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Inspection _ Maintenance and Roadworthiness Program for Surabaya

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					                                                                     GTZ Sustainable Urban Transport Project
                                                                  Kantor Bappeda Surabaya, Ruang Prambanan,
                                                                      Jl. Pacar No.8 Surabaya 60272, Indonesia
                                                                               Tel 62-31-5353770; alt. 9982484
Deutsche Gesellschaft für                                                     Fax 62-31 5353770; Alt. 5319287
Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH                                        sutp@sutp.org; http://www.sutp.org
German Technical Cooperation




   Inspection & Maintenance and
Roadworthiness Program for Surabaya
                                       A Win-Win Strategy for All
                                            June 2001, Surabaya
GTZ’s Sustainable Urban Transport Project (SUTP) in Surabaya aims to work
with related agencies and the people of Surabaya to devise and implement
  policies toward environmentally, economically, and socially sustainable
                           transport in the city.
 This will result in a range of “local” economic (enhanced investment cli-
mate), social (poverty reduction) and environmental (cleaner air) benefits,
and will also contribute to a stabilisation of “global” carbon dioxide emis-
 sions from Surabaya’s transport sector. The project is hoped to provide a
model of how to reduce such emissions from the transport sector in large
                         cities in developing countries.
  GTZ SUTP has embarked on an integrated program, including – working
 closely with the City Government – development of sustainable transport
policies, design and implementation of a public awareness campaign, tech-
 nical measures to reduce vehicle emissions, enhanced air quality manage-
 ment capability, adoption of appropriate fiscal instruments and transport
   demand management measures, improvement of conditions for non-
motorized transport and pedestrians, elaboration of an effective inspection
   & maintenance and roadworthiness program, promotion of the use of
   CNG, a public transport demonstration route including regulatory and
institutional reforms to be applied nationally if successful, and dissemina-
                      tion of international experiences.
 GTZ SUTP commenced in Surabaya in 1998 and is due to finish in 2001.
                                                                                                GTZ Sustainable Urban Transport Project
                                                                                             Kantor Bappeda Surabaya, Ruang Prambanan,
                                                                                                 Jl. Pacar No.8 Surabaya 60272, Indonesia
                                                                                                          Tel 62-31-5353770; alt. 9982484
     Deutsche Gesellschaft für                                                                           Fax 62-31 5353770; Alt. 5319287
     Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH                                                              sutp@sutp.org; http://www.sutp.org
     German Technical Cooperation




     Inspection & Maintenance and
  Roadworthiness Program for Surabaya
                                            A Win-Win Strategy for All
                                               Reinhard Kolke, June 2001




  The findings, interpretations and conclusions expressed in this report are based on information gathered by GTZ SUTP and its consultants
from reliable sources. GTZ does not, however, guarantee the accuracy or completeness of information in this report, and GTZ cannot be held
                        responsible for any errors, omissions or losses which emerge from the use of this information.

                                                       For further information:

                                               GTZ Sustainable Urban Transport Project
                                             Kantor Bappeda Surabaya, Ruang Prambanan,
                                               Jl. Pacar No.8 Surabaya 60272, Indonesia
                                                    Tel 62-31-5353770; alt. 9982484
                                                           Fax 62-31 5353770
                                                  sutp@sutp.org; http://www.sutp.org
Inspection and Maintenance and Roadworthiness Program in Surabaya              GTZ SUTP, June 2001



The author would like to express his gratitude to the Gesellschaft für Technische
Zusammenarbeit, Eschborn, for this initial project of an introduction of roadworthiness test
requirements in Surabaya. He likes to state a specific appreciation to Mr. Karl Fjellstrom,
Project Leader of GTZ “Sustainable Urban Transport Project in Surabaya” who was the main
key to all of the necessary local meetings. His effective and valuable assistance allowed to
follow and to achieve the ambitious object of a first step for an introduction of an effective
roadworthiness test procedure in Surabaya in a very short time.

The author wants to thank all of the staff members, working in the GTZ office in Surabaya
for their personal assistance and their interests in the project objectives. He especially wants
to thank Mr. Agus Haris, Road Traffic Office of the City Government of Surabaya, for the
organisation of technical excursions and his extensive interest in all details of an effective
roadworthiness test procedure and for a roadworthiness introduction strategy.

He likes to thank Mr. Helge Schmidt, Mr. Hans-Peter Gehlen and his colleagues at
Umweltbundesamt for their short-term supports while he stayed in Surabaya.




Berlin, May 25th, 2001



Reinhard Kolke

                                                Contact at
                                                Umweltbundesamt
                                                German Federal Environmental Agency
                                                Tel.: ++49/(0) 30/8903-2094
                                                Fax: ++49/(0) 30/8903-2106
reinhardkolke@gmx.de                            reinhard.kolke@uba.de




                                                         4
Inspection and Maintenance and Roadworthiness Program in Surabaya                                                                     GTZ SUTP, June 2001



Table of contents                                                                                                                                            Page

1        EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .................................................................................................................. 7

2        INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................. 11

3        EXISTING SITUATION ................................................................................................................... 13

3.1.     THE “2 IN 1” APPROACH FOR I/M AND SAFETY TESTS .......................................................................... 13

3.2.     CURRENT REGULATIONS FOR ROADWORTHINESS TESTS IN INDONESIA................................................. 15

3.2.1    Regulations for I/M Tests in Indonesia................................................................................................. 15

3.2.2    Comparing Regulations for I/M in the Province of Jakarta with the Situation in Surabaya................ 16

4        PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION....................................................................................................... 20

4.1.     LOCAL ROADWORTHINESS TEST FACILITY AND PRIVATE WORKSHOP .................................................... 20

4.2.     MEETINGS WITH STAKEHOLDERS AND ROADWORTHINESS EXPERTS ..................................................... 20

5        PROPOSED IMPROVEMENTS...................................................................................................... 26

5.1.     SPECIFICATION OF TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS AND REGULATORY ..................................................... 26

5.2.     SPECIFICATION OF A TENDER PROCEDURE AND PREPARATION OF TENDER DOCUMENTS .................... 36

5.3.     SPECIFICATION OF AN IMPLEMENTATION SCHEDULE ............................................................................ 40

6        CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS............................................................................ 46

7        ABBREVIATIONS ............................................................................................................................ 48

7.1.     DECIMAL MULTIPLIERS AND DIVIDERS .................................................................................................. 48

7.2.     UNITS .................................................................................................................................................... 48

7.3.     GENERAL ABBREVIATIONS .................................................................................................................... 48

8        GLOSSARY ........................................................................................................................................ 49

9        BIBLIOGRAPHY .............................................................................................................................. 50

10       ANNEXES........................................................................................................................................... 51

10.1.    ANNEX 1: TECHNICAL SYSTEM PROPOSAL FOR CAR TESTING AS DEFINED BY A SUPPLIER .................. 51

10.2.    ANNEX 2: TECHNICAL DESCRIPTIONS OF CAR TESTING DEVICES AS DEFINED BY A SUPPLIER ............. 53

10.3.    ANNEX 3: TERMS OF REFERENCE FOR A TENDER PROCEDURE FOR THE ROADWORTHINESS TESTING OF
         MOTOR VEHICLES AND MOTORBIKES IN SURABAYA, INDONESIA ......................................................... 63

10.4.    ANNEX 4: FORMAL TENDER REQUIREMENTS AND DRAFT OF A CONTRACT FOR THE ENGAGEMENT OF A
         TECHNICAL SERVICE ............................................................................................................................. 71




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Inspection and Maintenance and Roadworthiness Program in Surabaya                                                                   GTZ SUTP, June 2001



List of Figures and Tables                                                                                                                                  Page
Figure 1:     Potential of Emission Reduction for Vehicles without Three-Way Catalytic Converter .............. 12

Figure 2:     Possible Strategy for Roadworthiness Test introduction................................................................ 13

Figure 3:     Structure of a Roadworthiness Introduction Strategy in Surabaya................................................. 14

Figure 4:     Newspaper articles about emission reduction strategies in Surabaya ............................................ 24

Figure 5:     Two Lane Test Facility in Surabaya and Three Lane Test Facility in Germany............................ 29

Figure 6:     System Proposal for Car Testing [3] .............................................................................................. 29

Figure 7:     Estimation of the Number of Vehicles and Motorbikes to be Tested in Roadworthiness Tests
              Depending on Different Boundary Conditions .............................................................................. 38

________________________________________________________________________________



Table 1:      Summary of Emission Reduction Strategies in Europe ................................................................. 11

Table 2:      Comparing Benefits and Weaknesses of Decentralised I/M
              (arguments cited from [4]) ............................................................................................................. 18

Table 3:      Initial Individual Meetings to Introduce Roadworthiness in Surabaya .......................................... 21

Table 4:      Emission limits in the European Union for Petrol Vehicles........................................................... 32

Table 5:      Frequency of Emission Tests in the European Union .................................................................... 33

Table 6:      Recommendation for Test Frequencies for Roadworthiness Tests in Surabaya/Indonesia............ 34

Table 7:      Estimation of the Vehicle Number to be Tested in Roadworthiness Tests in (1995-1999) [5]...... 37

Table 8:      Basics of the Calculation for Cost Estimations of Roadworthiness Tests...................................... 40

Table 9:      Suggestion of a Timetable for the Implementation of Roadworthiness
                                                                                                                                                                    42
              Tests ................................................................................................................................................. 1




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Inspection and Maintenance and Roadworthiness Program in Surabaya             GTZ SUTP, June 2001



1    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This report describes formal as well as technical requirements for the introduction of a
roadworthiness testing procedure in Surabaya/Indonesia. Based on international experience
the procedure is explained for defining and carrying out a tender procedure. The vision is to
make a win-win-strategy for all stakeholders become a reality.

The draft of the Terms of Reference for a Tender Procedure (Annex 1) describes the
technical requirements of the tender procedure, including requirements for test stations, cost
requirements for the test fee to be paid, and requirements for an additional fee that must be
paid by the vehicle owner for a mandatory official sticker. These strategies are already
implemented in many different countries (e.g. Germany, United States, Lithuania, and
others). A precise definition of the formal requirements and an open definition of the
conditions, especially a description of the contract, are necessary. These formal requirements
and the draft of a contract are summarized in the draft of the Formal Tender Requirements
and the Draft of a Contract for the Engagement of a Technical Service (Annex 2).

The introduction of roadworthiness will allow a win-win-strategy for all stakeholders on five
different levels:
(1) The City of Surabaya does not have to offer any financial grants to the Contractor but
    will introduce legal and binding requirements for mandatory roadworthiness tests,
    combined with fines and legal requirements for all stakeholders. The city can gain income
    from charging for official stickers.
(2) An international contractor has the chance to implement simple but effective test
    devices in Surabaya, which require initial investments on the one hand, but the
    opportunity to start up new businesses in Indonesia on the other hand. A guarantee of
    specific test fees, as well as fines and other consequences for car users guaranteed by
    legal enforcement is the benefit for the contractor, who has to supply the devices, train the
    staff and guarantee test standards.
(3) The local contractor also benefits, creating job opportunities in a start up business that is
    responsible on the local level of Surabaya for the efficient performance of the
    roadworthiness tests.
(4) Local repairers and workshops have the opportunity to increase their business for
    maintenance works and other simple repair works to be done for failed cars. This also
    creates job opportunities.
(5) The main benefits are for the citizens of Surabaya. Safer and cleaner traffic, a lower
    number of accidents caused by technical defects, combined with a system creating
    additional job opportunities, are a real vision to work on.

There is an urgent need not to proceed with the current draft regulation for the introduction of
the regulation (City Regulation for Motor Vehicle Testing in Surabaya). Based on this draft
of the City of Surabaya the cost for the introduction of roadworthiness could be more than
half of a million US Dollar. This money can be saved if an open tender procedure identifies a
neutral organisation carrying out the tests on behalf of the government.




