Kennedy’s Administration EQ: What major events took place during the Kennedy administration? Television Debate Appearance vs. Substance Election of 1960 Democrat – John F. Kennedy Republican – Richard Nixon Kennedy won by less than 119,000 votes. Inauguration Speech “Ask not what your country can do for you…Ask what you can do for your country” “Camelot” The Kennedy Mystique Online Discussion: Research online the Kennedy Administration and the Obama Administration, particularly how the media covered/covers their family life. Provide at least 1 similarity and 1difference between how the media portrayed the Kennedy family to how today’s media portrays the Obama family. Also, in your opinion, does the media go overboard in covering the white house families? Aura of confidence A President people could believe in “…Our faith in him and in what he was trying to do was absolute, and he could impart to our work together a sense of challenge and adventure- a feeling that he was moving, and the world with him, toward a better time.” Pierre Salinger, Press Secretary Kennedy and the Cold War Kennedy: the Pragmatist Less of Ike’s “brinkmanship” and more “flexible response” – more options during international crises Flexible Response: broader range of options in military situations that do NOT involve nuclear weapons EX: Special Forces Cont… Non-military options to prevent Communist expansion A “helping hand” Peace Corps Bay of Pigs Crisis Intention Train and fund Cuban rebels in order to have THEM overthrow Castro U.S. is again, playing a chess match against the Soviets. The Bay of Pigs CIA trained 1,400 Cuban Exiles Kennedy cancelled air support Cubans did not rise up in support of exiles 1,200 captured/100 killed Castro personally led defense of island The Berlin Crisis Bay of Pigs failure convinced Khruschev that Kennedy was weak Soviets issued an ultimatum: The West must recognize the sovereignty of Communist East Germany and remove all troops from West Berlin Kennedy refused – Soviets create a barrier The Berlin Wall - 1961 The Cuban Missile Crisis Castro wanted to defend against another invasion Soviets sent weapons…and Nuclear weapons CIA was monitoring Cuba…U2 spy plane photographed missile launching pads October 14th – missiles photographed U2 Spy Plane Spy plane photo San Cristobal Cont… October 22nd – Kennedy’s orders Naval blockade “quarantine” of Cuba Demanded the Soviets removed the missiles Khrushchev’s response Challenged the blockade Arm the missiles U.S. armed B-52’s with nuclear weapons U.S. fired a flare warning shot at a Soviet ship! Sudden and relieving end October 24th Soviet ships stop short of the blockade October 28th Khrushchev agreed to dismantle the missiles Kennedy promised not to invade Cuba Secretly agreed to remove missiles from other sites A sobering event for both the U.S. and Soviets Aftermath of the crisis Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty End testing bombs in the atmosphere and under water A “hot line” set up between the U.S. and Soviet Union so the two leaders could communicate directly “New Frontier” Cabinet with young, well educated men Government should offer solutions to national and global problems New Frontier cont… “New Frontier” Goals Increased government spending Defense and Space programs top priority Directly related to Cold War fears 1961 Soviet Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin completed the first orbital space flight Keep inflation down Medical care for elderly Aid education “New Frontier” cont… Keep inflation down Businesses had been giving out higher wages, and paying for it by raising prices Kennedy urged businesses to limit prices; workers to accept few pay raises “New Frontier” cont… Women’s rights Equal Pay Act in June of 1963 Illegal for employers to pay female workers less than male workers for the same job Other programs Increase aid to education Provide health insurance to the elderly Create Dept. of Urban Affairs Help Migrant Workers “New Frontier” cont… Conservative Republicans Southern Democrats opposed to Civil Rights He had trouble passing his initiatives Space Program The nation should commit itself to getting a man on the moon and returning him home safely by the end of the decade. Kennedy’s Critics Southern Democrats controlled Congress A “Marshall Plan” for Latin America? Poverty and corruption in Latin America Kennedy wants to thwart communist expansion in Latin America Alliance for Progress $20 billion aid for better schools, housing and health care Designed to counter leftist movements Chile, Colombia, Venezuela, and Central America benefited “Alliance for Progress” Results of the Alliance for Progress Money did not leave the hands of powerful and corrupt leaders. In most cases it was NOT successful in achieving the intended goals Tragedy in Dallas November 1963 On parade in Dallas, Kennedy was shot Lee Harvey Oswald was the suspect, but then he was killed by Jack Ruby Warren Commission No Conspiracy Oswald and Ruby acted alone A Nation Grieves Lyndon Johnson and the Great Society Essential Questions: - What was the Great Society? - What were the highlights and problems of the Johnson Administration? War on Poverty War on Poverty Response to report that 42million Americans lived in poverty Office of Economic Opportunity Created to coordinate a series of antipoverty programs The Great Society Johnson is re-elected in 1964. His presidential plan: The Great Society An end to poverty An end to racial injustice All children to be educated “People should care more about quality of their goals rather than quantity” Great Society Programs Medicare National health insurance for people over 65. Medicaid Free health care to the needy Cont… Education Elementary and Secondary School Education Act 1.3 billion in aid to schools Cont… Urban renewal Omnibus Housing Act Housing and Urban Development Act Billions of dollars to renew homes and help low income families Warren Court Supreme Court during the 60’s Chief Justice Earl Warren Sought to define and extend individual rights and freedoms Foreign Policy Escalation in Vietnam More coming in next chapter!