tahrir Square demand-     ed that Mubarak was         stepped down
  self after his illegal vege-   strations had evolved into anti-government     Ben Ali said he                               imposed a dusk-to-                                         In Cairo several hundred     anti-government      ing that Murbarak re-     ready to step down.
  table cart was confiscat-      protests. Several trade unions came out        would not stand                               dawn curfew in Cairo,                                      thousands joined in the      protesters and       sign.                     Instead, President
  ed by police. The event        on strike in solidarity with the protesters.   for re-election in   25 JanuaRy               Alexandria and Suez.       31 JanuaRy                      demonstrations. Mubarak      Mubarak sup-                                   Mubarak made a tel-
  triggered hundreds of          Over the next days and weeks the pro-          2014.                unrest in egypt          The curfew was largely     army declares protests          promised to step down af-    porters in Tahrir                              evised speech saying
  young Tunisians to take        tests intensified. On several occasions the                         Anti-government dem-     ignored, there were vio-   “legitimate.”                   ter the presidential elec-   Square.              6 FeBRuaRy                he would stay in office
  to the streets in order to     police responded violently to demonstra-                            onstrations erupted in   lent clashes between       The army also said it would     tions in September. The                           talks                     until September. The
  protest against high un-       tions. According to the UN at least 219                             Egypt.                   protesters and police,     not use force against pro-      protesters demanded he                            Suleiman held talks       speech infuriated pro-      souRces: BBC
  employment levels.             people were killed in the uprisings.                                                         and reported looting.      testers.                        resign by 4 February.                             with opposition groups.   testers.                    and Al Jazeera

38     PersPective
       NO. 01.2011
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 NO. 01.2011   39
■  NORTH AFRICA Crumbling Dictatorships

                           Would you say         Gaddafi, but also the state of the Social-             old establishment and carry the revo-
                           that these revolu-    ist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya that               lution forward?
                           tions are a-polit-    Gaddafi has created.                                      If the technocratic cabinets are backed
                           ical?                                                                        by the social movements, they can con-
                              The current so-
                           cial movements in
                                                 Can a-political groups or individuals
                                                 provide solutions to political prob-
                                                                                                        front the old establishment. For this rea-
                                                                                                        son, they need to maintain their connec-
                                                                                                                                                              Egypt: Evaluating Proposed
                           the Arab World try
                           to alter the poli-
                                                    The citizens who joined the social
                                                                                                        tions with the street. If they lose their
                                                                                                        contacts with the social movements, they              Constitutional Amendments
                           ties not the poli-    movements will not be able to provide                  will be without an autonomous power
chRistoph schumann, cies. By new polity          solutions for practical problems. This                 basis.
Professor of politics      the demonstra-        is not their job, but the job of the politi-
and contemporary his-
tory of the Middle East    tors want to see      cians. However, the social movements                   Is there a future for party politics in                                         The amendment to Egypt’s constitution recently an-         is the master of its decision” by giving the Supreme
at the Institute for       the fall of the re-   can keep the pressure on the political                 North Africa and the Middle East?                                               nounced by Chancellor Tareq Bishri’s commission            Constitutional Court jurisdiction to rule on the validi-
Political Science, Uni-    gimes (Arabic: ni-    elite to provide better solutions than in                 The roots of the Arab party system in                                        – if adopted by the Supreme Council of the Armed           ty of deputies’ membership in the People’s Assembly
versity of Erlangen-       zam), but they do     the past.                                              the Levant and North Africa go back to                                          Forces and approved by a majority of citizens in a         and the Shura Council.
                           not want to over-                                                            the 1920s, if not the pre-World War I era.                                      general referendum – will lay the foundation for con-
                           throw the states      Will the revolutionary movements be                    With growing freedom, the party system                                          straining the near-absolute powers granted to the          aRticle 189: Require the elected People’s Assembly
                           (Arabic: dawla). In   able to influence further political de-                will flourish. Under authoritarian condi-                                       president by the 1971 constitution.                        and Shura Council to choose a constituent assembly
other words, they want to see the end of         velopment in their respective coun-                    tions, the parties will remain a facade.                                           They are also a positive step toward administering      of 100 members to draft a new constitution for Egypt
                                                                                                                                                                   amR hamzawy is
all emergency laws and a return to con-          tries?                                                    For the monarchies on the Arab Pen-                 research director and    pluralistic legislative and presidential elections be-     within six months of the election of the two cham-
stitutional government. The constitu-               If the social movements are able to mobi-           insular the situation is different. Politi-           senior associate at the   fore the end of the current transitional phase. Some       bers.
tional changes they have proposed up to          lize continuously for their political goals of         cal parties have a weak tradition. The ar-             Carnegie Middle East     of the proposed amendments would help rein in
                                                                                                                                                                    Center in Beirut.
now are fairly moderate. Most impor-             freedom, civic rights, democracy, and so-              ticulation of societal interests has mainly                                     presidential power in Egypt by affecting the follow-       Despite these proposed amendments, the 1971 con-
tantly, they strengthen the parliament           cial security, they will be able to intervene          worked through family networks and in-                                          ing constitutional articles:                               stitution supports an authoritarian system of govern-
and the judiciary vis-à-vis the president.       time and again in the political process.               formal channels, while the engagement                                                                                                      ment that gives too much control to the president,
This call for change of the political order                                                             in ideologically guided party activities                                        aRticle 77: Shorten presidential terms to four years       violates the powers of the legislative and judicial
is tremendously political. However, the          Is it likely that technocratic cabinets                was limited to rather small groups of ur-                                       and limit presidents to a maximum of two consecu-          branches, and suspends citizens’ liberties and rights.
large majority of the demonstrators do           will have the strength to confront the                 ban intellectuals.                                                              tive terms.                                                It is therefore unsuitable for managing a safe transi-
not want to be involved in (party) politics.                                                                                                                                                                                                       tion to democracy, which requires a parliamentary
From this perspective, we are witnessing                                                                                                                                       ■ ■      aRticle 148: Constrain the president’s powers to an-       constitution and balanced powers among all three
a revolt of the citizens, not the politicians.
   Besides, the term «revolution» is prob-
                                                                                                                                                                   They are also        nounce a state of emergency and require a popular
                                                                                                                                                                                        referendum to extend the state of emergency be-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   branches of government – along with strong mecha-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   nisms of inter-branch oversight and accountability.
lematic in the case of Egypt and Tunisia.        ■ ■ The citizens who joined the social                                                                                a positive       yond six months.                                              Amending the current constitution is not enough,
On the one hand, the backbone of the old
                                                 movements will not be able to provide                                                                              step toward                                                                    but these proposed amendments help ensure that a
regimes, namely the army, is still in pow-
                                                                                                                                                                  administering         aRticle 179: Void presidential power to suspend citi-      new constitution will be written for a free democrat-
er. The transition to democracy, which
we all hope for, will take many years. On
                                                 solutions for practical problems. This is not                                                                        pluralistic
                                                                                                                                                                                        zens’ civil liberties and political rights.                ic Egypt after the legislative elections. ■

the other hand, the demonstrators do not         their job, but the job of the politicians.                                                                      legislative and        aRticle 76: Allow for pluralistic presidential elections   (Previously published in the Los Angeles Times)
even want to overthrow the existing po-
litical orders, i.e. the state. As mentioned
                                                                                                                                                                    presidential        in which multiple candidates compete, rather than
                                                                                                                                                                                        restricting candidacies to members of the National
above, they rather aim at realizing the val-                                                                                                                           elections        Democratic Party’s general secretariat. To be eligi-
ues that are already written down in the                                                                                                                         before the end         ble to run, presidential candidates must now secure
constitutions of Egypt and Tunisia. This
is vastly different from the revolutions
                                                                                                                                                                  of the current        either the support of 30 elected members from the
                                                                                                                                                                                        People’s Assembly and the Shura Council, or 30,000
led by Jamal Abd al-Nasser or Ruhollah             tRansition anD DemocRacy                                                                                         transitional        voters from at least 15 provinces – with at least 1,000
Khomeini, which completely replaced the            Both Egypt and Tunisia are still in political tur-
                                                   moil, and the protests have continued with
                                                                                                        After Mubarak stepped down in February, Egypt
                                                                                                        has been under military rule. In late March there
                                                                                                                                                                          phase.        votes from each province; or they must have mem-
old order with a totally new one. This in-                                                                                                                                              bership in a political party with at least one elected
cluded even the renaming of the state.             varying intensity. The protesters have de-           was a referendum on constitutional reform. 77                                   seat in the two parliamentary chambers. In addition,
                                                   manded the resignation of ministers linked           per cent voted for the proposed changes. Many
   As regards Bahrain and Libya, the op-           to the old regime, and that the interim gov-         democracy activists criticised the changes, say-                                the amendment states that a higher judicial commis-
position movement has revolutionary as-            ernments press ahead with reforms. In mid-           ing they did not go far enough, and demanding                                   sion oversee presidential elections.
pects. In Bahrain, the demonstrators call          March, police opened fire on a demonstration         a complete rewrite of the constitution before
now for the fall of the king, and many of          march through Tunis, killing several people.         general elections are held. The referendum re-                                  aRticle 60: Stipulate that a higher judicial commis-
                                                   Since the overthrow of Ben Ali’s regime, Tunisia     sult will probably lead to parliamentary and pres-
them go even further and openly ques-              has had several interim governments. Ironically      idential elections within months. Critics say early                             sion supervise the elections and the referendum.
tion the monarchy. In Libya, the demon-            the youth-led revolution has resulted in an in-      elections favour existing political parties and the                             This will restore complete judicial oversight of elec-
strators show their criticism of the ex-           terim president and interim prime minister aged      Muslim Brotherhood, who already have organi-                                    toral processes and place voting and vote counting
                                                   78, and 84 respectively. There are plans to hold     sations in place. The new national assembly will                                under the supervision of judicial committee mem-
isting order by using the flag of the old
                                                   elections for a national assembly in July. This      write the new constitution, and will therefore
kingdom. This is not to say that they want         assembly will be given the task of rewriting the     play a decisive role in the shaping of the future                               bers.
to re-introduce the monarchy, but they             constitution, before general elections are held.     Egyptian political system.
question not only the rule of Muammar                                                                                                                                                   aRticle 93: Abolish the principle that “the council