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Inspection and Maintenance and Roadworthiness Program in Surabaya                    GTZ SUTP, June 2001


The Road Traffic Office of the City of Surabaya (Dinas LLAJ Kota Surabaya)1 must
have the main responsibility for the roadworthiness procedure and the required regulations.
Even if a neutral organisation carries out the tests on behalf of the City Road Traffic Office,
there must be the possibility of a legal basis to withdraw the contract in cases of fraudulence
or corruption. On the other hand the infrastructure, cost and requirement for training and test
devices are too expensive and ambitious to allow the government (e.g. the City Road Traffic
Office) to perform the tests by themselves and their own staff.

In addition, a regulation dealing with punishments, fines and sanctions on a legal basis is
urgently required, to attract bidders from overseas in a joint venture with a local contractor to
implement a roadworthiness procedure. If companies in advance of the official introduction
make high investments, they must be able to rely on the fact that vehicles are tested in
roadworthiness on a regular basis and that it is not more attractive to pay a fine or get a
manipulated certificate. The definition of fines and sanction must be part of the
roadworthiness regulations. Useful examples for fines and sanctions to ensure regular
roadworthiness testing on all vehicles should consider the following strategies:
    •    The introduction of roadside tests is needed to insure vehicles are tested regularly.
    •    The combination of the vehicle registration with the mandatory requirement of a
         passed roadworthiness test should be obligatory.
    •    The revocation of the vehicles license should be mandatory, if a vehicle owner has
         not carried out a roadworthiness test on his/her car.

To ensure this open process, the tender procedure has to be open, reliable, as well as
prepared, introduced and followed by an independent Tender Board. The City Road Traffic
Office should establish this independent verification and supervision body to identify the best
bidder and to enforce controls and guarantee an appropriate service. In the beginning of the
introduction process it is recommended that an independent International Expert Group
support the independent verification and supervision body of the City Road Traffic Office
and the tender process. The expert group should review the tender procedure and audit the
process of roadworthiness test performance in Surabaya after a defined period (e.g. after one,
two years).

The only useful system of I/M (Inspection and Maintenance) procedures and additional safety
checks (which together are referred to as roadworthiness test) is a centralised system with
the responsibility on the hand of the government and the contractor, as the winner of an
official tender process. Therefore the introduction of a centralized system with a neutral
organisation carrying out the tests on behalf of the government is a necessity.

In a decentralized system no Supervision And Control Commission can ensure the
effectiveness and quality of the work of hundreds of repair shops competing with each other
for the lowest price. Only a defined I/M test standard as well as a unique safety and reliability
check standard ensures that all cars comply with the same limits and requirements at the same
low cost for the owners. A decentralized system is insufficient for these requirements.




1
    Editor: On 29 June 2001 the Road Traffic Office was dissolved into a larger City Communication Office,
    which encompasses the former Road Traffic Office, as well as the former Terminals Office and Parking
    Office. References in this report to the Road Traffic Office are all, however, applicable to the new
    Communication Office.


                                                         8
Inspection and Maintenance and Roadworthiness Program in Surabaya                                                     GTZ SUTP, June 2001


If the strategy of introducing a simple "I/M module" and a simple "safety and reliability
module" on a centralized basis is followed, including all legal requirements and tender
procedures, it is very simple to change any module in detail because the infrastructure is
already available and easy to influence.

The combination of a charge to pay for the emission and safety certificate and sticker
with the test fee for the standardised roadworthiness test guarantees the City of Surabaya
incomes for additional project funding. This possibility of an income for the Government
only becomes a reality if roadworthiness is implemented as a centralised system with only
one responsible contracting company.

An annual and/or bi-annual test fee (depending on the vehicle type) of 100,000 to 150,000
Rupiah per test (10 to 15US$) should be useful under consideration of today’s willingness
to pay a bribe of around 18US$ per year (around 90,000 Rupiah per test) on the one hand and
test costs of approximately 5US on the other. A tender procedure should consider this
amounts to get a proposal from an interested contractor. The bidders for the contract have to
provide a proposal, which may include the possibility to offer a cheaper rate for the
roadworthiness service.

The introduction of a safety test for motorbikes/-cycles, considering a lower test fee has
the potential to increase safety and income for public funding significantly. Therefore the
tender procedure should consider that type of motorised vehicle particularly.



                   Roadworthiness Introduction Strategy
                        GTZ/ Con- Expert Expert Expert Others
                                                                                             Introduction Group
                                                                                               Roadworthiness

    Preparation         SUTP sultants City Region Province ...
       Phase            Preparation of a Roadworthiness Introduction Strategy
                          (including emissions (I/M), safety and reliability)
                        •Testing and Inspection Concept •Quality Management

      Definition        •Regulatory Requirements           •Equipment Qualification Scheme

      of Tender         •Manuals for local test stations   •Training and Education
      Principles        •Facility Design                   •Supervision and Education
                                                                                                  Main Tender Board




                        •Equipment Requirements            •I/M Supervision & Certificate
      Regulatory
         and                        Draft of a Tender Document
       Tender           Official Tender Document and Tender Procedure
      Procedure
                        •Introduction of Regulatory Requirements
      Follow Up          combined with punishments, fines and disciplines

                        •Awareness Campaign
                        •Introduction by Contractor, External Audit
Figure:     Structure of a Roadworthiness Introduction Strategy in Surabaya

There is a strong need to start the introduction process of a new regulation as soon as
possible. But the need for initial discussions should be stronger than the need to draft a
"rushed" regulation as soon as possible. A recent prepared on this topic draft already proved
to be insufficient. The work on the roadworthiness draft should be guided by established
regulations from other countries (e.g. Australia, Europe, Singapore, Germany).



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Inspection and Maintenance and Roadworthiness Program in Surabaya                                                                                                                        GTZ SUTP, June 2001


The draft should be discussed before its adoption with international experts and/or
expert groups to ensure that there is no lack of regulation as well as no unnecessary
raise of regulation requirements. These experts should have a technical background as well
as a legal background if possible. The same procedure should be done with the last versions
of the drafts of the tender documents, incl. technical, formal and contract documents.

In principle the Road Traffic Office of the City Government of Surabaya should ensure a
great participation of all stakeholders in this process (see Figure). But even though, if
SOME stakeholders do not work together or do not agree on similar goals and timetables
(Table), or if they seem to follow strategies to delay the introduction of the roadworthiness
tests, the Road Traffic Office of Surabaya should show the importance of the roadworthiness
introduction by concentrating on the main issues instead of postponing the introduction
process longer than necessary.

Table:                                   Suggestion of a Timetable for the Implementation of Roadworthiness Tests,
                                         in the Form of an Implementation Schedule
                                                                          Suggestion for the Introduction Strategy for Roadworthiness in Surabaya (DRAFT of 2001-05-25)
                                                                                              gg                                gy
                                                                                                        in Surabaya (DRAFT of 2001-05-25)
                                                                  Year:                                                                      2001                                 2002                            2003
                                                                 Month:                                                           6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3                  4   5    6 7   8   9 10 11 12   1   2    3 4   5   6
1.    Work for Legislation:
1. 1. Stop current draft regulation on roadworthiness being prepared by City Govt.
1. 2. Definition of requirements (discussions, lists, procedures)
1. 3. Draft of new regulation and annexes
2.    Work for Tender:
2. 1. Roadworthiness "Informal Implementation Group"
2. 2. Tender Working Group (City Road Traffic Office + legal experts)
2. 3. Legal Experts for Tender Process (formal procedure)

2.   4. First draft of Technical Tender + Formal Tender Requirements (incl. Draft of the Contract) from GTZ
2.   5. Definition and Draft of Technical Tender Requirements
2.   6. Definition and Draft of Formal Tender Requirements (incl. Draft of the Contract)
2.   7. Technical Tender Draft
2.   8. Formal Tender Draft (incl. Draft of the Contract)
2.   9. General cost estimates
2.   10. Introduce an OPEN and CLEAR tender process for bidders
2.   11. Introduce an OPEN and CLEAR identification processs of best bidder
3.    Introduction of Roadworthiness (I/M+Safety)
3. 1. Identification of facilities
3. 2. Build up of equipment and stations
3. 3. Day X: Start of Roadworthiness
4.        Rising Awareness
4.   1.   First announcement of process
4.   2.   Small awareness campaign (Swisscontact for emissions)
4.   3.   Regular information about future requirements, benefits, cost
4.   4.   Introduction campaign, legal requirements
5.        Possible Continuing Assistance (e.g. by GTZ, Worldbank, Others)
5.   1.   Local assistance for the process by GTZ (hinge between City Govt. & Int. Experts)
5.   2.   Translate Regulations, Annexes for Indonesian Drafts from Germany
5.   3.   Discussion of the legal drafts with the international consultant (if available)
5.   4.   Access to technical translator for City Road Traffic Office
5.   5.   Identify and hire legal experts with high skills for impelementation of regulations and laws
5.   6.   Identify and invite international expert tender group for the audit of the process (2.11.)
5.   7.   Invite international expert group for auditing the process after 1 year, 2 years, ...
5.   8.   Transfer sucessful Roadworthiness Procedure to other Cities and/or National Level




For the tender procedure and the identification of a contractor a technical tender draft as well
as a formal tender draft including the description of the procedure as well as the contract for
the technical services are necessary. In the attached Annex 3: Terms of Reference for a
Tender Procedure for the Roadworthiness Testing of Motor Vehicles in Surabaya,
Indonesia and in Annex 4: Formal Tender Requirements and Draft of a Contract for the
Engagement of a Technical Service summarize the necessary boundary conditions and
requirements for the whole process.

The implementation of roadworthiness tests is neither extremely sophisticated nor new, but it
must be done well and beyond criticism.




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Inspection and Maintenance and Roadworthiness Program in Surabaya                                                             GTZ SUTP, June 2001




2     INTRODUCTION
To improve air quality, emission reduction strategies of road transport are needed. As far as
no fuel quality standards and emission limits are set on a legal basis for all modes of road
transport, an effective inspection and maintenance (I/M) or roadworthiness system is one of
the most cost-effective ways to improve air quality in the short term and an essential part of a
comprehensive emission reduction strategy for the long term (Table 1). An I/M system for
vehicles without emission reduction technologies (e.g. catalytic converters) can result in fuel
savings and proportional CO2 reductions, as well as large reductions in pollutants such as
particulates, carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons.

Table 1:            Summary of Emission Reduction Strategies in Europe
                                         Vehicles in production                                                Vehicles in the field

                    Type approval              Durability           Conformity of            Road-                   In-use            On Board Diag-
                                                                     production             worthiness             compliance           nosi s (OBD)
 Vehicle              Prototypes of         Serial production       Random sample        All vehicles in the     Random sample         All vehicles in the
 selection            vehicles and          or type approval        from the series             field            from vehicle fleet           field
                     engine families             vehicle               production                                   in the field
 Application         Type approval           Type approval           Sporadically        New vehicles after        Regularly, if       Quasi continuously
                                                                                         3 years, then every     manufacturer audit          in use
                                                                                              2 years             not satisfactory
 Measurement         Type approval            Durability test       Type approval            Short test           Type approval           Real world
 procedure              testing                  (AMA) or              testing                                       testing              conditions
                                            deterioration factor
 Legal basis                   European exhaust emissions directives                         96/96/EC                98/69/EC              98/69/EC
                             91/44/EEC 92/55/EEC 94/12/EEC 98/69/EC                         1999/52/EC                                   1999/102/EC
 Aimed at            Production type        Production type            Statistical        Significant dete-        Type specific           Malfunction
                       approval of         approval of specific      verification of      rioration; main-       misconstruction or      diagnosis and
                     specific design /          design /           series production       tenance; tam-         insufficient main-       indication for
                       technology             technology                                 pering; misfuelling    tenance instruction     immediate repair
 Influence on       Technology used         Durability under       Technology used         Maintenance           Technology and         Real world dura-
 emission control                          testing conditions      and its realisation      condition             its realisation      bility/maintenance
                                                                     in production                                                           condition
 On Board Diag-        Philosophy                    /              Quality control      Readiness/Diag-          Additional data               /
 nosi s (OBD)           explained,                                                        nostic codes
                     functions tested

 Importance           Small, only            Small, artificial       Increasing,           Medium; test          Large, real cars      Large, real world
                       prototype                 test                because of           method find only          under test            emissions
                                                                    quality control      major malfunctions         conditions

 Future             Self certification      Self certification           Audit            Better test; OBD          Check of                 OBM;
                    of manufacturer         of manufacturer                                check; safety          manufacturers         safety systems;
                                                                                               check                 audits              OBD directive




Currently in Surabaya little other than the basic regulatory framework for an I/M system
exists. Inspection is done only of commercial vehicles, every six months. No testing of
gaseous emissions is done, and particulates are measured using unreliable equipment and
procedures. It is virtually unheard of for a vehicle to fail the I/M test on emission grounds,
and very rare that any vehicle fails the test, on any grounds. This runs counter to the common
sense observation that many of the heaviest polluting vehicles are commercial vehicles. No
roadside random testing or enforcement is performed. No database exists at the testing
stations, with test results simply filed in stacks of paper. [1]

For petrol cars without catalytic converter it is known that regular inspection services on the
basis of simple I/M procedures can reduce CO by more than 27%, HC more than 13% and
NOx by up to 9% in the short test (Figure 1). Expectations for real world emission reductions
on the streets estimate a 20% reduction for CO and 10% reduction for HC, as well as fuel
savings of approximately 2%.



