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Fueling Station - Top of www.personal Powered By Docstoc
					                         Einn Grænni Framtíð
                                     Lucas Pessoa De Melo
                                          Chris Perini
                                         John Morgan
                                        Josh Lashbrook

                                     Engineering Design 100
                                           Section 02

                               Submitted to Dr. Ming Chuan Chu
                                          04/20/2011

                                     Team 4, ―Four the Win‖




1.0 – Abstract
        Hydrogen based fuel is currently available for the select few with hydrogen vehicles.
However, the current state of the environment is pushing society towards the cleaner energies.
Much emphasis has been put on our culture shifting to energy that is more environmentally-
conscious. This report shows the plans for a completely clean hydrogen fueling station in the
city of Reykjavik, including both production and distribution of these energies.
Contents
    2.0 Introduction
    3.0 Mission Statement
    4.0 Customer Needs Analysis
    5.0 External Research
        5.1 Library/online
        5.2 Patent research
        5.3 Benchmarking
    6.0 Concept Generation
    7.0 Concept Selection
    8.0 Embodiment Design and Final Design Description
    9.0 Conclusions
    10.0 References



2.0 Introduction
        With the need for greener technology, a rise in the production and distributing of
environmentally friendly fuels is becoming evident. Hydrogen and hydrogen mixed fuels are
currently on the market, and are also being researched and improved. These energies are
expected to eventually take over the current fuel system, helping keep our environment intact.
        The fact remains that the amount of hydrogen based vehicles does not even compare to
those that are not hydrogen based. However, the hopes of eventually getting to a completely
green globe remain intact, with new developments and technologies emerging constantly. This
report shows the plans of an eventual ―Hydrogen City‖, in which all vehicles are hydrogen
powered and no fossil fuel automobiles remain on the streets.
        Currently, the technology for distribution of the fuel as well as the vehicles’ equipment
for using this power is a given, and we do not need to worry about it. We are strictly dealing
with the distribution and production of the fuel, not regarding specific technology behind the
vehicles at all.
3.0 Mission Statement
       Our goal was to select a city anywhere in the world and design a hydrogen fueling station
to be used there. We also had to provide the source of natural gas and hydrogen to our station
while keeping it as clean as possible. The exact requirements given by Air Products were as
follows:


Project Requirements
Design a standardized fueling station to be used across the H2 City transportation network with
the following specifications:
       • Hydrogen at both 350 BAR and 700 BAR pressure for passenger cars and commercial
       vehicles.
       • Hydrogen/natural gas blends (HCNG) containing up to 30% hydrogen at 250 BAR
       pressure to supply city public transportation vehicles and commercial vehicles.
       • Fueling station capacity × # of stations to meet all future city needs (replacing
       gas/diesel)
       • Assume hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and HCNG fueled vehicles are available.


       We also set a time schedule for the project, represented by the following Gantt chart. It
shows who was responsible for each task and when it should have been completed by.
4.0 Customer Needs Analysis
Customer Needs
                         Attributes           Group Weight          Weight
                User Friendly                 0.400280899        0.418472575
                Safety                                           0.237134459
                Efficient                                        0.126239227
                Easy to operate                                    0.17959448
                Affordable                                       0.038559259
                24/7 service
                Durable                       0.157303371        0.213649852
                Low maintenance                                  0.074183976
                Few parts                                        0.712166172
                Weather resistant
                Appeal                        0.084269663        0.428571429
                Pieces out of the way                            0.428571429
                Look reliable/dependable                         0.142857143
                Clean energy
                Integration                   0.358146067        0.133964817
                Common                                           0.338294993
                sustainable                                      0.527740189
                Cost effective



                   User
                                 durability   Appeal   Integration        Total   Weight
                  Friendly
User Friendly        1              2.5         4            2             9.5    0.400
Durability          0.4               1         2           0.333        3.733    0.157
Appeal              0.25            0.5         1           0.25             2    0.084
Integration         0.5               3         4            1             8.5    0.358
Total                                                                    23.733
User Friendly         Safe        Efficient    Easy to         Affordable          24/7        Total        Sub
                                               operate                            service                 weight
Safe                    1            3           5                 4                 7          20       0.418473
Efficient            0.333           1               3             3                4         11.333     0.237134
Easy to operate        0.2         0.333             1             0.5              4          6.033     0.126239
Affordable
24/7 service          0.25         0.333             2             1                5          8.583     0.179594
Total                0.143          0.25            0.25           0.2              1          1.843     0.038559
                                                                                              47.793



