VIEWS: 10 PAGES: 26 POSTED ON: 8/11/2011
Notes transcribed from lectures and field work and presented as bullet points to jog memory; not meant to replace reading material. LEVEL I Lincoln – firstname.lastname@example.org Lecture 1: Cisterns with Lincoln Perino Pipes and concrete – ensures pipes have 6 inch clearance to facilitate trowel around the edges Cisterns fall under the accessory structure in the land use codes. County follows city code closely. Cistern < 3.5 foot radius and < 5 foot tall: no permit required. Cistern < 3.5 foot radius and between 5 and 6 feet may be placed anywhere in the defined side or rear yard (excluding street perimeter) with zero setbacks if screened by yard or wall with equivalent height. Cistern > 3.5 foot radius OR > 6 feet may be placed anywhere in the defined side or rear yard subject to subject to compliance with perimeter yard width requirements for the zone (Setbacks? What are they for residential?) Maximum height of a cistern in a residential zone is 12 feet. Maximum height of a cistern in a commercial zone = height limitation of principal building. If the height is twice the width (> 2:1), then need to apply for a permit by submitting Google Earth map that shows size, proximity to property, power, building, fire access. Considerations for placements: - regulations - top of watershed - useful spot – near non natives - nearby downspouts - fire access - overflows destination Considerations for features: - watertight - lightproof - mosquito proof - UV resistant (polyethylene or polypropylene good for 10-15 years) - designated overflow - includes supply (spigot or outlet) - bottom of overflows same or under bottom of inflow - culverts, plastic, fiberglass, ferrous cement, recycled tanks - smaller diameter / taller is better for head Culvert in concrete – don’t recommend since bad center of gravity and may rust out Formed culvert in concrete – better design; rock culvert into concrete For culverts that are < 2:1, form should have an extra 6 inches around the base and be 6 inches deep with culvert set 3 inches into base. As you approach 2:1, form should be 8 – 10 inches deep. Place three bricks in the foundation to assist with the leveling the culvert. Seal of culvert: seal with tape and apply liquid rubber to seals. For plastic cisterns, set in 1: of sand, and tie down to avoid having them blow away when empty. Ensure 3 90s or longer to help prevent mosquitoes. Fiberglass – go dark and paint with light colored paint First flush should be designed to capture 1/16” to 1/8” rainfall Roof washer – eliminates need for first flush, but must be maintained. Test site: 101 feet X 32 feet The biggest issue is the residential Parts list for 5 X 10 Read volume 1, Appendix 3 Packets, site planning – all by Monday Wet – head remains in pipe feeding cister Dry – pipe feeds directly into the cistern Lecture 2: Integrated Design – James MacAdam For the Tucson AMA, 0.75% flows out as surface flow at the SCR bridge in Marana, 3% is captured as recharge, 96.25% is lost to evaporation CAP loses 66% to evaporation Energy required for CAP could power 400,000 homes Sourced to: City of Tucson and Pima County Stormwater Harvesting and Management as a Supplemental Water Source Technical Paper: Water and Wastewater Infrastructure, Supply and Planning Study, Phase II, May 2009 Integrated design – using surplus in a form that can be used. Overlay and design for extremes (solstice) Maintain winter sun in the south. Maintain shade in the north, east, and west (solar arc). West side is the single best place for cooling. Principal components: Water, Wind, Sun, Noise, Light, Traffic Invisible structures: Zoning, HOA, Permitting, Setbacks, Floodplain, Soils, Perc, Infra Design for less or more connectivity Next – Design Identify main goals for the project of client Vision statement Zonation (I-IV gives) you frequency and intensity of use. Zone 1: Used everyday Zone 5: unmanaged / natural http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/AltAz.php Sun Angles at extreme times of year Astronomical Applications Dept. U.S. Naval Observatory Washington, DC 20392-5420 TUCSON, ARIZONA o , o , W110 55, N32 13 Altitude and Azimuth of the Sun 21-Jun-09 Mountain Standard Time Altitude Azimuth (E of N) 12:30 81.2 186.6 Astronomical Applications Dept. U.S. Naval Observatory Washington, DC 20392-5420 TUCSON, ARIZONA o , o , W110 55, N32 13 Altitude and Azimuth of the Sun 21-Dec-09 Mountain Standard Time Altitude Azimuth (E of N) 12:20 34.4 179.4 Brad Lecture 1 After p-trqp and vent – grey water valve Plumbing Supplies Inc. Double L – 2” to 1.5” Tap + 1 inch bit Place pipe in raised pathways. Outlet into basin at grade of basin. ¼” drop per foot of run. Plumbing Inspector torpedo level helps in gauging slope of runs Provide ½ plant needs with greywater, and ½ plant needs with fresh water. Size basin based on estimate of source and percolation test conducted three times. Greywater should