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Inspection and Maintenance and Roadworthiness Program in Surabaya                                        GTZ SUTP, June 2001


The project started with specific requirements for I/M-procedures, which emphasis on
emission tests only. In Surabaya the task of the project was widened to require the
introduction of emission tests as well as safety and reliability tests, which are summarised as
roadworthiness tests. As the first draft of recommendations for the tender procedure and the
presentations prepared, already considered a short and long term strategy – as short term the
introduction of emission tests, as long term the introduction of safety and reliability tests – it
was easy to merge the two strategies, which allows to meet both requirements in one tender
process.


                         I/M Emission Reduction for
                            Vehicles w./o. TWC
                     100%

                       80%
                                                                    B a sis
                       60%
                                                                    I m m e d i a t e l y : I / M fo r
                       40%                                          P e tr o l V e h ic le s
                                                                    In to d u c tio n o f T W
                                                                    C a ta ly sts
                       20%

                        0%
                                CO         HC       NO x



Figure 1:         Potential of Emission Reduction for Vehicles without
                  Three-Way Catalytic Converter




                                                         12
Inspection and Maintenance and Roadworthiness Program in Surabaya                      GTZ SUTP, June 2001



3    EXISTING SITUATION
I/M authority currently lies with the Provincial level government, but there are strong
demands for it to be transferred to the Municipal/Regency level in 2001, demands which are
being resisted by the Provincial level. In terms of implementation, however, little will change
in the short to medium term if any transfer is made, as the same testing staff and equipment
will be used, simply being administratively transferred to the Municipal/Regency level.
Therefore all key stakeholders must be part of the development process for a new centralized
system of I/M.

The only useful system of I/M procedures and additional safety checks (both summarised
as roadworthiness test) is a centralised system with the responsibility on the hand of the
City of Surabaya (government) and on the other contractor, as the winner of an official
tender process. Therefore the introduction of a centralized system is a necessity and the
only way to solve specific problems of tests performed in garages and workshops, including
all aspects of reduced legal responsibilities, reduced or missing training requirements for the
I/M staff and, importantly, be resistant to corruption. A decentralized system is insufficient
for all these requirements.

3.1. The “2 in 1” Approach for I/M and Safety Tests
A roadworthiness test is often divided into an environmental and a safety test. But the tender
process can consider both tests as part of an overall roadworthiness test. The combination of
an effective I/M procedure and additional aspects of safety requirements is recommended for
Surabaya (Figure 2)

                                                                    Roadworthiness Requirements

                                              Vehicle Environment Protection
                                              •Exhaust Emission (I/M)
                                              •Oil Loss Reduction
                                              •Noise Emission
                                              •Others
                                                                                              Regulatory
                                                                                             Requirements
                                              Vehicle Safety and Reliability
                                              •Steering System
                                              •Brake System
                                              •Wheels & Tyres
                                              •Lighting System
                                              •Gear & Transmission System
                                              •Chassis & Body
                                              •Others...

Figure 2:         Possible Strategy for Roadworthiness Test Introduction

The introduction of a modular basis for the inspection system can take account of specific
local circumstances and organizational problems and, last, but not least, ease costs. In the
short term running the implementation of roadworthiness test consist of:




                                                         13
Inspection and Maintenance and Roadworthiness Program in Surabaya                       GTZ SUTP, June 2001


    •    Simple and improved               •    Fuel consumption               •   Brakes
         exhaust emission tests for
         vehicles without and with         •    Wheels / tyres                 •   Lights
         TWC                               •    Corrosion on safety-related    •   Engine power and noise
    •    Steering                               parts                              emissions



The following diagram with the I/M Introduction Strategy summarises the main steps to
follow for an Introduction of an effective I/M in Surabaya (Figure 3):


                      Roadworthiness Introduction Strategy
                               GTZ/ Con- Expert Expert Expert Others




                                                                                                      Introduction Group
                                                                                                        Roadworthiness
     Preparation               SUTP sultants City Region Province ...
        Phase                  Preparation of a Roadworthiness Introduction Strategy
                                 (including emissions (I/M), safety and reliability)
                               •Testing and Inspection Concept •Quality Management

        Definition             •Regulatory Requirements             •Equipment Qualification Scheme

        of Tender              •Manuals for local test stations     •Training and Education
        Principles             •Facility Design                     •Supervision and Education




                                                                                                           Main Tender Board
                               •Equipment Requirements              •I/M Supervision & Certificate
        Regulatory
           and                                 Draft of a Tender Document
         Tender                Official Tender Document and Tender Procedure
        Procedure
                               •Introduction of Regulatory Requirements
        Follow Up                combined with punishments, fines and disciplines

                               •Awareness Campaign
                               •Introduction by Contractor, External Audit

Figure 3:           Structure of a Roadworthiness Introduction Strategy in Surabaya

The responsibilities will be divided between a “Roadworthiness Introduction group
(R I G)” and the official “Roadworthiness Main Tender Board (R MTB)”.

The technical and organizational principles as well as the general conception must be defined
by an “Roadworthiness Introduction group” joined by technical experts form all relevant
areas, by governmental stakeholders and other interested parties, if necessary.

Representatives of interested groups and responsible stakeholders should participate at the
R I G, which should define the tender principles and discuss any specific requirements. The
R MTB should be a much smaller “working group” participated by some members of the
bigger Introduction group. The Main Tender Board has all responsibilities for the tender
process to make sure that the interested technical service that gets the contract meets all
specific requirements on the best cost/benefit basis. All responsible staff members of the
Road Traffic Office of the City Government of Surabaya should participate the R MTB.


                                                         14
Inspection and Maintenance and Roadworthiness Program in Surabaya            GTZ SUTP, June 2001


The main short-term requirement will be the establishment of a legal basis for the
roadworthiness procedure. The introduction group (R I G) has to identify the part of the
government who will get the main responsibility for the regulatory requirements. The
situation is currently in a state of flux, but it seems the main responsibilities should held by
the City Road Traffic Office.

Additional discussions in advance of the first meeting with the main “players” from
government on the national, provincial, regional or municipal level were held.

A kick-off meeting with the Roadworthiness Introduction group (R I G) chaired by GTZ
took take place on April 25th, 2001 after an insight in the structures and after several
presentation and discussions with the government officials and GTZ/SUTP. A list of the
strategic partners for a network and a summary of the meetings is given in Section 5.2.

Specific requirement of a legal basis for punishments, fines and sanctions are urgently
required, to attract bidders from overseas in a joint venture with a local contractor to
implement a roadworthiness procedure. If companies in advance of the official introduction
make high investments, they must be able to rely on the fact that vehicles are tested in
roadworthiness on a regular basis and that it is not more attractive to pay a fine or get a
manipulated certificate for a bribe.


3.2. Current Regulations for Roadworthiness Tests in Indonesia
There are several requirements for roadworthiness tests in Indonesia. They can be divided
into requirements related to:
    •    Emission tests (Inspection and Maintenance) and
    •    Safety and Reliability tests.

The overall procedure is called the roadworthiness test. In Indonesia there are several
requirements enforced, published as decree or joint decree of different ministries or under
discussion at the following levels:
    •    Central, national level,
    •    Provincial level and
    •    City, municipal level.

The following sections summarise some of the main requirements in Indonesia.

3.2.1 Regulations for I/M Tests in Indonesia
CONCAWE reports that the current emissions regulations in Indonesia (Minister of
Communications No. KM 8/1989) controls only idle CO and HC emissions from petrol
engines and free acceleration exhaust emissions from diesel engines.

As regards test limit standards for existing vehicles - both for I/M and random inspections -,
this can be implemented by the provincial government. The national standards (from Decree
of the Minister of Environment No. 25 of 1993) specifies only the following minimum
requirements for exhaust emission limits:



                                                         15
Inspection and Maintenance and Roadworthiness Program in Surabaya               GTZ SUTP, June 2001


    •        For 2 stroke motorcycles using petrol with octane ≥ 87:
             - 4.5% for CO and
             - 3000 ppm for HC.

    •        For 4 stroke motorcycles using petrol with octane ≥ 87:
             - 4.5% for CO and
             - 2400 ppm for HC.

    •        For other petrol vehicles with octane ≥ 87:
             - 4.5% for CO and
             - 1200 ppm for HC.

    •        For diesel vehicles other than motorcycles with cetane no. ≥ 45:
             - 50% > Bosch for diameter of 10 mm or
             - 25% opacity for smoke.

3.2.2 Comparing Regulations for I/M in the Province of Jakarta with the Situation in
      Surabaya
Provinces are free to apply their own standards, provided they are at least as tight as
the national standards. The DKI Jakarta province applied tighter standards in 2001. Jakarta
motor vehicle test limit standards are specified in the Decree of the Governor of DKI Jakarta
No. 1041/2000 regarding Emission Standards for Motor Vehicles in the DKI Jakarta
Province. The following standards are specified:

A: Petrol fuel

        I.        Carburettor system

Year of manufacture         CO % v/v             HC (ppm)
        < 1985                 4.0                  1000
    1986 – 1995                3.5                   800
        > 1996                 3.0                   700
        II.       Injection system

Year of manufacture         CO % v/v             HC (ppm)
    1986 – 1995                3.0                   600
        > 1996                 2.5                   500



B: Diesel fuel

Year of manufacture          Opacity
        < 1985                 50%
    1986 – 1995                45%
        > 1996                 40%


With the “Decision Of The Governor Of The Province Of The Special Region Of The Capital
City Jakarta”, number 95 of 2000 on the “Emission And Inspection And Maintenance System


                                                           16
Inspection and Maintenance and Roadworthiness Program in Surabaya                      GTZ SUTP, June 2001


Of Cars In The Province Of The Special Region Of The Capital City Jakarta” the following
emission short tests requirements are defined.
    •    The public workshops 2 and the executing workshops 3 which work on emission tests
         for private cars.
    •    The emission quality standards.
    •    Principles for equipment and inspection technician.
    •    Principle requirements how to proceed if a vehicle failed a test.
    •    Principles about the Supervision And Control Commission.
    •    Principles about sanctions, if a execution workshop violate the requirements.

The execution of the decision shall effectively be carried out at the latest August 2001.
Detailed definitions describe requirements which the different repair shops and inspection
technicians have to fulfil.

The validity period of the emission test for passenger cars in the province of the special
region of Jakarta is one year.

The procedure of a decentralised I/M system at smaller repair shops does not include
safety and reliability requirements.

One reason for the introduction of I/M tests at private repair shops is to make sure that the
government does not need to invest large amounts of money to the I/M system, while it is
said that the available resources are optimised.

The formation of a Supervision and Control Commission in itself cannot ensure the
effectiveness and quality of the work of hundreds of repair shops competing for customers
with each other, for the best price for a test. Only a defined I/M test standard as well as a
unique safety and reliability check standard ensures that all cars comply with the same limits
and requirements at same cost for the owner. The centralised roadworthiness test therefore
is the solution for both: standardised tests at best cost.

