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					                    CIS, SPAIN

The Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas (Centre for Sociological Research. CIS)
is an autonomous body attached to the Ministerio de la Presidencia (Ministry of the
Office of the President), whose purpose is to study Spanish society, primarily through
survey-based research.

Its present anatomy and denomination date from 1977, although its predecessor, the
Instituto de la Opinión Pública (Public Opinion Institute. IOP) was founded in 1963.
Since its inception, the CIS has borne privileged witness to the enormous changes
taking place in Spain and has contributed, with over 1,600 public opinion surveys, to
a better understanding of social and political realities emerging during the last quarter
of a century.

Organisational structure

The CIS' activities are directed by a Presidency and organised around three
departments - Research, Data Bank and Publications and Development of Research.
It also has a financial and administrative services unit, the General Secretariat, and a
Presidential Support Bureau.

The Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas' counselling body is its Advisory Council.

The CIS has a staff of 90, counting both technical and auxiliary and subordinate


The CIS presidency co-ordinates all the activities relating to the functions entrusted to
the Centre pursuant to the provisions of Act 39/1995 of 19 December and Royal
Legislative Decree 6/1997 on the Organisation of the Centro de Investigaciones
Sociológicas. In respect of such functions, the Presidency actively co-ordinates the
programming, design and implementation of the surveys and research the Centre
conducts to acquire a better understanding of Spanish society, with particular
emphasis on providing policy makers with guidance for their legislative and executive

To conduct its functions and activities, the Centre's Presidency receives the aid and
counsel of its Support Bureau - co-ordinated by a Principal Adviser and with
membership that also includes two Technical Counsellors - as well as of a
counselling body: the Advisory Council, which it also chairs as the Body's visible
head. One of the activities in which the Presidency most frequently engages is to
represent the Centre in its relations with other bodies and in particular with the
various levels of Government, an activity which involves signing co-operation
agreements that the CIS undertakes in areas of sociological research.

As the Centre's managing body which steers and co-ordinates all its activities, the
Presidency designs the yearly programme of action to be implemented by the CIS
and proposes the resources needed for its implementation. The Presidency works
closely with Parliament in monitoring such action, since it is in charge of submitting
the Centre's programme of activities to both Chambers, along with the content of the
work completed and entered in the data bank and provisional previews of the results
of surveys regarding voting intention and appraisal of political parties and leaders.
Finally, the Presidency has traditionally maintained very close relations with the
academic community, primarily through its promotion of research and post-graduate
training in applied sociological research. Furthermore, one of the Presidency's
priorities is the institution's presence in international circles. In this regard, the
Presidency's Support Bureau maintains very special relations with the Latin American
world, where it has established Co-operation Agreements with various countries with
sociological and political research institutes. It participates with them in international
projects such as Latinobarómetro, for which the CIS conducted surveys anually in
Spain. Such international focus has also fuelled the Presidency's encouragement of
the Centre's link-up to European and North American Data Banks with a view to
comparative studies on subjects of common interest in various countries.

Research Department

The Research Department is in charge of programming, designing and conducting all
the surveys the Centre undertakes. In most cases, the Department performs all the
tasks involved in empirical sociological research via surveys:

- sample design
- formulation of questionnaire
- field work
- coding
- tabulation
- analysis of results
- drafting of reports

To do so, it has a sizable team of experts specialising in the various working areas
and a field network of its own that covers the entire country.

Pursuant to Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas objectives, the surveys
conducted, either at its own initiative or at the request of other public institutions, are
intended to acquire an understanding of Spanish social reality in increasingly greater
detail, as well as of the processes of evolution and change taking place in public
opinion on a wide range of topics.

In addition to quantitative surveys, wherever it is deemed necessary for the Centre's
research projects, the Research Department commissions reputed specialists to
conduct qualitative surveys or secondary data analyses.

Data Bank Department

The Data Bank is the Department responsible for the custody of all the research
conducted by the CIS as well as for filling user requests for information, which are
handled through this Department. It also creates and maintains the Centre's
databases and manages its information system.

All the research undertaken by the Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas since the
outset, without exception, is deposited in its Data Bank and is available to whomever
requests it, natural persons or public or private bodies corporate. The legislation in
force guarantees all citizens equal access to these data.