be 10 feet way from the house to prevent saturation around foundation. Greywater is okay for food crops as long as it is not in contact with food surfaces Core of systems – perennials since they will provide a year round sink for grey water. Grey water = bathroom sink, bath tub, washing machines Black water = kitchen, dishwasher, toilet Use water from swamp coolers on salt tolerant plants AC is distilled water; dry climates = commercial units produce 500 gallons per day. Channel H2O away from the house. New City of Tucson Ordinance: grey water stabouts for new homes. All washing machines – gravity All else – tank and pump All discharges to sewers need p-trap and vent stock. Law states that you must be able to send to BOTH greywater and sewer. Dollar ply – put in sewer vent and clamp it down. Air gap – can be used as vent-stack Stub out – at or above grade rather than under ground. For bathroom, consider a bathtub on legs and discharge; put out old bath tub and retile. Jandy Valve – available at pool and spa suppliers – used as a source, not drain pipe, although works great overall. PVC is toxic for manufacture and exudes lead. ABS – no lead; also known as black pipe. Siphon pump can also be used to drain water from a batch tub. How much grey water in gallons for a basin – need to calculate peak surge and ensure basin can capture that as well as average. Less efficient washer – 30-50 gallons per load. Five loads maximum in one day – 150 to 250 gallons. For basins, greywater source to destination requires 1/4 inch drop / foot. Make sure you have 4 inch clearance between concrete footer and the floor. 4 inches mulch in bottom of basin, or 2 inches if you have less runoff since you don’t want mulch to consume all your water. Place your outlet pipe on the surface and build up on top. Wherever you have a Y, install a valve box with a plug for access for cleaning. 14.5 foot run, vs 19.0 foot run. Yearly greywater produced by washer for site assessment on 4th Ave: 4,600 gallons water average for high use vs 1900 gallons for efficient. Fruit tree requires 8000 gallons of water a year. Lincoln Lecture 1 Consider purchasing a PVC cutter. Bows in ABS tubing should be placed on side so as to avoid pooling water. PVC primer and glue – takes 10 minutes to set; use a quarter turn when setting. ABS glue – sets almost immediately. PVC to ABS – requires transition glue, but no primer. PVC can hold up to pressure and is typically used for drinking water, but most fitting that we’d want in ABS are only available in PVC. Use PVC for sources. ABS can be used for greywater – use for delivery. ABS does not hold up to pressure as well. Prime / glue both male and female ends. When making circle band, screws should face outward. Screws should be placed ½ inch from top and bottom. Make sure line is straight on band form when screwing together two pieces. Don’t screw together near end of band forms; allow for overlap before attaching together. Arizona Concrete – delivered, but not mixed until you need it. It is mixed as it comes out of the chute. You have 45 minutes from time delivered to pour your mold; after 45 minutes, they bill you. For 5 foot diameter culvert, the mesh should be cut to 2’10” and accommodated on dobies to ensure it is not resting on soil. Use three bricks and not placement for leveling the culvert. Level bricks as well as the form before pouring concrete. Level form by using wire ties and stakes. First concrete pours should be dry – will harden stronger, but will have more bubbles. Conclude with wet concrete and tap around edge. Place wet concrete around the sides to make it look nice. Pictures and camera videos capture the rest. Catlow’s Presentation Best to get Powerpoint and to read Volume 2, and section containing page 50. 3 elevations that are important: Utility – keep earthworks at a 2 foot distance. Structural - keep earthworks at a 10 foot distance. Right of way. Note that you can’t divert right of way (Street flows) to private property, but you can divert it to another part of the right of way. Source – Transport (swales/berms) – Sink (basins) Check overflow, percolation, capacity. Goal is to implement successful water harvesting. On contour berms Off contour berms Swales (are like off contour berms, only canals instead of increased elevation for guiding water) Catlow didn’t have sink dug out since he didn’t want fines clogging and creating nuisance during rainy season. Will return at a later date. Use Pima County Map Guide (rather than “Map Guide”) Rainfall is greater than per-capita demand. Rainfall return period is not equal to runoff return period in a natural system – look at storm distribution and velocity over basin. Even in a small basin with a storm distributed throughout, antecedent moisture conditions can impact runoff for given return period rainfall depth. Hike with Nate O’Meara Plants seen on hike in foothills of the Catalinas (Check Google Images for examples