The combination of a government’s fee to pay for the emission and safety certificate and
sticker with the test fee for the standardised roadworthiness test guarantees the City of
Surabaya incomes for additional project funding.

This gives Government the chance to fund environmental and safety projects in transport.
This possibility of an income for the Government is only possible if roadworthiness is
implemented in a centralised system with only one responsible contracting company.

The Indonesian Motor Vehicle Industry Association (Gaikindo) summarised opportunities,
weaknesses and threats of the system in the Province of Jakarta [4], as given in Table 2:



2 Public workshop is a company which carries out the inspection, correction, repair, and maintenance of motor
  vehicles for the public against payment.

3 Executing Workshop is a public workshop for motor vehicles which has received the appointment to carry
  out the Inspection and Maintenance of private passenger cars.


                                                         17
Inspection and Maintenance and Roadworthiness Program in Surabaya                         GTZ SUTP, June 2001



Table 2:          Comparing Benefits and Weaknesses of Decentralised I/M (arguments
                  cited from [4])

         Opportunities                             Weaknesses                              Threats
Political will of Government         Many different workshop standards of:     Refusal by community because
should be good indication for the                                              of little trust in inspection
                                     - Testing devices and diagnostic
benefit of workshop involvement.                                               results from workshops.
                                       ability,
Limited financial resources of the                                             Involvement of too many
                                     - Differences in the training
government create need.                                                        agencies creates overlaps in
                                       (“diagnostic abilities”) of mechanics
                                                                               authority:
Inspections at workshops are
                                     - No standards and differences in
legal (Joint Decree No. 581/99,                                                −   Regular Inspection by
                                       human resources of similar
551/99)                                                                            Ministry of Communication.
                                       manufacturers
                                                                               −   Workshop business
                                     - No standards and differences in
                                                                                   operation by Ministry of
                                       human resources of different
                                                                                   Industry and Trade.
                                       manufacturers.
                                     High prices for equipment that is not
                                     used regularly.
                                     Lack of information system that saves
                                     database on workshops.
                                     Lack of information system that
                                     describes facilities, equipment,
                                     mechanics, component break down
                                     levels.


Preliminary Conclusions

Even in more developed countries as in some States of the United States of America (e.g.
California) or in Germany, where decentralized I/M systems are highly developed, it is an
unwritten rule proved by studies, that decentralized I/M systems in workshops is much less
effective, e.g. in emission reductions, than the centralized system. But even the so-called
“centralized I/M procedure” is not completely centralised. There is still the need for
“decentralized” maintenance and repairs in workshops, which need more time than the time-
and cost-efficient roadworthiness inspection lane in a centralized test facility.

There is a need for a regular repair and maintenance on vehicles in repair shops. Some
workshops may need simplified emission measurement equipment, like a CO tester for low
cost. This means approximately 2,700 US$ for a 4 gas-analyser instead of approximately
6,000 US$ for a 4-gas analyser and opacity measurements including non-manipulating
software and printer, as used on a regular basis for emissions tests every 10-15 minutes in the
test facilities.

CO testing equipment is already used in most dealership workshops (e.g. Daihatsu, Isuzu,
Toyota) in Indonesia. Therefore no additional investments are required for many workshops,
while the regular low cost maintenance business (a regular check is cheaper than a check
after a failed test) will increase, if it is impossible to manipulate the I/M procedure.




                                                         18
Inspection and Maintenance and Roadworthiness Program in Surabaya         GTZ SUTP, June 2001


If the strategy of introducing a simple "I/M module" and a simple "safety and
reliability module" on a centralized basis, including all legal requirements and tender
procedures is followed, it makes it simple to change any module in detail (e.g. with the
introduction of international standards like ASEAN harmonized EURO 1 by 2003)
because the infrastructure is already set and easily influenced by government.

It is also attractive because these requirements can be introduced relatively quickly on
the regional level as well as on the national level (centralized, if required), because the
centralized systems complies with international standards and structures.

Outlook for I/M in decentralized systems

Even in a centralized system, the workshops interested in making a repair business need
simple I/M equipment for repairing purposes. Therefore it makes sense that even in a
centralized system the I/M equipment can be used in decentralized garages, but without the
possibility of "official fail or pass decisions", which means that the owner can get the I/M
certificate from the centralized I/M centre only.

Once the possible cost of the I/M procedure (how much car owners can afford to pay)
are identified, once a legal basis is available and once a tender procedure is done, there
is a “self-running” system without additional cost for the Government, but benefit for
the environment.

If “The Governor Of The Province Of The Special Region Of The Capital City Jakarta” may
change to a centralised I/M emission check system, the development made in Jakarta makes
sense and will be cost effective, as workshops will regardless need simplified emission
equipment. This equipment needs a standard, but does not have to comply with one single
standard testing devices and diagnostic ability (see “Weaknesses” in Table 2). Therefore the
workshops that did get the test equipment by Swisscontact and joined the program on a
voluntary basis can use it for future purposes as well with the additional benefit of
participating with their program in an early stage of the development.




                                                         19
Inspection and Maintenance and Roadworthiness Program in Surabaya             GTZ SUTP, June 2001



4    PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION
To identify the current problems with the absence of a roadworthiness procedure for
passenger cars and motorcycles as well as with the absence of an effective roadworthiness
test for buses and commercial vehicles, site visits were to the provincial test facilities as well
as to a private workshop of a local car dealer.

The results of the identification of the current problems were presented and discussed with all
relevant stakeholders in Surabaya. Improvements and implementation strategies for an
effective roadworthiness procedure as part of a win-win-strategy for all stakeholders were
proposed and discussed. The main results of the site visits and meetings are summarized in
the following paragraph.

4.1. Local Roadworthiness Test Facility and Private Workshops
The main objective of this technical excursion to a local roadworthiness test facility for
buses, light and heavy-duty vehicles run by the Provincial Road Traffic Office in Surabaya
and of a private workshop (Toyota) allowed to describe the state of the art of the current
roadworthiness tests procedure in Provincial test facilities and on the other hand, to proof the
availability of test equipment in Surabaya’s private workshops. The test performances at the
Provincial test facilities were completely ineffective because of:

         1. defective and poorly maintained test equipment
         2. test mechanics that obviously had no knowledge how to use the test equipment, and
         3. complete absence of any vehicles to test at 10am in the morning of a working day.

The test facilities at the Toyota dealer in Surabaya were of a convincing technical state of the
art for safety checks (brakes, car lifter for vehicle check, etc.) and emission tests (e.g. CO
tester, engine tuning tester). The costs of an overall check (emissions, tuning, safety checks
and simple repairs) at a premium quality workshop for a passenger car as specified as
approximately 220,000 Rupiah (22 US).

While the necessary test equipment (break test, CO-test, wheel suspension, car lift) is
available and maintained in private workshops on different places for repair and maintenance
purposes, it looks suspicious that test are never performed in Provincial Test Facilities, but
certificates are sold every six month. Some reliable sources stated that 70,000 – 90,000
Rupiah (approximately 7-9 US$) are paid twice a year as a bribe to get the necessary
certificates illegally. All results were shared in the following meetings.

4.2. Meetings with Stakeholders and Roadworthiness Experts
The following stakeholders were identified for the introduction process of roadworthiness:
    1. City Planning Board of the City Government of Surabaya
    2. Physical and Infrastructure Division of the City Planning Board of the City of
       Surabaya
    3. Road Traffic Office of the City Government of Surabaya (the city level leading
       agency for roadworthiness, responsible for regulations)
    4. City Environment Division of Surabaya
    5. Road Traffic Office of the Provincial Government (currently doing the tests)


                                                         20
Inspection and Maintenance and Roadworthiness Program in Surabaya              GTZ SUTP, June 2001


      6. Current test facilities operated on behalf of the Road Traffic Office of the Provincial
          Government
      7. Politicians of the City Council
      8. Environmental Agency of the Province
      9. Police as the responsible office for vehicle registration, vehicle licenses and
          centralised data base
      10. Business Association, Media, Others.
The following paragraphs summarize the main meetings and discussions as well as their
objectives and results during the author’s presence in Surabaya.

I.      Initial meetings started on Monday, April 16th, 2001 with the goals to introduce
        the principle need for roadworthiness tests, the strategies and the requirements of
        legal work in advance and in parallel of a tender procedure, as well as to answer
        any open questions.

The main goal was to initiate the implementation of the “Roadworthiness Introduction
group” for emission tests and safety issues (Table 3):


Table 3:          Initial Individual Meetings to Introduce Roadworthiness in Surabaya

Mr. Cholik             Head of the City Planning Board of the City      April 16th, 2001
                       Government of Surabaya
                       (Kepala Bappeko Surabaya)
Mr. Tri                Head of the Physical and Infrastructure          April 16th, 2001
Siswanto               Division of the City Planning Board of the
                       City of Surabaya
                       (Bappeko Surabaya)
Mr. Ramelan            Road Traffic Office of the City Government of    April 16th, 2001
                       Surabaya, Transport Section
                       (DLLAJ Kota Surabaya)
Mr. Bergas             Road Traffic Office of the City Government of    April 16th, 2001
                       Surabaya, Traffic Section
                       (DLLAJ Kota Surabaya)
Mr. Agus Haris         Road Traffic Office of the City Government of    April 16th, 2001
                       Surabaya, Technique and Infrastructure
                       (DLLAJ Kota Surabaya)

II.     A first meeting with stakeholders took place on April 18th, 2001. The main aim
        was the discussion of roadworthiness requirements and the establishment of a
        Roadworthiness Introduction group (R I G).




                                                         21
Inspection and Maintenance and Roadworthiness Program in Surabaya           GTZ SUTP, June 2001



                               Agenda of the 1st Meeting of the
                              Roadworthiness Introduction group

           1. Definition and Introduction into Roadworthiness testing
              a) description of test (emission test, safety, reliability)
              b) experience with Roadworthiness
              c) requirements for Roadworthiness tests
              d) discussion of principles

           2. Roadworthiness in Surabaya
              a) the simple “Two-in-One Solution”
              b) Cost requirements and “profits” for the government
              c) Tender Procedures

           3. Formation of a Roadworthiness Introduction group
              a) Nomination of the responsible Agency
              b) Nomination of the chairman

           4. Other matters



The following stakeholders were invited:
    1. Bp. Bambang DH, Wawali Kota Surabaya
    2. Bp. Cholik, Kepala Bappeko Surabaya
    3. Bp. Tri Siswanto, Bappeko Surabaya
    4. Bp. Soerjadi, Kepala Bagian LH Kota Surabaya
    5. Bp. Afta, Kepala Bagian Humas Kota Surabaya
    6. Bp. Bambang Suprihadi, Kepala Dinas LLAJ Kota Surabaya
    7. Bp. Bergas, DLLAJ Kota Surabaya
    8. Bp. Agus Haris, DLLAJ Kota Surabaya
    9. Bp. Ramelan, DLLAJ Kota Surabaya
    10. Bp. Moh. Sulaiman, Kepala Bapedalda Propinsi Jatim
    11. Bp. Sukis Mantoro, Dinas LLAJ Propinsi Jatim
    12. Bp. Suban Wahyudiono, Unit Pelaksana Teknis PKB, DLLAJ Propinsi Jatim
    13. Kasatlantas, Satlantas Polwiltabes Surabaya
    14. Ibu Ira Tursilowati, Bagian Hukum Kota Surabaya
    15. Bp. Asmoro Hadiwijoyo, Ketua Persatuan Manajemen Indonesia Cabang Jatim
    16. Bp. Suparno, Kanwil Perhubungan
    17. Mr. Reinhard Kolke, Umweltbundesamt, GTZ SUTP.

The main task of this meeting was to introduce the principles of an effective roadworthiness
procedure and their legal requirements. An in depth discussion did not take place at this
initial meeting. Due to the invitation in short term and other reasons not all invited
stakeholders joined the meeting. But to make sure that in the long term all interested parties
follow the same principles, these initial meetings are essential.

