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Occultation TEC Measurements from FORMOSAT-3COSMIC

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					Occultation TEC Measurements from
      FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC



  Tiger J.Y. Liu, GPSARC, NSPO, NOAA
  Institute of Space Science, College of Earth Sciences,
            National Central University, TAIWAN
           Outline
FORMOSAT 3/COSMIC
FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC
Tropospheric Observation
Ionospheric Ob
I                  ti
      h i Observation
Seismo-ionospheric Study
FOEMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2
Summary


                                       2

                           21-Jul-10
Solar Terrestrial Environment
                  Plasmasphere
Thermosphere      (Protonsphere)


                           Ionosphere



  Mesosphere

  Stratosphere
                 Neutral Atmosphere


  Troposphere
                          Ionospheric total electron content
                               (TEC) derived from GPS
                                  Receiver: YMSM (North Taiwan)
       120
         L1:1575.42 MHz (10.23 MHz×154 )
         L2:1227.60 MHz (10.23 MHz×120)
        90
TECu




         C/A code (1.023 MHz)
        60
TE




         P code (10.23 MHz)
        30

         0
        08:00             14:00               20:00               02:00          08:00
                  (xi, yi, zi)             Local Time

                                                                      TEC (total electron content)
                                                                         unit: TECu (1016 ele/m2)


             ionosphere


                                                                             Line-of-sight

                   So=[(xi-xj)2+(yi-yj)2+(zi-zj)2]1/2                           (xj ,yj, zj)

                                                                                                     6
FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC


  Space-based GPS receiver
                                FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC
                                Global Real-time
                                Weather (Meteorology)
                                Space Weather (Ionosphere)
                                Observation and Prediction

The FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC program is an international
collaboration between Taiwan and the       United States that
will use a constellation of six remote sensing microsatellites
to collect atmospheric data for weather prediction and for
ionosphere, climate and gravity research. Data from the
satellites will be made freely available to the international scientific
community in near real-time.
FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC
•   FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC
    Constellation was launch at
    01 40 UTC, April 14, 2006
    01:40 UTC A il 14
    (Taiwan Time: April 15 2006) at
    Vandenberg Air Force Base,
    CA.
    CA Minotaur Launch

•   Maneuvered into six different
    orbital planes (inclination ~72°)
      bit l l      (i li ti      72
    for optimal global coverage (at
    ~800 km altitude).

•   All satellites are in good
    health and providing science
    data.
    d t
FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC




                    The FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC system is a
                    constellation of 6 LEO micro-satellites
                    Each satellite carries 3 payloads:
                                 lt ti     i
                     – GPS occultation receiver
                     – Tiny Ionospheric
                       Photometer
                     – Tri-Band Beacon.
                                    pressure,
                    Global observation of
                    temperature, water vapor,
                    refractivity, ionospheric
                                     y
                    electron density and
                    scintillation for weather and space weather
                    research as well as climate monitoring
                    Demonstrate quasi-operational GPS limb
                    sounding with global coverage in near-real
                    time
Global
Positioning
P iti i
System
 y
Gps Occultation eXperiment (GOX)
        FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC




Profiling the Troposphere, Stratosphere and Ionosphere by Radio Occultation
Mission Orbit of FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC
FORMOSAT3/COSMIC
       p p
   -Troposphere

 Walker Circulation: La Niña, El Niño
 Hadley Circulation: Plateau Heating
      y                             g
 Polar Circulation: Planetary Wave
Distribution of occultation events observed
             by FORMOSAT-3




More than 2500 radio occultation (RO) soundings (green dots)
obtained by the GPS Occultation Experiment (GOX) each day. In
       i       di   d (red dots)       id    l        i    l
comparison, radiosondes ( d d ) provide only approximately 1500
soundings per day.
Super Typhoon Jangmi (2008)
    COSMIC Profile Availability

  22.5-1.5          1.5-4.5          4.5-7.5         7.5-10.5




 10.5-13.5        13.5-16.5       16.5-19.5         19.5-22.5

                    00         00z        00z
                                                Free forecast
                                                NCEP GFS for IC and LBC
  22.5-1.5(+1d)               DA time window    Availale conventional data



COSMIC data is available continuously
  Not like radiosonde data available only at 00 and 12Z
Cycling 3DVAR for long data assimilation time window
is one of the optimal assimilation scheme
Cold 3DVAR vs Cycling 3DVAR
   Cold 3DVAR                     Cycling 3DVAR




Significant improvement for trackforecast in cycling
3DVAR
El Niño La Niña

   Walker Circulation
La Niña                   El Niño 




          [Webster and Chang, J. Atmos. Sci., 1988]
Global F3/C tropopause height
                         ENSO Warm




