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Kennedy's Administration

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					Kennedy’s Administration
EQ: What major events took place
during the Kennedy administration?
Television Debate
Appearance vs. Substance
Election of 1960
   Democrat – John F. Kennedy
   Republican – Richard Nixon

   Kennedy won by less than 119,000 votes.
 Inauguration Speech
“Ask not what
  your country
  can do for
  you…Ask
  what you can
  do for your
  country”
“Camelot”
   The Kennedy Mystique
   Online Discussion:
       Research online the Kennedy Administration and the
        Obama Administration, particularly how the media
        covered/covers their family life. Provide at least 1
        similarity and 1difference between how the media
        portrayed the Kennedy family to how today’s media
        portrays the Obama family.
       Also, in your opinion, does the media go overboard in
        covering the white house families?
Aura of confidence
A President people could believe in
   “…Our faith in him and
    in what he was trying to
    do was absolute, and he
    could impart to our work
    together a sense of
    challenge and adventure-
    a feeling that he was
    moving, and the world
    with him, toward a better
    time.”
       Pierre Salinger, Press
        Secretary
Kennedy and the Cold War
   Kennedy: the Pragmatist
       Less of Ike’s “brinkmanship” and more “flexible
        response” – more options during international
        crises
       Flexible Response: broader range of options in
        military situations that do NOT involve nuclear
        weapons
           EX: Special Forces
Cont…
   Non-military options to prevent Communist
    expansion
       A “helping hand”
       Peace Corps
Bay of Pigs Crisis
Intention
   Train and fund Cuban rebels in order to have
    THEM overthrow Castro
   U.S. is again, playing a chess match against
    the Soviets.
              The Bay of Pigs
   CIA trained 1,400 Cuban Exiles
   Kennedy cancelled air support
   Cubans did not rise up in support of exiles
   1,200 captured/100 killed
   Castro personally led defense of island
The Berlin Crisis
   Bay of Pigs failure convinced Khruschev that
    Kennedy was weak
   Soviets issued an ultimatum: The West must
    recognize the sovereignty of Communist East
    Germany and remove all troops from West
    Berlin
   Kennedy refused – Soviets create a barrier
The Berlin Wall - 1961
The Cuban Missile Crisis
   Castro wanted to defend against another
    invasion
   Soviets sent weapons…and Nuclear weapons
   CIA was monitoring Cuba…U2 spy plane
    photographed missile launching pads
   October 14th – missiles photographed
U2 Spy Plane
Spy plane photo
San Cristobal
Cont…
   October 22nd – Kennedy’s orders
       Naval blockade “quarantine” of Cuba
       Demanded the Soviets removed the missiles
   Khrushchev’s response
       Challenged the blockade
       Arm the missiles
   U.S. armed B-52’s with nuclear weapons
   U.S. fired a flare warning shot at a Soviet ship!
Sudden and relieving end
   October 24th
       Soviet ships stop short of the blockade
   October 28th
       Khrushchev agreed to dismantle the missiles
       Kennedy promised not to invade Cuba
           Secretly agreed to remove missiles from other sites
   A sobering event for both the U.S. and
    Soviets
Aftermath of the crisis
   Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
       End testing bombs in the atmosphere and under
        water
       A “hot line” set up between the U.S. and Soviet
        Union so the two leaders could communicate
        directly
   “New Frontier”
 Cabinet with young, well
  educated men
 Government should offer
  solutions to national and
  global problems
New Frontier cont…
“New Frontier” Goals
   Increased government spending
       Defense and Space programs top priority
       Directly related to Cold War fears
           1961 Soviet Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin completed the
            first orbital space flight
   Keep inflation down
   Medical care for elderly
   Aid education
“New Frontier” cont…
   Keep inflation down
       Businesses had been giving out higher wages, and
        paying for it by raising prices
       Kennedy urged businesses to limit prices;
        workers to accept few pay raises
“New Frontier” cont…
   Women’s rights
   Equal Pay Act in June of 1963
       Illegal for employers to pay female workers less than
        male workers for the same job
   Other programs
       Increase aid to education
       Provide health insurance to the elderly
       Create Dept. of Urban Affairs
       Help Migrant Workers
“New Frontier” cont…
   Conservative Republicans
   Southern Democrats opposed to Civil Rights

   He had trouble passing his initiatives
         Space Program
   The nation should commit itself to
    getting a man on the moon and
    returning him home safely by the
    end of the decade.
    Kennedy’s Critics
Southern Democrats controlled Congress
            A “Marshall Plan” for
               Latin America?
   Poverty and corruption in Latin America
   Kennedy wants to thwart communist
    expansion in Latin America
   Alliance for Progress
       $20 billion aid for better schools, housing and
        health care
       Designed to counter leftist movements
       Chile, Colombia, Venezuela, and Central
        America benefited
“Alliance for Progress”
Results of the Alliance for Progress
   Money did not leave the hands of powerful
    and corrupt leaders.
   In most cases it was NOT successful in
    achieving the intended goals
Tragedy in Dallas
   November 1963
   On parade in Dallas, Kennedy was shot
   Lee Harvey Oswald was the suspect, but then
    he was killed by Jack Ruby
   Warren Commission
       No Conspiracy
       Oswald and Ruby acted alone
A Nation Grieves
Lyndon Johnson and the
Great Society
    Essential Questions:
    - What was the Great Society?
    - What were the highlights and
    problems of the Johnson
    Administration?
War on Poverty
   War on Poverty
       Response to report that 42million Americans
        lived in poverty
   Office of Economic Opportunity
       Created to coordinate a series of antipoverty
        programs
The Great Society
   Johnson is re-elected in 1964.
   His presidential plan:
       The Great Society
           An end to poverty
           An end to racial injustice
           All children to be educated


   “People should care more about quality of
    their goals rather than quantity”
Great Society Programs
   Medicare
       National health insurance for people over 65.


   Medicaid
       Free health care to the needy
Cont…
   Education
       Elementary and Secondary School Education Act
           1.3 billion in aid to schools
Cont…
   Urban renewal
       Omnibus Housing Act
       Housing and Urban Development Act
           Billions of dollars to renew homes and help low
            income families
Warren Court
   Supreme Court during the 60’s
   Chief Justice Earl Warren
       Sought to define and extend individual rights and
        freedoms
Foreign Policy
   Escalation in Vietnam
   More coming in next chapter!

				
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