III. Another meeting took place on April 19th, 2001 with Mr. Bambang Suprihadi,
     Head of the Road Traffic Office of the City of Surabaya, and staff member of the
     “Roadworthiness Group”.



                                                         22
Inspection and Maintenance and Roadworthiness Program in Surabaya           GTZ SUTP, June 2001


A presentation was made and handouts of the transparencies were provided. The principles of
roadworthiness tests in Europe compared to experience from testing stations in Surabaya with
poor performance on the one hand and experiences from an Indonesian workshop with high
quality performances of safety tests and emission adjustments on the other hand, were
discussed.

The main conclusion resulted in the urgent need not to proceed with the current draft
regulation for the introduction of (City Regulation for Motor Vehicle Testing in Surabaya)
being prepared by the City Road Traffic Office, as it was proven by the presentation to be
highly inefficient.

It was recommended to combine a comprehensive technical regulation, consisting of a
regulation and additional annexes to explain
- test requirements,
- test station requirements,
- testing-staff requirements, and
- other matters.
This will be much more efficient than the incomplete legal instrument currently being
prepared.

In addition the regulation currently being drafted will require the Government to make
large investment in staff members, test devices and test facilities to run the test stations.

On the other hand a reliable regulation, combined with efficient enforcement will result
in foreign companies building joint ventures with Indonesian companies and investing
in the country. Additionally the Government need not spend money, but can rather
earn money with the system by combining the test fee with an additional government
fee. But international companies will invest in the country only if the boundary
conditions are reliable. This must be part of efficient legal requirement and their
enforcement.

Summary of the Discussion:

The following discussion between Mr. Setiono, Mr. Imam Syuhri, Mr. Basuki, Mr. Agus
Haris (partly) and Mr. Kolke came to the following conclusions:
    1. The need for the introduction of a “INFORMAL ROADWORTHINESS
       INTRODUCTION GROUP” joined by all interested parties was highly
       recommended, to ensure that a legal draft is agreed by most parties and not disagreed
       on a late stage of the draft. This INFORMAL GROUP needs regular meetings, to
       ensure that all interested parties have the chance to join the process.
    2. The consultant reiterated that comparable and easily applicable regulations are
       available from many other countries.
    3. The consultant explained the need for strategic discussions in advance of a legal draft,
       to make sure that potential problems can be identified and solved as soon as possible.
    4. The requirement to work for
       (1.) a legal draft,
       (2.) a technical tender document,
       (3.) a formal tender document, and
       (4.) an awareness campaign
       was emphasised.

                                                         23
Inspection and Maintenance and Roadworthiness Program in Surabaya                    GTZ SUTP, June 2001


      5. The group of DLLAJ Kota Surabaya decided that a first meeting of the “Informal
         Roadworthiness Introduction Group” should take place in the following week. It took
         place on Wednesday morning (April 25th, 2001) by invitation of the Secretary of the
         Planning Board of the City of Surabaya (Bappeko Surabaya).

On the basis of this discussion a first draft for a timetable was prepared, which was discussed
at the “Informal Roadworthiness Introduction Group” meeting on April 25th (Table 9).

IV.     A meeting with the head of Environmental Agency of the Province took place on
        April 20th, 2001. The head of the Agency took note of the possibilities for an
        introduction of roadworthiness tests on a city level and the recommendations as
        given by Mr. Karl Fjellstrom, GTZ and Mr. Reinhard Kolke, consultant.

V.      On April 23rd, 2001 a presentation by Mr. Karl Fjellstrom for the responsible
        heads of the city government agencies and the vice major about the GTZ program
        for a “Sustainable Urban Transport Project In Surabaya” was given. The
        opportunity was taken to give a short introduction about the principles of
        roadworthiness testing and to emphasise the urgent need to withdraw the draft of
        a legal regulation (City Regulation for Motor Vehicle Testing in Surabaya)
        currently being prepared, as it was proven to be highly inefficient.

                                                         VI.    In the Evening of April 23rd, 2001 a
                                                                presentation including a discussion
                                                                was given to two journalists from
                                                                different local newspapers (Radar
                                                                Surabaya and Jawa Pos) about the
                                                                need for an introduction of
                                                                roadworthiness test requirements.
                                                                Some additional questions were
                                                                raised from one journalist about
                                                                policies to promote bicycle use
                                                                (Figure 4).




Figure 4:         Newspaper articles about
                  emission reduction
                  strategies in Surabaya


VII. On April 24th, 2001 a presentation was given to the chairman Commission D of the
     City Council. As the City Council must sign the local roadworthiness test
     regulations this meeting was of high importance to make sure that the draft of the
     inefficient legal regulation (City Regulation for Motor Vehicle Testing in
     Surabaya) will not be signed by the City Council before an efficient procedure is
     identified and an effective legal regulation is drafted.




                                                         24
Inspection and Maintenance and Roadworthiness Program in Surabaya              GTZ SUTP, June 2001


One of the main recommendations given by the head of the City Council was the City of
Surabaya’s possibility to provide land for test facilities at no cost to a contractor to reduce the
overhead allocation cost for the test facilities. This allows lower test fees for the
roadworthiness test. This idea should be followed for future strategies.

VIII. On April 25th, 2001 another meeting of the Roadworthiness Introduction group
      (R I G) took place. The meeting was joined by members of the City Transport
      Agency, the City Planning Board and from members of the Provincial Agencies
      for Transport and for Environment.

The main conclusion of the meeting was that the group agreed to the implementation of the
“Roadworthiness Introduction group”. It was taken note of the fact that the implementation of
an efficient roadworthiness system (incl. the tender procedure) needs approximately 12 to 14
months of time. Questions were raised, including:

    1. which strategies should be followed to convince the City Council to withdraw their
       support for the current draft of a roadworthiness regulation (City Regulation for
       Motor Vehicle Testing in Surabaya) and

    2. if a trial run (as well as travel funds) should be introduced in advance.


The R I G has to examine strategies to get into discussion with the City Council. A
submission which explains the need to withdraw the current draft, including a revised
schedule to work on should be sent to the City Council as soon as possible.

As experience of introducing and performing roadworthiness tests are available worldwide,
the idea of a trial of a very well known instrument like roadworthiness testing does not make
much sense.

Some additional ideas arose during the meeting, such as the possibility of a decentralised
roadworthiness test, which was discussed in detail. As the decentralised system is much more
expensive for all stakeholders, much less efficient and it is impossible for the government to
control the procedures, only the centralised systems combines all benefits. Details about the
weaknesses of decentralized roadworthiness and I/M systems are summarised in
Paragraph 3.2.2.




                                                         25
Inspection and Maintenance and Roadworthiness Program in Surabaya           GTZ SUTP, June 2001



5    PROPOSED IMPROVEMENTS
In order to attain a lasting and successful adjustment of the vehicles to the requirements laid
down by local government, regular vehicle inspection is a joint function of both local
government and the inspection contractor for the test centres. This requires a regular, two-
way flow of information between them.

5.1. Specification of Technical and Regulatory Requirements
The following specifications must ensure that the introduction of roadworthiness in
Surabaya will meet the goals of emission reductions, and environmental and safety
requirements. A modular system can be extended step by step to meet the requirements of
changes in fuel, automotive technologies and for additional environmental requirements.

For the specification of the main elements of an effective roadworthiness system in Surabaya
some principle aspects must be defined for the centralized vehicle inspection stations,
where the periodical vehicle inspections take place. The number of inspection lanes (test
device) required will be based essentially on the volume of inspections expected. The number
of inspections depends on the total vehicle stock as well as the inspection intervals. A number
of further factors also have to be taken into account when determining the size of the
inspection stations and the number of inspection lanes, especially:
• Inspection intervals for different vehicle types
• Number of inspections per lane (test device) and per day
• Experience of staff
• Analysis of the vehicle stock
• Technical condition and age of the vehicles
• Number of working days per year
• Growth rate for the vehicles fleet to be tested.

Inspection Centre with Automatic or Manual Inspection Lane

The design of an inspection centre depends on the size, equipment and number of vehicles in
the area. The technical staff can control the inspection sequence itself automatically or
manually.

The decision for or against a fully automatic inspection centre depends on a number of
factors. One of the most important factors, the price, is many times higher for a fully
automatically inspection lane than for a manually controlled facility. The reasons for this are
the more expensive inspection instruments and the computer system required including the
necessary software. The more expensive equipment for automatic inspection lanes is more
susceptible to malfunction and necessitates a greater maintenance effort. The climatic
conditions (temperature, humidity, etc.) should be taken into account as well.

Based an today’s experience the following staff requirements for a stationary single lane
facilities are:




                                                         26
Inspection and Maintenance and Roadworthiness Program in Surabaya           GTZ SUTP, June 2001


    •    1 station manager
    •    3 technicians
    •    1 administrator.

For centres with more than one lane the staff increases less than the number of lanes.

Mobile Inspection Centre

In areas with small numbers of vehicles it could be useful to use a mobile test centre. The
mobile inspection facility requires 2 technicians only. The two inspectors usually test 10
vehicles per hour based on the German roadworthiness test requirements (safety and
emissions).

In addition to this, an overall management must be continuously built up to be responsible
for the finance and accounts, staff administration, staff training, construction and
maintenance of the facilities and equipment, and for centralized data acquisition and data
processing. If an international contractor will run the I/M program in Surabaya, the number
of the staff for the overall management has to be reduced to the necessary minimum. In the
initial phase the number of experts required for the program will certainly be higher.

Principle inspection requirements

When a technical inspection system is introduced into an existing traffic situation, the
general condition of the vehicles must be taken into account. As a rule this means that the
requirements for the vehicle inspection must initially be kept to a useful minimum. The
scope of the inspection must nevertheless ensure that the emissions and the most important
parts of the vehicle, e.g. brakes, steering and lights, are covered. The standard of the
inspection can then be raised without modifying the inspection system in order to reach the
intended international standard.

Inspection centre network (ICN)

There is the need for a solution for a regional inspection centre network (ICN), including
all aspects of planning, construction with local partners and operation of the local ICN. If an
international contractor will run the ICN, its main duty is to operate the inspection centres
essentially with appropriately trained local staff. In this way the planning and start-up of
the inspection system can be implemented in the shortest possible time and at low cost by
competent expert staff.

Training

To introduce the system effectively, restrictions with regard to inspection centres, kinds of
vehicles and speed of inspections should first be taken into consideration. Because of the
necessary continuous training of the local staff, a substantially lower vehicle throughput
must also be expected at the beginning.

General

The contractor has to ensure responsibilities for the inspection of all kinds of vehicles,
including:
    • Standard inspection procedure for the whole region


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Inspection and Maintenance and Roadworthiness Program in Surabaya             GTZ SUTP, June 2001


    •    Equal treatment of all customers by standard application of the law
    •    Uniform standard of staff training and of the different kind of jobs to do
    •    Attainment of a uniform quality and safety level
    •    Uniform data acquisition and data processing to provide statistics for emission
         control and traffic safety
    •    Continuous uniform adjustment of the inspection standard to changing
         requirements (introducing safety requirements) and vehicle fleets (introducing of
         unleaded fuels).

Requirements for training of the technical staff

The contractor has to offer regular trainings for the emission test staff to guarantee that the
trainees will become specialists in their own intended field of activity. On the other hand the
trained specialists needs a general view of the structure of motor vehicle inspection as well.
This must enable him to understand the principles within which he is working and to convey
to the customers the benefits of Inspection and maintenance of motor vehicles.

The working documents for different categories of staff must be prepared in a
comprehensive way to make sure that even after the training the staff has the possibility of
                                                                    -


easy access to reference and solutions of problems by using the documents placed at the
disposal of each employee.

Each trainee must have to pass an examination at the end of the training lessons in order to
demonstrate his sufficient knowledge and practice, which is required for recognition as an
expert in vehicle testing.

Dimension and Locality of the Stationary Inspection Centre

To determine the optimum size for the inspection centres, a number of factors must be
taken into account, e.g.:
    • Volume and number of inspections
    •    Size of sites available
    •    Possibility of noise emissions from vehicles tested
    •    Road size and road system in the area of the planned sites (infrastructure)
    •    Accessibility for the customers
    •    Availability of electricity, water, etc.