40 PersPective
   NO. 01.2011
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              NO. 01.2011   41
■ SPECIAL REPORT “Shoot to Kill”

             Abdel-WAhid points
           to his gunshot Wounds
              1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 6 – 7.
   At leAst 85 migrAnts
 And Asylum seekers hAve
     been shot deAd by
 egyptiAn border guArds
  on the egyptiAn-isrAeli
    border since 2007.
                         BY: Robin Hammond and Marianne Alfsen Panos/Felix Features
                                 Photo: Robin Hammond Panos/Felix Features

42   PersPective
     NO. 01.2011
                                                                                        NO. 01.2011   43
■ SPECIAL REPORT “Shoot to Kill”

             he mixed flow of migrants,       of him, behind a myriad of barbed-wire         by, a man from a rival tribe, and they
             refugees, and asylum seekers     fencing, he could discern the promised         feared that the nature of their relation-
             entering Israel via the Sinai    land: Israel.                                  ship would result in their being killed.
             Desert has increased in the         Along with his eight travelling com-        Consequently, the couple left the Ivory
             course of the past few years     panions he had to leap, or crawl on his        Coast and travelled across the entire Afri-
– and especially after 2009 - when Libya      stomach in order to negotiate the wir-         can continent in order to reach Israel.
and Italy signed an agreement that effec-     ing. Then he heard gunshots. The men              It was a long and difficult journey.
tively shut down one of the most popular      scattered. Abdel-Wahid tried to follow,        Eventually only one obstacle remained –
migrant sea routes from Africa to Europe.     but his clothes became entangled in the        a set of three barbed-wire fences. Charles
According to William Tall, the United Na-     barbed wire, ripping open his skin, and,       and his wife managed to get past two of
tions High Commissioner for Refugees          at the same time, leaving him trapped.         them. Then, they heard the alarming rat-
(UNHCR) representative in Israel, more        Suddenly the firing stopped and silence        tle of empty cans; Egyptian border guards
than 1,000 people a month, illegally          ensued. For ten minutes Abdel-Wahid            hang such cans along the fences to alert
crossed the Egyptian-Israeli border in        tried to free himself without attracting       them of illegal border crossings. Confu-
2010. In Israel they seek a better life and   the attention of the border guards. He         sion instantly followed. It seemed as if
refuge from violence and abuse. Very few      could hear them searching for survivors.       there was gunfire and lights everywhere.
achieve this goal.                            The noise of their approach came closer        Voices could be heard shouting “they
   Abdel-Wahid’s (name changed for pro-       and closer. Then a flashlight blinded him.     shot me, they shot me,” Charles recalls.
tection reasons) story is sadly familiar.     A voice (in Arabic) yelled:                       Charles quickly flattened the barbed
He is from Darfur, one of Sudan’s most           “Hey, you bastard! Today will be your       wire fence in order to help his wife across
conflict-torn regions, which erupted in       last.”                                         the last barrier. Then, suddenly, she
violence in 2003. His mother hid him un-         And with that the guard fired seven         dropped to the ground. He picked her up
der the bed when Janjaweed militiamen         bullets into Abdel-Wahid’s body.               and there was blood everywhere. He car-
dragged away all the male members of             Lying in bed in a women’s hostel in Is-     ried her over the last fence and into the
his extended family in the age range of 15-   rael Abdel-Wahid recalls that moment.          arms of the Israel Defence Forces (IDF),
40. He lay there all day. The family feared   He was sure he was going to die. He            who, alerted by the gunfire, had just ar-
the worst when, in the evening darkness,      thought about his mother and father.           rived. An ambulance took her away.
gunshots could be heard at no great dis-      How would they survive? His two broth-         Three days later he was informed that
tance from the village. The next day their    ers had already been murdered, and now         she had died.
fears were confirmed. The bodies of 40        he was going to die too. There would be                                                         PARALYZEd: Abdul-Wahid was paralyzed when he was shot seven times on the Egyptian-Israeli border. He is very worried about how his parents in
men lay face down in the dirt. All had        nobody to take care of them. Shaking un-       NECESSARY ShootINGS                              war-torn Darfur are going to survive and he has no idea how he will support himself in the future either.
been shot in the back. Abdel-Wahid was        controllably, Abdel-Wahid tries to stand       Why do Egyptian border guards shoot
the village’s only male survivor. He knew     with the aid of a walking frame, but he        and kill unarmed migrants and asylum
what he had to do to stay alive. Run.         falls back on the bed, sobbing. His shoul-     seekers trying to leave Egypt? According
                                              ders shake and he covers his face with his     to the Governor of North Sinai, General
thE LoNG tREK                                 hands. “I used to run and jump. I was a        Muhammad Shousha (in an interview                rationale for the use of lethal force. Ac-         material assistance offered to asylum              a person more than once if you really are
Thus the long trek began: firstly, across     good football player. Now I cannot even        with the English edition of the independ-        cording to the Christian Science Monitor,          seekers and refugees in Egypt. Instead,            just trying to stop them and arrest them.
Africa’s largest country, Sudan, there-       stand,” he says.                               ent Egyptian newspaper, Al Masry Al              Lt. Commander of the Liaison Agency                the overwhelming majority of those pre-            It shows that Egypt is shooting these peo-
after into Egypt and across the Sinai                                                        Yuom, 9 September, 2009) the policy of           with International Organizations told re-          sumed to be asylum seekers and refugees            ple to kill them,” she says.
Desert to the Israeli border. When, at        MANY FAtALItIES                                shooting illegal migrants is necessary.          porters in September 2008: “We shoot in-           have so far used Egypt as a transit coun-             Navi Pillay, UN High Commissioner for
night, he finally reached the border, he       Human Rights Watch, maintain that - in            “Of course it’s not a mistake that we        filtrators. We do not shoot migrants.”             try to reach Israel. When trying to cross          Human Rights, corroborates her view:
had nothing but the clothes on his back.      the period between June 2007 and Janu-         shoot them – it is necessary to shoot                                                               the border, these people enter a prohib-              ”The sheer number of victims suggests
The Bedouin people-smuggler who had           ary 2011 – at least 85 people were shot        them. To deal with an infiltrator, he has        Shoot to StoP oR Shoot to KILL                     ited military zone and obtain help from            that at least some Egyptian security offi-
guided him across the desert had stolen       and killed by Egyptian border guards           to be fired at. If we say, ‘stop where are       According to Mohamed Dayri, the UN-                people-smugglers, who at times shoot at            cials have been operating a shoot-to-kill
his remaining possessions. It was of no       when trying to cross the Egyptian-Israeli      you going?’ he is not going to stop so we        HCR representative in Egypt, Egyptian              Egyptian border staff, sometimes causing           policy. It is unlikely that so many killings
consequence – some ten metres ahead           border illegally. Of these, at least 28 were   have to shoot him.”                              border troops have rules of engagement             casualties.                                        would occur otherwise,” she wrote in
                                              killed in 2010 alone.                             In their report, Sinai Perils, Human          allowing shoot-to-stop measures and not               The Egyptian authorities claim that             The Huffington Post on 2 March, 2010.
                                                 There are no official Egyptian statistics   Rights Watch say that these harsh tac-           shoot-to-kill ones. “All migrants, poten-          border guards have orders to fire pre-                ”While migrants often lose their lives

■ ■ Of course it’s                            on how many have been killed or injured
                                              along the 266 kilometre-long border, the
                                                                                             tics are aimed at smuggling networks, at
                                                                                             those smuggling arms into the Gaza Strip,
                                                                                                                                              tial asylum seekers and refugees are tar-
                                                                                                                                              geted by these measures, because all are
                                                                                                                                                                                                 liminary warning shots. However, none
                                                                                                                                                                                                 of the more than 100 asylum seekers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    accidentally when travelling in crowded
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    boats, or trying to cross remote land bor-
not a mistake that                            total length of which is defined as a re-
                                              stricted military zone. There have been
                                                                                             and at the passage of Palestinian fighters
                                                                                             in and out of Gaza.
                                                                                                                                              deemed to illegally cross the border as
                                                                                                                                              ‘infiltrators’,” says Mohamed Dayri.
                                                                                                                                                                                                 and migrants we spoke to had heard any
                                                                                                                                                                                                 warning shots before being fired upon.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ders, I know of no other country where
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    so many unarmed migrants and asylum
we shoot them                                 no investigations into these shootings,
                                              and the number of people killed is prob-
                                                                                                Egyptian officials also cite anti-terror-
                                                                                             ism objectives, referring to the terrorist at-
                                                                                                                                                 Dayri explains that the position of the
                                                                                                                                              Egyptian government is based upon the
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Sara Robertson, a volunteer with Phy-
                                                                                                                                                                                                 sicians for Human Rights, an organisa-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    seekers appear to have been deliberately
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    killed in this way by government forces,”
– it is necessary                             ably much higher. The youngest known           tacks that have been directed against tour-      legal principle that genuine asylum seek-          tion offering free medical help to asylum          Pillay continued.
                                              victim is a seven-year old girl.               ist and government targets in the Sinai          ers and refugees, though entering Egypt            seekers in Israel, is in no doubt what the
to shoot them.                                   Charles’ wife was among those who           since 2004. In an official statement issued      illegally, should present themselves to            policy entails:                                    ISRAELI PRESSuRE
GENERAL MuhAMMAd ShouShA,                     did not survive. She had the misfortune        on 11 August, 2007, the Egyptian military        the Egyptian authorities or to UNHCR to               ”We have had two cases of people shot           ”The use of lethal force, which began in
the Governor of North Sinai.                  to fall in love with, and become pregnant      authorities provided a national security         receive and benefit from the legal and             seven times. There is no reason to shoot           mid 2007, may be a result of Israel’s pres-