Durability              Low                Few parts           Weather               Total             Sub weight
                     maintenance                               resistant
Low maintenance           1                    3                  0.2                   4.2              0.214
Few parts               0.333                  1                0.125                1.458               0.074
Weather resistant            5                 8                   1                    14               0.712
Total                                                                                19.658



 Appeal              Pieces out of                 Look                    Clean              Total        Sub
                       the way             reliable/dependable             energy                         weight
 Pieces out of the        1                          1                       3                 5          0.429
 way
 Look reliable/              1                           1                    3                5           0.429
 dependable
 Clean energy           0.333                       0.333                     1               1.667        0.143
 Total                                                                                       11.667



 Integration          Common             Sustainable         Cost effective          Total            Sub weight
 Common                  1                   0.4                 0.25                1.65               0.134
 Sustainable                2.5               1                  0.667               4.167              0.338
 Cost effective              4                1.5                  1                    6.5             0.528
 Total                                                                               12.317
Selecting a City
Location: Reykjavík, Iceland


Location Background
       Reykjavik is the capital city of Iceland. It is the largest city in Iceland with a population
of around 120,000 people. It is also the main economic city of Iceland. Reykjavík is located in
the Southwest of Iceland. Most houses in Reykjavík use the geothermal heating system, being
the largest system of this kind in the world. Per capita car ownership in Iceland is among the
highest in the world at roughly 522 vehicles per 1,000 residents. Therefore, the demand for
hydrogen to power cars would be high, making Reykjavik a good base for a hydrogen fuel
station. There are 3 main volcanic systems in Iceland where geothermal energy could be
extracted from: Grensdalur system, Mt. Hromundartindur system, and Mt. Hengill volcanic
system. Both the Mt. Hengill and the Mt. Hromundartindur systems can potentially be used to
fuel the city of Reykjavik since they are both close to the capital. As a matter of fact, the
company Reykjavik Energy works in both areas to provide geothermal heat to the city.


Needs Statement
There are 3 types of hydrogen cars:
   1. One uses hydrogen fuel cells
   2. One uses an internal combustion engine to burn hydrogen
   3. Hybrid – switches between hydrogen and gasoline
Some use compressed H2, some use liquid hydrogen so one must take over the market
completely before hydrogen fuel stations become commonplace. Our station will supply gaseous
hydrogen at 350 and 700 BAR.


Stages in hydrogen fuelling:
       1. Hydrogen must be supplied to the station, via vehicles or pipeline.
       2. The hydrogen must be stored on site, usually as a liquid in tanks that can hold up to
           9,000 gallons.
       3. The liquid hydrogen leaves the tank and enters vaporizer towers which boil it back to
           the gaseous state.
       4. The hydrogen gas is pressurized up to 5000 psi.
       5. The compressed gas goes to a large amount of smaller tanks from which it can get
             pumped directly into vehicles.


The first hydrogen fuel station in North America opened in 2000.
The first hydrogen fuel station in Iceland opened in 2003.


Product Specification Metrics




                                                                                                           Electrolysis of Water



                                                                                                                                                        Pipeline rate of flow
                                                                                                                                   Price of Operation
                                                                                        Geothermal Plant
                                                          storage tanks




                                                                                                                                                                                        Appearance
                                                                          Pressurizer
                                               Metrics:




                                                                                                                                                                                Utils
      Needs:                            imp
      Store 1500 kg                      4                  •
      Pressure at 5000 and 1000 psi       1                                •
      Power of 340 MW                     2                                               •
      75000 kg produced/day               1                                                                   •
      Cost                                4                                                                                          •
      Transport from plant to city        2                                                                                                                •
      Friendly User Interface             3                                                                                                                                     •
      Appeal                              5                                                                                                                                              •




5.0 External Research
Renewable Energy Source Survey
       We decided to further investigate geothermal energy because it already provides around
30% of Iceland’s power, the other 70% coming from hydropower. A geothermal plant functions
by pumping heated water below the Earth’s surface into the plant, where the steam is separated
from the brine. The steam is then used to generate electricity, after which the used liquid is
pumped back into the underground source.
       Most of Iceland’s geothermal energy comes from three volcanic systems: Grensdalur, Mt.
Hromundartindur, and Mt. Hengill. Iceland is also actively expanding the amount of geothermal
plants it currently has to offer, mostly into high temperature fields.
       Geothermal energy is both clean and available 24 hours a day. Emissions from
geothermal plants are also extremely low, about one sixth that of a relatively clean natural gas
field. The plants themselves don’t take up much room either. However, building the plants can
be expensive and underground sources may not be permanent. Finding suitable locations can
also be an issue, but isn’t too much of a problem in Iceland.