and to corroborate spelling) Cleveland Sage – From California, but controllable; fragrant. Janusa – yellow flowering vines. Jathropa or Limber bush – drought tolerant. Joint Mormon Tea – used as a medicinal; common misconception is that it has ephedra. Goosefoot aka chunapodium. Englemans cactus. Blue paloverde is larger than foothills paloverde which is more of a shrub. Mexican paloverde is invasive and susceptible to paloverde beatles Hackberry – shrubby and larger with a bean that birds love Bitter candalia – is probably our mystery plant and is what I have in my yard. Native fairy duster has pink blooms as opposed to Baja fairy duster which has red. Kidneywood is a deciduous large shrub / tree that provides habitat Rattlesnake weed has sap that causes itching. Teddybear and staghorn chollas Brittle bush turn green to silver depending on sun exposure Abutoron Arizona blue eyes Yuccas bloom every year and don’t have shoots as tall as agaves which are thicker and more succulent with rosette appearance. Aloes are in a totally different family altogether Witnessed catclaw and whitethorn acacia as well as a devils claw with yellow/orange blooms. Dana Helfer – composting and vegetable gardening. Increasing organic matter – compost – reduces our waste stream Compost composed of manure, leaf litter, alfalfa bales, and worm castings (examples) Diversity in your compost pile matters Compost in a basin to retain moisture Use a screen to separate thicker material into a wheelbarrow. Screen should be ¼ inch. Recompost whatever doesn’t filter Be careful with newspapers since inks may contain petroleum products Soil components: Fungus, bacteria, and invertebrates Sand, silt and clay (mineral solids) Water and air Organic matter Nutrients including minerals and nitrogen pH (acidity) macro and micro organisms Organic matter is living, dead, and very dead. Full decomposition process creates humus Humus is organic material made available for plants When making a compost heap, larger is better since it provides critical mass for fast reactions. Food Bank and grocery stores may be source for green matter (vs carbon rich brown matter). Sheep manure and manure from other vegetarians is a good nitrogen source, but don’t apply without aging since generated heat can damage roots. Sheep manure is probably best since it is fed alfalfa rather than bermuda. Start with a thin layer of alfalfa = brown material Alfalfa has less carbon than straw and is higher in nitrogen. Start with 4 inches. Add manure – sprinkle on top. Add chopped green matter. Repeat. Carbon to green – 2:1 Manure to green – 10:1 Water heavily to kick start the system, then turn and water again within one week. Start with a pile that is 3 X 3 to get a good reaction. Cover for first week to hold moisture. You can use straw as a mulch to cover and surround pile – natural blanket. Regarding vermiculture, check out Oregon Soil Corporation Reactor website. Stay away from raised beds unless you are handicapped, or you have no choice given caliche layer that can’t be broken through. Dig down at least two feet – you are making a flowerpot in the soil that is bad natives, but okay for annuals and vegetables. Check out French Intensive Farming references and keyhole method. Vegetables need 6-8 hours of sun per day. In full sun, try basil, okra, chiles, corn, eggplants. In the shade, try cucumbers, winter herbs, vines that can go into the sun, and chard. Box above ground is likely not holding moisture. Check out Greg Peterson – Urban Farmer in the Phoenix area. Review double digging method. Purselane – highest in Omega 3 fatty acids; can be used as mulch. Vary your plants in your bed to balance nutrient demands. Use unglazed pots with H2O for underground garden cisterns. Good source for irrigation systems: ISS Read about amendments (item #4) in handout. Get tips from online seed catalogs remembering to put everything through the “southwest filter”. One source is the Peaceful Valley Farm Supply which can give us tips on soil amendments. Seaweed extract + fish emulsion is a vitamin boost when combined and sprayed on plants. Check out Armenian cucumbers. Culvert cistern finalization with Lincoln. Use “sicaflex” (similar to silicon) at all intersections and then cover with “thoroughseal” (nasty stuff). Bluemax is a good alternative and will do it all; it’s available at Ace Hardware. There is a fine-mesh tape that can be used to cover seals. You put tape down first; like a drywall joint, but finer mesh. TFS does not use the tape; bluemax is enough. Mineralization will also help seal. Bluemax will produce water that is of potable quality, but it is not certified for this. Use a sawzall or a hand saw to cut both inflow and cleanout down to base. Use a longer sawzall blade and bend the blade flush with the foundation. Source should be 2 inches above. Leave 4 inches on overflow so in order to attached a coupler and overflow pipe. When using bluemax in