44 PersPective
   NO. 01.2011
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 NO. 01.2011   45

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ■ ■ I held him through
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     his dying breaths and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     eventually closed his eyes.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     toMMY who served with the IDF on the border to Egypt

BuLLEt WouNdS: Gabriel was shot five times           PEoPLE SMuGGLERS: Gabriel paid a group of Bedouins 2500 US dollars to guide him across Egypt to the Israeli   border. He travelled together with seven fellow Eritreans. One of his travelling companions was
and seriously injured by Egyptian border guards      killed when the border guards opened fire.
whilst trying to cross the border into Israel. For
the last seven months he has been chained to a
hospital bed in Israel.

sure on Egypt to reduce the flow of peo-             which Egypt would re-admit migrants               where Egypt ends and Israel begins, cut                                border crossing they had to assume there            kind of blood on its hands. No one can         posals on how to tackle the issue of illegal
ple crossing the border into its territory           who cross into Israel, and would take             across an astonishing desert landscape of                              would be injuries.                                  justify the killing of people for no other     border crossings in a humanitarian way.
without authorization,” Amnesty Inter-               measures to prevent further infiltrations.        sand dunes and craggy mountains.                                          Tommy particularly recalls one in-               reason than for trying to cross the border     “Indeed, the phenomenon of ‘irregular
national stated in 2009.                                According to Human Rights Watch,                  Tommy, (name changed for protec-                                    cident. When his team arrived at the                from one country to another.                   movements’ of people is growing along
   Both Israel and the United States have            the first known border-shooting fatality          tion reasons) who recently completed his                               scene, 16 refugees had succeeded in pass-              Tommy is not alone in his concern.          the Egypt- Israeli border with worrisome
put pressure on Egypt to stop the flow of            was reported only a few weeks after that          three-year compulsory military service,                                ing the barbed-wire fences. Two had not.            The UNHCR is in dialogue with the Egyp-        consequences,” he concludes.
goods and people across the porous Sinai             meeting, and occurred even before the of-         part of which he served with the IDF on                                One of the victims was very young, per-             tian authorities concerning the shoot-
frontier. In June 2007 former Egyptian               ficial posting: Haja Abbas Haroun, seven          the border, says that the people the IDF                               haps no more than 14 years old. A bullet            ings. UNHCR’s representative in Egypt,         No SAFE hAVEN
President, Hosni Mubarak, and the then               months pregnant, and fleeing the bloody           encountered coming over the border                                     had pierced his heart.                              Mohamed Dayri, says that the UNHCR             Even for those refugees who do succeed
Israeli Prime-Minister, Ehud Olmert, met             conflict in Darfur, was killed on 22 June         were for the most part very exhausted,                                    “I held him through his dying breaths            has encouraged the authorities to deter        in entering Israel, the ordeal is not over.
to discuss the issue of border security.             2007 as she attempted to cross into Israel.       hungry, and completely dehydrated.                                     and eventually closed his eyes,” says               illegal border crossings by other means,       Many are summarily returned to Egypt,
According to a briefing on the Israeli For-                                                            Usually the IDF would know that people                                 Tommy, and adds that in his opinion, no             and has initiated a discussion with the        despite the fact that Israel is well aware
eign Ministry website, posted on 1 July,             FRuStRAtEd SoLdIERS                               were crossing the border because they                                  matter what attitude one has to immigra-            Egyptian government to provide Egypt           that Egypt violates its obligations under
2007, the two reached an agreement by                The rows of barbed wire, that mark                heard gunfire. Every time there was a                                  tion, no country can afford to have this            with a set of measures and concrete pro-       the Refugee Convention. Egypt has, for

46 PersPective
   NO. 01.2011
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             NO. 01.2011    47
■ SPECIAL REPORT “Shoot to Kill”

instance, forcibly returned asylum seek-
ers to Eritrea and Sudan without allow-
ing them the opportunity of formally
applying for asylum, or in complete dis-
regard of the fact that their asylum cases
are still pending. In Eritrea and Sudan
returned refugees face persecution and a
substantial risk of torture. Egypt also de-
tains asylum seekers on grounds of ille-
gal entry. Such cases are brought before
a military tribunal and carry a penalty of
between one and three years in prison.
  For those who are allowed to remain
in Israel, life is in limbo. “Israel offers a
form of temporary protection for Suda-
nese and Eritreans”, says William Tall.
They are granted renewable three-month
visas, but no permit to work.
  “The authorities are afraid work per-
mits will be an incentive for more people
to arrive,” Tall explains.

Gabriel (name changed for protection
reasons) is from Eritrea. He does not
want to discuss why he fled his home-
land. When he crossed the border into Is-
rael he suffered five gunshot wounds. For
seven months Gabriel has been lying in
a hospital bed in Israel. When he sleeps
he sometimes dreams, and in his dreams
he is able to do the things he was able to          FRoM SudAN: Two Sudanese refugees on their way to the Israeli border.   LIVING RouGh: Levingsky Park, a stones throw from Tel Aviv’s enormous bus station, has become home to hundreds of immigrants from Africa.
do before; the ordinary everyday things             Many refugees crossing the Sinai Dessert suffer abuse at the hands of
that occur in any family. Then he wakes             people-smugglers.
up, and the sight of his mutilated body
makes him feels as if he is a completely
different person. Israel grants him only
                                                    Abuse at the Hands
                                                                                                                            Israel’s Dilemma
basic medical treatment, as he, of course,
has no health insurance and, consequent-
ly, there is no hope of the physiother-
                                                    of People Smugglers
apy or counselling required to helping
him regain some semblance of a life. His            Being shot at the border is not the only risk facing migrants
greatest fear is what will happen when              trying to cross the border between Egypt and Israel. Abuse at           Until 2005, Israel had received only a            torical identification with the plight of          have refugee status, and even they have
he leaves the hospital. People fleeing the          the hands of people-smugglers is rampant.                               few hundred non-Jewish African refu-              people escaping from violence and per-             to apply for renewal of their status an-
brutal Eritrean regime risk imprisonment            In late November and early December 2010, traffickers shot or           gees and asylum seekers. Today the                secution.                                          nually.
or even execution if returned to Eritrea.           beat to death six Eritreans. They were among a group of several         number is 35,000, and poses a serious               “Israel prides itself on being sophisti-            Mr Tall says that the Israeli authori-
”To be optimistic is okay, but this life is...      hundred asylum seekers and migrants who had been held at a lo-          dilemma for the authorities.                      cated when it comes to integrating refu-           ties are alarmed by the sharp increase
it is better to die." ■                             cation near the Israeli border since late October. Human Rights                                                           gees, but they have no experience in               in arrivals, and as a result more spe-
                                                    Watch reports that traffickers at that time held more than 100 Eri-     The majority, 85 per cent, are from               non-Jewish immigration”, says Tall.                cific policies are underway. Among
SouRCES: Initial research and interviews            treans captive for ransom in underground rooms.                         Eritrea and Sudan. Many, particularly               “Integration of non-Jewish immi-                 the measures to stop the influx is the
conducted by Robin Hammond in Israel.
                                                       The organisation has reviewed 30 statements from people for-         among the Sudanese, have struggled                grants in Israel is not a possibility,”            construction of a barrier wall along
Additional research and interviews with
UNHCR-s representatives William Tell (Israel)       merly held by people- smugglers. The former captives report hav-        for years to make a living in Egypt, be-          claims the UNHCR representative,                   the border with Egypt, the building of
and Mohamed Dayri (Egypt), conducted by Mari-       ing been shackled burned with hot iron bars, whipped with elec-         fore coming to Israel. Others have trav-          pointing to the fact that non-Jewish im-           which started at the end of 2010. Israel
anne Alfsen. Amnesty International, Human           trical cords and beaten. Women are particularly vulnerable. Many        elled directly to Israel from their coun-         migration, in the long run, will threaten          is also planning to open detention cen-
Rights Watch (particularly the reports Sinai Per-
ils and Rights on the Line), Christian Science
                                                    are raped.                                                              try of origin.                                    the state’s Jewish foundation. Israel is           tres in which to hold migrants.
Monitor, BBC Online, Huffington Post, and the          ”We have recently received serious reports of abuse, torture and       Israel has been the safe haven for per-         a signatory to the Refugee Convention,                “The nature of the centres are not yet
report African Migration to Israel, by the Fein-    systematic sexual abuse in the hands of smugglers,” confirms Wil-       secuted Jews, and, says William Tall,             but their policies to deal with non-Jew-           known”, says Tall, and adds that the
stein International Center.                         liam Tall, the UNHCR representative in Israel.                          UNHCR’s representative in Israel, the             ish asylum seekers are underdeveloped              UNHCR is concerned about develop-
                                                                                                                            Jewish population feels a special his-            and indecisive. Less than 200 people               ments. ■

48 PersPective
   NO. 01.2011
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               NO. 01.2011   49

For several years, microfinance was believed to be a miracle cure for lifting peo-
ple out of poverty, but today this financial model is subject to mounting criticism.