Depending on current experience in Surabaya with test facilities for buses and commercial
vehicles, a two lanes test facility of the same space as today used in Surabaya has the size as
needed (Figure 5) and which is similar to the space in Germany. This means a housing of
approximately 30-40m by 20m length by width for a two-lane test facility and a parking lot in
front of the housing.




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Inspection and Maintenance and Roadworthiness Program in Surabaya               GTZ SUTP, June 2001




Figure 5:        Two Lane Test Facility in Surabaya and Three Lane Facility in Germany

An interim solution can be the use of a large tent equipped with all necessary devices (Figure
6) that can reduce space requirements significantly. One tent needs approximately 8-10m by
5-7m; additional space for parking lots to line up the waiting cars is required as well. The
main disadvantage of this alternative using a tent or a smaller device is the fact that the
number of vehicles which are possible to test decrease significantly as the test devices which
are just used for short tests (e.g. light test, brake test) are obstructed while testing other parts
of the vehicles.




Figure 6:         System Proposal for Car
                  Testing [3]




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Inspection and Maintenance and Roadworthiness Program in Surabaya                     GTZ SUTP, June 2001



Basic Structure of the Stationary Inspection Centres

A small sized modular inspection centre can be used to test cars, trucks, trailers, buses and
motorcycles as well. While motorcycle must comply with the same safety requirements as
passenger cars, the requirements for emission tests for motorbikes/-cycles are still under
discussions (e.g. high HC-emissions from unburned oil must be trapped in front of the
emission measurement cell to protect the measurement equipment).

A modular concept can be extended for higher numbers of vehicles by adding further
modules to the existing building.

Cost of Roadworthiness Test Equipment

The cost of the equipment varies highly on the specifications. The price of the test equipment
as described in the Annex 2 (Section 10.2), but excluding the cost for the car lifter will be
between 22,000 US$ and 32,000 US$. These costs do not include the installation and
construction. The cost per test depends highly on additional parameters than the test
equipment cost only, such as cost for the facility sites, cost for construction, cost for the staff
and for their training. Some general estimations and calculations about the cost for the test –
depending on the boundary conditions - are given in Section 5.2.

Available Vehicle Data

The following data are collected by the Police on a Provincial level and used for the vehicles
license papers:

     Personal and Area Identification Information               Vehicle or Motorcycle Identification
                                                                           Information4
- Police number              - Owners name                 - Make and Model        - Manufacturer Year
- Owners ID number           - License plate colour*)      - Engine displacement   - Chassis Number
- Area license code          - Registration number         - Engine Number         - Required Fuel
- Period of validity                                       - Vehicle Weight
*)
     Yellow: public transport; red: government vehicle; black: others


Some of these data (bold) already available are of interest for the roadworthiness procedure
and the test statistics and may be used for parts of the information network system.

Particular Procedures for CNG Vehicles

The emission and safety tests for CNG vehicles are similar to vehicles with petrol engines. If
the vehicle is equipped with an additional CNG system with a petrol system (bivalent system)
the emission test can be made with the use of petrol only, and additional tests can be
performed with natural gas. The emission limits can be used as recommended below
(compare Table 4). For Indonesia/Surabaya an initial I/M emission limit for CO at idle is
sufficient for natural gas and petrol vehicles. The limit should be set at a value between 3.5



4
    The data are a summary from a private motorcycle license.


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Inspection and Maintenance and Roadworthiness Program in Surabaya            GTZ SUTP, June 2001


and 4.5 % v/v if the vehicles are not equipped with catalytic converters. Otherwise a limit of
0.5 % v/v should be set.

For safety tests at CNG-vehicles as part of roadworthiness, additional safety checks of the
CNG storage system and CNG high-pressure valves are recommended.

Requirements for EU Member States and EU Accession Countries

An effective strategy for the introduction of specific requirements is the use of international
regulation, successfully implemented in other nations. Useful examples are European
emission requirements for Inspection and Maintenance as well as requirements for
roadworthiness tests. In Europe Directive 92/55/EEC (June 1992), amending Directive
77/143/EEC, legislates in-service emission limits in vehicle roadworthiness tests. To
guarantee effective testing, it was indispensable to establish the principle of the Member
States responsibility for roadworthiness testing. However, in response to practical
organisational demands and in the interests of making the administrative procedures faster
and more flexible, provision had to be made for delegating the task of carrying the test out to
approved bodies or experts. These are under the supervision of the public authorities and
answerable at all times for the tasks entrusted to them. The operation of the directives
therefore depends on choosing a form of testing among:
-   A neutral organisation carrying out the tests on its own premises, or
-   a neutral organisation carrying out the tests in garages, or
-   testing by and in approved garages, and
-   setting up the approval procedures.

The choice of the form of testing will have a clear bearing on the amount of direct and
indirect costs (investment costs for land, buildings, facilities, equipment, staff and training,
etc.). Hitherto, rather than aiming at total harmonisation, Community rules (Directive
77/143/EEC and amendments) have adopted the approach that standardisation should be
restricted to the essential items (obligatory nature and frequency of inspection, list of the
equipment or vehicle parts generally subject to inspection, minimum standards for braking
systems and exhaust emissions, mutual recognition of compliance testing) to achieve the
goals mentioned above. A step-by-step introduction of the different roadworthiness
requirements is recommended to the EU accession countries.[6]

Given the infrastructure they imply, however, it is recommended for the European Union
accession countries that commercial vehicles, coaches and buses (frequency and list of items
to be inspected) are targeted first (Directive 77/143/EEC). The extension of these measures to
the other categories (light vehicles (Directive 88/449/EEC) and private cars (Directive
91/328/EEC)) can be deferred to a second stage. The same may hold for the minimum
standards for braking (Directives 92/54/EEC et 94/28/EEC) and emissions (Directive
92/55/EEC), which apply, however, to all vehicle categories ("Small steps" (step-by-step)
policy).

Emission Requirements in the EU for Spark Ignition Engines

For Spark Ignition Engines the following requirements for the emission tests are needed:

Emission Test Requirements for Spark Ignition Engines (92/55/EEC)



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Inspection and Maintenance and Roadworthiness Program in Surabaya                         GTZ SUTP, June 2001


     1. A visual inspection to ensure that:
        - There are no leaks from the exhaust system.
        - If applicable, any emissions control system in present.

     2. An idle CO-test, details as follows:
        No load idle test, carried out after the manufacturer’s recommended pre-condition
        period (e.g. warm engine or oil temperature 80°C). The limit values must be defined
        (e.g. 92/55/EEC).

     3. An additional increased idle speed test is required for vehicles fitted with 3-way
        catalysts and lambda control.

The required emission limits for a simple idle test for spark-ignited petrol engines are
summarized in Table 4 and should be used in Surabaya as well.

Table 4:          Emission limits in the European Union for Petrol Vehicles

               Vehicle Description                                           Idle CO
                                                                        (% v/v, %-Volume)

All Models not fitted with 3-way catalyst and                       Initial Type Approval Limit1)
lambda control                                                                or 0.5 max.
Where these data are not available or Member States of the European Union decide not
to use these reference values, the following limits will apply
Manufactured before October 1986 2)                            4.5
Manufactured after October 1986                                                    3.5
All Models fitted with 3-way catalyst and                   Either initial type approval limit or 0.5 max.
lambda control 3)
1)
     These Type Approval Data will not be available for Indonesia
2)
     Or the date on which member states of the European Union required the vehicles on first registration to
     comply with the Type Approval Directive 70/220/EC, as amended.
3)
     An additional no load test is to be conducted at a minimum idle speed of 2000 rpm. The following limits
     values apply:
     CO: 0.3 % v/v maximum.
     Lambda: 1 ± 0.03, or in accordance with the manufacturers specifications.


For Indonesia/Surabaya an initial I/M emission limit for CO at idle is sufficient for
petrol vehicles without catalytic converters. The limit should be set at a value between
3.5 and 4.5 % v/v in the short term. Emission limits for petrol vehicles with catalytic
converters should be set to 0.5 % v/v.

Emission Requirements in the EU for Diesel Vehicles

The test procedure consists of a free acceleration smoke test. That is, the engine is
accelerated with transmission in neutral (no load) from idle up to maximum (governor cut
off) speed and the smoke opacity is measured. The following maximum coefficient of light
absorption is allowed:

Either initial type approval limits plus tolerance of 0.5 m-1;


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Inspection and Maintenance and Roadworthiness Program in Surabaya                      GTZ SUTP, June 2001


Or       where these data are not available or Member states decide not to use these reference
         values, the following alternative maximum values will apply:

                            Naturally aspired diesel engines:        2.5 m-1
                            Turbo-charged diesel engines:            3.0 m-1

For Indonesia an initial I/M emission limit for Opacity at free acceleration is sufficient
for diesel vehicles. The limit for the maximum coefficient of light absorption should be
set at a value between 2.5 m-1 (naturally aspired diesel engines) and 3.0 m-1 (turbo-
charged diesel engines).

Frequency of I/M Emission Testing

Table 5 summarises the ages of vehicles at which emission testing should initially start and
the frequency of that testing.

Table 5:          Frequency of Emission Tests in the European Union

             Vehicle Description                        Age of the new vehicle for       Test frequency
                                                        an initial I/M emission test         (years)
Spark ignition engine passenger cars with                            3                           1
3-way catalyst
Heavy commercial vehicles, taxis,                                    1                           1
ambulances
Commercial diesel vehicles                                           4                           2
(less than 3.5 tons)

Recommendation for the Frequency of Emission and Safety test in Indonesia

For Indonesia the following Frequency of emission tests and safety tests are recommended
(Table 5). The main strategy is an annual simple emission test only for all vehicles without
catalytic converter and for all vehicles with high annual vehicle mileage (e.g. buses, heavy
duty vehicles, taxis). These “high mileage vehciles” should be tested for safety on an annual
basis as well. The only vehicle types to test bi-annual for safety are passenger cars. Similar
test frequencies are performed in other countries (e.g. member states o the European Union,
States in the United States of America). A summary of the recommended test frequencies for
Surabaya is given in Table 6.

Motorbikes/-cycles should be tested on a regular basis as well to increase the average safety
standards and to reduce the number of accidents, caused by missing safety requirements (e.g.
brakes, steering, tyres).




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Inspection and Maintenance and Roadworthiness Program in Surabaya                   GTZ SUTP, June 2001



Table 6:          Recommendation for Test Frequencies for Roadworthiness Tests in
                  Surabaya/Indonesia

                                                  Frequency of Roadworthiness Tests
     Vehicle Type             Frequency of Initial            Frequency of I/M    Frequency of Safety
                             Test for New Vehicles             Emission Tests           Tests
Vehicles without catalytic converter and without closed loop catalytic converter
Vehicles without                    24 months                       12 months         24 months
catalytic converter
Vehicles without
closed loop 3-way
                                    24 months                       12 months         24 months
catalytic converter
Passenger cars for
public transport
                                    12 months                       12 months         12 months
(taxis, busses)
Vehicles with Diesel Engines up to 3.5 t gross weight
Passenger Cars                      36 months                       24 months         24 months
Passenger cars for
public transport
                                    12 months                       12 months         12 months
(taxis, busses, rental)
Others                              24 months                       12 months         12 months
Vehicles with Diesel Engines of more than 3.5 t gross weight
All Vehicles
(busses, heavy duty
                                    12 months                       12 months         12 months
vehicles)
Vehicles with 3-way catalytic converter (after introduction in Indonesia)
Passenger Cars                      36 months                       24 months         24 months
Passenger cars for
public transport
                                    12 months                       12 months         12 months
(taxis, busses, rental)
Others                              24 months                       12 months         12 months
Motorbikes/-cycles
All Motorbikes                      24 months                       Not in use.       24 months
Organizational Structure

The Road Traffic Office of the City Government must have the main responsibility for the
roadworthiness procedure and the required regulations. Even though if a neutral
organisation carries out the tests on behalf of the Road Traffic Office, there must be the
possibility of a legal basis to withdraw the contract in cases of fraudulence or corruption.