the culvert, do all the seams 2/3 of the way up the culvert (to prevent messes with hanging straps and/or ladders), then the seams at the point where the pipes come up from the concrete, then the seam where the culvert enters the concrete, and finally the concrete floor. Do two coats. Use a line level to identify where base of P-fitting (for mosquito and light block) will go. Some line levels are stepped off at 1/8”, ¼” , and 3/8” per foot. Use an ABS backwater valve vs. more expensive backflow preventer to avoid animals and insects from entering the overflow. Cut the gutter above the line level for the P-fitting. Use cobra triple anchors for attaching fittings to the wall with straps and screws. These are rated to 150 lbs for drywall, and even more for stucco, but don’t exceed 25% of what anchors are rated for. Use a hammer drill to make holes for anchors, and make holes in stucco 1/16” smaller than diameter of the anchor since drilling in stucco may make the hole larger. Clamps should be placed at the fittings, and then every four feet. Watch for electrical and other hidden hazards when drilling holes. Screw by hand to feel tension on screw; use needle nose to hold anchors in the event they spin. Alternate between left and right screws on clamps. When tying ABS together, try to avoid getting in the way of other building infrastructure (i.e. electrical wiring, AC, etc). You may have to try several arrangements of ABS to get everything to tie in well. Advantage Air – rainhead and dome lid for $280, but this is special pricing for Lincoln. Distance between rainhead and downspout from original gutter must be at least 2 inches to prevent clogging. Rainhead has 1/8” hardware cloth to keep debris out of tube. Don’t go smaller or you will end up fighting surface tension of water. City Codes and Water Budget with Anne Audrey. New City of Tucson Ordinance to go into effect on June 10, 2010. Slide shown regarding Scenario D – Water Demand and Resource Utilization between 2000 and 2050 demonstrates that around 2017, our demand will exceed supply which is comprised of CAGRD, Colorado River Water, and Groundwater. First in time, first in right (appropriative rights) was put into law when the groundwater management act was realized in 1980 which established 4 active management areas. With the 1994 split of the Tucson AMA into two, there are now five AMAs in the state, as shown on Figure 1. Each AMA has a statutory management goal. Safe-yield, or a balance between groundwater withdrawals and natural and artificial recharge, is the primary water management goal for four of the five AMAs. Appropriative right holders have been fighting water harvesting. Colorado now allows water harvesting, and New Mexico allows it as long as it is tied in to controlling land erosion. Storm water issues led to the creation of the Water Harvesting Manual which speaks about best management practices and permaculture. In Tucson, we have a 147,000 acre-foot demand vs. 185,600 acre foot supply via rainfall. Desalinization of briney water = $300 / acre foot. CAP = $140 / acre foot, but our supply could drop from 1/3 to ½ of current supply. Pumping and desalinization from the Sea of Cortez – unimaginable. Detention basins in Tucson must now serve a multipurpose function (stacking). City transportation got wind of curb cuts and now requires 2 foot buffer to basin, a $35 permit, and permit applicant must higher a licensed contractor to do the cut and hammer. Porous pavement – made up of cups with decomposed granite. It’s better to use pea gravel or something else that doesn’t degrade. Porous concrete is the other option. Both require you to keep surface and volume clear of fines (same with French drains). City is looking at impediments and solutions to promote water harvesting at this time. Commercial Code: Compare what current runoff is to future resulting from development: you must detain (slow) that difference. 50% of that capacity may be stored in a cistern with a bleeder valve. Review appendix C of rainwater harvesting manual for more details. - commercial sites - subdivisions - public buildings - public rights of way Main components: New commercial. - Water harvesting plan and H2O budget. - You must meter outdoor water use, and use soil based irrigation control. - You are relieved of 50% requirement during drought (to be determined from instrumentation). - You must report on water use annually. - Tell us how much you need, not how much you will harvest. We’ll tell you how much to harvest. Review the City of Tucson Development Standard. Now, focus on water budget: Any water you get in the ground will not last very long. Small soil pores + evaporation > supply BUT you can offset soil evaporation with soil mulch. Download the Development Standard – has recommendations and is based on design for March. Why not go with concrete everywhere? There are landscaping requirements – 1 tree for every 10 parking spaces soon to