Why Microfinance
Does Not Work
BY: Grete Gaulin

”Microfinance policy was a brilliantly         in poverty reduction. The picture emerg-      formal financial services at average rates
marketed and politically vital concept,        ing from thirty years of microfinance is      of between 20 and 40 per cent and are
but it was actually an empty vessel,” Mil-     startlingly grim.                             designed not only to benefit the poor, but
ford Bateman writes in his book Why              Both the reports and Bateman’s book         also to secure profit for Western loan insti-
Doesn’t Microfinance Work?                     come to the following conclusions:            tutions. The banks maintain that the high
   Microfinance was pioneered by Mu-           ● To some entrepreneurs, microcredit has      interest rates are brought about by the
hammad Yunus, the founder of Grameen             been helpful, leading to the establish-     high administration costs associated with
Bank, almost 40 years ago. Yunus has re-         ment or expansion of a few microenter-      small loans. However, the high interest
ceived both the United States’ highest ci-       prises. The payoff, on the other hand, is   rates also result in poor people incurring
vilian honour and the Nobel Peace Prize          not measurable in the terms of income,      debt burdens far beyond what would be
for his work. Even so Yunus’s theories           consumption, health or education.           accepted in the western part of the world.
are disputed.                                  ● A majority of the borrowers do not use         Not surprisingly, this has led to harsh
   We often identify poor people with            their loans to start or expand a busi-      criticism from institutions who still be-
small-scale economies and production,            ness; instead they finance other needs      lieve that microfinancing should remain
a small patch of land, a home-made irri-         such as “household consumption, TV,         an idealistic business. One of the largest
gation system, or a few dollars credit to        or a daughter’s wedding”. Between           players in this new market is the Mexican
                                                                                                                                             MICROCREdIT: this hair salon is one of 16 million small enterprises found in various corners of the world and which, according to the World Bank, have
establish oneself as a seamstress or a tele-     50 and 90 per cent of microloans are        bank Compartamos, which is accused by           been established with the help of microcredit.                                                            Foto: Alfredo Caliz/ Panos Pictures/Felix Features
phone-cards salesman.                            spent on ordinary consumption.              Muhammad Yunus of committing “a mo-
   Small-scale entrepreneurship is exactly     ● Microloans have reduced, rather than        nopolistic exploitation of poor people”.
what microcredit is all about, and it is         increased the workforce. Studies indi-
exactly this small-scale way of thinking         cate that this is the result of unproduc-   AS POOR AS BEFORE
that Bateman vigorously challenges in his        tive workers, employed on request           To Milford Bateman, microcredit for prof-       concludes that in 2007 the village was               August 2009, Asia Times Online reported              the majority of people in developing and
book.                                            from local loan sharks, being laid off.     it is tantamount to reallocating resources      just as poor as when the project was                 that poor Cambodian farmers in heavy                 transition countries, their country’s di-
                                               ● Microfinancing does not empower             away from the poor in order to enable it        launched at the beginning of the 1970s.              micro-debt were lining up to sell their              version into microfinance has actually
NO MIRACLE CURE                                  women; instead their husbands take          to be shared between wealthy western in-        Sofia Begum ended her days living in ex-             land. In India, Sudhirendar Sharma, a                undermined previous and ongoing efforts
While Bateman’s book has been met with           over the business.                          stitutional investors and stockholders of       treme poverty, no wealthier than before              former World Bank analyst, and now di-               to reduce poverty, unemployment, ine-
fire and brimstone, he is by no means          ● Rather than benefiting the poorest, mi-     microfinance institutions. He finds it even     Yunus took his lending scheme to Jobra.              rector of the Delhi-based Ecological Foun-           quality and underdevelopment,” and, he
alone in his scepticism. Two independ-           crofinancing mainly helps low and me-       worse, however, that even in its purer             The bigger picture confirms this trend.           dation, thinks microfinance is partly to             continues, “Rather than fight collectively
ent reports, published in 2010, under-           dium-low income groups.                     form, microcredit does not seem to fulfil       In Africa, there is both an increasing ten-          blame for 87,000 famers committing sui-              through the state or trade unions or so-
pin the conclusion that microcredit is no        All this refutes the myth that, in the      its purpose.                                    dency towards de-industrialization and               cide between 2002 and 2006. “The rural               cial movements and other forms of social
miracle cure for poverty. Some critics go      long run, microfinance helps reduce pov-          Jobra, in Bangladesh, was the first vil-    a lack of investment in the agricultural             suicides cast a dark shadow on the fledg-            mobilization, or argue for land reform or
even further, arguing that micro- finance      erty. At the same time a new type of mi-      lage to implement Muhammad Yunus’s              sector. Entire cities shift from large-scale         ing microfinance sector,” Sharma says.               wealth redistribution, or vote in a pro-
is actually preventing money from being        croloans has emerged. These loans are         microcredit system, and Sofia Begum             economies to private small-business com-                                                                  poor government (if you had the oppor-
used in the most effective manner, and         provided by commercial banks in and out-      was his very first customer. A study con-       mitments. In Mexico, small and medium-               WASTE OF CAPITAL                                     tunity), it was hoped that the poor could
thereby reversing years of effort invested     side of Wall Street, hedge funds, and other   ducted by the newspaper Bhorer Kagaj,           sized enterprises are displaced, and in              In his book, Bateman argues that “for                now be encouraged to settle for informal

50 PersPective
   NO. 01.2011
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      NO. 01.2011   51

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        PROvIdERS OF MICROFINANCE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Providers of Microfinance services can be
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        divided into four general categories:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        INFORMAL FINANCIAL-SERvICE PROvIdERS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        These include moneylenders, savings col-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        lectors, and input supply shops. These pro-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        viders are part of the local community; they
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        understand the financial circumstances and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        can thus offer very flexible, convenient and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        fast services, which may also be costly. In
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        addition, informal services involving savings
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        are often risky.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        MEMBER-OWNEd ORgANISATIONS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Include self-help groups, credit unions and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        a variety of hybrid organisations. They are
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        generally local and small. Poor people ma-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        nage them, and operation costs are there-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        fore low. However, such providers may lack
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        financial skills, and members, therefore, risk
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        losing money.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        NgO s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        NGOs, such as the Grameen Bank, are
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        popular providers of microcredit loans.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        More specifically, the NGOs are non-formal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        providers of microcredit loans. They have
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        proven innovative and pioneering banking
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        techniques, for example solidarity lending,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        village banking, and mobile banking which
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        have overcome barriers in serving poor po-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        pulations. However, with boards that do not
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        necessarily represent either their capital or
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        their customers, their governance structu-
MICRO-AdvERTISINg: a sign advertising loans in the Kibera slums of Nairobi, Kenya.          Foto: Jacob Silberberg/Panos Pictures /Felix Features   POPULAR LOANS: 27 year old Hibisat Kassaye has borrowed money from a microcredit scheme and         res can be fragile, and they can become
                                                                                                                                                    established her own shop in Nazreth, Ethiopia. Microcredit is very popular in many poor communi-    overly dependent on external donors.
                                                                                                                                                    ties, and an impressive 98 per cent of them repay their loans.
                                                                                                                                                                                               Photo: Petterik Wiggers/Panos Pictures /Felix Features   FORMAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In addition to commercial banks, these in-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        clude state banks, agricultural-development
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        banks, savings banks, rural banks and non-
microenterprise activity instead, support-                                                       Economies, or the newer East Asian Ti-             the opinions of humanitarian organiza-            this argument claiming that it is rather          banking financial institutions. They are re-
ed by microfinance.”                               ■ ■ There is a place                          ger economies, and so also patiently               tions; they are not convinced that re-            the other way round – families with chil-         gulated and supervised, offer a wider range
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        of financial services, and control a branch
   Essentially, critics claim, microfinance
is just a way for the poor to pay for their        for microcredit in                            build relatively sophisticated and scaled-
                                                                                                 up industrial and agricultural sectors
                                                                                                                                                    placing microfinancing with western
                                                                                                                                                    economic modernization is the right
                                                                                                                                                                                                      dren in school are keener borrowers
                                                                                                                                                                                                      than others.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        network that can extend across the coun-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        try and have international connections. Ho-
own escape from poverty.
   ”It was soon clear that microfinance
                                                   the campaign to                               from the ’bottom up’, then the growing
                                                                                                 emphasis on microfinance as develop-
                                                                                                                                                    path to choose. They say that micro-
                                                                                                                                                    finance has not been around for long
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Microcredit is still popular. Despite
                                                                                                                                                                                                      the high interest rates, poor people in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        wever, they have proved reluctant to adopt
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        social missions and, due to their high costs
programs were starting to absorb the val-          help the world’s                              ment policy was leading them in com-               enough to determine whether it has po-            Latin America are queuing up to receive
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        of operation, are often unable to deliver ser-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        vices to poor or remote populations.
uable financial resources that might oth-                                                        pletely the wrong direction.”                      tential to develop.                               financial assistance from Compartamos.            More than 2.7 billion people still have no
erwise have been channelled into institu-          poor; it is just not a                                                                              According to the Economist, there              Microfinance institutions are popping             access to formal financial services that are
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        cheaper and more reliable than the informal
tions, industrial districts, networks, local
industrial policy and , technology devel-          very big one.                                 SOLId BORROWERS
                                                                                                 This was what happened in Eastern Eu-
                                                                                                                                                    are, so far, surprisingly few credible esti-
                                                                                                                                                    mates on the effect microfinance has had
                                                                                                                                                                                                      up all over the world, and an estimated
                                                                                                                                                                                                      150 million poor people now have such
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        alternatives. Microfinance reaches 150 mil-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        lion borrowers worldwide – no more than
opment,” Bateman claims.                           dEAN KARLAN research and economy professor    rope in the decades following the break-           on poverty. Still, it is beyond all doubt         loans The Economist reports that 98               a fraction of the global need. Nonetheless,
   With that, Bateman places himself in                                                          down of the Soviet Union, when many                that microfinancing has made it possi-            per cent of these borrowers repay their           over the last 20 years, microfinance has
the middle of an ongoing debate about                                                            medium-sized businesses went under and             ble for many poor entrepreneurs to start          loans.                                            grown enormously, and is now a major sup-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        plier of a wide range of financial services to
which strategy is most effective: on the           weavers working by themselves. “There         were replaced by small-scale businesses.           their own businesses, and at lower inter-            This is a very good score, far bet-            millions of people in the emerging world.
one hand small-scale development or, on            is a place for microcredit in the campaign    ”Africanizacija,” - Africanisation is the bit-     est rates than were obtainable from the           ter than the so-called subprime loans.
the other hand, modernization, skills de-          to help the world’s poor; it is just not a    ter reaction among people who used to              local loan sharks, and thus many poor             So perhaps the question should be re-             SOURCES:
velopment, and industrialization.                  very big one,” research and economy           participate in industrialized economies            entrepreneurs have improved their qual-           phrased? With a solid customer’s share
   According to the authors of a research          professor, Dean Karlan, says.                 now supplanted by tiny and individual              ity of life.                                      equal to 98 per cent, why cannot the              www.microfinancegateway.org
report from the Massachusetts Institute               Bates agrees wholeheartedly with their     business initiatives. “Africanisation” has            Earlier studies have concluded that            poor be offered loans in ordinary banks           ”Access for all: Building Inclusive Financial
of Technology, microfinancing draws the            conclusion, pointing out that if:             become a synonym for neglect of indus-             microfinance borrowers send their chil-           at ordinary interest rates? ■                     Systems,” Brigit Helms
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Microfinance Banana Skins Report 2011
shortest straw. The report concludes that             “poor African, Latin American and          trial development and major investment             dren to school more often than other
forty weavers working in a textile plant           South-East Asian countries serious-           in tiny and individual initiatives.                families, at a ratio of 64 to 34 per cent.        TRANSLATEd BY: Linda Jeanette Gresslien
are much more productive than forty                ly wanted to emulate the rich Western            This type of criticism has yet to change        However, experts have disseminated