                         ENSO Cold




                         Normal




                         ENSO Warm
(b)   Tropospheric Pressure

                                   ENSO Warm




                                   ENSO Cold




                                   Normal




                                   ENSO Warm



                                          23

                              21-Jul-10
Tropospheric Temperature
                       ENSO Warm




                       ENSO Cold




                       Normal




                       ENSO Warm
Tropospheric Water Vapor
                           ENSO Warm




                           ENSO Cold




                           Normal




                           ENSO Warm
Tibetan Plateau Heating


    Hadley Circulation and
        the reserved
Global Tropopause Height in July 2008
Global Tropopause Height in July 2009
Polar Cell Circulation


      Planetary Wave
    p       y        g
The planetary wave signature
FORMOSAT3/COSMIC
          p
    -Ionosphere
Distribution of occultation events
  observed by FORMOSAT-3
                               GOX
  Ionosphere

EIA and Plasma Cave
Plasma Depletion Bay
          p        y
Pre-earthquake Anomaly
                                      Equatorial plasma fountain
                                                                                                          LT 10:00
                                                                                             1000
                 Low-Latitude Ionosphere is dominated by the                                 800
                 electrodynamics                                                             600
                                                   1600 LT
                1000                                                                         400
                       Plasma
                                                                         Ratcliffe [1972]
                900                                                                          200
                       fountain
                800
                                                                                                    −20   0      20   40
                                                                                                          LT 13:00
                700
                                                                                             1000
                 magnetic
                 field line                                                                  800
Altitude (km)




                600

                                                                                           600
                500

                                                                                             400
                400

                                                                                             200
                300
                                                                                                    −20   0      20   40
                200
                                                                                                          LT 16:00
                                                                                             1000
                100
                          −10         0           10                20         30       40   800
                                              Geographic Latitude

                                                                                             600
                              A model simulated plasma fountain effect
                                                                                             400
                               t ti i the        i     d h       to its
                              starting in th morning and enhance t it
                                                                                             200
                              maximum around noon
                                                                                                    −20   0     20    40
                        Equatorial Ionization Anomaly                                              3
                                                                                             [e]/cm x 10
                                                                                                            5

               500
                                                                                                       10
Altitde [km]

               400 0100                          0700              1000           1500
        [k



               300
                                                                                                       9
               200
               100
                     0300                        0730              1030           1600                 8



                                                                                                       7

                     0500                        0800              1100           1700
                                                                                                       6



                                                                                                       5
                     0530                        0830              1200           1900

                                                                                                       4



                     0600                        0900              1300           2100                 3



                                                                                                       2

                     0630                        0930              1400           2300
                                                                                                       1


                                                                                                    0
                −45 −30 −15     0   15 30 45
                                          o
                     Geomagnetic latitude [ N]          Lin et al.[GRL 2008]   July-August 2006
2007 M-month
2007 J-month
2007 S-month
2007 D-month
      Ionospheric plasma cave/tunnel

(a)




(b)




                                    Plasma cave
                                    Plasma Tunnel




                                Liu et al. (JGR, 2010)
Plasma Depletion Bay
Plasma Depletion Bay observed by F3/C and TIMED GUVI
 Nighttime ionospheric structures, 23:00 LT (global fixed local time)

                                                                                                                            1.5


                                                                                                                            1.0


                                                                                                                            0.5


                                                                                                                            0


                                      TIMED−GUVI 135.6nm PLOT    YEAR=2006; DOY=141−153; TIME=20−22LT           Rayleights
                                 50                                                                                     8
                                 40
     eographic Latitud ( ° N)




                                 30
                                                                                                                        6
                                 20
                    ude




                                 10
                                  0                                                                                     4
                                −10
                                −20
                                                                                                                        2
    Geo




                                −30
                                −40
                                −50                                                                                     0
                                 −180 −150 −120   −90   −60 −30       0     30      60   90   120   150   180
                                                          Geographic Longitude ( ° E)
Plasma depletion bay
Nighttime ionospheric structures: 3‐D images
Mid-latitude trough
 Result and Interpretation
                     FORMOSAT/COSMIC NmF2, M-month, 20:00MLT

                EIA peak
Pole edge

                                            Pole edge
      Trough
                                          Trough



               Equator edge
FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC NmF2 Persudo-3D structure
       Northern Hemisphere, M-month




                           lat ×alt ×time: 2°×2km ×0.5hr
                                                         49

                                             21-Jul-10
                      Seasonal Variation
Northern hemisphere




Southern hemisphere




                                                       50

                                           21-Jul-10
            51

21-Jul-10
            52

21-Jul-10
 Seismo-ionospheric Precursor of
          y
the 12 May 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan
            Earthquake
         China Earthquakes