H2/HCNG Survey
       There are many ways to produce hydrogen, and many more under research and
development. Currently there about 8 mature methods, with at least a dozen more being
researched and developed. However, not all of these methods are viable. Looking over the list,
the following three methods seem to best fit out location.


       The method with the highest yield is Steam Methane Reforming, which uses high
temperature steam (700 º-800ºC) to react with the methane. The result is then again reacted with
steam, but at a lower temperature (350ºC for high temperature shift). The steam reaction is as
follows:
       4CH4 + O2 + 2H2O        10H2 + 4CO
This could be a viable method, as the geothermal plant already produces steam. However, the
temperatures are too high to directly be heated by the plant. Most importantly, this process is not
100% clean because carbon monoxide is produced.


       Electrolysis of Water is a process where electricity is used to separate the hydrogen and
oxygen in water molecules. Water is oxidized at the positively charged anode, and then the
hydrogen ions are reduced at the negatively charged cathode. The reaction is as follows:
       Anode (oxidation): 2 H2O(l) → O2(g) + 4 H+(aq) + 4e−
       Cathode (reduction): 2 H+(aq) + 2e− → H2(g)
This method requires a lot of energy, however there are many benefits. If pure water is used,
more energy is required but the hydrogen is also pure. Research is being done on this process at
higher temperatures where some of the reaction energy comes from the heat, making it more
efficient. This is promising, as we could use the geothermal plant to heat the reaction.


       Another potentially viable method is called Chloralkali electrolysis. The product
undergoing electrolysis is any type of brine, which is a byproduct of a geothermal plant. This
method produces chlorine as well as hydrogen. The chemical reaction is as follows:
       2Cl– → Cl2 + 2e–
       2H2O + 2e– → H2 + 2OH–
       2NaCl + 2H2O → Cl2 + H2 + 2NaOH
       Cl2 + 2OH– → Cl– + ClO– + H2O
       3Cl2 + 6OH– → 5Cl– + ClO3– + 3H2O
The drawback of this method is that it requires a large amount of energy. However, if produced
on site at a high temperature geothermal area the required amount of energy could likely be
supplied.



5.1 Literature Search

Literature Review

   1. http://www.hydrogenfueling.com/v/questions/352/
       This article discusses the transition that fueling will take in the coming years. It discusses
the fact that hydrogen is indeed a dangerous element to be working with, but also notes on the
safety measures that will/are being taken. On top of that, Hydrogen is extremely abundant,
meaning we will not have a shortage that we will have to worry about.
       The article also raises the point of hydrogen leads to a much cleaner fuel source than pure
natural gas. Reducing the emissions, on a global spectrum, would do wonders in terms of
protecting and being responsible for the environment.


   2. http://www.vehix.com/blog/most-popular/fuel-efficient/day-one-of-the-north-american-f-
       cell-world-drive
       These articles are the complication of a few days’ worth of reporters taking a road trip in
a hydrogen car. They critique some of the different features of the car, and essentially make the
point that a hydrogen car is not all that different than a regular car. This aids in the marketing,
showing that a hydrogen vehicle is not some far off, strange foreign technology that is
burdensome.


   3. https://energy.llnl.gov/hydrogen.php
       This article spends time discussing the technology behind hydrogen. It goes into the
efficiency, extraction, and power needed to produce hydrogen on various scales. It also briefly
goes into the politics of hydrogen power, discussing when hydrogen is (or should) take full reign
of the fuel industry.


5.2 Patent Search
         Production               Transportation                 Storage                Dispersion
         US7037485
         US4726888
         US4173524
                                    US6666034
                                    US7078011
                                                               US7651542
                                                               US3556740
                                                               US2983585
                                                                                        US7866354
                                                                                        US6810925

US7037485- Steam methane reformation
US4726888 - Water electrolysis
US4173524 - Chloralkali electrolysis


US6666034 – A safe storage tank for transportation and delivery.
US7078011 – Transportation of hydrogen via a pipeline.


