Wolf Presentation

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					             Types of Wolves
•   Gray Wolf
•   Timber wolf
•   Red wolf
•   Arctic wolf
            Wolf colors & coats
• Wolves range from all
  shades of gray, tan, and
  brown to pure white or
  solid black.
• 32% of wolves were
• Most wolves in north
  America are a grizzled
  gray color.
• Wolves depend upon
  their thick coat for warmth
  in the northern portions of
  their range.
                    Wolf grooming
• It is not surprising that Wolves
  spend part of their leisure time
  in grooming behavior.
• It is likely that the grooming of
  other pack members help
  reinforce the social bonds that
  tie the pack together.
• Two wolves will each other’s
  coat’s, nibbling gently with
  their teeth to remove foreign
• Reciprocal grooming is
  especially common during
• Injured wolves are intensely
  groomed by other pack
  members, providing both
  physical and mental comfort.
                 Wolf tracks
• The large feet of the
  wolf act as
  snowshoes in the
• Wolf tracks are very
  similar to those of a
  domestic dog,
  consisting of four pad
  prints plus claw
                    Wolf diseases
• Wolves are susceptible to
  more that 100 diseases and
  parasites, including various
  protozoa, roundworms,
  heartworms, tapeworms,
  flatworms, mange, mites, ticks,
  fleas, distemper, cataracts,
  oral papillomatosis, tularemia,
  trichinosis, bovine
  tuberculosis, encephalitis,
  arthritis, brucellosis, cancers,
  rickets, pneumonia, Lyme
  disease, parvovirus, rabies,
  and many other ailments.
          Wolf sense of smell
• The wolf’s keen
  sense of smell allows
  it to track many types
  of game.
• A wolf’s sense of
  smell may be 100
  times more accurate
  than a human’s.
        Wolf sense of hearing
• Wolves may be able
  to hear up to 10 miles
• Next to smell, the
  sense of hearing is
  the most acute of the
  wolf senses.
• Next to smell, the
  sense of hearing is
  the most important
  sense of the wolf.
                Wolf mouth
• Wolves have a total of
  42 teeth 10 more than
• The jaw of the wolf
  has a crushing power
  of 1,500 pounds per
  square inch.
                  Lone wolves
• Lone wolves usually
  comprise less that 15% of
  a total wolf population.
• When individual pack
  members die, lone
  wolves sometimes move
  in to fill the gap.
• Lone wolves tend to
  cover a large territory in
  their search for food or a
  mate and travel longest
  distances when they are
  cast out.
             Wolf pack size
• A wolf pack can range
  from under 10 wolves
  to over 50 wolves.
• Extra – large packs
  may provide improved
  hunting efficiency
  when game is scarce
  or may alternatively
  be a response to
  abundant prey.
            Wolf pack ranks
• Alpha – Leader
• Beta – assistant
• Other- hunters, pup
• Omega – lowest
  ranking wolf
     The leader of a wolf pack
• The leader of a wolf
  pack is called the
• There are 2 leaders in
  the pack, the alpha
  male and alpha
• The alpha male and
  the alpha female in a
  wolf pack are the
  head of the social
  hierarchy of a wolf
                 Wolf sleeping
• The Wolf curls up, sleep
  for 5-10 minutes, and
  wake up again.
• They turn around a few
  times, making sure to see
  what's happening, before
  they curl up again, and go
  back to sleep for another
  5-10 minutes.
• Almost half a wolf’s time
  is spent sleeping
         Mates in a wolf pack
• The alpha male and
  female are not the
  only pair in the pack
  that mates but mostly
  it is the alpha’s that
• Domesticated dogs
  can also mate with a
  wolf but rare to see.
                  The wolf den
• Shortly before giving
  birth, a pregnant female
  will seek out a den to
  protect the young pups.
• Dens can be a deep
  riverbank hollow, a cleft
  between rocks, a hollow
  log, a space under
  uprooted tree roots, or a
  space under a rock
• Some female wolves
  reuse previous dens.
             Wolf litter size
• A wolf litter size
  averages between 5 –
  6 pups.
• Some litters can be
  between 1-11pups
        Dangers to wolf pups
• Wolf pups are preyed
  upon by a wide
  variety of predators,
  including bears,
  cougars, and other
• Hunters are also a
  danger to many wolf
           Wolves hunting part 1
•   Wolves detect prey by
    three primary means:
    – Scent (most common)
    – Tracking
    – Chance encounters
•   After prey is detected,
    wolves may split up to
    search though brush,
    travel on ridge tops
    searching for the prey
    below, or test herds
    looking for signs of
•   It has long been
    recognized that wolves
    often take advantage of
    weak individuals in a herd.