be 1 tree for every 4 parking spaces. Civil engineers and landscape architects will need to begin speaking to one another. If the grading plan conflicts with the landscape plan, you have a problem. If a business doesn’t meet the requirements, NOV and notice to show cause + payment for audit, $250 first fine, $500 second fine, then the water gets shut off. Pilot period is now to June 2010. Quick Trip is the guinea pig for all this – other counties and states are watching. You can resubmit your H2O plan over time. Important highlights from Appendix A: Tucson Code Requirements for Water Harvesting Chapter 26: Floodplain and Erosion Hazard Mitigation, Section 26-10 Detention requirements state that development must match or decrease the site’s pre- development discharge rates for the 2, 10, and 100 year flood events. Threshold retention requirements state that a development must retain onsite (no discharge) the storm water volume difference between the pre- and post- development volumes for the 2 or 5 year flood events depending on the proposed use. Water harvesting retention volumes may - be credited toward threshold retention volumes. - If they retain 2, 5, 10, and/or 100 yr flood events, the surface area of the water harvesting area may be deducted from the watershed area used to calculate the detention / retention quantities for volumes for those events. Brad Lancaster – Greywater harvesting continued. Use an 18” rise on an ABS pipe for greywater to prevent suds from washing machine. Sewer always requires P-trap and vent-stack. If you have a greywater valve for the sewer, make sure your greywater comes after both (P-trap and vent stack). No p-trap or vent stack is required for straight greywater. You must have a minimum 2 foot straight run after a bend before you hit a flow splitter. Bathtub + sink OR sink + sink OR washer – best to use 2” pipe. 2” source +22.5 degree street bend to drop to flow splitter (2” to 1.5” ideal for flow splitter), then 2 street bends at whatever angle desired. Make all installations as convenient as you can for the client so that you know that they will use. You can filter greywater with a “slime monster” (aka plant filter in a box), but note that the slime monster then becomes a consumer of greywater as well. Soap appropriate for greywater is expensive. Investigate alternatives. Oasis is Brad’s favorite, but costs $26 / gallon. Use 1 ¼ inch hole saw for cleanout and inspection hole at flow splitter, then use a rubber plug to stop it up. Make sure greywater discharge is 3 inches above your mulch. Review Box a4.1 and subsequent example in Appendix 1. Page 47 – income vs demand. LEVEL II – Irrigation Emitters on < 3 lbs of pressure do not work well. Bubblers are easier to adjust for variable pressure. Pump pushes instead of pulling; works off 3” head, but 14” is more appropriate. Submersible on a stand is better. Review pictures for more details. Stormwater Management Stormwater is rainwater that has left a property. Sreet = waterway; curb = bank of waterway. Non-point source pollution – doesn’t come from a fixed point and may include pesticides, herbicides, sediments, engine oil, debris collected in washes. Current stormwater approach is an end of pipe approach. We need to have a shift in thinking – our perception of stormwater has to change from waste to resource. Flushed out systems = dehydrated systems. Pennsylvania stormwater best management practices. - manage stormwater as a resource - preserve, utilize, mimic - manage as close to source as possible - reduce hardscape and shade it where you can - send runoff from hardscape into pervious areas - slow the flow - disconnect, decentralize, and distribute sources and discharges - reduce water quality problems at source - integrate stormwater management into initial site design from beginning to save money. - take advantage of stacking functions - regularly inspect and maintain BMPs bioretention = structural best management practices - sedimentation, adsorbtion of metals on clays, filtration, uptake, microbial activity (aneaerobic for nitrogen, and aerobic for organic), volatilization. Detention is to slow vs. retention which is to hold. Both increase soil moisture, not recharging. “Urban Stormwater Retrofit Practices” – google this; removal rates are not well understood in our area. Infiltration rates would be interesting to study as well. Liability is yours, so bluestake! Permeable pavement is good for roof runoff or clean water only. Chicanes supplement convex features; trees in traffic circules are better for concave features. Swales convey linearly. Use organic mulch in places that contain eddies (or areas where the water is still). Use gravel in conveyances, or areas that have a slope greater than 3:1. Decomposed gravel is okay downstream of V curb cuts and swales, but not upstream. Universal Fire Code – 20 foot wide street widths required. Best way to shade is north-south orientation. Structural