US7651542 - Chemical hydrides used for storage as a solid.
US3556740 - Complex metal hydrides for storage as a solid.
US2983585 – A method for storage as liquid hydrogen.
US7866354 – A patent for a safe fueling station, most notably a pressure plate that only allows
hydrogen to be dispensed if a vehicle is there.
US6810925 – A compact gaseous fueling station.



5.3 Benchmarking

Benchmarking: Existing Fuel Sources

    Plant            Hydrogen           Hydrogen    Power              Process            Picture
                     Production          Purity  consumption
                      capacity



Mahler                                                              Steam
                  100-10.000 Nm3/h        99.9%           -
Hydroform C                                                         reforming




                                                                    Reforming
Mahler
                  100-4.000 Nm3/h         99.9%           -         process of
Hydroform M
                                                                    methanol




                                                                    Hydrogen
Mahler                             3
                  100-50.000 Nm /h        99.9%           -         pressure swing
Hydroswing
                                                                    adsorption


Mitsubishi
Medium-scale
on site                                                             Steam
                  100-1.000 Nm3/h         99.9%           -
hydrogen                                                            reforming
production
plant
Angstrom
                                                   < 4.5            Water
Advanced             2.500 Nm3/h          99.9%                                              -
                                                   kWh/m3H2         Electrolysis
Renewable
Angstrom
                                                                         Methanol
Advanced              50-1.000 Nm3/h        99.9%              -                         -
                                                                         decomposition
Renewable



Benchmarking: Existing Fuel Stations

Station     Arcata, California         Produces H2 by electrolysis,
Fuel        H2 Compressed        compressed and stored on site.
Dates       Opened 2008          Storage capacity of 12kg at pressure
                                 1,200psi. Delivers 2.3kg H2/day.
                                 Dispenses hydrogen at 5,000 psi.
Station     Irvine, California         Hydrogen dispensed at both
Fuel        H2 Compressed        5,000psi and 10,000 psi. Hydrogen is
Dates       Opened 2003,         shipped from other facilities to this
            Upgraded 2007        one. Can fuel 10 cars/day. Capacity
                                 of storage 20kg of compressed
                                 hydrogen plus 1500kg of liquid
                                 hydrogen. Pdc compressor.
Station     Washington, DC             Both gas and liquid hydrogen
            (Shell’s Benning     available. Can dispense hydrogen
            Road Station)        and both 5,000psi and 10,000psi.
Fuel        H2 Compressed        Both LH2 and H2 supplied via
            & LH2                underground pipes. Can support 6
Dates       Opened 2004          fuel cell vehicles per day.
Station     Grjótháls Station,         Produces and stores hydrogen on
            Iceland              site from performing electrolysis on
Fuel        H2 Compressed        the water supplied by the city’s pipes
Dates       Opened in 2003       system. Can deliver 75kg of
                                 hydrogen per day (each bus takes
                                 around 25kg every filling, and each
                                 car around 2-4kg).
 Station     Nagoya, Japan           Produces H2 on site by reforming
 Fuel        Blend H2 and         natural gas. The station has the
             natural gas          largest supply of H2 in Japan,
 Dates       Opened in 2006       producing 100kg/day.
 Station     Barcelona, Spain     On site production of H2 via solar
 Fuel        Compressed H2        powered grids electrolysis. Produces
 Dates       Opened in 2003       around 120kg/day. Dispenses both
                                  5,000psi and 10,000 psi.


Benchmarking H2O transportation

There are 3 main ways to get the hydrogen to the fueling stations:

1.       Produce on site
         A lot of stations produce hydrogen fuel on site as it is seen in various examples on the
existing fueling stations benchmarking. This way, there is no need for transportation but more of
storage.


2.       Transport by trucks
           For stations where the production on site is not possible, the hydrogen fuel is produced
in an industry and transported to the fueling stations to be delivered to the customers. One of
these ways is to transport on land with the use of trucks. The way this works is hydrogen will be
produced in the form of gas at the production site and then it will be pressurized to a point where
it becomes liquid hydrogen. This is done because in one tank, more liquid hydrogen can fit than
if it was in gas form.