The Data Bank is in charge of verifying, cleaning up, rendering anonymous,
cataloguing and entering data in its computers, in addition to producing the
respective vehicles for disseminating such data within the deadlines laid down in the
legislation in effect.

The products for sale are designed in terms of user needs, ranging from simple
frequency tables to files containing raw data to run analyses of interest to the user.
The Data Bank Catalogue is the basic tool for obtaining information on the content of
CIS production. This catalogue features a powerful search tool to locate the
information users require. This is a Documentary Database that stores the surveys
conducted and can run searches for retrieving questions on the basis of key words or
freely chosen text. This database stores over 1,600 surveys, containing a total of
some 90,000 questions.

Publications and Development of Research Department

The Publications and Development of Research Department engages in three areas
of activity: publications, library and documentation and promotion of research.

The Publications Service directs much of its effort to servicing the Spanish
educational and research community, as its editorial production shows. Its
publications - consisting of six series and a journal, the Revista de Investigaciones
Sociológicas (which, beginning in 1996 publishes a yearbook in English with a
selection of its best articles) - cover the major fields of interest in the development of
Sociology and Political Science.

The Library and Documentation Service co-ordinates and manages the Centre's
bibliographic and documentary resources, providing support for the research work
conducted by the Centre's staff. Its library, which is open to the public, contains over
twenty thousand monographic reviews and nearly five hundred periodicals.

Finally, the Development of Research Service promotes training for applied social
and political researchers through its programme of grants for young social science
investigators, the aid it offers for the exploitation of the Centre's Data Bank and its
post-graduate training in techniques used in social analysis.

Secretariat General

The Secretariat General deals with the Centre's financial, budgetary and personnel
management, as well as all legal and administrative matters.


The Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas is an autonomous body of an
administrative nature, with legal personality and assets of its own, attached to the
Ministerio de la Presidencia, whose purpose is the scientific study of Spanish society.
It was vested with autonomous Body status under Act 4/1990 of 29 June and the
regulations for its organisation and operation were laid down in Royal Decree
1526/1990 of 8 November.

Subsequently, Act 39/1995 on the Organisation of the Centro de Investigaciones
Sociológicas was adopted on19 December. That Act, which maintains thenature and
functions of the Centre as provided in Act 4/1990 and Royal Decree 1526/1990,
includes further provisions on the transparency and public accessibility of the results
of the Centre's scientific activities, and strengthens its bonds with Parliament, with a
view to furnishing Spanish society's legitimate representatives with a better
knowledge of current social and political trends.

The operation of the Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas' is governed by the laws
and provisions of a general nature that are applicable to it and in particular by Act
39/1995 of 19 Decemberon the Organisation of the Centro de Investigaciones
Sociológicas, the Act on the Legal Status of Autonomous State Entities of 26
December 1958, the General Act on the National Budget, consolidated text, adopted
under Royal Legislative Decree 1091/1988, of 23 September and Royal Decree
1526/1990 and the rules enlarging thereon. Royal Decree 1214/1997, enacted on 14
April 1997, which replaces Royal Decree 1526/1990, provides for adaptation of the
Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas to an autonomous body in accordance with
the terms of Act 6/1995 on Organisation and Operation of the General State
Administration, as well as for execution of the stipulations
laid down in Act 39/1995.

The Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas must adhere, in all its activities, to
principles of objectivity and neutrality, equality of access to its data and respect for
citizens' rights and statistical confidentiality, taking account of the provisions of Act
12/1989 of 9 May on Official Public Statistics and Organic Act 5/1992 of 29 October
on the Regulation of Automatic Processing of Personal Data, which addresses the
restrictions on the use of computerisation and other ways and means of processing
personal data to guarantee the honour and privacy of natural persons and their
families and the full exercise of their rights.

The surveys

The CIS conducts, on average, forty surveys per year, mostly of a quantitative nature
(polls), but occasionally of a qualitative nature as well.

The surveys conducted by the CIS are entered in its Data Bank, where they are
available to all citizens for three months after information coding and recording is
completed. All surveys subject to co-operation agreements with other public
institutions are exempted from this rule, as they are made available to the public one
year after they have been submitted to the body for which they were compiled.