The City Road Traffic Office should establish an independent verification and supervision
body to enforce controls and guarantee and appropriate service. Members of this supervision
body should report regularly to the City Board of Surabaya.



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Inspection and Maintenance and Roadworthiness Program in Surabaya             GTZ SUTP, June 2001


Assistance by an International Expert Group

In the beginning of the introduction process it is recommended that the independent
verification and supervision body of the City Road Traffic Office and the tender process is
supported by an independent international expert group. The members must have a
roadworthiness experience of a minimum of 5 years. The expert group should review the
tender procedure (see 5.6 in) as well as auditing the process of roadworthiness after a defined
period (e.g. after one, two years) of roadworthiness tests in Surabaya (see 5.7 in Table 9).

Fines, control and verification structure

In addition a regulation dealing with punishments, fines and sanctions on a legal basis is
urgently required, to attract bidders from overseas in a joint venture with a local contractor to
implement a roadworthiness procedure. If companies in advance of the official introduction
make high investments, they must be able to rely on the fact that vehicles are tested in
roadworthiness on a regular basis and that it is not more attractive to pay a fine or get a
manipulated certificate for a bribe. The definition of fines and sanction must be part of the
regulations. Useful examples for fines and sanctions to ensure regular roadworthiness testing
on all vehicles should consider the following strategies:
    •    A useful example is the introduction of roadside tests to examine vehicles if they are
         tested regularly (e.g. testing a number of 10 % of the annual tested vehicles at
         roadside vehicle inspection tests).
    •    The additional combination of the vehicle registration with the mandatory
         requirement of a passed roadworthiness test should be obligatory.
    •    The revocation of the vehicles license should be mandatory, if a vehicle owner has
         not carried out a roadworthiness test on his/her car.

Roadside Vehicle Inspection Tests for Verification

The procedure of roadworthiness, including inspection and maintenance (emissions) and
safety and reliability tests will also consider roadside vehicle inspection tests. The tests
should be carried out on a random. The financing of these additional tests with support of the
police must be considered in the calculations of the amount of the test fees required. It is
recommended that it should be proofed that approximately 10 % of the vehicles tested every
year are tested by roadside vehicles inspections per year to ensure that all vehicle owners
carry out the tests.




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Inspection and Maintenance and Roadworthiness Program in Surabaya         GTZ SUTP, June 2001




5.2. Specification of a Tender Procedure and Preparation of Tender
     Documents
The tender procedure has to be divided into different time intervals and the specific work
required as following:
    1. Draft of a Regulation
    2. Tender Procedure
    3. Introduction of the roadworthiness procedure
    4. Awareness campaign and public information system for roadworthiness
    5. Continuing assistance for an effective introduction of the roadworthiness procedure
       (suggestions, voluntary)

While the distribution of all different time intervals is summarised in Paragraph 5.3, the
following Table 7 starts with a first overview about the possibilities for a distribution of
vehicle types and their intervals of tests (emissions and safety/reliability).




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Inspection and Maintenance and Roadworthiness Program in Surabaya                              GTZ SUTP, June 2001




Table 7:            Estimation of the Vehicle Number to be Tested in Roadworthiness Tests
                    in (1995-1999) [5]

 Type of                                                                        Estimated      Test4)      Test4)
               1995        1996           1997         1998           1999                   Frequenc    Frequenc
 Vehicle                                                                         Vehicles
                                                                                 to Test1)   y for I/M     y for
                                                                                                          Safety
Passenger Car
             156486       165535      179212          178853        163472      174 000      n.a.        n.a.
Bus          5180         3802        3901            3796          1794          1 800      12 month    12 month
Sedan        52217        54164       58907           59167         55921        55 000      24 month    24 month
Jeep         22931        24433       25397           24750         23868        25 000      24 month    24 month
Taxi2)       n.a.         n.a.        n.a.            n.a.          3547          3 500      12 month    12 month
Station-     69940        76275       84264           84365         73133        80 000      24 month    24 month
Wagon
Microlet     62148        6861        6743            6775          8756          8 500      12 month    12 month
                                     3)
Light and Heavy Duty Vehicles
                                                                                 67 000
             63158        69839       73571           73010         57689                    12 month    12 month
Heavy
Duty         24856        27339       28924           29062         25868        27 000      12 month    12 month
Vehicles5)
Light
Duty         34035        38298       39964           39598         14636        17 000      12 month    12 month
Vehicles6)
Boxed        1479         2205        2176            2210          11088        15 000      12 month    12 month
Truck
Boxed
             2788         1997        2507            2140          6097          8 000      12 month    12 month
Small
Truck
Motor Bike and Scooter
                                                                                655 000
             539753       602942      670394          667207        648879                   n.a.        24 month
Motor        509565       573342      641199          638976        636632      640 000      n.a.        24 month
Bike
Scooter      30188        29600       29195           28229         12247        15 000      n.a.        24 month
All number of vehicles and motorbikes to be tested annual                        81 000      12 month

All number of vehicles and motorbikes to be tested bi-annual                    815 000      24 month

All   number    of    vehicles   to              be      tested       annual
excluding motor bikes and scooters                                               81 000      12 month

All number of vehicles to be                          tested        bi-annual
excluding motor bikes and scooters                                              160 000      24 month




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   Inspection and Maintenance and Roadworthiness Program in Surabaya                                                         GTZ SUTP, June 2001


            All data sources: Surabaya Dalam Angka 1999 (Surabaya in Figures 1999), ISSN 0215.6202
   1)
            The Estimation for vehicles to be tested is made on a very conservative basis (e.g. low economic
            growth, low increase of public transport as well as low increase of vehicle numbers)
   2)
            Different source: DLLAJ of Surabaya City
   3)
            Own calculations due to excluding tractor, fire cars, towing trucks, container, ambulance, etc.
   4)
            Test frequency as recommended in Table 6
   5)
            Named as “Truck”
   6)
            Named as “Small Truck”




   Table 7 shows that a safety test for motorbikes/-cycles should be obligatory as this category
   of motorised vehicles has a share of more than 70% and therefore a regular safety check will
   allow a significant reduction of accidents caused due to missing safety checks (e.g. brakes,
   steering, tyres).

   The number of vehicles and/or motorbikes/-cycles to be tested annual depends highly on the
   boundary conditions, namely whether motorbikes/-cycles will be included in the
   roadworthiness tests and which economic development and increase of number of vehicles
   will take place in coming years. The following figures show different numbers of annual tests
   for vehicles, depending on the boundaries set (Figure 7). The estimations based on the given
   recommendations show that there is a need to test in the next years
             •      between 160,000 and 180,000 vehicles (incl. passengers cars, busses, etc.) and
             •      between 327,000 and 375,000 motorbikes/-cycles

   every year in Surabaya. All these data depend highly on the data source [5].

   Figure 7:                    Estimation of the Number of Vehicles and Motorbikes to be Tested in
                                Roadworthiness Tests Depending on Different Boundary Conditions

   The required technologies to test the vehicles and motorbikes/-cycles as summarised in
   Figure 2 are a given in Annex 1 (Section 10.1) and Annex 2 (Section 10.2).

              Estimation of the Vehicle Number for Roadworthiness Tests,                  Estimation of the Number of Motorbikes for Roadworthiness Tests
                                 Excluding Motorbikes

200000                                                                           400000



150000                                                                           300000



100000                                                                           200000

                           Total Number of Annual Tests w./o.                                               Total Number of Annual Tests of
                           Motorbikes (Base Case)                                                           Motorbikes (Base Case)
50000                                                                            100000
                           Total Number of Annual Tests w./o.
                                                                                                            Total Number of Annual Tests of
                           Motorbikes (+2% p.a.)
                                                                                                            Motorbikes (+2% p.a.)

        0                                                                             0
             2001   2002      2003   2004    2005   2006    2007   2008                    2001    2002    2003     2004    2005    2006      2007   2008



   The cost of the equipment varies highly according to the specifications. The price of the test
   equipment as described in the Annex 2 (Section 10.2), but excluding the cost for the car lifter
   will be between 22,000 US$ and 32,000 US$. These costs do not include the installation and
   construction. Further details must be part of the tender proposal given by interested


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Inspection and Maintenance and Roadworthiness Program in Surabaya                 GTZ SUTP, June 2001


parties. The City of Surabaya does not have to provide calculations in all details for the
tender process. A first rough estimation without considering the facility cost shows, that a
double lane test facility calculated for a period of five years could cost approximately 43,000
US$ per year (Table 8).

A test facility, working on five days a week and 8 hours per day (considering 255 working
days per year) can start with testing 8,200 vehicles per year (calculating 30 minutes per
vehicle) in the introduction period and 25,000 vehicles as a standard using a double lane test
facility, calculating approximately 10 minutes per vehicle.

Therefore approximately 7 double lane test facilities are needed in the beginning to test
the 160,000 to 180,000 vehicles in Surabaya every year.

The annual cost for each test of a vehicle will be between 5.25 US$ (30 minutes per test) and
1.75 US$ (10 minutes per test) if only costs for the staff and the test equipment (without test
facility cost, profit, etc.) would be considered. It is not realistic to transfer these costs directly
to the test fee that must be paid by the vehicle owner. But the calculation shows that the
prediction interval for the profit, that is needed by the international investor and the local
investor as well as an additional charge for the local government of Surabaya, is realistically
attainable.

An annual charge, depending on the rough and incomplete calculations as given (2-5 US$ per
test only under consideration of costs for staff and test devices) on the one hand and the
illegal bribes already paid today twice a year (twice 7 to 9 US$) for buses and light and heavy
duty vehicles - which result in 14 to 18 US$ per year – on the other hand, shows that it should
be possible to charge 100,000 to 150,000 Rupiah per test (10 to 15 US$). A tender procedure
should consider this amount to get a proposal from an interested contractor. A government
charge of 30,0000 Rupiah per test could results in an income for public funding of
approximately 500.000 US$ (5 Billion Rupiah) per year.

The costs for the staff consider a comparable high amount as a salary in comparison to
average salaries in Indonesia in 2001. For comparison: A technician at a workshops earns
800,000 Rupiah per month which could rise up to nearly 1,500,000 Rupiah in some cases,
which is between 80 and 150 US$.

The consideration of motorbikes/-cycles on a lower test charge has the potential to
increase safety and income for public funding significantly as well as to reduce the
number of accidents. Therefore the tender procedure should consider that particular
type of motorised vehicle.

For the tender procedure and the identification of a contractor a technical tender draft as well
as a formal tender draft including the description of the procedure as well as the contract for
the technical services are necessary. In the attached Annex 3: Terms of Reference for a
Tender Procedure for the Roadworthiness Testing of Motor Vehicles and Motorbikes in
Surabaya, Indonesia and in Annex 4: Formal Tender Requirements and Draft of a
Contract for the Engagement of a Technical Service summarize the necessary boundary
conditions and requirements for the whole process.




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Inspection and Maintenance and Roadworthiness Program in Surabaya                   GTZ SUTP, June 2001


Table 8:          Basics of the Calculation for Cost Estimations of Roadworthiness Tests

                                     Double Lane Test Facility
                                                                 Cost per Month    Annual Cost
                                                 Number
                                                                and Person (US$)     (US$)
Station Manager                                       1               200             2,400
Administrator                                         2               150             3,600
Technicians                                           6               100             7,200
General Personal Cost                                 2               70              1,680
Investment Cost for Equipment
                                         2                             -             28,000
(50,000 US$ per Lane, 7% p.a.)
Annual Total Cost for Test Staff and Equipment,                                      42,880
but without Facility, Construction, etc.


5.3. Specification of an Implementation Schedule
The specific time schedule proposed for the introduction strategy is summarized in Table 9.
The time schedule shows that it will be possible to implement an effective roadworthiness
procedure within 12-14 months.