3.       Transport by pipelines
         Pipelines are also another way to transport hydrogen from the production site to the
fueling station. These are pipes that run from the production site to the fueling station carrying
pressured oxygen in the form of gas. The gas is usually at a lower pressure than necessary to fuel
vehicles so a pressurizer is needed in the fueling station. Pipelines are the least used way to
transport hydrogen for a few reasons. Hydrogen is highly corrosive so it increases the cost to
make a pipe anti-corrosion. Also, hydrogen can react with pretty much anything and sometimes
it will react with the metal of the pipes and hydrogen is lost.


6.0 Concept Generation

Brainstorming
We needed to brainstorm and get a feel for numerous variables we would encounter. We came
up with the following

      Car density of 1 car per 2 people  60000 cars. If we assume all cars are hydrogen
       fueled
           o Approx. 5 kg per tank, 220 mi per tank, 55 mi/day  fill every 4 days
           o 60000 cars / 4 days = 15000 cars/day. 5 kg/tank  75000 kg/day
           o Put in 30 stations (approx. number of current gas stations)
           o With 30 stations, approx. 8 hrs/day of filling  63 cars/hour/station
                   Takes approx. 8 min to fill tank  8 pumps/station
      Need to produce 75000 kg/day
           o On cite will not be enough
           o Produce off site
                   Transport
                   Trucks
                           Too much fuel to transport by vehicle
                   Pipes
                           Liquid
                                  o Larger quantity can be transported
                           Gas
                                  o Less technology needed?
Concept Classification Tree




Concepts:

         Energy       Production    Production Method         Transportation Storage
 1    Solar           On site      Water Electrolysis         By Vehicle     Gas

 2    Geothermal      Off site     Chloralkali electrolysis   By Pipeline   Liquid

 3    Nuclear                      Steam Methane                            Solid
                                   Reforming
 4    Fossil Fuel

 5    Wind

 6    Hydropower

 7    Biofuel
                         Station 1              Station 2                    Station 3
Energy             Solar               Hydropower                 Geothermal
Production         On site             Off site                   Off site
Production method Water Electrolysis   Chloralkali electrolysis   Water Electrolysis
Transportation     NA                  By vehicle                 By pipeline
Storage            Gas                 Liquid                     Liquid


Black box model
7.0 Concept Selection
   Selection         Solar        Geothermal     Nuclear    Fossil Wind Hydropower Biofuel
    Criteria                                                Fuel
Clean                  +              +              0        0     +       +         +
24/7                   -              +              +        0         -           +             +
Power generated        -              +              +        0         -           +             0
Safety                 +              0              -        0        +            +             0
Cost                   +              +              -        0         -           0             -
Efficiency             +              +              +        0         -           0             0
Availability           0              +              0        0        0            0             -
Sum +'s                4              5              3        0        2            4             2
Sum 0's                1              1              2        7        1            2             3
Sum -'s                2              0              2        0        4            0             2
Net Score              2              5              1        0        -2           4             0
Rank                   3              1              4        5        7            2             6
Continue             revise           Y              N        N        N         revise           N


Selection Criteria      On Site           Off Site       Vehicle (if off site)   Pipeline (if off site)
Clean                     0                  0                    0                       +
24/7                          0              +                    0                        +
Power generated               0              +                    0                        0
Safety                        0              +                    0                        0
Cost                          0              +                    0                        -
Efficiency                    0              +                    0                        +
Availability                  0              -                    0                        +
Sum +'s                       0              5                    0                        4
Sum 0's                       7              1                    7                        2
Sum -'s                       0              1                    0                        1
Net Score                     0              4                    0                        3
Rank                          2              1                    2                        1
Continue                      N              Y                    N                        Y
Selection Criteria   Water Electrolysis   Steam methane   Chloralkali
                                             reforming    electrolysis
Clean                          +                 0             +
24/7                           0                  0            0
Power generated                0                  0            0
Safety                         +                  0            0
Cost                           -                  0            -
Efficiency                     -                  0            -
Availability                   +                  0            -
Sum +'s                        3                  0            1
Sum 0's                        2                  7            3
Sum -'s                        2                  0            3
Net Score                      1                  0            -2
Rank                           1                  2            3
Continue                       Y                  N          revise


Selection Criteria        Gas               Liquid           Solid
Clean                      0                  0                0
24/7                       0                  0                0
Power generated            0                  0                0
Safety                     0                  0                +
Cost                       0                  -                -
Efficiency                 0                  +                +
Availability               0                  +                -
Sum +'s                    0                  2                2
Sum 0's                    7                  4                3
Sum -'s                    0                  1                2
Net Score                  0                  1                0
Rank                       2                  1                2
Continue                   N                  Y                N
       Station Design 3 is the best fit. This means we will be producing hydrogen off site at a
geothermal plant using water electrolysis. Hydrogen will be supplied to the station via pipeline,
where any excess will be stored as a liquid.