The main kinds of quantitative surveys are as follows:

Monthly polls, Barómetro

Since 1979 the CIS has been measuring public opinion, month by month, about the
country's political and economic situation and prospects. Each Barómetro likewise
broaches subjects relating to social, economic and political issues of concern at the
time the poll is taken. Since June 1996 there is an availability timetable indicating the
date of publication of the initial results of such surveys.

Monographic reviews

Monographic reviews are conducted on a wide range of issues: youth, immigration,
ways of life, law and order, political culture, etc. Some of these surveys, such as
those on tax issues, appraisal of institutions, the process of European union, etc., are
run on a regular basis.

Regional and municipal surveys

In addition to nation-wide surveys, studies are conducted to research the social and
political situation in the different Autonomous Communities (Regions) and major
Spanish cities.

Electoral surveys

On the occasion of each and every one of the elections held in Spain, the CIS has
conducted pre- and post-electoral surveys to monitor the characteristics of electoral

Surveys in conjunction with public institutions (co-operation agreements)

In response to requests for co-operation received from other governmental bodies,
the CIS, via a mandatory co-operation agreement, conducts specific studies that
address the research needs of different public institutions.

International surveys
The CIS participates in international research projects on a regular basis. In recent
years it has taken part in the Fecundity and Family Survey (FFS), co-ordinated by the
United Nations, in the EUROSTAT (Statistical Office of the European Union) project
on Causes for international migration, the International Social Survey Programme's
study on the Role of Government and the Latinobarómetro, to name but a few.

The CIS is a member of the majordomestic and foreign scientific associations in its
field, such as:

- Federación Española de Sociología (FES)

- Asociación Española de Ciencia Política y de la Administración (AECP)

- Asociación Española de Estudios de Mercado, Marketing y Opinión (AEDEMO)

- International Sociology Association (ISA)

- International Political Science Association (IPSA)

- European Society for Opinion and Marketing Surveys (ESOMAR)

- World Association for Public Opinion Research (WAPOR)

- European Consortium on Political Research (ECPR)

- International Social Surveys Programme (ISSP)

- Inter-university Consortuim for Political and Social Research (ICSPR)

- Council of European Social Science Data Archives (CESSDA)

In addition to quantitative studies, the CIS also has data on a series of qualitative
surveys, usually conducted by specialists in this methodology. The reports ensuing
from this research are likewise available and may be consulted in the CIS Data Bank.

The Data Bank Catalogue provides information on all the surveys available.


The Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas' editorial production consists of six
collections and a quarterly journal, which target the research and academic
community as well as the public at large.

Revista Española de Investigaciones Sociológicas

The Revista Española de Investigaciones Sociológicas, REIS, is the senior-most
journal in the field of social sciences in Spain. Successor of the Revista de la Opinión
Pública, its first issue appeared in 1978 with the intention of bolstering the
development of social science in Spain and promoting the publication of surveys on
the country's social and political situation.

The course it has historically taken and the high standards it has set for the articles it
publishes, guaranteed by a system of anonymous referees, as well as advisory and
editorial boards comprising prominent professionals in the social sciences, have
made the REIS the "official" publication of professionals working in the fields of
Sociology and Political Science.

Since 1996 the REIS publishes an annual English issue which is a compendium of
the most relevant surveys and research published during the preceding year.
Monografías and Academia

The "Monografías", with nearly 182 issues, is the Centre's collection par excellence.
These are, generally speaking, works based on research on Spanish social and/or
political reality.This collection also contains some of the most brilliant doctor's theses
written in the field of Spanish social science.

The collection "Academia" is a recent project but an ambitious one, judging from its
impact on the Spanish university community. The titles and contents of this collection
are intended to constitute "manuals" of a sort, covering all aspects of, approaches to
and resources for the issue addressed.

Cuadernos Metodológicos and Opiniones y Actitudes

"Cuadernos Metodológicos" is intended both for researchers and academics
interested in methodological techniques and resources and for students faced with
conducting a poll, defining a sample or establishing a probabilistic model for the first
time in their academic experience. It has one of the largest circulations of all the
Centre's publications. Beginning in 1997 it will be published quarterly and distributed
by subscription.

"Opiniones y Actitudes" is a collection directly co-ordinated by the Centre's
publications department. Its subject content derives largely from the exploitation of
the Centre's own Data Bank, via analyses authored by CIS technicians or
investigators from the Spanish scientific community.