One of the main tasks must be to ensure the independence of the main tender procedure itself
and the tender board. Only this can make sure that international investors provide
investments for the projects, it must be proved that any case of corruption is impossible.
Therefore it makes sense that external knowledge is used for the draft of the regulation, an
external expert selection group takes part in the independent and neutral selection
procedure of the tender and an external expert audit group audits the roadworthiness test
procedure in Surabaya after one, two and/or three years. This procedure should be financed
by a second party (e.g. GTZ or Worldbank).

The tender procedure has to be open, reliable, as well as prepared, introduced and followed
by an independent Tender Board, including an external audit of (international) experts
with experience on roadworthiness. It shall be clearly stated that the City of Surabaya will
withdraw the contract, if the system does not work appropriately and on a legal basis.
Roadworthiness test procedure performed by the Contractor should be reviewed after one
year and after two years by a neutral external audit group of (international) experts with
experience on roadworthiness tests. Based on this experience, consequences, up to an
immediate withdrawal of the contract, should be possible. Someone neutral should finance
the cost of the test audit.




                                                          40
                                                                        Suggestion for the Introduction Strategy for Roadworthiness in Surabaya (DRAFT of 2001-05-25)
                                                                                            gg                                gy
                                                                                                      in Surabaya (DRAFT of 2001-05-25)
                                                                  Year:                                                                    2001                                 2002                            2003
                                                                 Month:                                                         6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3                  4   5    6 7   8   9 10 11 12   1   2    3 4   5   6
1.    Work for Legislation:
1. 1. Stop current draft regulation on roadworthiness being prepared by City Govt.
1. 2. Definition of requirements (discussions, lists, procedures)
1. 3. Draft of new regulation and annexes
2.    Work for Tender:
2. 1. Roadworthiness "Informal Implementation Group"
2. 2. Tender Working Group (City Road Traffic Office + legal experts)
2. 3. Legal Experts for Tender Process (formal procedure)

2.   4. First draft of Technical Tender + Formal Tender Requirements (incl. Draft of the Contract) from GTZ
2.   5. Definition and Draft of Technical Tender Requirements
2.   6. Definition and Draft of Formal Tender Requirements (incl. Draft of the Contract)
2.   7. Technical Tender Draft
2.   8. Formal Tender Draft (incl. Draft of the Contract)
2.   9. General cost estimates
2.   10. Introduce an OPEN and CLEAR tender process for bidders
2.   11. Introduce an OPEN and CLEAR identification processs of best bidder
3.    Introduction of Roadworthiness (I/M+Safety)
3. 1. Identification of facilities
3. 2. Build up of equipment and stations
3. 3. Day X: Start of Roadworthiness
4.        Rising Awareness
4.   1.   First announcement of process
4.   2.   Small awareness campaign (Swisscontact for emissions)
4.   3.   Regular information about future requirements, benefits, cost
4.   4.   Introduction campaign, legal requirements
5.        Possible Continuing Assistance (e.g. by GTZ, Worldbank, Others)
5.   1.   Local assistance for the process by GTZ (hinge between City Govt. & Int. Experts)
5.   2.   Translate Regulations, Annexes for Indonesian Drafts from Germany
5.   3.   Discussion of the legal drafts with the international consultant (if available)
5.   4.   Access to technical translator for City Road Traffic Office
5.   5.   Identify and hire legal experts with high skills for impelementation of regulations and laws
5.   6.   Identify and invite international expert tender group for the audit of the process (2.11.)
5.   7.   Invite international expert group for auditing the process after 1 year, 2 years, ...
5.   8.   Transfer sucessful Roadworthiness Procedure to other Cities and/or National Level




Table 9:                             Suggestion of a Timetable for the Implementation of Roadworthiness Tests
Inspection and Maintenance and Roadworthiness Program in Surabaya              GTZ SUTP, June 2001




6    CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Starting with a description of the main information available in Surabaya for the introduction
of roadworthiness tests as well as the results of the discussion with the keyplayers in the
process of the introduction of roadworthiness in Surabaya, this reports summarizes the main
requirements for an introduction strategy for roadworthiness tests in Surabaya. The main
results and recommendations can be summarized with the following ten reasons to change the
current strategy of roadworthiness in Surabaya:
      I.        There is an urgent need not to proceed with the current draft regulation for the
                introduction of the regulation (City Regulation for Motor Vehicle Testing in
                Surabaya). Based on this draft the cost for the City of Surabaya for an
                introduction of roadworthiness can raise to more than half of a million US
                Dollar. This money can be saved and earned annually if an open tender
                procedure identifies a neutral organisation carrying out the tests on behalf of the
                government.
      II.       The only useful system of I/M procedures and additional safety checks (both
                summarised as roadworthiness test) is a centralised system with the
                responsibility on the hand of the government and the contractor of an official
                tender process. Therefore the introduction of a centralized system with a neutral
                organisation carrying out the tests on behalf of the government is a necessity. A
                decentralized system will fail all these requirements.
      III.      In addition a regulation dealing with punishments, fines and sanctions with a
                sound legal basis is urgently required, to attract bidders from overseas in a joint
                venture with a local contractor to implement a roadworthiness procedure. If
                companies in advance of the official introduction make high investments, they
                must be able to rely on the fact that vehicles are tested in roadworthiness on a
                regular basis and that it is not more attractive to pay a fine or get a manipulated
                certificate for a bribe.
      IV.       The Road Traffic Office of the City Government of Surabaya must have the
                main responsibility for the roadworthiness procedure and the therefore the
                required regulations. Even though if a neutral organisation carries out the tests
                on behalf of the, there must be the possibility of a legal basis to withdraw the
                contract in cases of fraudulence or corruption.
      V.        The combination of a charge to pay for the emission and safety certificate and
                sticker with the test fee for the standardised roadworthiness test guarantees City
                of Surabaya incomes for additional project funding. This income for the
                Government is only possible if roadworthiness is implemented in a centralised
                system with only one responsible contracting company.
      VI.       A government charge of 30,000 Rupiah per test could results in an income for
                public funding of approximately 500.000 US$ (5 Billion Rupiah) per year.
      VII.      If the strategy of introducing a simple "I/M module" and a simple "safety and
                reliability module" on a centralized basis, including all legal requirements and
                tender procedures is followed, it makes it simple to change any module in detail
                because the infrastructure is already set and easily to influence by government.
      VIII.     An attractive recommendation of the City of Surabaya is the possibility of the
                city to provide land for test facilities to a contractor at no cost to reduce the
                overhead allocation cost for the test facilities, which allows lower test fees for

                                                       46
Inspection and Maintenance and Roadworthiness Program in Surabaya              GTZ SUTP, June 2001



                the roadworthiness test. This idea should be followed for future strategies in the
                tender procedure.
      IX.       An annual test fee - under consideration of rough and incomplete calculations (2-
                5 US per test only under consideration of costs for staff and test devices) and
                under consideration of the bribes already paid twice a year (twice 7 to 9US) for
                buses and light/heavy duty vehicles - which result in 14 to 18 US$ per year – of
                100,000 to 150,000 Rupiah per test (10 to 15 US) should be possible. A tender
                procedure should consider this amount to get a proposal from an interested
                contractor, who may have the possibility to offer a cheaper rate for the same
                service.
      X.        The introduction of safety tests for motorbikes/-cycles on a lower test charge has
                the potential to increase safety, reduce accidents and increase income for public
                funding significantly. Therefore the tender procedure should consider that
                particular type of motorised vehicle.

For Indonesia/Surabaya an initial I/M emission limit for CO at idle is sufficient for petrol
vehicles without catalytic converters. The limit should be set at a value between 3.5 and 4.5 %
v/v. For Diesel cars an initial I/M emission limit for Opacity at free acceleration is sufficient.
The limit should be set at a value between 2.5 m-1 (naturally aspired diesel engines) and 3.0
m-1 (turbo-charged diesel engines).

For the tender procedure and the identification of a contractor a technical tender draft as well
as a formal tender draft including the description of the procedure as well as the contract for
the technical services are necessary. In the attached Annex 3: Terms of Reference for a
Tender Procedure for the Roadworthiness Testing of Motor Vehicles and Motorbikes in
Surabaya, Indonesia and in Annex 4: Formal Tender Requirements and Draft of a
Contract for the Engagement of a Technical Service summarize the necessary boundary
conditions and requirements for the whole procedure.




                                                       47
Inspection and Maintenance and Roadworthiness Program in Surabaya                                  GTZ SUTP, June 2001




7      ABBREVIATIONS

7.1.     Decimal multipliers and dividers
                                                -6                                             6
µ                 micro                    10                  M             mega         10
                                                -3                                             9
m                 milli                    10                  G             giga         10
                                                3                                              12
k                 kilo                     10                  T             tera         10


7.2.     Units
°C                grade Celsius                  temperature        [°C] = [K] – 273.15 K
                                                                                      3
d                 day                            time               86.4 x 10 s
dB(A)             decibel(A)                     noise              -
F                 Fahrenheit                     temperature        [F] = 9/5 * [°C] + 32
                                                                        -3
g                 gram                           weight             10 kg
                                                                                  3
h                 hour                           time               3.6 x10 s
J                 joule                          energy             kg*m2/s2
K                 Kelvin                         temperature        K
                                                                        -3    3
l                 litre                          volume             10 m
m                 metre                          distance           -
mile              mile                           distance           1609 m
s                 second                         time               -
                                                                        3
t                 tonne                          weight             10 kg
tce               tonne coal equivalent          energy             29.3076 GJ
W                 watt                           power              kg*m2/s3
                                                                                  3
Wh                watt-hour                      energy             3.6 x 10 J
HP                Horse Power                    power              735,499 W


7.3.     General abbreviations
CNG         Compressed Natural Gas
GTZ         Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit
EU          European Union
ICN         Inspection Centre Network
I/M         Inspection and Maintenance (part of a roadworthiness test)
n.a.        Not available
NGO         Non Governmental Organisation
ppm         parts per million


                                                          48
Inspection and Maintenance and Roadworthiness Program in Surabaya                   GTZ SUTP, June 2001



R MTB       Roadworthiness Main Tender Board
RIG         Roadworthiness Introduction Group
SUTP        Sustainable Urban Transportation
TWC         three-way catalyst
w./o.       without
% v/v       percentage of volume


8    GLOSSARY
Inspection and Maintenance                Description of a regular emission short test based on
                                          idle, high idle or loaded driving conditions, part of the
                                          roadworthiness test.

Roadworthiness Test                       Regular (e.g. biannual) check of a vehicle, consisting of
                                          a) emission test procedures (Inspection and
                                          Maintenance, I/M) and a Safety and Reliability Check.

Safety and Reliability Check              Part of the roadworthiness test.




                                                       49
Inspection and Maintenance and Roadworthiness Program in Surabaya           GTZ SUTP, June 2001




9     BIBLIOGRAPHY
[1]    Motor Vehicle Emission Regulations And Fuel Specifications, Report No. 9/98 update,
       CONCAWE, The Oil Companies European Organisation For Environment, Health,
       Safety

[2]    Terms of Reference for Consultant Services, Inspection and maintenance expert,
       Project: Sustainable Urban Transportation in Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia, Karl
       Fjellstrom, GTZ SUTP 2001

[3]    Bosch System Proposal for Car Testing, Bosch GmbH
       Annex 1:
       Technical System Proposal for Car Testing as Defined by a Supplier and
       Annex 2:
       Technical Descriptions of Car Testing Devices as Defined
       by a Supplier

[4]    The role of Private Workshops in Reducing exhaust-gas emission of motor vehicles,
       FX SOESENO, GABUNG INDUSTRI KENDARAAN BERMOTOR INDONESIA,
       Gaikindo, JI. HOS Cokroaminoto No. 6, Jarkata Pusat 10350, English version:
       Originally in Bahasa Indonesia

[5]    Surabaya Dalam Angka 1999, Surabaya in Figures 1999, Tables 08.01.04, 08.01.6,
       ISSN 0215.6202

[6]    White Paper, Preparation of the Associated Countries of Central and Eastern Europe for
       Integration into the Internal Market of the Union, Conditions Necessary to Operate the
       Legislation, European Commission,
       http://cadmos.carlbro.be/Library/WhitePaper/WhitePaper.html#general




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