                            6.0
1998/05/01~2008/05/12 36 M 6 0 earthquakes
    2008/5/12 M7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake
55
Locations of the 35M6.0 earthquakes together with Wenchuan earthquake
           occurred in China during May 1, 1998-May 12, 2008.
A time series of GPS TEC right above the epicenter of the M7.9
Wenchuan earthquake on May 15, 2008.
The GIMs observed at 08:00UT and global fixed 15:00 LT on day 6 before
the 2008 Mw7.9 Sichuan Earthquake.
                0800UT                   1500LT




                                                                   0.43M
                                                              R =100 43M
D-6, 5/6 2008
0600UT, 1300LT



D-5, 5/7 2008
0600UT, 1300LT



D-4, 5/8 2008
0600UT, 1300LT




D-3, 5/9 2008
1400UT,
1400UT 2100LT



D-2,
D 2 5/10 2008
0400UT, 1100LT
Liu et al.[JGR, 2009]
             Conclusion
F3/C constantly observes the temperature,
pressure, water vapor in the troposphere,
which is essential for weather forecast and
climate study.
F3/C probes 3-D structures and dynamics of
          p                    y
the ionospheric electron density and can be
applied on space weather monitoring.
F3/C GIM
F3/C+GIM should be useful to explore
seismo-ionospheric anomalies of the GPS
TEC before large earthquakes.
Ground-    Space-Based
Ground and Space Based
   GPS Observations

      IRI assimilation
      GIM + F3/C TEC
                GIM TEC vs. GIM+F3/C TEC
Latitude (°N)




                          Longitude (°E)
FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-
FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2


       12 satellites
          Tri G
          Tri-G
       2014, 2017
FORMOSAT/COSMIC-Follow On
 Builds on the weather forecasting and
        p
 ionospheric science success of
 FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC
 Taiwan/NSPO and US/NOAA
 12 satellites + TriG receiver
 First launch 2014 second l
 Fi t l      h 2014,              h 2017
                           d launch ~2017
 Improved performance
   5x+ increase in number of measurements
   Higher precision in the atmosphere/ionosphere
               C/NOFS Science Workshop            68

                                         May 20, 2010
FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC- v.s. FORMOSAT-
FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2 v.s. FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC

               FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2                 FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC
            Establish an operational          Demonstration of near real time
                                                                       real-time
            mission for near real-time         numerical weather prediction
            numerical weather prediction       1,600~1,800 profiles per day
  Mission
             8,000 (threshold) profiles per
            day (the objective number is
            10,000)
            NSPO design, procure, and         NSPO define system
            i t    t     SCs
            integrate 12 SC                    requirement
                                                   i     t
            NSPO will integrate new GNSS      NSPO and Orbital design SC ;
 Spacecraft PL provided by JPL and perform     UCAR provide PL suite
            12 SCs Integration and Test at
                        g                      EDU and FM1 I&T at Orbital
            NSPO                               FM2 to FM6 integration and test
                                               at NSPO
  Mission   GPS/GALILEO/GLONASS                GPS tracking capability
  Payload   tracking capabilities
FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC- v.s. FORMOSAT-
FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2 v.s. FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC


                FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2            FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC Mission
              NOAA will provide 2 (TBR)        Use MINOTAUR LV of the US Air
  Launch
              launches into selected           Force via UCAR’s help
  Vehicle
              orbits/inclinations
              NOAA’s responsibility to seek    Use USN ground stations for the
              the ground Networks              first 2 years, and then supported
  Ground
                                               by NOAA ground stations after 2
                                               years
              High degree of automated         6-satellite constellation operations
 Operations   ground system for 12-satellite
              constellation
              Taiwan Data Processing           TACC and CDAAC
    Data
              Center
 Processing
              US Data Processing Center
                Social Impacts
                              Explore Space
                              Weather Sciences


               p
Enhance the Capabilities of
Regional and Global
Weather Prediction

                              Monitor Climate Trend



  Enhance the Capability
  on Severe Weather
  Prediction
Mission Architecture
                           GLONASS-CDMA
                                                                            GPS
                                                   High-Inc
GALILEO




                                                           Low-Inc
  FORMOSAT-7/
  COSMIC-2
  COSMIC 2




                               Remote TT&C stations     Fiducial
                              (overseas)                Network
          TT&C stations
          (Taiwan)



                                                Data Processing Center
                Satellite Operations
                and Control Center         Users                   Researchers
Potential Constellation




                 72° (6) and 35° (6)
             Summary
F3/C (future F7/C2) provides the global
ionospheric electron d it i real ti
i     h i    l t     density in   l time
which should be helpful to contracture a
ground/space-based GIM of the GPS TEC.
F3/C (future F7/C2) should also be useful
for the tropospheric climatology study.



                                             74

                                 21-Jul-10
Thank you!!!
               太空所 ISS

				
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