Fuera de colección and Coediciones CIS

The "Fuera de colección" texts consist essentially of tributary or other works which,
for different reasons, have not been included in the usual collections. Beginning in
1997, the CIS will promote a co-publication policy with both public and private
institutions to issue titles whose subject matter is of interest to a broader public.

The Catalogue of Publications lists all the Centre's publications, along with a brief
summary of contents.

Instituted in October 1995, the periodical "Datos de Opinión" is a bi-monthly bulletin
containing a selection of relevant data from the most recent surveys conducted by
the CIS.

Development of research

The Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas runs several programmes to encourage
and promote Social Science research.

The "programme of grants for young Social Science investigators" seeks to
contribute to the training of professionals in the production and analysis of statistics.
During their attachment to the Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas, these trainees
acquire first-hand experience with the process of production of statistical information
and the implementation of quantitative research projects from start to finish. This
process begins with the initial approach to and delimitation of the social reality that is
to be studied; it subsequently entails a great variety of operations such as
questionnaire and sample design, coding and tests for data quality and concludes
with the publication of the results.

The "programme of aid for exploiting the Data Bank" subsidises research projects
that analyse the information stored in the CIS' Data Bank. With this programme, the
Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas favours high quality scientific research
relating to the opinions and attitudes prevailing in Spanish society.
In addition to these subsidies, the Centre has developed its own research training
programmes on methods and techniques used in applied social research. In 1991 a
post-graduate course was initiated to train specialists in applied social research and
data analysis, targeted at private sector technicians and professionals (pubic opinion
companies and institutes) and Social Science researchers.

Other activities for furthering and encouraging research include participation in
Congresses, Seminars, Workshops and other events to draw public attention to
scientific activities. Finally, the Centre is a member of various national and
international associations of a scientific or professional nature.

Public services

Address of Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas
c/ Montalbán, 8
28014 Madrid. Spain
Telephone: (34) 915 807 600, FAX: (34) 915 807 619

The Centre provides the following public services:


The Centre de Investigaciones Sociológicas' Library is run by the Department of
Publications and Development of Research. Its large volume of stocks specialising in
social and political research issues is primarily intended to serve its main purpose,
i.e., to support the research work conducted by the Centre.


- Over 27,000 monographic studies
- 661 collections of periodicals, 280 of which are open
- CD-ROM data bases


- Bibliographic information service

- Reading room

- Restricted lending to Centre researchers. Other users only have access in the
reading room.

- Reprography

- Bibliographic search, both in the Library's own computerised catalogues and those
of other specialised data bases

- Reference service, providing speedy access to statistical data, survey data,...

- Monthly news bulletin


- Library hours: Monday through Friday from 9:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m.

- Requisites: Open to the public at large; national identity card required or passport

Sale of Publications
The CIS has a Publications Sales service where all the publications listed in its
catalogue can be purchased.

The service is open from 9:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m., Monday through Friday.

c/ Montalbán, 8
28014 Madrid
Telephone: (34) 915 807 607, FAX: (34) 915 807 619

A national identity card or passport is required for entrance.

    Other points of sale

BOE Bookshop
c/ Trafalgar, 27
28010 Madrid
Telephone: (34) 915 382 100, FAX: (34) 915 382 348
Hours: 8:15 a.m. to 8:15 p.m.

Siglo XXI
c/ Plaza, 5
28043 Madrid
Telephone: (34) 917 594 809

Data Bank

The CIS Data Bank contains information on the 1,240 some surveys that the Centre
has conducted since inception and are listed in its catalogue. The results of these
studies can be accessed by filling out a simple form at the Data Bank office.

The products available include:

Frequency distribution results

Include global results (percentage of response) for one or several questions or of an
entire survey.

Tailored tabulations

     The CIS can provide          any   data   breakdown     requested   by   the   user
    (multivariable tables).

Files with raw data (microdata)

Users who prefer to run their own statistical processing may request the raw data file,
rendered duly anonymous.

Information may be requested by telephone, fax or personally in the CIS Data Bank
office. CIS personnel prepare a quotation for each user and an estimate of the time it
will take to fill the request.

Hours: 9:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m., Monday through Friday.
c/ Montalbán, 8
28014 Madrid, Spain
Telephone: (34) 915 807 617/22/15, FAX: (34) 915 807 619