Examination of Materials
1. Power requirements:
         Hellisheidi Geothermal plant outputs: 340 MW
         Water electrolysis of 1mol H2 requires: 237.1 KJ


         237.1 KJ/mol * 1000 mol/kg H2 = 2.371e8 KJ/Kg H2
         2.371e8 KJ/Kg H2 * 75000 kg H2/day = 1.778e13 J/day


         340e6W * 86400sec/day = 2.938e13 J/day


         (1.778e13 J/day) / (2.938e13 J/day) *100% = 60.534%


       Assuming 60.5% efficiency, one geothermal plant could produce enough hydrogen for all
of Reykjavík’s estimated needs. Using heat that escapes from the electricity generation, we
could heat the reactions taking place during water electrolysis which would help reach the 60%
efficiency.
2. Pipeline
       There are already pipelines in Iceland that carry heated water from the Hengill area to
Reykjavik, both above and below ground. The pipes are well insulated; the water only cools by
2ºC over the 27Km journey. The liquid simply flows by gravity. If we liquefied our hydrogen
the pipelines could work in much the same way as the already existing water pipelines, feeding
directly to the storage tanks at each station.


3. Construction cost
       Minimum and maximum construction costs for large power plants are $1150/KWh and
$1950/KWh respectively. For a 340MW plant, the cost would range from $391 to $663 million.
We’ll use the $663 million for our estimate.
       A typical gas station costs $500,000 to construct, however our hydrogen station is more
complicated than a gas station. To cover all the extra costs we doubled the price to $1 million
per station, $30million for all 30 stations. This leaves us with a base cost of $693 million to
build everything.


Maintenance Requirements
       The minimum and maximum estimates for maintaining a large geothermal plant are
$.004/KWh and $.007/KWh respectively. We’ll use the upper limit. This puts us at
$57,120/day. Assuming each gas station would have four employees 24/7 being paid $10/hr,
maintenance of the stations will cost $28,800/day. Between the stations and the plant, overall
daily maintenance will cost $85,920/day.


Construction and Maintenance Cost Estimates
                            Construction                                   Maintenance
         Exploration         Steam field         Power plant       Plant            Steam field
 Min          $100/kW         $300/kW             $750/kW      $0.0025/kWh         $0.0015/kWh
 Max          $400/kW         $450/kW            $1100/kW      $0.0045/kWh         $0.0025/kWh
Daily costs:
We would like to pay off the construction within 15 years.
       340,000kW * ($400 + $450 + $1100)/kW = $663 million
       $663 million / 15yr * 1yr / 365days = $121,095.89/day


The average gas station costs $500,000 to build. We’ll double that amount for each of our
stations because they require more equipment.
       30stations * $1,000,000/station = $30 million
       $30 million / 15yr * 1yr / 365days = $5479.45/day


The upper limit will be used for plant maintenance.
       340,000kW * 24hr/day * $.007/kWh = $57,120/day


Maintenance for the stations will be paid through the employees. We decided to assume we will
have four workers on staff 24/7 being paid $10/hr.
       30stations * 4workers/station * $10/hr * 24hr/day = $28800/day


Estimates on the pipeline are difficult to predict, so we’ll round the current daily maintenance
total up to $220,000/day. This allots about $7500/day to the pipeline, which is about $2.74
million/yr.
       $(220,000 – 121,095.89 – 5479.45 – 57,120 – 28,800)/day = $7504.66/day


Because there are no suitable sources of natural gas near our location, we will be buying the
amount we need. Iceland doesn’t use very much public transportation, so the amount we’ll need
is small. We will be using the amount we sell the HCNG for to directly cover the costs.