             Wolves hunting part 2
•    Weakened animals may show their
     conditions to predators through
    –     Body stance
    –     Uncoordinated body movement
    –     The smell of wounds or infection
    –     Some other tangible signal
•    Once a weak individual is selected by
     the pack, it is brought down after a
•    While a majority of the pack rests, one
     or two members test the prey for signs
     of fatigue.
•    When the attack comes, the prey is
     usually seized by either the nose or the
•    The actual death of the prey is usually
     caused by massive blood loss, shock,
     or both
•    Sometimes with smaller prey a neck
     bite will snap the backbone.
•    Wolves usually begin to feed on the
     rump if it was exposed during the
     chase, or else on the internal organs.
•    The muscle and flesh is the last portion
     of the prey that is eaten, in contrast to
     human eating habits.
                  Prey of the wolf
• Moose, mice, deer, elk,
  caribou, beaver, hare, buffalo,
  birds, sheep, Ground squirrel,
  goat, saiga and Tibetan
  antelope, yak, urial, argali,
  Tibetan gazelle, camel, Ibex,
  Chamois, wild horse, wild
  boar, porcupine, rabbit,
  gopher, shrew, mole, rat,
  raccoon, muskrat, woodchuck,
  marmot, insects, nuts, berries,
  fruits, shellfish, earthworms,
  carrion, and human garbage.
            The old wolf habitat
• The old wolf habitat had
  included the high arctic,
  tundra, taiga, forests,
  plains, deserts, and
  virtually every ecological
  niche that provided
  sufficient food for it’s
• The tropical jungle
  appear to be the only
  ecological niche not
  inhabited by wolves.
     The size of a wolf territory
• The average size of a
  wolf territory is 223.88
  square miles.
       The current wolf habitat
• Currently, the majority
  of wolves inhabit the
  most forested,
  rugged, and remote
  regions of the
  Northern Hemisphere,
  pushed there by the
  spread of their most
  deadly enemy, MAN!!!
              Wolf as a pet
• One of the most
  serious problems
  faced by humane
  societies across North
  America is that of
  exotic pets.
• Many pet wolves end
  up in small backyard
  pens far too small for
  their needs.
             Wolf – dog hybrid
• Crossing a dog and a
  wolf undoes 12,000 years
  of domestication.
• The most common wolf –
  dog hybrid crosses are
  those resulting from the
  breeding of wolves with
  Siberian Huskies,
  Alaskan Malamutes, or
  German Shepherds.
• Over 200,000 wolf – dog
  hybrids are kept as pets
  across the United States.
       Wolf Communications
• Vocal Expressions
  such as Howling,
  barking, growling.
• Scent marking
• Tail positions
                            The Wolf howl
•   The howl is used to notify other pack
    members or other packs of their
    whereabouts, or to reassemble a scattered
•   To attract a mate.
•   To stimulate and rally the pack before the
•   To startle prey and cause it to come out of
•   When disturbed, but not sufficiently alarmed
    to run away.
•   Upon awakening.
•   After intense sessions of play or presence of
    an intruder.
•   When stressed; lonesome wolf pups often
    howl their distress.
•   The wolf howl can be heard from 10 miles in
    the winter.
•   Wolf pups learn to howl by imitates the older
    wolves in the pack.
•   Wolf howls help maintain contact among
    wolves in thick woods.
•   The howl of a wolf is the voice of the
              Wolf fun facts
• Science term for
  wolves - Canis Lupus
• Population size in the
  United States is 9,000
  wolves but they are
  still endangered.
           Wolves in games
• The legend of Zelda
  Twilight Princess
• Wolf Quest
• Okamiden
• Etc
     Wolves in movies TV shows
•   White Fang
•   Wolf’s Rain
•   Alpha and Omega
•   Etc
             Wolf websites
• Wolf song of Alaska
• Wolf hollow
• Etc
           Wolf documentaries
•   Living with wolves
•   Growing up wilderness
•   Champions of the wild
•   Etc
           Wolf sanctuaries
• Wolf hollow
• Wolf song of Alaska
• White wolf sanctuary
• Wolf haven
• Etc

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