52    PersPective
      NO. 01.2011
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   NO. 01.2011   53
Care International, one of the world’s leading humanitarian organizations,
has worked with microfinance for more than 20 years. They say
microfinance is helping the poor to create their own opportunities.

Changing Lives
With Microfinance
BY Linda Jeanette Gresslien

CARE sees access to affordable financial      COMMERCIAL BUSINESSES                          CHALLENgES
services as central to addressing poverty,    Khan says the negative impacts of micro-       Khan emphasises that microfinance does
and has promoted microfinance through         finance are partly a result of microfinance    not only include loans but, also, the provi-
a variety of methods, and at various lev-     institutions aggressively seeking out cus-     sion of a range of other equally valuable
els, as a key part of its economic develop-   tomers, and of loans sometimes being           financial services. These include savings
ment projects.                                given to those who have no real capacity       accounts, insurance and money transfers –
  “Of the world’s 500 million micro- and      to repay.                                      most ‘good’ MFIs usually have many more
small business owners, less than 2 per           “It is apparent that in recent years mi-    savers than borrowers. In fact, the greatest
cent have access to financial services and    crofinance has become a commercial             benefits to poor people often come from
the business training vital for the suc-      business, as it has become evident that        providing secure savings services.
cess of their enterprises,” says Dr. Ajaz     providing poor people with financial ser-         Khan says that, as a whole, there are a
Ahmed Khan, Microfinance Advisor at           vices can be very profitable,” Khan says.      number of general challenges that are fac-
Care International UK.                        To some extent, providers of microfi-          ing the microfinance industry. They in-
                                              nance have shifted their focus towards         clude building permanent microfinance
90 PER CENT WOMEN                             less poor clients. “Ironically, something      institutions that can provide a range of
Currently, CARE has 131 microfinance          that was created to help the poorest lift      financial services to poor people and, in
projects in 39 countries. 90 per cent of      themselves out of poverty may soon mar-        addition, maintain a balance between
the people being provided assistance          ginalise them once again,” he says.            providing affordable and accessible fi-
by means of the projects are women.                                                          nancial services and ensuring that their
   “We have seen that poor people in          PROTECTINg LENdERS                             provision is financially sustainable. In
general, and poor women in particular,        As a result of Care’s microfinance activi-     addition, there is a need for improving
invest their loans wisely, not only in in-    ties and the potential vulnerability of the    the management and governance of mi-
come generating activities, but also in the   poor people they work with, they have de-      crofinance institutions; developing and
welfare of their families,” Khan says.        signed a consumer-protection code that         strengthening the supervision and regula-
   Khan stresses, however, that it is nec-    protects the rights of the clients and part-   tion of the sector to secure that best prac-
essary to recognise research showing          ners. Any microfinance institution that        tices are followed as widely as possible.

                                                                                                                                                                                It takes the right ideas
that in certain circumstances (for ex-        CARE has established, developed or with           “Because I have seen microfinance at
ample, in patriarchal societies, where        whom they are partners, must adhere to         its best, I know it is a valuable poverty
loans received by women have been             the code of conduct - and also undergo a       alleviation tool, but it is most effective
appropriated by male relatives) micro-        strict screening procedure to ensure that      when, as with anything, best practices
                                                                                                                                                                                to shelter our planet.
finance has had a limited or even nega-       not only does it meet certain financial cri-   are employed and effective safeguards
tive impact on poverty, by - for exam-        teria but, in addition, has a strong social-   are put in place to protect the poor and                                           Konica Minolta products present concepts and features
ple - adding to the debt burdens of poor      development mission.                           vulnerable,” Khan concludes. ■                                                     which make it easy to consider the environment.
people.                                          In the Lend-With-Care project in Indone-
   “Certainly, microfinance is not a pana-    sia and the Philippines, the microfinance                                                                                         Eco-friendly innovations can be found throughout the entire
                                                                                                                                                                                lifecycle of every device, including strict production standards,
cea, and on many occasions the provision      institutions that CARE co-operate with         ■ ■                                                                                efficient operation and intelligent recycling. Furthermore, the
of microfinance by itself is not sufficient   are financial cooperatives that are owned
to alleviate poverty. Often it must be ac-    and often managed by the members (bor-         Ironically, something that was                                                     manufacture of consumables, the transport of products and
                                                                                                                                                                                our procurement policy are part of the Konica Minolta mission
companied by other investments such           rowers and savers) themselves. Khan says       created to help the poorest lift                                                   to save resources and create new value.
as improvements to rural infrastructure,
technology, and services such as market-
                                              that in many cases senior members of staff
                                              within these institutions come from the lo-
                                                                                             themselves out of poverty may soon                                                 There’s only one world. We know it takes a great deal of
ing and the provision of skills training to   cal communities they serve. “They have         marginalise them once again.                                                       effort to keep it a friendly place.

have a more positive impact on the lives      risen through the ranks, and continued to
of poor people,” Khan explains.               be micro entrepreneurs,” he says.
                                                                                                                                            Konica Minolta Business Solutions Norway AS · Nydalsveien 26 · 0484 Oslo · www.konicaminolta.no

54    PersPective
      NO. 01.2011
■  korea

                   Two Countries –
                   One Nation
                   The Korean people are divided by a 248 kilometre long and 4 kilometre broad de-
                   militarized zone. Both sides of the border are patrolled by heavily armed soldiers.
                   In spite of this divide, Koreans still consider themselves as part of one nation.
                   BY: Richard Skretteberg, SEOUL

56   PersPective
     NO. 01.2011
                                                                                              NO. 01.2011   57
■  korea

        ven though Koreans think of them-             the Koreans say they feel like “shrimps                                                                                                                                                         NORTH KOREA
         selves as “han nara”, i.e. one na-           among whales”.
         tion, the division into two differ-                                                                                                                                                                                                          POPuLATION: 2.9 million
ent states is beginning to result in growing          THE WORST OF TIMES                                                                                                                                                                              AREA: 120 540 sq km
dissimilarities. One example of this can              During my visit to North Korea in 2001, I                                                                                                                                                       LIFE ExPECTANCY AT BIRTH: 66.8 years
be perceived in language development.                 had a strange feeling that I was being sys-                                                                                                                                                     gOvERNMENT:
The dialects are becoming distinctly dif-             tematically duped, presumably to direct                                                                                                                                                         Communist, single-party state
ferent and, at the same time, in the south,           my attention away from what I was not
more and more English words are being                 meant to see. If I had not, quite by mis-                                                                                                                                                       ■■ North Korea’s present ruler Kim        ■■ The war ended with an armistice,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Jong-il is the son of former leader Kil   which, however, has never been re-
incorporated into the language, thereby               chance, opened the wrong door in a hos-                                                                                                                                                         Il-sung, who ruled the country from       placed by a peace agreement.
making the South Korean vernacular in-                pital in Haeju - a town situated south of                                                                                                                                                       1948 till 1994.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ■■ North Korea declared itself a nu-
creasingly more difficult to understand for           Pyongyang en route to the South-Korean                                                                                                                                                          ■■ The Korean War (1950-1953)             clear power in 2005.
people from the north.                                border – the dire situation of the North                                                                                                                                                        was a conflict between the commu-
   Today there is absolutely no commu-                Korean people would have remained ab-                                                                                                                                                           nist Democratic People’s Repub-           ■■ Through the so-called six-party
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      lic of Korea supported by China and       disarmament talks, involving North
nication between people in North Ko-                  stract - something I had been told by Unit-                                                                                                                                                                                               Korea, South Korea, Japan, China,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      the Soviet Union and the Republic
rea and people in South Korea: no tel-                ed Nation officials or in the form of dry                                                                                                                                                       of Korea supported by the Western         the US and Russia, North Korea has
ephone, no post, no e-mail connection. If             statistics, and which I had carefully writ-                                                                                                                                                     powers. An estimated 2.5 million          been offered extensive economic aid
you escape from North-Korea you leave                 ten down in my notebook.                                                                                                                                                                        people died as a consequence of the       and security guaranties in return for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      conflict.                                 abandoning its nuclear program.
all of your past behind you, for there is                However, I did open that door, and
no way back. If these two countries were              heard a gasp from my guide as a row of
ever to reunite, it would mean the merg-              children appeared on the other side.
ing of two very different worlds, both                They were perhaps four or five years old,
mentally and economically.                            all with hollow cheeks and straggly hair.
   The older generation consider the                  It was too late to prevent me from see-
partition to be both unnatural and un-                ing what had so diligently been kept from
fair. They remember the time before the               me. Quickly the children were ordered to
country was divided. Prior to 1953, the               stand up and greet us. The boy closest to
Chosum dynasty had ruled Korea for                    me bowed deeply before falling over, ex-
1300 years and, furthermore, Korea had                hausted by the effort. To my dying day I
not been one of the aggressor-states dur-             will not forget that scene.
ing the Second World War. Quite the con-                 The situation in North-Korea was at
trary, they had been subjected to a brutal            its very worst at the end of the 1990s.
occupation by Japanese imperial forces.               The North Korean regime continued as
Nonetheless these elderly North Koreans               before, even though the Berlin wall had
are realists: they know full well that, even          long been dismantled and various pieces       FOOD SHORTAgE: along the bank of the Yalu river, which forms part of the border between North Korea and China, North Korean soldiers unload       COLLECTIvE FARM: a woman dries corn outside her home on a collective
today, Korea is the victim of super-power             of the debris placed on souvenir shelves      sacks of food coming from China. As a result of the serious food shortage, the North Korean authorities have also accepted food assistance        farm in North Korea. This woman is old enough to remember the 1960s,
                                                                                                    from South Korea.                                                                                                                Foto: Scanpix.   when North Koreans were more affluent than their fellow Koreans in the
rivalry. With US, Chinese, and Japanese               in thousands of homes all over Europe.                                                                                                                                                          south.                                                     Foto: Scanpix.
interests in play, it is not surprising that          When the Soviet Union collapsed, the
                                                      flow of subsidised goods being sent to