soil allows roots to penetrate (Is this a commercial product? What is this?) Erosion control and stream restoration Review five principals Notes on five principals – focus on wet areas first, dry areas are already lost. Restore sheet flow when trying to stabilize active erosion. Cultivate restorative plant community. - mix cool with warm season grasses - walk washes and figure out stabilizing plants Watershed – define contributing area. - silty clay is highly erosive and has high density drainage depth - sandy is less erosive Roughness to maintain sheet flow - sheets collect into rills via collection zone which collects into gullies. Don’t work in transport zone which is not a soil building moisture storing area Organic matter, silt, clay, sand, course particles. SSC is organic matter, silt, clay. Bed load is sand and coarse particles. Sheet flow promotes infiltration and deposition. Mollison – earth and contour swale taken over by forest that overtakes it. Swales don’t do this; when they fill with sediment, they blow out somewhere else. Swales – sedimentation does not produce strata for forest replacement, and you are replacing sheet flow. Removing grass -> sheetflow erosion -> desertification Start with upper watershed where something is still affordable and stabilize. Bare soils will erode 80% quicker than soil with vegetation. Use hand placed rockworks to stabilize soils. Lay rock on contour, and then curve up slope (just like a swale). Channelized at top of fan; braiding in between; sheetflow at base of fan. This is why roads are at base of fan. Arrays of culverts under roads rather than channelizing flow into one culvert which produces erosions/gullies. Rock mulch – flow spreader – media luna Media luna with arch facing downstream spreads flow out. Media luna with arch facing upstream prevents channels from cutting upslope; must be level at centerline; higher on both ends. Rill erosion – where sheet flow exits and smaller channels get capture by larger channels. Headcut – organic matter leaves the soil and grass dies. If you were to address a headcut, try to do so in 1st through 3rd of five stages. Poorly designed road drainages is the #1 contributor to headcuts (concentrated flows). Trees like to collect in drainage points and may stabilize headcuts; junipers are a good example of a stabilizing tree; take advantage of this rather than removing and replacing with another feature. Gullies self heal at lower elevation; creates floodplain. Streams downcut, widen, narrows, and builds a floodplain at its new elevations, stabilized, revegetated. 3:1 is the max slope that will revegetate – don’t pursue in a channel. Channels have 3 jobs - transport runoff - transport sediment - store moisture Stable channel: erosion = deposition Entrenched = no floodplain. Insipient point of flooding = bankfull stage or what shapes the channel. In Arizona, given as the 7 to 10 year return period flood. Stream dissipates energy by bending laterally and vertically; filling hurts dissipation of energy. Grade control belongs at the crossovers and riffles since these features create deposition feature for sediment; build it up so that it can access its floodplain (hydraulically connect the floodplain). Piping and sapping headcut tunnels – trench, filter fabric in trench, fill, fold over filter fabric thus creating a plug, Geojute (spelling?) is an organic plant fiber. Assess -> planning -> design -> assess -> implementation - > monitoring and management Photo documentation can be key, but be careful with plant dormancy. Use vegetation for keys for time. Kennedy Park draining into West Branch of the Santa Cruz. This was all historically farming. Follow piping to headcut. Reclaiming abandoned farmland is high priority. Grow the right plants – pioneer plants – to add organic matter back into soil and create succession. Look for a rock that matches the shape. Apron has to be nice and flat. Nothing downstream of apron (dropoff) that will create scour) Elevation of vertical rocks are lower than elevation of the back of the pool. Better to use large rocks at footer of Zuni pool. If you have smaller rocks, stand them up vertically because stronger structure and also because it gives you the elevation you need. You cannot stack rocks. Use generalist seed (“cytos gramma” – spelling?) for large quantity so you can broadcast it more. You are competing with ants and birds. We moved 5 tons of rock – we did that in two hours minus talking and whatnot. Once you have it down, one person can move 3-4 tons per day. Most of the time is spent moving your rock. Injuries and tired moving rock; if you have a long way to go, maybe you can only do two tons of rock. 10 feet long, 3 feet wide – 30 ft2. ½ foot thick – 15 ft3 – divide by 27 to get cubic yards, multiply 1.5 to get tons. Start quanitifying this – how much can you get done in a day. One proficient person could do what we did in 10 hours. All part of feasibility