This puts costs for the first 15 years at $220,000/day. 75,000kg of hydrogen sales will need to
cover this cost.
       $220,000/75,000kg = $2.93/kg
However, 75,000kg may not be sold every day. To ensure we will be making enough daily, we
will sell hydrogen for $4.00/kg.
                                            Total Profit Over 12.5 Years
                         800
                         600
                         400
   Millions of Dollars




                         200
                           0
                         -200 0      5      10      15       20      25        30    35      40      45      50
                         -400
                         -600
                         -800
                                                              Periods (1/4 year)




8.0 Embodiment Design and Final Design Description

Description of Final Design
                         Along with the requirements set forth by Air Products, we estimated our hydrogen fuel
needs to be 75,000kg/day. Because this is such a large amount we decided to produce hydrogen
off site at a geothermal plant. There’s a large selection of locations in Iceland to build power
plants, and we chose the Hengill region due to its proximity to Reykjavik. Iceland also already
uses pipelines to transport heated water, so we decided to mimic these pipelines to carry liquid
hydrogen to each station.
                         To adequately supply the city with enough fueling stations, we estimated about 30
stations with 8 hydrogen pumps and 1 HCNG pump each. At 75,000kgH2/day city wide, each
station gets roughly 2,500kgH2/day. Even though each station will be getting a constant supply
of hydrogen, they will each be equipped with a 1,500kg liquid storage capacity to store/dispense
excess hydrogen. We also have the same amount of onsite storage for natural gas; however there
is very little public transportation in Reykjavik so we will simply purchase the natural gas as
needed. Sales of the natural gas will directly cover these costs.
                         The largest geothermal plant in Iceland currently produces 340MW, so we decided to use
this as our generating capacity. We decided to use water electrolysis as our production method,
because it produces pure hydrogen, is very clean, and we have a large amount of power to supply
it with. However, to produce 75,000kg of hydrogen per day would require 60% efficiency,
which is at the upper limit. To achieve this we will use heat syncs to direct excess heat from the
generators and liquefier into the reaction.
       As previously stated, hydrogen from the geothermal plant is liquefied and transported to
each station via pipeline. The pipelines to each station lead directly into the storage tanks.
When the pump is used, liquid hydrogen from the storage tank is vaporized then pressurized to
the suitable amount. From there the pressurized gas travels underground to the appropriate
pump. The storage tanks, vaporizer, and pressurizer are all located above ground for easy
maintenance.
       Estimated construction time for all the stations, geothermal plant, and pipeline is 5 years
and will cost about $663 million. Though this is a large initial cost, we will be selling hydrogen
for as little as $4/kg. With daily costs taken into consideration, everything can be paid off after
only 2.75 years of operation. About 7.5 years after construction, the invested amount will have
been doubled.


Layout Diagram
       The incoming pipeline, storage tanks, vaporizer, and pressurizer are all located off to the
side where they are out of the way and behind a protective barrier. The 5,000psi and 10,000psi
pumps are spaced out, allowing for easy maneuvering through the station. They are oriented
very similarly to existing gas stations. The HCNG pump is located out of the way where larger
public transportation vehicles will have as much space as possible. The gas is fed to the pumps
underground, where the pipes are out of the way.


Physical Model
       The physical model is pretty much the same thing as the layout diagram, except it shows
the pipes that run underground to each pump.


Solidworks Models
       The model to the left is a concept for how our pumps might advertise clean energy and
look appealing. The model to the right displays how we would make the pump as similar to
existing gas pumps as possible, so it’s easy to use.




       This model demonstrates how the pumps would be laid out, in blocks of two alternating
pumps. By alternating the direction of every other pump vehicles have as much room as
possible.


9.0 Conclusions
       While integrating the stations would be difficult due to the pipeline, our design fits the
location well. Initial costs are high, but within a short period of operation the stations will pay
for themselves. Because we tried to keep everything as possibly similar to existing gas stations,
the hydrogen stations can be easily adapted into Reykjavik. The biggest benefit is being able to
sell the hydrogen for a mere $4/kg, which is about $20 a tank. Not only is it cleaner than gas, but
it’s also more affordable.
       The biggest drawback of our design is the pipeline. While it is well insulated and already
used with water, liquid hydrogen is much more dangerous. Extra safety measures will definitely
have to be taken, which is why we allocated a large amount of money to its maintenance.
However, due to the large amounts of hydrogen we need to transport, the pipeline was a better fit
than trucks. The other issue is the 5 year build period, during which there will be no hydrogen
being produced. This will make it more difficult to phase in. Even aside from this, there’s a lot
to be gained from making Reykjavik an H2 city.


10.0 References
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