                                                                                                    to worse. Per capita income fell from                                   father, the son and the party, Kim il-Jong         rean. This clearly shows to which extent            ous plants, and undernourished mothers
                                                      ■■■                                           2460 dollars in 1991 to 719 dollars in 1995.                            succeeded his father as President.                 rice is the basic ingredient in all Korean          did not have enough breast milk to feed
                                                      5 million North Kor-                          At the same time the regime suffered
                                                                                                    political backlashes; the Soviet Union
                                                                                                                                                                               Kim il-Sung had once promised that,
                                                                                                                                                                            every day, all North Koreans should have
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               cooking. But, in the mid 1990s, it was no
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               longer available. Over the course of the

                                                      eans are dependent                            opened diplomatic channels with South                                   a meal of white rice and stew. But in the          1990s, between 600,000 and two mil-                 ESCAPE
                                                                                                    Korea in 1990, to be followed by China                                  1990s everything went into decline. Food           lion North Koreans died as a result of the          My recent visit to Korea took place in
                                                      on food assistance.                           two years later.                                                        became scarcer and the quality poorer.             crisis. People did not just starve to death.        early spring, and I knew that the sun
                                                                                                                                                                            Many schools stopped providing their               Chronic undernourishment reduces the                would soon be able to warm up the ice-
                                                      North Korea stopped and, without cheap        A FAMILY DYNASTY                                                        students with school meals. Less and less          body’s ability to fight infections, and ill-        cold houses in the north. However, it is
                                                      oil and industrial parts, the North Korean    Kim il-Sung died at the age of 82, on 8                                 rice was available, and people started us-         nesses that are normally non-lethal be-             in spring that food shortages are at their
                                                      economy came to a standstill. Satellite       July 1994, just in time to save at least a                              ing grass or plants for food instead. Any-         came deadly. Diarrhoea turned into dys-             most extreme - yet the next harvest is still
                                                      photographs of East-Asia at night showed      fraction of his legacy after his death. All                             thing edible, even frogs and small birds,          entery and a common cold developed                  several months away. According to the
                                                      an area the size of England in complete       grown-ups in North Korea remember this                                  were caught, killed and eaten.                     into pneumonia. As a result of a shortage           Wold Food Program, 5 million North Ko-
TEN YEARS ON: in 2001, Perspective’s journal-
ist, Richard Skretteberg, visited North Korea. Ten    darkness - North Korea. The shortage of       day. All over the country people gathered                                  The public distribution of food col-            of electricity the sewage system broke              reans are dependent on food assistance.
years later, in February 2011, he met several         electricity, fuel, fertilizers, cheap food    at bronze statues of the great leader to                                lapsed, and in 1995 the regime requested           down, and that lead to outbreaks of ty-             In 2010 the food rations shared out to
North Korean refugees now living in South             and medicines was a serious blow to the       leave bunches of chrysanthemums, Asia’s                                 assistance from the UN. By that time peo-          phoid. Typhoid can be cured by antibi-              each individual covered only 2/3 of the
Korea. They told him of their dramatic escapes                                                      flower of mourning. The country’s found-                                                                                                                                       amount required by a single person in or-
                                                      population of North-Korea. In addition                                                                                ple were totally dependent on their own            otics, but there were no antibiotics to
from the north, and of the harshness that, for
years, has been the lot of the North Korean           the country was hit by flooding and fail-     ing father had died, but was proclaimed                                 ingenuity if they were to survive. Rice            be had. Small children were unable to               der to be well-nourished.
people.                     Foto: Flyktninghjelpen.   ing harvests. North Korea went from bad       President for Eternity. In the name of the                              and food is the same word, bab, in Ko-             digest soup made from grass and vari-                 In March the ice starts to melt on the

58     PersPective
       NO. 01.2011
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  NO. 01.2011   59
■  korea

                                                                                                                                                    rivers that form the border with China.        with Chinese men, according to the book
                                                                                                                                                    Fewer people attempt to escape from            Ordinary Lives in North-Korea by Barbara
                                                                                                                                                    North Korea when the spring floods are         Demick, published in 2010.
                                                                                                                                                    at their highest, although some do still          Jae-Hee had hoped that once she ar-
                                                                                                                                                    try. Between 1953 and 1998 only 923            rived in China, she would be able to lo-
                                                                                                                                                    North Koreans fled to South Korea. By          cate relatives supposed to be living there
                                                                                                                                                    November 2010 the number had ex-               and that she would be able to engage
                                                                                                                                                    ceeded 20,000. In addition more than           their help in order to travel on to South
                                                                                                                                                    100,000 North Koreans were living in           Korea. There is a large Korean popula-
                                                                                                                                                    China.                                         tion in Manchuria, so large in fact, that
                                                                                                                                                       In downtown Seoul I met two Korean          signposts in the border area are written
                                                                                                                                                    women at a little restaurant near the Ho-      in both Chinese and Korean.
                                                                                                                                                    tel Plaza. They had both escaped from the         It is an irony of fate that many Kore-
                                                                                                                                                    hunger crisis in the north. Jae-Hee Kom        ans living in China fled to North Korea at
                                                                                                                                                    was pale and seemed tired. She was sitting     the beginning of the 1960s during Mao’s
                                                                                                                                                    on the edge of her seat with hands folded.     “Great Leap Forward”, which led to cata-
                                                                                                                                                    She bowed her head and a tear ran down         strophic consequences for the Chinese
                                                                                                                                                    her cheek. “I have a son, but I will never     people. At that time the North Korean
                                                                                                                                                    see him again,” she said quietly.              economy was stronger than the econo-
                                                                                                                                                                                                   mies of both China and South Korea, and
                                                                                                                                                    SOLD INTO MATEROMONY                           even Koreans living in Japan were attract-
                                                                                                                                                    In February 1999, Jae-Hee Kim crossed          ed back to North Korea. It is important to
                                                                                                                                                    the frozen Tumen river, one of the riv-        recognise these facts in order to under-
                                                                                                                                                    ers that form the border between North         stand present-day North Korea. North
BuYINg WIvES: Disabled by polio, the disadvantaged Li “bought” a North                                                                              Korea and China. The Tumen is nar-             Korea was not an underdeveloped coun-
Korean wife several years ago. His wife has since moved on to Beijing, but
                                                                                                                                                    row; it freezes early in the autumn, but       try; it is a country that experienced a dra-
their son lives with his father. Many of the Chinese men who “buy” North
Korean wives are either poor or disabled, and have great difficulty finding a                                                                       is easy to swim across in the summer.          matic fall in living standards. The elder
wife in their local environment.                                                                                                                    Since the 1990s, thousands of North Ko-        generations of North Koreans remember
                              Foto: Qilai Shen/Panos Pictures/Felix Features                                                                        reans have crossed the Tumen river into        a time when they had a better supply of
                                                                                                                                                    China, usually in the middle of the night      electricity and more food than people in
                                                                                                                                                    or at dawn. The refugees slip money or         the south.
                                                                                                                                                    Chinese goods into the pockets of North
                                                                                                                                                    Korean policemen and soldiers, whilst,
                                                                                                                                                    on the other side, people-smugglers pay        ■■■ Of the more
                                                                                                                                                    Chinese border guards to look the other
                                                                                                                                                    way, until they have made contact with
                                                                                                                                                                                                   than 100,000 North
                                                                                                                                                    the refugees.
                                                                                                                                                       Jae-Hee Kim fled together with ten oth-
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Koreans that have
                                                                                                                                                    er people. When they finally found their       fled to China, three-
                                                                                                                                                    guide waiting for them on the Chinese side
                                                                                                                                                    of the river, Jae-Hee Kim knew what sort of    quarters are women
                                                                                                                                                    future lay ahead of her. After a twelve hour
                                                                                                                                                    march they approached a house. There she       and more than half
                                                                                                                                                    was sold to a Chinese man.
                                                                                                                                                       There is a large excess of men in rural
                                                                                                                                                                                                   of them live with Chi-
                                                                                                                                                    China, and North Korean women are of-
                                                                                                                                                    ten sold to older, single Chinese men. Be-
                                                                                                                                                                                                   nese men.
                                                                                                                                                    fore the people-smugglers left they whis-
                                                                                                                                                    pered to Jae-Hee that, after some time            Jae-Hee tells of a happy childhood. She
                                                                                                                                                    had passed, she ought to run away so           lived in the capital Pyongyang until she
                                                                                                                                                    that they could sell her a second time.        was 14 years old, at which time her fam-
                                                                                                                                                       But Jae-Hee stayed. The man she had         ily moved to Chengjin on the east cost.
                                                                                                                                                    been sold to was kind to her in the begin-     There she went to university and trained
                                                                                gRADuATION DAY: North Korean, Lee Ryeon-hee (20), escaped           ning and she thought she had been lucky.       as a teacher. She specialised in The His-
HANAWO CENTRE: The Hanawo centre is situated 77 kilometres south of             from North to South Korea as a child. In February 2011, she and                                                    tory of Kim il Sung and sang in the party
Seoul, the South Korean capital. All North Korean refugees are sent to          43 other North Korean students graduated from the Hangyeore         MOSTLY WOMEN                                   choir. Jae-Hee put off marriage because
Hanawo when they first arrive in South Korea. At this centre they are intro-    Middle and High School in Anseong, an institution built specially
duced to all aspects of the new life facing their.                              for the education of North Korean refugees. Hand on heart, the      Of the more than 100,000 North Koreans         she wanted to serve the party. North Ko-
                                                              Foto: Scanpix.    South Korean flag behind her, she proudly accepts her diploma.      that have fled to China, three-quarters are    rean authorities do not encourage early
                                                                                                                                   Foto: Scanpix.   women and more than half of them live          marriage. Young people should serve