analysis. If you can’t do a rockpile close by, identify a vehicle that can get the material to your site. Dump truck drivers only like to dump on flat ground given risk of tipping over. You want to create a road to fix an erosion problem. Every time you drive out, you’ll move over one tire track; this is particularly important in a grassland environment, and also you are going to kick up soil. Wider sloth of little disturbance is better. Wheelbarrows do the same. Quivaricoalition – http://quiviracoalition.org/QC_Publications/Books/index.html http://quiviracoalition.org/QC_Publications/Field_Guides/index.html Migrated upstream : Vertical piping going on. Tighter more defined channel – want to dissipate some energy as it enters the channel. Soil is fairly hydrophobic. This channel going down to main stem – set up for one rock dams. There is a slight meander pattern. that we could use to calculate exactly what the runoff area is and setup our meander pattern. Since one-rock dams are oriented perpendicular to the cross over, you could use them to actually steer the channel just by angling them a little bit. Water is going to pour off the structure at 70-90 degrees so you kind of know exactly where it is going to go. Difficult to lay back and build zuni bowls. Better to build one rock dams Recent features are correlated to the latest storm; without knowing the size of the last storm, you may be designing features that are not sized appropriately for bigger flood stage. There’s lots of ways to figure out how much runoff is produced. 300 foot tape comes in very handy. Pursue permit from the ACE to do work in the channel. We have an understanding with them that in the ephemeral channels, they aren’t really interested in regulating that, but it’s really up to the discretion of who’s in charge and what they will call waters of the United States. In this case, would it require a permit? Probably not, but Pima County would want the City of Tucson to come out to see how the jurisdiction plays out and probably get a permit from them. Worth looking into for sure because we do not want to get crossed with the regulators. 404 permit from ACE. 401 permit is from the state. In Arizona, you have to have stamped drawings from an engineer –important, but a barrier for these small projects. Expensive and adds another step to the project – need to budget accordingly. If there is a meanders pattern that we want to enhance, the elevation from the bottom, or starting from downstream, top of rocks of downstream structure shouldn’t be any lower than the bottom of your rocks of the upstream structure. That means sediment will build all the way up to the base of your upstream structure and prevent scouring and erosion from happening. Upland transition channels not considered water of the US, so no permit is sought by Craig, but if we work in ephemeral channels even at small scale, even there is any wetland component to it (riparian obligate vegetation), then we definitely want to get the permit. Once you have the wetland component, that is a critical habitat especially in the state of New Mexico and Arizona – much more interest in regulating what is going on in those habitats. Brad Lancaster – Blackwater Footprintnetowrk.org – run through the animation. 147,000 AF vs 185,600 AF via rainfall available in our watershed. Our watershed is extended into Colorado (pipeshed) and even further via bottleshed. For every 4 barrels of oil consumed, one is used for water. Why are we shipping something so heavy? Cheese is condensed and a model for when we tried to minimize our shipping costs. Our salt levels are increasing in our soils. Degenerative – degrades as soon as we start to use it. Generative – has power to be reused. - getting a buzz, got a brick - stacking functions - organic garden that builds soils and provides food. - (native landscapes; basins and swales that hold water and helps with infiltration.) Regenerative design is what we should be after. - community projects / cultural processes. As yourself how can you set up a water harvesting system so at worst, it is generative and at best, regenerative; think about it when you walk away; check dam – turns into sand reservoir and a spring (on bare rock). Mesa Verde check dams – Aldo Leopold – Sand County Almanac www.quivaracoalition.org - one rock check dam – nudging vs. fighting – may go from generative to regenerative. Roads – degenerative – wheel ruts – water won’t run off road, but will be captured in a ditch. Zeedyke – speedbump – build them as wide as vehicle to give water an opportunity to be captured and infiltrate into adjacent grasslands. Raods go from degenerative to generative. Seattle – stormwater and sanitary is combined. To avoid contaminating Pugent Sound, must capture 98% of runoff by turning grey infrastructure into green infrastructure. Do this by (1) narrowing curves and streets thus slowing traffic, (2) less runoff from less concrete, and (3) community maintenance builds community, and (4) everything it costs to put it in cost less than maintaining the old system. Achieve generative, but strive for regenerative. In Tucson, integrated water harvesting has 10X the flood control capacity of a conventional system for a development built on a ridgeline. Stone Curves is a co-housing development where they are funneling (guttering) water uphill to a green space. Cisterns not only provide emergency supply, but cooling as well. Think of merit badge – greywater, solar, composting, etc – positive social pressures on neighbors. Automatic irrigation uses 47% more water. Manual irrigation uses 16% more. American Waterworks foundation. City line has 3 inch spacing between cistern overflow and entrance to cistern. Greenhouse may not be regenerative, but now using rainwater off the roof. Cistern acts as cooling as well as water source for grapes that cool house. www.waterwall.com.au Every waterway becomes a greenway for people and animals – must have fron facing homes OR gates to side drainages. Daylighted culvert now provides greenspace. Souel, Korea Minimize footprint of tank via composting toilet. Burgui gravity fed filter – research. Avoid building on the sacred and destroying it at the same time. Solar Arc Slide – review. Prioritize projects that diminish the GNP. Living building challenge – goes beyond LEED. Can only reach the goal by integrating the design. Get your designs to meet all of three principals. Manage Los Angeles like a forested watershed. Services is the bulk; stovepiping – need to cut that out – that’s where we come in. Kitchen sink, dish washer, toilet are all black water Clear water is condensate and evaporative cooler bleedoff. Oasisdesign.net/greywater/law/fecallevel.xls Greywater is not blackwater. Discharge greywater in top two feet of soil, top 12 inches is better. Reduce organic matter in dark grey water (food for bacteria) from going down the drain. Greywater – if it fails, send it to the system; must have option. Jandy valve – can’t shut off the inlet. Book 2 – appendix – blackwater system – composting toilet _ interceptor is require for permit and sized according to the number of fixtures you have; set up for a rural system where individuals don’t have access to sewer, but causes problems since urban folks have difficulty meeting guidelines. Book 2- appendix – blackwater systems – composting toilet plus interceptor for permit. Split flow to improve infiltration. Wider chamber to avoid issues with earth worms. Blackwater – separate system must go to leaching system – cannot go to greywater. Grewyater – if not hooked up to sewer, must size leaching system to handle all greywater systems since this is your backup system. One-way vent to prevent gasses from coming into the house. Discharge in the upper 12 inches of horizon, but 24 inches is okay if you must; shallower helps with access of roots to harvested water. Infiltrator chambers can be used for leach fields. Now, ¾ of Pima County’s installations uses these infiltrator systems ; they don’t use the 4” diameter perc-pipe in a gravel filled trench anymore since the infiltrator basins are better for dealing with roots. With infiltrator basin, you are less likely to have root intrusion, so the standard protocol is you don’t plant anywhere near your leach field, but if you use these chambers, you can plant fruit trees next to you septic leach field, and you can grow fruit off your poop water. Avoid vegetable garden if it is tubers or something; tomatoes may be okay if they are hanging on a trellis. Don’t plant trees with shallow root systems (i.e. cottonwoods, or anything that grows near water will clog these up). Fruit trees are okay because they don’t have they roots in water all the time. If you have enough water, plant water intensive plants first (i.e. citrus tree) closest to the upgradient location, and less water intensive plants next (i.e. pomegranate) last. To make Lisa’s system legal, it would need an interceptor and a diverter valve. If it was just greywater, just a diverter valve or a multi-pipe system would be fine so that you could send your bathroom sink water to the sewer/septic or the landscape. Blackwater is when you need an interceptor. When would you use these chambers when doing greywater – - You don’t want to see it - Small area is limiting - Keep the kids out - Slope is limiting; if you can’t discharge high, you might be forced to use a buried chamber. Degenerative – start to degenerate as soon as you start to use them. A paper coffee cup that is not composted Generative – start to degenerate as soon as you start to use them, BUT have the potential to generate other energies (compost turns waste into resource). Regenerative – can regenerate itself AND generate other things. (planting a seed – grows plants which generates other seeds).
Pages to are hidden for
"Lincoln – lincoln_watershedmg"Please download to view full document