60 PersPective
   NO. 01.2011
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              NO. 01.2011   61
■  korea

■■■ In the same way as the old caste system in China, family                                                                                    43 MILLION DISPLACED
status is inherited down through the generations and it is almost
impossible for a person of low status to better his position.

their country first. The ideal age for mar-   glers and people who had crossed the            Chinese goods would undermine their
riage is considered to be 30 years for        border in order to find food. At worst she      authority,” said Ji-Yeon.
men and 28 for women.                         would have spent the rest of her life in a         An absolute regime is based on absolute
                                              kwanliso, a labour camp for those found         power – and that required that all supplies
A CASTE SOCIETY                               guilty of political crimes.                     be provided by the regime. Local neigh-
However, it was difficult for Jae Hee to         Jae-Hee had every reason to be nerv-         borhood informants, collaborated with
be accepted as a party member. Her            ous. Prior to the Beijing Olympics in           and reported to the Ministry for Protec-
grandparents originally came from South       2008, Chinese authorities increased se-         tion of State Security, and there was at
Korea. They had fled north during the         curity measures. Roadblocks were set up         least one informant for every 50th citizen.
Korean War. The family therefore had          in border areas and, in some instances             Ji-Yeon was forced to make a heart-
“tainted” blood, and in North Korea chil-     North Korean police were allowed on to          rending choice when she learned that
dren pay the price for the “sins” of par-     Chinese territory in order to infiltrate        her mother was in China. She loved her
ents and grandparents. The authority’s        refugee communities. The local popula-          father, step-mother and little sister, but
division of the population in different       tion were promised 40 US dollars if they        missed her mother terribly. On 3 Febru-
categories has little or nothing to do with   disclosed common-law marriages be-              ary 2010 Ji-Yeon crossed the Tumen river.
Marxism. However, it fits well with Con-      tween Chinese men and North Korean              Her mother was waiting for her at the
fucian philosophy that all people have a      women. Feeling desperate, Jae Hee set           other side. Ji-Yeion turned and looked
place within a social pyramid.                off on a life-saving journey, first she trav-   back. North Korea and the rest of her
   At the bottom of this pyramid are de-      elled across China, then through parts of       family were still close, but her farewells
scendants of landowning families, reli-       Vietnam, before ending up in Cambodia.          were forever.
gious leaders and those who have shown        With the assistance of the South Korean            With the help of Korean missionaries
pro-Japanese or pro-American sympa-           embassy in Cambodia, she travelled on to        living undercover in China, Ji-Yeon and
thies. For example after the Korean War       South Korea, arriving in Seoul on 31 Oc-        her mother were smuggled to Thailand.
many South Korean prisoners were nev-         tober 2007.                                     There they were first arrested as illegal
er released. In 1956 these prisoners were                                                     immigrants, but received help from the
given North Korean citizenship. Many          ESCAPED LAST YEAR                               South Korean embassy and were sent to
ended up working in mines or in labour        Ji-Yeon Kim is 19 years old. She arrived in     Seoul on 1 April 2010.
camps. In the same way as the old caste       South Korea a year ago and I interviewed
system in China, family status is inher-      her together with Jae-Hi. Ji-Yeon spent her     HANAWON
ited down through the generations and it      childhood in the North Korean town of           As the Chinese authorities do not allow
is almost impossible for a person of low      Musan, close to the Chinese border.             North Korean refugees to make contact
status to better his position. The only mo-      “Life was very hard,” she said, “and         with the South Korean embassy in Bei-
bility in this rigid structure is downward.   one day, in 2001, when I arrived home           jiing the refugee routes from China to
                                              from school my mother had left us.”             South Korea go either south, through
LIvINg WITH FEAR                                 One year later her father remarried.         South-East Asia or, alternatively, north-
“Kim il Sung was king, and Marxism was        Her father’s new wife made Toufu, bean          west to Mongolia.
replaced by Kim il Sung’ism in the 1970s.     stew, which she sold. The small, extra in-         In South Korea Ji Yeon was sent to
I had no future. I had to leave, even if it   come from the sales made life easier.           Hanawon, a repatriation centre, an

                                                                                                                                            ORDINARY PEOPLE DOING
meant being sold,” says Jae-Hee. But her         ”Many families sold almost everything        hour’s drive south of Seoul. All North
amiable Chinese husband changed once          they owned in order to buy food. The            Korean refugees spend their first

                                                                                                                                             EXTRAORDINARY WORK
she had born him a son. Jae-Hee was           only thing left hanging on the walls was        months in South Korea at this centre,
thrown out of the home and had to take        a portrait of Kim il-Sung. It was illegal to    where they undergo extensive interroga-
a job at a restaurant. She never found the    sell that,” Ji-Yeon explained.                  tion intended to uncover possible north-
relatives she thought were living in China.      There was also severe political repres-      ern infiltrators. In addition the refugees
Every day she feared being caught by the      sion.                                           must learn such things as the South Ko-
Chinese police and being sent back to            “The more there was to complain              rean version of history, and practical
North Korea. If she had been returned,        about, the more important it was that no        skills such as how to use a cash outlet.
she would, at best, have been placed in a     one voiced displeasure. The authorities         Normally a refugee spends almost three
kyohuaso, a re-training camp for smug-        were afraid that a black market filled with     months at Hanawon. ■
62    PersPective
      NO. 01.2011
■  culture, books and Media

                                                                                                      2	Billion	
                                                                                                                                                                                    Role	of	neW	media	in	aRaB	upRisings
                                                                                                                                                                                    “These are tools of communication. They don’t        Action, the work widely celebrated as having inspi-
                                                                                                                                                                                    determine what you are going to say. That requires   red protesters across North Africa and the Middle
                                                                                                                                                                                    something more than technology. Some people don’t    East, when asked by Reason Magazine of his gene-
                                                                                                      inteRnet	useRs: more than 2 billion people are now connected to the inter-   recognize that.”                                     ral feeling on the relationship between non-violent
                                                                                                      net world wide.             Source: International Telecommunication Union     Gene Sharp, author of The Politics of Nonviolent     struggle and new media.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Books	to	Read

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               David Bezmozgis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               The Free World
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Published: March 2011,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Farrar, Straus & Giroux.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               This novel, by Latvian-born
people: What is the name of this top UN official?                               Photo: Scanpix                                                                                                                                                                                                 Bezmozgis, introduces
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               us to the young, Jewish,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Krasnansky brothers,
people                                                                                                Rome: Afghan President, Hamid Karzai, speaks at the launch of the exhibi-                                                                                                                their wives, parents and
1.	 What is the name of the top UN official depicted above, and what                                 tion “Crossroads of the Ancient World” at the British Museum.                                                                                                                            children, fleeing from
     position does she hold?                                                                                                                                     Photo: Scanpix                                                                                                                Soviet Latvia to Italy at
2.	 Why is Eva Joly a well-known person?
3.	 What made Thomas Malthus famous?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          the end of the 1970s.
                                                                                                      BRitish	museum	                                                                                                                                                                        They end up in an Italian vil-
4.	 What is the name of the microcredit pioneer who founded
     Grameen Bank?
5.	 Who is head of state in North Korea?
                                                                                                      Afghanistan, Crossroads                                                                                                                                                                  lage surrounded by other Jewish ref-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               ugee-families all waiting and hoping
Refugees	and	humanitaRian	affaiRs	                                                                of the Ancient World                                                                                                                                                                     to find permanent homes in the West.
1.	 What characterises the largest group of people escaping from                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Together they experience the exciting
     North-Korea?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              and confusing start to their new lives;
                                                                                                      In 1989 staff at the National          communications in the an-
2.	 What does the abbreviation DFID stand for?
3.	 And the abbreviation DAC?                                                                        Museum of Afghanistan in Ka-           cient world. Afghanistan lay on                                                                                                                   love affairs, money, crime, freedom and
4.	 Name the three largest donors of humanitarian aid in 208?                                        bul carefully hid away some of         the Silk Road, the main trad-                                                                                                                     exile.
5.	 What is the definition of humanitarian aid - as opposed                                          the museum’s most priceless            ing route from China to the
     to development aid?
                                                                                                      objects to keep them safe dur-         Mediterranean, and was criss-
1.	 In which year was Korea divided into North and South Korea?
                                                                                                      ing times of unrest. In 2004           crossed by travelling routes           Rome: 	National demonstration against the decree media law was held in the Piazza Navona, in June         Peter Taylor :
                                                                                                      they were taken out of hiding          from all directions.                   last year.                                                                           Photo: Scanpix
2.	 In which year did the Russians launch Sputnik?
                                                                                                      and since then they have been             One of the finest treasures                                                                                                                    Talking to Terrorists
3.	 The “green revolution” took place when?
4.	 Which country occupies Western Sahara?                                                           touring the world. These ob-           on display is a magnificent gold       eu
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Published: March 2011, Harper Press.
                                                                                                                                                                                    Press Freedom under Attack
5.	 In which year did Egypt gain independence?                                                       jects are now on display at the        crown, probably made for a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               BBC-reporter Peter Taylor covered
politics	                                                                                            British Museum in London.              nomadic princess. The crown
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               the Northern Ireland conflict for more
1.	 Name the world’s three largest economies?                                                           The exhibition includes             can easily be dismantled into
2.	 What term is frequently used to characterise China’s involvement in                                                                                                                                                                                                                       than 30 years. After 9/11 he switched
                                                                                                      200 Afghan artefacts, span-            six pieces in order to make it         Media professionals and experts are con-             punish reporting that is not “politically
     developing countries?                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     his focus towards investi-
                                                                                                      ning from 2,000 BC to the first        easy to transport.                     cerned that press freedom is under at-               balanced” has created serious tension
3.	 What is the name of the Chinese currency? And the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         gating the Al Qaeda and
     Japanese currency?                                                                               century AD, and tell the story            The exhibition is open until        tack in several EU countries. At a confer-           within the EU. According to the direc-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Islamist extremism. In this
4.	 In which year is it projected that the Chinese economy will surpass                              of Afghanistan as a centre of          3 July 2011.                           ence organized by the EU parliament’s                tor of Romania’s Centre for Independent
     that of the US?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               book, Taylor draws on his
                                                                                                                                                                                    socialist group in March 2011, in Hungary,           Journalism, the Romanian parliament is                personal experiences
5.	 How large is Egypt’s population, and what per cent of the population
      is below the age of 26?                                                                                                                                                       Bulgaria, Romania, France and Italy were             currently discussing a law that imposes               and face-to-face meet-
                                                                                                      WoRld	touR	                                                                 pointed out as of particular concern.                annual psychiatric control of journalists.            ings with terrorists and
                                                                                                      World Press Photo Exhibition                                                     President Berlusconi’s extensive con-                The criticism raised at the conference             their victims in order to
                                                                                                                                                                                    trol of Italian media outlets has long been          is supported by the latest Press Freedom              shed light on questions
                                                                                                      The 2011 World Press Photo             winning photographs are                criticized, and in France the newspaper              Index, compiled by Reporters Without
4. 2027. 5. 84.6 million (52,3 %).
politics: 1. US, China, Japan (in that order). 2. “Trade, not aid” 3. Yuan (China), yen (Japan).                                                                                                                                                                                               and dilemmas concern-
histoRy: 1. 1953, 2. 1958, 3. 1950-1980, 4. Morocco, 5. 1922                                          Exhibition opens in Am-                chosen for their news value            Le Monde recently accused the president              Borders. That organization expressed                  ing whom terrorists
suffering, and maintain human dignity,” while development aid focuses more on long-term poverty       sterdam on 22 April. In the            and creative skill, and give a         of using intelligence agencies to identify           concern that several EU-member coun-                  are, and how they are being
EU Commission and Saudi Arabia (in that order), 5. Humanitarian aid aims to “save lives, alleviate
ment for International Development. 3. OECD Development Assistance Committee. 4. The US,              course of the next 11 months           unique insight into the news           a source that had given it information.              tries continued to fall on their index.               dealt with by governments and security
Refugees	and	humanitaRian	affaiRs: 1.The largest group consists of women. 2. UK Depart-            the exhibition will visit some         events of the previous year.              The most disquiet, however, concerns              They even went so far as to say that: “If             agencies.
                                                                                                      45 countries worldwide.                  You can read more about              the Eastern-European countries, all of               it does not pull itself together, the Eu-
4. Muhammad Yunus. 5. Kim il-Jung
ric ratio (1,2,4,8,16), while the means of subsistence increase in an arithmetic ratio (1,2,3,4,5).
Essay on the Principle of Population. His central theory is that population increases in a geomet-
European Parliament, and a candidate in the coming French Presidential Election. 3. Author of the
                                                                                                        On display are the winning           the exhibition and touring             which have imposed, or are discussing,               ropean Union risks losing its position
OCHA), 2. She is a prominent French politician (member of theThe Green Party), a member of the        images of this year’s World            dates at: www.worldpress-              new restrictive media laws. Hungary’s                as world leader in respect for human
                                                                                                      Press Photo Contest. The               photo.org                              new legislation, allowing authorities to             rights.”
people: 	1 . Valerie Amos, Under-Secretary-General and Emergency Relief Coordinator (Head of

64 PersPective
   NO. 01.2011
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       NO. 01.2011   65
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Nyhet! lady                                    pure color
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Vegg: LADY Pure CoLor 10249 Sober
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  - den eneste helmatte malingen
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  som også er slitesterk

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Lady Pure Color er fraværet av glans.
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Internal displacement:                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Norwegian University of Life Sciences
Global overview of trends and developments in 2010                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Bachelor`s degree programmes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 • International Environment and Development Studies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Master`s degree programmes                              •    Ecology - General
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 • Agroecology                                           •    Feed Manufacturing Technology
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 • Animal Breeding and Genetics                          •    International Development Studies
 the figures                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Aquaculture                                           •    International Environmental Studies
  and trends                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     • Bioinformatics and Applied Statistics                 •    International Relations
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 • Development and Natural Resource                      •    Microbiology
                                                                                                                                         FYR Macedonia 954,000–
                                                                                                                                              650      1,201,000
                                                                                                                                                                        Russian Federation Armenia
                                                                                                                                                                          6,500–78,000 At least 8,000
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Up to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         About 3,400
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Undetermined                              Economics                                             •    Plant Science


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 • Ecology - Tropical Ecology and Manage-
                                                                                                                                     About                                                                                               About 75,000
                                                                                                                                    225,000                 Georgia

 the countries
                                                                                                                                Kosovo                       Up to                                                                        Afghanistan
                                                                                                                                18,300                      258,000                                                                     At least 352,000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ment of Natural Resources
 and regions                                                                                                 Bosnia and Herzegovina

                                                                                                      Up to 208,000

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       At least 980,000

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        About 50,000                             We offer: High quality, frequent teacher-student interaction and a pleasant social and physical
                     Internal Displacement                                                  Occupied Palestinian Territory
                                                                                                 At least 160,000                                                                                                                            India
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       At least 650,000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           environment characterise education at UMB.
                     Global Overview of Trends and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Note: Public universities in Norway do not charge tuition fees, this also applies to interna-
                                                                                           Chad                                                                                                                                         Bangladesh
                                                                                          171,000                                                                                                                                      Undetermined

                             Developments in 2010

the analysis
                                                                                                   Senegal                                                            2,800,000                                                           Laos

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           tional students.
                                                        Mexico                                 10,000–40,000                                                                                                                           Undetermined
                                                                                                                                                                            Syria       Sri Lanka
                                                     About 120,000                                       Liberia                                                          At least       At least
                                                                                                      Undetermined                                                       433,000        327,000                                  The Philippines
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 At least 15,000
                                                                                                            Côte d´Ivoire                                                         Lebanon
                                                                                                           Undetermined                                                       At least 76,000

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 UMB’s Main Objectives are:
                                                            Guatemala                                              Togo                                                               Yemen                                             Myanmar
                                                           Undetermined                                         Undetermined                                                    About 250,000                                       At least 446,000
                                                                                                                                                                                   Eritrea          Indonesia
                                                                                                                 Niger                                                        About 10,000        About 200,000           Timor-Leste
                                                                                                              Undetermined                                                                                               Undetermined

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 • to be a major player in the field of life sciences, focusing on the core disciplines: biology, food and
                                                              3,600,000–5,200,000                                                                                               Ethiopia
                                                                                                              Nigeria                                                            About
                                                                                                            Undetermined         CAR                                            300,000
                                                                              Peru                                                                                             Somalia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   environmental science, land use and natural resource management, as well as associated and
                                                                          About 150,000                     4,500,000–       Republic of                                    About 1,500,000
                                                                                                             5,200,000        the Congo                                   Kenya
                                                                                                                             Up to 7,800                               About 250,000

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   technical subjects;
                                                                                                                                     DRC                               Uganda
                                                                                                                                    About                         At least 166,000
                                                                                                                                  1,700,000                      Rwanda
                                                                                                                                         Angola        Burundi

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 • to actively contribute to business development and continue to strengthen the scientific basis for
                                                                                                                                       Undetermined Up to 100,000

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   agriculture, aquaculture and other industries based on the utilisation of natural resources.
                     www.internal-displacement.org                                                                                                                                                                                                                               More information: www.umb.no

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